How Much Will Trump’S Wall Cost

How Much Will Trump’S Wall Cost
How Much Will Trump'S Wall Cost Image link: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Trump
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • The controversy surrounding President Donald Trump’s wall between the U.S. and Mexico continues, as updated plans bring the predicted cost to $33 billion, while a petition has been launched to designate the eight construction prototypes as a national monument.(More…)
  • The United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) provided an estimate to Congress regarding the estimated cost of building the first phase of President Donald J. Trump’s proposed U.S. -Mexico border wall at $18 Billion, which would be paid by U.S. taxpayers instead of Mexico as Trump campaigned on.(More…)

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  • Based on Trump?s 2017 budget request for $2.6 billion to plan, design and build 75 miles of wall, Democratic Senator Claire McCaskill?s office estimated the per-mile cost would be about $37 million, or nearly $67 billion for the entire 2,000-mile border.(More…)
  • President Donald Trump?s proposed wall on the U.S. -Mexico border could cost billions of dollars more than initially estimated, a watchdog agency warned on Monday.(More…)
  • An agent faces Mexico while standing by the vehicle of U.S. President Donald Trump at the border near San Diego, California, where Trump reviewed wall prototypes designed to serve as a protective barrier against illegal immigrants, drugs and smuggled weapons, March 13, 2018.(More…)
  • Despite enthusiastic backing for President Donald Trump and pleas for a stronger border, Arizona ranchers are conflicted in their support for Trump?s promise to build a wall along the border with Mexico.(More…)

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KEY TOPICS

The controversy surrounding President Donald Trump’s wall between the U.S. and Mexico continues, as updated plans bring the predicted cost to $33 billion, while a petition has been launched to designate the eight construction prototypes as a national monument. [1] It’s easy to ask, how much will Trump’s wall cost, thinking only of the construction. [2]

Conflicting estimates of how much it would cost to build barriers along the entire 1,933-mile border have marked Trump’s quest to build the wall since he first proposed it during his presidential election campaign. [3] President Donald Trump’s long-promised border wall between the U.S. and Mexico could costs billions of dollars more than estimated, a new report from a government watchdog agency said on Monday. [3] Trump’s border wall, which formed a key pillar of his 2016 presidential campaign, has encountered much opposition, particularly over the growing cost and the timeline of construction. [1]

It provides a contrasting response from a series of architects and designers that have mocked Trump’s wall proposal with satirical designs, like a spoof of an IKEA flat-pack furniture kit that offers a cheap construction option and another that replaces the wall with a dining table. [1]

Construction of President Donald Trump’s promised border wall has not begun, and estimates for its cost range from $21.6 billion to $70 billion. [4] President Donald Trump’s so-called border wall has been estimated to cost $21.6 billion by the Department of Homeland Security and close to $70 billion by Senate Democrats. [5]

To highlight objections to the bill, dubbed the Border Security for America Act, Thompson formally proposed a new title: the “Taking Americans’ Land to Build Trump’s Wall Act of 2017.” [6] Even if Trump’s wall never gets funded, Villareal said, the border patrol might incorporate one or more of the new wall designs as it replaces worn sections of the existing fence. [7]

Even without Congress approving a bill specifically designed to fund Trump’s wall, the administration has found ways to pay for construction, and without slow-walking the project. [8] The state unsuccessfully sued to prevent construction of Trump’s wall, claiming he was wrong to forgo environmental reviews. [9]

The United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) provided an estimate to Congress regarding the estimated cost of building the first phase of President Donald J. Trump’s proposed U.S. -Mexico border wall at $18 Billion, which would be paid by U.S. taxpayers instead of Mexico as Trump campaigned on. [10] U.S. Customs and Border Protection 5 Jan 2018 President Donald Trump’s 700-mile border wall would cost just $1.8 billion annually for ten years, according to the Wall Street Journal. [11]

CBP provided this cost estimate of Trump’s Border Wall and additional funding needed in response to Democratic Sentators who requested these cost figures in order to utilize them in current budget negotiations between President Trump, Republicans, and Democrats as well as immigration negotiations such as the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), which is set to expire in March of 2018. [10]

It’s unclear if the prototypes will ever be used, because there’s still no money for Mr. Trump’s wall. [12]

“I have been outspoken against President Trump’s wall because, unlike those who have championed for a giant wall between the United States and Mexico, I represent the border and actually live there,” said U.S. Rep. Henry Cuellar, D-Laredo. [13] Letter writer says Trump’s border wall will cost the average family of four $250 of after-tax earnings. [14]

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Based on Trump?s 2017 budget request for $2.6 billion to plan, design and build 75 miles of wall, Democratic Senator Claire McCaskill?s office estimated the per-mile cost would be about $37 million, or nearly $67 billion for the entire 2,000-mile border. [15] The overall cost of the wall is unknown, so the report simply notes that the administration plans to spend “billions” on its construction and calls for Customs and Border Control to analyze the costs for future sections of the wall. [3] Congressional Republicans have said they expect a wall to cost from $12 billion to $15 billion, based on the cost to rebuild existing border fencing covering a third of that distance. [15] Great, so where did the then yet-to-be president put the cost of the Trump wall? His initial claim was that the construction could be done for $4 billion. [2] Ignoring all emotional and psychological costs (that’s a topic for a different debate), there’s still a big bill to pay as soon as the cranes and construction crews roll away from the Trump wall. [2]

U.S. president Donald Trump announced this week that he wants $18 billion to pay for the first phase of a planned wall along the border of the U.S. and Mexico. [16] Since before the election, Trump was clear about his intentions to construct a wall along the approximately 2,000-mile border with Mexico — but he claimed we would only need 1,000 miles of actual wall since the border already boasted “natural barriers” along the other 1,000 miles. [2]

How much would it cost to have the National Guard patrol the border until the wall is constructed? It helps by looking at when this branch of the military was deployed by Obama to the U.S.-Mexico border. [2] The estimation done by the Department of Homeland Security concerned three phases of construction of walls and fences. (For the record, it also didn’t factor in the cost the government would likely incur through obtaining the land on which they want to build. [2] An internal report that Reuters obtained in February 2017 said the wall would cost as much as $21.6 billion. [3] That number was used by Rep. Scott Peters, D-San Diego, as the basis for his controversial claim that the cost of the Trump wall would be equivalent to “one and a half aircraft carriers.” [2] For the record, Scott Peters slightly underestimated the cost of the Trump wall as compared to aircraft carriers, according to PolitiFact, which ran the numbers. [2]

Trump has suggested that the U.S. can recoup wall expenses from Mexico via alternative methods, including by cutting its trade surplus with the U.S. He?s also floated the option of invoking the Patriot Act to cut off or tax remittance payments to Mexico from Mexican immigrants living in the U.S. Mexicans sent home $25.7 billion in remittances in 2016, according to the Banco de Mexico. [15]

The updates were revealed days after non-profit organisation Make America Great Again (MAGA) launched an online petition to preserve the eight wall prototypes erected close to the existing border fence south of San Diego, California. [1] Locations for future sections of the wall had been identified without factoring in where they would be needed to prevent illegal border crossings, the report also concluded. [3] The report warned the project could cost far more than estimated or that the wall would “not fully perform as expected.” [3] ” It describes how even while CBP has tested prototypes of wall designs and determined locations for the wall–it “didn’t analyze the costs of putting barriers in each potential location. [17] Even if CPB knows what wall it wants to build, if it hasn’t considered how much it will cost to erect along a 1,989-mile piece of land, its true cost is unknown. [17]

It said U.S. Customs and Border Control “does not have complete information to determine whether it is using its limited resources in the most cost-effective manner and does not have important cost information that would help it develop future budget requests.” [3] Despite insisting throughout his campaign that Mexico would cough up the funds, Trump has outlined the administration?s plans for how much it would cost to build it themselves. (He?s still sticking to the line that Mexico will pay for it ” in some form,” however.) [16] During his presidential campaign, Donald Trump passionately promoted construction of a border wall between the U.S. and Mexico and insisted that Mexico would pay it. [15] “Because this report was commissioned by (Department of Homeland Security) Secretary Kelly, and is based on the Trump administration’s own planning process to build walls and fences to cover almost the entirety of the border that is not already fenced, it is the best current estimate for what President Trump is likely to ask Congress to appropriate to build his border wall,” a spokesman for Peters, Jacob Peters, said in defence of the calculation. [2] President Donald Trump has promised a border wall since he began his campaign, and in July threatened a government shutdown if Congress doesn’t provide funding to build it. [3]

Earlier this week, Trump announced that funding for the wall would come as a compromise package that would also offer legal status to young, undocumented immigrants under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals programme (DACA). [1] In January, Trump wanted $25 billion for his wall, but Congress shot him down and provided just $1.6 billion. [3]

Estimates range from as low as $8 billion to as much as $67 billion or more, depending on whom you ask and the number of miles of wall that get built. [15] Most experts doubt that a physical wall would do much to reduce the $150 billion in illegal drugs that pour into the country each year. [15] In January 2017, Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell said the wall would be $12 billion to $15 billion. [2]

Rep. Bennie Thompson, a Democratic Member of the House Homeland Security Committee, said in a statement that the report showed the Trump administration was “moving too fast” with the wall and has “no clue what it is doing.” [3] It further concluded that the U.S. Department of Homeland Security “faces an increased risk that the Border Wall System Program will cost more than projected, take longer than planned, or not fully perform as expected.” [3] Updates to the US-Mexico border wall proposal include a 316-mile-long extension to the existing 654-mile barrier, as well as replacing and building up to 407 miles of secondary wall at an estimated cost of $18 billion (£13.3 billion). [1]

The developments are suggested to take place in phases over the next 10 years, although little information is provided about the design of the barrier it describes as a “wall system”. [1] Plans now call for a more modest, 722-mile barrier that is a mix of wall and fencing, mostly updating what?s been in place for decades, while relying on drones and other methods to secure the rest. [15]

Eight wall prototypes are now being tested in a desert outside San Diego, California. [15] On Jan. 10, he offered to support a Democratic goal providing legal status to some 800,000 young, undocumented immigrants under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program in exchange for money for the wall as part of down-to-the-wire negotiations for a short-term budget. [15] That’s only one segment of nearly 2,000 miles of wall. [17]

A report from a government watchdog agency has concluded that “key information” is missing from plans to build a border wall along the US-Mexico border. [3] Trump touts solar-panelled Mexico border wall as cost-saving. [1] A woman walks past prototype sections of the border wall in Tijuana, Mexico. [3]

We’re talking of course, about Trump’s announcement earlier this week that he would sign a proclamation deploying the National Guard to help patrol and monitor the border with Mexico. [2]

In April 2017, the Democratic staff of the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee said in a report that costs could soar to nearly $70 billion — not including the significant costs and legal resources required for land acquisition. [2] Other estimates have placed the costs higher, with Democrats asserting it could reach $70 billion to build. [3] Unsurprisingly, the GAO’s report recommends, “among other things, further analysis of the costs to build future barriers. [17]

Restoring Puerto Rico?s power system is estimated to cost $5 billion, but the island needs more than repairs to its power system: It needs a wholesale upgrade. [16] Completely rebuilding the island?s grid–and preparing it for the next category 4 hurricane–will cost $17.6 billion, according to an industry working group. [16]

“The 1,200 National Guard troops have helped Border Patrol agents apprehend 25,514 illegal immigrants at a cost of $160 million — or $6,271 for each person caught,” The Washington Post reported in 2011. [2] The exact date of that deployment and the number of National Guard troops called are details still in the works, so estimating the cost is difficult. [2]

Factors like a varying terrain and land ownership had not been taken fully into account, the report said, which drive up costs. [3] “ didn’t analyze the costs of putting barriers in each potential location. [17]

In an alternative protest, the creators of adult game Cards Against Humanity also recently purchased a vacant plot along America’s southern border in an attempt to hinder the wall’s construction. [1] Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto has emphatically refused to fund the border wall. [15] Acquisitions for the Border Wall System Program—DHS’s program to deploy barriers and other assets along the southwest border—are required to follow the department’s acquisition process. [17]

Trump’s costing request to Congress is outlined in a previsionary plan, which the Customs and Border Protection agency at the Department of Homeland Security created for the group of U.S. senators. [1]

President Donald Trump?s proposed wall on the U.S. -Mexico border could cost billions of dollars more than initially estimated, a watchdog agency warned on Monday. [4] “Given that set of choices, and taking the CIS guess at the educational attainment of an illegal border crosser, my calculation is that each immigrant prevented by a wall would COST the government about $8,000,” Donehower said. [18] The U.S. Government Accountability Office has just published a report saying the Trump administration has no idea how to build a wall between the U.S. and Mexico and even if it did, the cost would be monumentally more than estimates. [19] The report, conducted by the Government Accountability Office, found that Customs and Border Protection, the agency responsible for construction of the wall, did not consider the cost of building along each segment of the border, which can vary depending on factors such as topography and land ownership. [20]

President Donald Trump cited a contested report from an organization that advocates low immigration to claim that a wall along the southern border will pay for itself, because those stopped from illegally crossing would not be a burden on taxpayers. [18] Trump rooted his presidential campaign and early presidency in the idea that the southern border needed a concrete wall to secure American borders, which he said were overrun by crime and drugs. [21] One of President Trump?s biggest campaign promises was his vow to build a wall along the country?s southernmost border. [22] “I?ll build a great, great wall on our southern border, and I?ll have Mexico pay for that wall. [22] WASHINGTON — The Trump administration said on Friday that it could immediately fund 100 miles of new and replacement border fencing, a first step in the president?s plans for building a wall on part of the United States? nearly 2,000-mile border with Mexico. [23] Lawmakers provided nearly $1.6 billion for border security — including new technology and repairs to existing barriers — in what the administration has since described as a down payment on a wall. [23] Mr. Vitiello said, the administration aims to cover 1,000 miles on the border with fencing or a wall. [23] Jose Luis Gonzalez / Reuters A bollard wall being built in Santa Teresa, New Mexico, on the U.S.-Mexico border on April 23. [4]

The Department of Homeland Security initially estimated the wall could cost about $21.6 billion, not including maintenance. [4] If the wall were to cost more than $15 billion (which many experts agree it would, and by a hefty margin), the number of immigrants stopped would need to be even higher. [24] CIS?s approach was simple: estimate an average “price tag” for an undocumented immigrant who crossed into the United States without documentation, then calculate how many of those people one would need to block to equal the construction cost of the wall. [24] We delve into the controversy by analyzing the choices CIS has made in their data selection, and why the authors of the NAS study feel as though CIS skewed their analysis to create an unrealistically high estimate of the “cost” to the U.S. economy of undocumented immigrants that would theoretically be stopped by a wall (in places where the wall doesn?t already exist, that is). [24]

The wall is projected to cost $25 billion over the next 10 years. [23] The cost of the wall is also 0.34 percent of the $5.232 trillion which the federal government will spend on Medicaid over the next 10 years, and 0.26 percent of the $6.838 trillion allotted to national defense in the next decade. [25] White House officials, however, have suggested the entire wall project could cost $8 billion to $12 billion, and internal DHS assessments suggest that the cost could be even higher — as much as $21 billion. [21] The agency warned, the Department of Homeland Security “faces an increased risk” that the proposed wall “will cost more than projected, take longer than planned, or not fully perform as expected.” [4] Trump?s wall a) will cost more than projected; b) will take longer than expected; c) won?t work as intended. [19]

The nonpartisan Government Accountability Office, which is part of Congress? oversight arm, said in a report released on Monday that the Trump administration failed to fully account for several factors in its estimate of the project, including how land ownership, varying topography, and the location of construction could affect the cost of putting up barriers along the border. [4] The report, from the Center for Immigration Studies, relies on data extrapolated from a report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, or NAS. Several of those who created the NAS report, however, say their data are being misused, and that keeping out those who cross the border illegally might actually cost the government money over time. [18] “The Trump Administration, fixated on campaign promises no matter the cost or consequences, is rushing the construction of the President?s completely unnecessary border “wall.? [4]

Trump is wasting billions – and wants to waste billions more – on a border wall because nobody involved considered the cost of building each segment or who owns the land. [19] If a border wall stopped between 160,000 and 200,000 illegal crossers — 9 to 12 percent of those expected to successfully cross in the next decade — the fiscal savings would equal the $12 to $15 billion cost of the wall. [24]

Retweets a story about a study that says the proposed wall on the southern border “will pay for itself.” [18] Trump promised hundreds of times on the campaign trail that Mexico would pay for the wall. [4] In recent weeks, Trump has threatened to shut down the federal government this fall if Congress doesn’t cough up more money for the wall and change the nation’s immigration laws. [21] Mr. Trump has threatened to shut down the government if Congress does not provide funding for the wall. [20] Republicans have urged Trump not to shut down the government over wall funding before the November midterm elections, fearing that a government funding lapse could spark a backlash against the party, as with previous budget standoffs. [4]

The 49-page report issued this month was done because, in January 2017, Trump signed an executive order calling for the construction of a wall. [19] The wall, Trump said, “will save thousands and thousands of lives, save taxpayers hundreds of billions of dollars by reducing crime, drug flow, welfare fraud, and burdens on schools and hospitals. [18] Congress has yet to provide money to build the wall envisioned by Mr. Trump. [20] “I would build a great wall, and nobody builds walls better than me,” Trump said. [22] Trump has also claimed ? falsely ? that construction of the wall has already begun. [4] Trump visited California on March 13 to survey eight towering prototypes for the wall, among other things. [22]

A report last year by the Government Accountability Office found that Customs and Border Protection had not developed a system to test how border fencing or walls bolster security. [23] Ronald D. Vitiello, the acting deputy commissioner of Customs and Border Protection, described the construction as part of a new wall system because it would replace older, outdated barriers. [23] Last October, Customs and Border Protection unveiled several border wall prototypes near San Diego, which the agency called the first step in carrying out Mr. Trump?s plan to build a barrier along segments of the nearly 2,000-mile border that the United States shares with Mexico. [20]

Congress has yet to fund the wall, and Trump?s demands that Mexico pay for it have gone nowhere. [22] “In my mind, adding $12 billion or $15 billion to pay for a wall is not realistically going to be a revenue-generating activity,” Reuben said. [18] Therefore, it concludes, the net savings would be $12 billion to $15 billion, enough to pay for the wall. [18] The wall will save hundreds of billions of dollars many, many times what it?s going to cost.” [18] “The report shows us what we already knew: The Trump administration put almost zero thought into the construction of this wall other than how it will play in the news cycle,” Mr. Vela said. [20] An earlier GAO report on inadequate planning for Trump?s wall was deemed by the Department of Homeland Security to be too sensitive for public consumption. [19]

“There would be a government shutdown over the wall if Senate Democrats, who are in the minority, blocked the new bill needed to fund the federal government when the law currently funding the federal government expires on January 19,” he said. [25] These controversies illustrate that Center for Immigration Studies used data generated by the National Academy of Sciences in ways that the NAS contends are questionable, and in ways that inflate the theoretical savings the government might reap by blocking a single border-crosser with a wall. [24] To the extent that the wall would decrease immigration, it would shrink the economy, especially given the current demand for low-skill workers in certain industries (construction, food processing, farming).” [18] Any construction of the real wall is close to a year off — and there’s another issue: There’s no money. [26]

In a tweet, Trump said he will not approve sections of the wall in California to be built “until the whole Wall is approved.” [22] “We have a lousy wall over here now, but at least it stops 90, 95 percent,” Trump said. [22]

President Trump has proposed spending $18 billion over the next decade to construct a new and improved border wall between the U.S. and Mexico. [25] President Trump has made the border wall a focus of his campaign against illegal immigration that he says will stop drugs, terrorists and transnational gangs like MS-13 from coming into the United States. [23] President Trump with a border wall prototype in San Diego in March. [20] President Donald Trump speaks during a tour as he reviews border wall prototypes in San Diego. [19] The same day, in remarks in San Diego after reviewing border wall prototypes, Trump put that claim in his own words. [18]

The study also found that DHS has not properly documented plans for building part of the wall in San Diego. [21] The CIS report counts those savings upfront, even though it would take decades to accrue. (Also, the White House has since requested $18 billion for what it calls the first phase of the wall construction.) [18] The report provided new ammunition for congressional opponents of the wall. [20]

Net immigration of Mexicans across the wall has dropped, essentially, to zero in recent years. [24] An argument presented by the Center for Immigration Studies suggests a wall would save the United States money. [24] If we used Donehower?s theoretical calculation in which an average person crossing would ultimately save the United States economy money, the wall would, of course, never pay for itself. [24] “Walls have proven to be extremely effective at deterring illegal entries and the smuggling of illicit drugs into the United States,” she said. [20]

“Border apprehensions of Mexicans have dropped by almost 90 percent from their peak in 2000,” Passell told us; “this is without a wall but with a sizable increase in Border Patrol agents and technology.” [24]

This is important because it raises the calculated cost of a border crossing immigrant using assumptions of future debt the authors of the original study find questionable. [24] Controversy 3: How “Out of Control” Will the United States Debt Be in 75 years? Many of the costs attributed to immigrants in the CIS report stem from the national deficit. “Budget projections assume we will keep adding LOTS of new debt to enable all of our government spending,” Donehower told us. [24] To do so, they used information from a single table contained in a 618-page National Academy of Sciences report entitled “The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration,” containing estimates of the lifetime cost of immigrants to the United States economy at various levels of education. (Education level is widely accepted to correlate with the net drain or benefit an individual, native-born or otherwise, has on the U.S. economy.) [24]

He also decided not to include the net cost, or benefit, of the second generation children born to those who crossed the border illegally. [18] Using these numbers, as well, increases the CIS estimate for how much a border-crossing immigrant will cost the government compared to projections of future spending made by the Congressional Budget Office in 2015. [24] The NAS report concluded that “first-generation immigrants are more costly to governments, mainly at the state and local levels, than are the native-born, in large part due to the costs of educating their children. [18] The CIS report puts the average lifetime cost to local, state and federal governments of border-crossers the cost of government benefits minus taxes paid at $74,722 in today’s dollars per person. [18]

It added that the Department of Homeland Security “faces an increased risk that the Border Wall System Program will cost more than projected, take longer than planned or not fully perform as expected.” [20] “However, by proceeding without key information on cost, acquisition baselines, and the contributions of previous barrier and technology deployments, DHS faces an increased risk that the Border Wall System Program will cost more than projected, take longer than planned, or not fully perform as expected.” [21]

When it comes to the president’s most coveted construction project — the long-promised border wall — a government report Monday warned that the Department of Homeland Security, or DHS, risks blowing through its budget and not meeting key deadlines and that the wall may not work as planned. [21] Shortly after taking office, Mr. Trump signed an executive order mandating the construction of a border wall, one of his major campaign promises. [20] Mr. Trump has expressed frustration at the inability to build the border wall and has spoken with Defense Secretary Jim Mattis about having the military pay for it. [23] Four companies were selected to build concrete prototypes of the border wall, U.S. Customs and Border Protection announced in August 2017. [22] Passel counters that fewer unauthorized immigrants from Mexico and Central America are “settling” in the U.S. (as opposed to crossing temporarily and returning) and so fewer long-term immigrants would be stopped by a border wall. [18]

WASHINGTON — The Trump administration could potentially waste billions of dollars on a border wall because it failed to fully account for factors like varying terrain and land ownership along the Southwest border, according to a new report. [20] This year, the administration asked for $1.6 billion to build a border wall in the Rio Grande Valley in South Texas. [23] Curiel?s ruling allows the administration to issue waivers on environmental laws and begin to build sections of the border wall. [22]

Trump first proposed the border wall when he announced his presidential candidacy in June 2015. [22] The prototypes represent the only construction of a border wall. [20] People look at prototypes of a border wall on Thursday in San Diego. [26] “After years of investment in a border wall system, we experienced a roughly 90 percent reduction in apprehensions in the San Diego, El Paso and Yuma sectors,” she said. [21] CIS then assumes a border wall would prevent 160,000 to 200,000 illegal crossings in the next 10 years. [18] Officials at Customs and Border Protection acknowledged that a border wall alone would not stop illegal immigration or drug trafficking. [23]

Donehower believes the most reasonable scenario to use when estimating the cost of illegal immigration would be one in which immigrants are not assumed to contribute to an increase in the cost of such things as defense spending or interest on the national debt. [18] Again, we are talking about estimates for the fiscal cost or benefit of immigrants, and those numbers are based on assumptions about future spending and taxes, and immigration trends, among other things. [18] Other estimates, including one compiled by Democrats, pegged the cost higher ? as much as $70 billion. [4] The GAO study found that the Department of Homeland Security has not done the necessary cost estimates to develop future budget requests. [21] “Without assessing costs when prioritizing locations for future barriers, CBP does not have complete information to determine whether it is using its limited resources in the most cost-effective manner and does not have important cost information that would help it develop future budget requests,” the report continued. [21] CIS?s analysis used numbers generated by this analysis (presented in table 8-12 of the NAS report) to attribute a lifetime cost to the economy of an immigrant at different levels of education. [24] The theoretical future costs of an immigrant, if one uses the methods employed by NAS, are also dependent on how much debt we assume a future United States government to assume. [24] In that scenario, the estimated cost of providing government services would go up for every American, as well as the cost of every new immigrant. [18] “The cost of those children 75 years from now is no less speculative than the cost of the immigrant 75 years from now,” Donehower told us. [24] Under those assumptions, the children of immigrants are net contributors to the federal coffers, and more than offset the cost of their parents. [18]

And, internal DHS assessments suggest the cost could be higher — as much as $21 billion. [26] It recommended that “DHS analyze the costs associated with future barrier segments” and noted the department agreed with GAO’s push for more scrutiny. [21] Katie Waldman, a spokeswoman for DHS, said Monday night that risks, threats and costs were taken into account during “initial prioritization” for developing barriers. [21] One major problem, says the GAO, is that the agency?s “strategy did not include analysis of the costs associated with deploying barriers in each location or segment, which can vary depending on topography, land ownership, and other factors. [19]

At issue, primarily, is how significant an effect the relatively small pool of border-crossing immigrants could have on the way the United States spends its defense money, as a full 83 percent of the public goods cost is represented by defense spending. [24] The first is whether or not to include the fiscal impacts of native-born children of immigrants in the cost analysis of the parent, as children contribute taxes and incur costs that would not existed had their parents not immigrated — but those children are not themselves immigrants. [24] For pure public goods the marginal cost of an additional immigrant is, at least in the short run, zero or close to it; thus, for answering some questions, it may be reasonable to allocate the costs of pure public goods only to the native-born or to the pre-existing population consisting of natives and earlier immigrants. [24] Another decision they made was to consider only the cost of the original immigrant, not their American-born offspring. [24] They reduced the calculations for the use of public services under the assumption that undocumented immigrants are less likely to make use of such services than documented ones, and they used their own demographic information about the educational level of Mexican and Latin American immigrants to come up with a weighted average cost of a border-crossing undocumented immigrant: $74,722.00. [24] These dubious assumptions inflate the “cost” a border-crossing immigrant has on the economy. [24] Camarota contends this is a moot point, as nearly every NAS scenario (including those that factor in the children of immigrants) produce results by his methods that suggest that a border-crossing immigrant is still a cost to the economy. [24] We caution that estimating the cost of immigrants well into the future is highly speculative business, and requires a number of assumptions. [18] Donehower also criticized the CIS decision not to include the contribution of future children of immigrants who may offset the net cost of the parents. [18]

“Without assessing costs, consistent with leading practices for capital decision making, C.B.P. does not have complete information for prioritizing locations to use its resources in the most cost-effective manner,” the report said. [20] The prototypes will be 30 feet tall and 30 feet wide and will cost up to $500,000 to make. [22] While some lawmakers have criticized the both the cost and the plan, a new analysis reveals the expenditure is relatively small compared to other federal spending. [25] Reuben agreed with the assumptions made by Donehower, noting that if you don’t include the cost/benefit of the inevitable children born to border-crossers, you are counting the cost to educate them but not the benefit of the taxes they pay once they enter the workforce. [18] Based on the NAS data, illegal border-crossers create an average fiscal burden of approximately $74,722 during their lifetimes, excluding any costs for their U.S.-born children. [24] Mackie, the study director, said the CIS math only addresses the fiscal cost of immigration and that “there is also an economic/labor market cost to slowing immigration. [18] For analyses estimating the fiscal impact of other kinds of immigration scenarios — for example, for large numbers of arrivals taking place over a multiyear period –t he zero marginal cost assumption becomes less tenable. [24]

This analysis has been, and continues to be, commonly used as a talking point for supporters of United States President Donald Trump?s southern border wall campaign pledge. [24] In moving too fast, they have ignored necessary and established acquisitions protocols and plan to build a multi-billion dollar border wall where their own analysis shows it is not a priority.” [4] “Senate Democratic Whip Dick Durbin criticized the administration’s proposal to spend $18 billion over the next decade building a border wall, suggesting it could lead to a government shutdown this month,” Mr. Jeffrey wrote. [25] A proposed House homeland security spending bill would provide $5 billion in border wall funding, while a Senate version offers $1.6 billion. [21] Katie Waldman, a spokeswoman for the Department of Homeland Security, said the border wall was needed. [20]

U.S. District Court Judge Gonzalo Curiel ruled against an environmental challenge to the border wall on Feb. 27. [22] But at a later date so we can get started early, Mexico will be paying, in some form, for the badly needed border wall. [22] President Donald Trump’s border wall is constantly in the headlines. [22] Read on for a closer look at Trump?s proposed border wall by the numbers. [22] Of that, $18 billion would be designated to building the border wall. [22] A graphic presented by border patrol during a presentation about the proposed border wall. [26]

Based on Trump’s 2017 budget request for $2.6 billion to plan, design and build 75 miles of wall, Democratic Senator Claire McCaskill’s office estimated the per-mile cost would be about $37 million, or nearly $67 billion for the entire 2,000-mile border. [27] The GAO warned that the failure to develop comprehensive cost estimates puts the wall at risk of not performing as intended: ” plans to spend billions of dollars developing and deploying new barriers along the southwest border. [28]

The U.S. Congress has so far shown little interest in appropriating the estimated $21.6 billion it would cost to build the wall. [7]

Trump has suggested that the U.S. can recoup wall expenses from Mexico via alternative methods, including by cutting its trade surplus with the U.S. He’s also floated the option of invoking the Patriot Act to cut off or tax remittance payments to Mexico from Mexican immigrants living in the U.S. Mexicans sent home $25.7 billion in remittances in 2016, according to Banco de Mexico. [27]

A couple of miles (km) from the bustling Otay Mesa border crossing in San Diego, eight towering chunks of concrete and steel stand as high as 30 feet (9 meters) tall against the sky, possible models for what Trump has promised will one day be a solid wall extending the full length of the southern border, from California to Texas. [7] A document titled “Critical CBP Requirements to Improve Border Security,” distributed last week to Senate offices negotiating the 2018 federal budget, calls for building new or replacement wall over 722 miles of the 1,970-mile U.S.-Mexico border. [29] A report by the Government Accountability Office says the Trump administration had not fully analyzed or disclosed the cost of building a wall. [5] Thompson cited cost estimates ranging from $20 billion to $70 billion for a border wall, and one Democrat after another needled Republicans by reminding them that Trump had promised voters that he would force Mexico to pay for the wall. [6]

House Republicans requested $5 billion for the proposed wall last month, and Trump has threatened a government shutdown if he can’t acquire funds for the project. [5] Trump relented earlier this month on a threat to shut down the federal government if lawmakers failed to approve funds for the wall, striking a deal with Democrats to delay multiple fiscal deadlines with no strings attached. [30]

Preparing to visit prototypes of his “big, beautiful wall,” Trump tweeted that it “will pay for itself” in fewer drugs and illegal immigrants and reduced crime. [27]

One wall segment features deep-blue steel and another has a brick facade, standing in sharp contrast to the area’s existing border fence, a ramshackle structure of corrugated steel left over from the Vietnam War. [7] The bill sets aside $10 billion for “tactical infrastructure” — including but not limited to wall construction, and with a caveat that a new barrier should only be built “where practical and effective.” [6] Progress check: construction of concrete wall prototypes is well underway in San Diego. [6] Why is Trump?s wall so much more expensive? First, the prototypes built last October near San Diego indicate a barrier that would be larger, thicker, often more opaque–and more expensive. [29]

Rep. Michael McCaul, an Austin Republican who has long expressed skepticism about the need for a “big beautiful wall” as extensive as Trump envisioned, shepherded the measure through the Homeland Security Committee that he chairs on an 18-12 party line vote. [6] Not all Republican lawmakers are united with Trump on the wall, Bloomberg News reported. [27]

A Bloomberg editorial suggested that Democrats should agree to wall funding if they can use it to protect undocumented immigrants who arrived in the U.S. as children. [27]

According to the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the more than 270 miles of sturdy pedestrian border fencing built after passage of the 2006 Secure Fence Act cost $6.5 million per mile. [29] To offset some of the costs, OMB instructed DHS to decrease its funding request for border security technology and equipment by nearly $175 million, the report said. [31] With Trump’s plans to send 4,000 troops to the border, it would be reasonable to suspect the cost for the latest border control measure would also fall somewhere near $100,000 per troop, per year. [32] CBP did not attach cost estimates for constructing the various kinds of barriers along specific parts of the border, and those costs “can vary depending on topography, land ownership, and other factors,” the GAO said. [28] While more information will be needed to understand how much of an expense the latest measure to secure the border will cost, the amounts that previous administrations spent on similar initiatives provide a rough estimate. [32] The cost of the border wall could end up being higher than the current estimate of $25 billion. [28] Estimates for the cost of the border wall have ranged up to $38 billion. [30]

The bloated cost is just one of several reasons why the Trump White House?s proposed border wall is a bad idea. [29] Because of there’s no comprehensive cost plan, the report says there’s “an increased risk that the Border Wall System Program will cost more than projected, take longer than planned, or not fully perform as expected.” [5] By proceeding without key information on cost, acquisition baselines, and the contributions of previous barrier and technology deployments, DHS faces an increased risk that the Border Wall System Program will cost more than projected, take longer than planned, or not fully perform as expected.” [28]

U.S. Customs and Border Protection has analyzed several types of barriers for use on the Southwestern border but has failed to estimate the costs of building those barriers in all relevant locations, according to a report out Monday from the Government Accountability Office. [28] The report is the latest example of how concerned federal authorities were over possible security issues at the construction site for the prototypes, which cost $20 million. [33] The Department of Homeland Security plans to pay for the construction of the prototypes, which cost up to $500,000 each, with funds reallocated internally from other programs. [30]

In a congressional testimony published April 17, 2012, Major General John Nichols, who leads the Texas National Guard, revealed that the deployment cost the U.S. a total of $1.2 billion, working out to approximately $200,000 per troop, or $100,000 per troop per year. [32]

WASHINGTON — A House panel authorized up to $10 billion on Wednesday toward a border wall promised by President Donald Trump, as Democrats warned of impending land grabs and called it a boondoggle based on a bait-and-switch vow to make Mexico pay. [6] President Trump may be willing to shut down the government to get Congress to pay for his border wall with Mexico, but. [28] President Trump is pushing for the Department of Defense to help build the border wall with Mexico, according to a. [28] President Donald Trump prepares to sign an executive order to start the Mexico border wall project at the Department of Homeland Security facility in Washington on Jan. 25, 2017. [31] In the weeks before construction was to begin on eight prototypes for President Donald Trump ?s border wall, Customs and Border Protection officials ordered up a video surveillance system to help authorities guard the project, according to a recently released federal document. [33] Prototypes For Donald Trump’s Border Wall Begin Construction In San Diego : The Two-Way U.S. Customs and Border Protection announced Tuesday the eight sample walls are now under construction in San Diego. [30] The top of five of U.S. President Donald Trump’s eight border wall prototypes are shown near completion along U.S.- Mexico border near San Diego, California. [7]

The clock has run out and all eight entries in to the competition for President Trump’s “Big Beautiful Wall” are finished. [31]

Beto O’Rourke of El Paso and Ruben Gallego of Arizona proposed legislation on Wednesday barring the federal government from seizing private land to build a wall. [6] A concrete wall may also prove challenging to build without participation from some of the world’s largest concrete suppliers. [7]

Republicans shot down a demand for a Government Accountability Office report before building a wall. [6] Rep. Jeff Duncan, R-S.C., defended the push for a wall, along with other measures, calling it a common-sense approach to national security. [6] Plans now call for a more modest 722-mile barrier that’s a mix of wall and fencing, mostly updating what’s been in place for decades, while relying on drones and other methods to secure the rest. [27] In late November, a private company, which border patrol officials declined to name, will begin a 30- to 60-day process of testing the wall prototypes to determine how easy they would be to climb over or dig beneath. [7] Whether any of the eight different prototypes, constructed over the last month, become part of an actual wall remains highly uncertain. [7]

A Border Patrol vehicle rides beside an already existing portion of the wall along the U.S.-Mexico border south of San Diego. [30] The walls are to range between 18 and 30 feet high and succeed in one prevailing goal: “deter illegal crossings in the area in which they are constructed.” [30] The fate of the wall is tied up with other immigration issues. [27]

Angry over the lack of full, upfront funding for his border wall with Mexico, President Trump reportedly threatened to. [28] The border wall project is the centerpiece of the Trump administration?s border security and immigration crackdown. [33]

The report, which the staffers said was based on information provided to them by “a whistleblower” in late November, said the White House Office of Management and Budget told DHS to boost its projected spending on border wall construction for the 2019 fiscal year to $1.6 billion, an amount that would be “$700 million more than the Department’s original budget request.” [31] Nearly a year into the Trump presidency, the White House has finally added some hard numbers to its border wall proposal. [29]

“We wouldn’t have access to records of arrests, injuries, deaths and other major incidents at the border, or the costs of securing the borders — including the cost and other details of building a border wall,” said Kevin Goldberg, an attorney for the American Society of News Editors. [6] While total estimates of the costs of Operation Phalanx are not publicly available, the Government Accountability Office released documents showing that the first year of deployments cost $110 million, working out to roughly $91,666.66 per troop that year. [32] Assuming $20,000 each, it would cost about 32 Border-Wall Miles to house every one of the United States? 40,000 homeless veterans for a year. [29] It would cost the Navy 17 Border-Wall Miles to deploy a refitted Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate for ten years, as the Navy Secretary has recommended. [29]

Much about the plan remains unknown, including how much it is going to cost U.S. taxpayers. [32]

The Senate report said they reflect early indications of Trump’s priorities for border security funding. [31] “This bill is a partisan exercise to appease President Trump’s misguided vision of border security,” said Rep. Bennie Thompson of Mississippi, the senior Democrat on the committee. [6] Contrary to Trump’s claims last week that such a move hadn’t “really been done before,” both President George W. Bush and President Barack Obama oversaw the deployment of National Guard troops to the border. [32]

After months of competition and preparation, contractors broke ground Tuesday on eight prototypes for President Trump’s long-promised border wall. [30] President Donald Trump’s plans to send National Guard troops to the U.S.-Mexico border until his long-promised border wall can be built are quickly coming to fruition, with Defense Secretary James Mattis signing an order to deploy up to 4,000 troops. [32]

The first stage of President Donald Trump?s controversial border wall project ended Thursday, while the prospects for any more wall construction — and even what type of wall — remain uncertain. [33]

On the campaign trail and early in his administration, Trump had said repeatedly that Mexico would pay for the wall’s construction — a proposition that has also been repeatedly rejected by Mexican leaders. [30]

She argued that with the nation facing hundreds of billions to help Texas, Florida and Puerto Rico rebuild from hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria, a costly border wall shouldn’t be a high priority. [6] Prototype U.S.-Mexico border walls at San Diego, California. [27] FEMA assistance to Puerto Rico has totaled 54 Border Wall Miles. [29] “When visited the border earlier this year, she was told by many of the folks she spoke with along the front lines that technology needs were their highest priority, not a border wall,” said Drew Pusateri, a spokesman for the Senate committee’s Democratic minority. [31] “This is a wall that is going to be enormously difficult,” said Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee, D-Houston, criticizing McCaul’s plan for putting “a broken policy of a border wall” into “concrete.” [6] He has also appeared to acknowledge he won’t require border wall funding to be part of a possible deal to save the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, or DACA. [30]

A document published on a federal government website on Nov. 16 — two months after the decision was made to use it — blacked out how much the system cost. [33] The report suggests the DHS analyze future costs and additions. [5] “OMB acknowledged that reductions to RVSS technology are necessary ‘to offset the costs of Presidential priorities,’ ” the report said. [31]

The Nationals Park baseball stadium was built for a cost of 28 Border-Wall Miles. [29] The Washington D.C. Metro subway?s emergency safety renovation program, known as SafeTrack, has disrupted countless commutes at a cost of about 4.7 Border-Wall Miles. [29] Fully modernizing all of the ports of entry would cost about 200 Border-Wall Miles. [29] Fully implementing the entire “Illicit Cultivation” chapter of Colombia?s 2016 peace accord–which would do away with most of the country?s coca crop–would cost about 52 Border-Wall Miles. [29] In 2014-15, Georgia enrolled 80,430 students in pre-K education at a total cost of 12.5 Border-Wall Miles. [29] It could cost up to 200 Border-Wall Miles to rebuild Puerto Rico?s power grid. [29]

“Ranchers and landowners, beware,” Thompson said, noting that Trump’s 2018 budget sought funding to hire 20 lawyers needed to pursue eminent domain cases in order to gain control of that land. [6] Border patrol officials on Monday welcomed the momentum on Trump’s pledge, which generated a groundswell of voter support that helped elect him to office. [7]

An agent faces Mexico while standing by the vehicle of U.S. President Donald Trump at the border near San Diego, California, where Trump reviewed wall prototypes designed to serve as a protective barrier against illegal immigrants, drugs and smuggled weapons, March 13, 2018. [34] SAN DIEGO (AP) — President Donald Trump visited prototypes of his planned wall along the Mexican border and promised a huge payoff for U.S. taxpayers if Congress approves funding for construction. [9]

President Donald Trump on Monday will request $3 billion to fund his signature campaign pledge, a “big, beautiful wall” on the border with Mexico, when he presents his budget framework for fiscal year 2019. [8] Donald Trump — making his first trip to California as president — warned there would be ‘bedlam’ without the controversial wall he wants to build on the border with Mexico, as he inspected several prototype barriers. [34] As Trump has publicly lamented, the deal included only $1.6bn for border defense, a fraction of the $25bn Trump had argued for, a figure in line with what the Department of Homeland Security estimates the wall would cost. [35] President Donald Trump still wants to build a wall along the southern border with Mexico. [36] On January 25, 2017, five days after being sworn into office, President Donald Trump signed an executive order authorizing the immediate construction of a physical wall on the southern border of the United States. [37] Trump has said it is not practical to build a wall along the entire border and said there was no need to build where natural barriers impede illegal crossings. [8] People hold signs reading “Trump, we will not pay for the wall” and “Trump, stop the mass deportations” near the border fence between Mexico and the U.S., in Tijuana, Mexico March 13, 2018. [34] Although Trump campaigned on building a wall along the entire border, approximately 2,000 miles, he recently told reporters that 700 miles might suffice. [37] “Until we can have a wall and proper security, we?re going to be guarding our border with the military,” Trump said Tuesday when announcing the impending troop deployment. [38]

In any case, the Department of Homeland Security, which is responsible for border security, and not the defense department, was the logical home for any wall spending, budget experts said. [35]

The U.S. doesn?t produce steel at the price necessary to build a massive wall spanning thousands of miles at an affordable cost. [36] DHS estimated a price of $18 billion for 722 miles of barrier, but, without other cost parameters, the wall could “cost more than projected, take longer than planned, or not fully perform as expected,” says the report, which calls for such analysis in future planning. [39] That amount is less than 0.1% of the reported $21.6 billion estimated cost of the entire wall. [40] It?s hard to accurately estimate the cost of constructing the wall the president has ordered. [37] He provided DHS explicit guidance on what type of wall that he wants on the border–one that prevents the illegal entry of persons and contraband and one that is built as rapidly and cost effectively as possible.” [41]

Trump?s campaign pledge wasn?t to fix fencing already in place, but to mount a wall stretching the length of the entire U.S.-Mexico border. [41] Last year, Trump signed an executive order instructing Customs and Border Protection to build a wall along the southern border. [41] TRUMP: “By the way, the state of California is begging us to build walls in certain areas. [9] “To fund the wall out of the defense budget, Trump would still have to get the Congress to agree.” [35]

Judges of the federal appeals court in San Francisco on Aug. 7 heard arguments in the appeal of U.S. District Court Judge Gonzalo Curiel’s decision to allow a prototype wall to replace 15 miles of fence in California without the reviews. [39] Journalists gather at a rooftop near the U.S. -Mexico border as President Trump is expected to inspect the border wall prototypes built outskirts San Diego, in Tijuana, Baja California State, Mexico, on March 13, 2018. [34] Mexican Federal Police officers stand guard the Mexican side of the Mexico-US border in Tijuana, Baja California state, from where prototypes of the border wall, which U.S. President Donald Trump will inspect on the outskirts of San Diego, in the U.S., are visible on March 13, 2018. [34] People attach a sign reading “Trump, stop the mass deportations” to the current border fence and near the prototypes of U.S. President Donald Trump’s border wall, during a protest in Tijuana, Mexico March 13, 2018. [34] U.S. police officers use a ladder to climb up a truck parked in front of the prototypes of U.S. President Donald Trump’s border wall, on the U.S. side of the current border fence, in Tijuana, Mexico March 13, 2018. [34] People hold signs during a protest while standing in front of the current border fence and near the prototypes of U.S. President Donald Trump’s border wall, in Tijuana, Mexico March 13, 2018. [34] A U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Border Patrol Agent sits on horseback near U.S. President Donald Trump’s motorcade during a tour of U.S.-Mexico border wall prototypes near the Otay Mesa Port of Entry in San Diego, California. [34]

U.S. President Donald Trump speaks during an inspection of border wall prototypes in San Diego, California on March 13, 2018. [34]

With his original plan for Mexico to pay for a border wall yet to bear fruit, Donald Trump last week reportedly floated a plan B: the U.S. defense department could foot the bill. [35] Undeterred by any such warnings, if anyone is giving them to him, Trump tweeted what appeared to be a plan for the defense department to cover the cost of the border wall at the weekend. [35] Again, Trump hasn’t provided details on the extent or duration of his plan to send the National Guard to the border, so it’s impossible to say how much it will cost. [38]

According to a Congressional Budget Office report, the border fencing built during the mid-2000s cost up to $3.9 million per mile, totaling $823.5 million spent on 288 miles of fencing. [37] “It is an unnecessary cost at a time of 40-plus-year lows in undocumented cross-border migration and in U.S. border cities’ violent crime rates,” the group states. [8] The Trump administration has estimated the border wall’s total cost at $18 billion. [8] Of course, military operations aren’t cheap, and many are undoubtedly wondering how much sending the National Guard to the border will cost taxpayers. [38] That said, the cost of National Guard deployments to the U.S.-Mexico border under Bush and Obama were more or less consistent: Around $100,000 of taxpayer money per troop annually. [38] The Obama and Bush deployments are a helpful reminder that “sending troops to the southern border” isn’t a single specific policy with a defined cost. [38]

Border wall prototypes have constructibility cost uncertainties in some locations, says GAO. [39] With the cost, composition, and dimensions of the proposed border wall still unknown, it?s impossible to know whether new steel mandates will raise the price a little or a lot. [36]

The House of Representatives included $5 billion for the wall in a pending fiscal 2019 federal budget bill. [39] On Tuesday, he suggested that the wall would pay for itself: “It will save thousands and thousands of lives, save taxpayers hundreds of billions of dollars by reducing crime, drug flow, welfare fraud and burdens on schools and hospitals,” he said. [41] “The wall will save hundreds of billions of dollars–many, many times what it?s going to cost.” [41] “Spending billions on the President’s wall is just a gift to contractors,” he said. [39]

“Build that wall! Build that wall!” has become a familiar refrain at Donald Trump’s rallies. [40] The sign on the right reads “Trump, walls can be jumped over”. [34] Another one of many wide-reaching changes: Trump may have just put his own wall out of reach. [36] While the “big, beautiful wall” Trump promised hasn’t come to fruition, advances are being made. [40] THE FACTS: Trump made a similar claim last month on Twitter but has yet to say who in California wants the wall. [9] TRUMP: “We have a lousy wall over here now but at least it stops 90, 95 percent. [9]

The funds allowed U.S. Customs and Border Protection to release two calls for proposals for the wall project in March, for which they received more than 100 bids. [40] This protectionist swing is a double-whammy for the wall: Trump?s tariffs will make steel more expensive, while Trump?s crackdown on waivers will make U.S. steel mandatory. [36] Trump?s January 2017 executive order demonstrates an administration eager to construct a new wall, but completing it will likely require more attention from the president. [41]

His 2019 budget request includes roughly $1.6 billion to add 65 miles of walls in the Rio Grande region. [41] The administration’s budget request for the coming fiscal year will include $3 billion to fund another 64 miles of border wall in the Lone Star State, as well as other “border security investments.” [8] The president?s 2017 budget amendment added $2.6 billion to the Department of Homeland Security?s budget in order to fund the planning, design and construction of a border wall. [37] Editor?s note: On Feb. 27, 2018, U.S. District Judge Gonzalo Curiel found that the Department of Homeland Security is acting within its authority in waiving federal regulations to fast-track border wall construction. [37] The executive order instructs the Secretary of Homeland Security to use all federal funds possible to immediately begin border wall construction. [37]

After failing to convince Congress to fund a border wall, President Trump has authorized the deployment of troops from the National Guard to the U.S.-Mexico border, the White House announced Wednesday. [38] This week, during a visit to California, President Trump inspected eight prototypes for his proposed border wall. [41] Donald Trump stands by border wall prototypes near San Diego, California. [35]

In March 2017, DHS sought bids for prototype wall designs using reinforced concrete and allowing other materials. [39] “The prototypes and resulting wall infrastructure will complement the various other tools that we employ to secure our borders.” [40]

Lawmakers have indicated that they would also like reach a compromise on DACA, which allows undocumented immigrants who came to the United States as children to work here legally, and it is unclear how the wall will play into that. [40] Wall or no wall, the Border Patrol estimates that it stops 81 percent of illegal crossings by detaining people or getting them to turn around. [9] ” The government has awarded bids for two types of wall: one of concrete, another of materials other than concrete. [37] While he may not get a wall that stretches “from sea to shining sea,” the desire to build something new still stands. [41] Contractors? bids, selected earlier this year, were required to describe walls from 18 to 30 feet in height that were aesthetically pleasing on their northern side and would take at least an hour to penetrate with ” sledgehammer, car jack, pick axe, chisel, battery operated impact tools, battery operated cutting tools, Oxy/acetylene torch or other similar hand-held tools [37] The House passed a bill including the $1.6 billion in wall funding over the summer, but it went nowhere in the Senate. [40] The Washington Office on Latin America, a nonprofit that favors “cross-border solutions,” opposes the wall project “in the strongest terms,” according to its website. [8] To that end, the administration still has a long way to go before bringing the wall to fruition. [41]

A public version of the U.S. Government Accountability Office report on border wall designs and locations released Aug. 6 found that DHS priorities included data on illegal entry into the U.S. but no analysis of constructibility factors such as hydrology, slope and geophysics. [39] No project could proceed without funding, which is the key element Trump is missing in securing a path forward for his border wall. [41] Trump approached the House speaker, Paul Ryan, this month about paying for the border wall using military funds, but Ryan was noncommittal, the Washington Post reported. [35] In any case, plaintiffs in this lawsuit and other border wall lawsuits argue, the IIRIRA doesn?t apply to Trump or his DHS Secretary. [37]

As of this writing, the Department of Homeland Security has started border wall projects or is planning to start projects in these locations: the Rio Grande Valley, Texas; El Paso, Texas; Sunland Park, New Mexico; Naco, Arizona; Imperial County, California; and San Diego County, California. [37] The Department of Homeland Security announced in October that eight border wall prototypes had been erected in San Diego. [8]

Prototypes of President Donald Trump’s proposed border wall just went up in price. [36] The statement continued: “To be clear, DHS does not anticipate that a single prototype design will be selected as the design standard for future border wall construction. [41] Part of that money is paying to erect 60 miles of border wall in Texas’ Rio Grande Valley, with construction expected to start in February, a senior budget official told reporters during a background briefing Thursday. [8] Hoffmann points out that in matters of national security, the courts generally defer to the DHS. For that reason — regardless of where the merits of the case lie — plaintiffs will have a steep hill to climb in challenging border wall construction. [37] Trump?s executive order cites a “recent surge” in undocumented immigrants through the southern border to justify the construction of a border wall. [37] Trump?s executive order stresses immediate border wall planning, design and construction, explicitly by waiving federal regulations. [37] Trump?s argument that the border wall serves a vital national defense purpose does not change the fact that Congress would have to be involved to “reprogram” the Pentagon dollars, budget experts said. [35] Democrats in Congress offered to fund a border wall in exchange for protections for immigrants living in the U.S., but the deal collapsed without the president?s support. [36]

In July, the center?s executive director, Marianna Tevino Wright, discovered that Customs and Border Protection had cleared a significant portion of the property and begun preliminary surveys for border wall construction. [37] According to the Center for Biological Diversity, the border wall and the activities that would go with it — mainly associated road construction — would threaten vulnerable wildlife. [37] More than 30 laws were waived to begin additional border wall construction near the city. [37]

The agency averaged cost per mile rather than determining cost for each construction project, GAO says. [39] The cost was $1.2 billion, according to congressional testimony from Major General John Nichols, who’s in charge of the Texas National Guard. [38] Although total estimates of the program aren’t available, the first year of deployments cost $110 million, according to the Government Accountability Office. [38] Thanks to the Bush and Obama deployments, it’s possible to get at least a rough estimate of how much Trump’s plan, once it’s fleshed out more, might cost. [38] Given the vagueness of Trump’s plan, it’s impossible to know how much it will cost. [38]

That’s $91,666.66 per troop every year, just slightly less than the annual cost per troop under Bush. [38] “Federal agencies may waive domestic procurement requirements if it is in the “public interest,? including where there is lack of availability of domestically produced items or if use of domestic materials would increase the costs of projects by 25 percent or more,” reads a K&L Gates paper on procurement rules. [36]

In a statement, CBP said: “The President has been involved since the very beginning of the border wall development process. [41] The eight different prototypes are each anticipated to inform future border wall design standards in some capacity.” [41] The White House has requested $1.6 billion in the 2018 budget for the border wall. [40] Nevada Politics Today video host Victor Joecks sits down with Hardeep Sull to discuss immigration and the border wall. [8] “Building a great Border Wall, with drugs (poison) and enemy combatants pouring into our Country, is all about National Defense. [35]

TheStreet’s feature series “Inside Trump’s First Year” looks at the biggest stories in business over the last year fueled by one of the most unpredictable presidents in history. [40] Construction following President Donald Trump’s 2017 executive order is currently underway. [37]

Despite enthusiastic backing for President Donald Trump and pleas for a stronger border, Arizona ranchers are conflicted in their support for Trump?s promise to build a wall along the border with Mexico. [42] WASHINGTON–The Trump administration is asking Congress for nearly $18 billion to construct more than 700 miles of new and replacement barriers along the Southwest border, its most detailed description yet of the president?s vision of a wall separating the U.S. from Mexico. [42]

Trump promised supporters he would build a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border during his presidential campaign. [43] The comments were made during a wide-ranging discussion before the House Armed Services Committee that included the controversial proposal to have the military pay for Trump?s ambitious plan to build a wall along the southern border – one of the president?s central campaign promises. [44] ” I will build a great, great wall on our southern border, and I will make Mexico pay for that wall. [45]

Trump said the wall will cost $12 billion, while Republican leaders in Congress have pegged its cost 20 percent higher than that. [45] NBC 7 Investigates takes a closer look at local costs for enforcement of the wall prototypes and what the numbers say about immigration arrests in San Diego and Imperial Counties. [46]

“Fourteen billion dollars will go a long way toward building a wall that will keep Americans safe and hinder the illegal flow of drugs, weapons, and individuals across our southern border,” the senator reasoned in a press release. [47] WASHINGTON — Defense Secretary Jim Mattis on Thursday said any portion of the military?s budget used to cover President Donald Trump?s proposed wall along the U.S.-Mexico border might only amount to fencing structures along nearby bombing ranges. [44] “I would build a great wall, and nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I’ll build them very inexpensively, I will build a great, great wall on our southern border. [47] Eight prototypes exist for the wall between the U.S. and Mexico that Trump promised to build. [48] During one month last fall, the wall prototypes were built near the border in Otay Mesa. [46] Immigration reformers say the wall will be a useful aid for border officers. [11] The military could fund the wall effort for “probably the part, where if I need to?put a fence along a bombing range that?s right next to the border,” Mattis said. [44] If we get a wall like they built in Israel, I probably won’t have to wear a bulletproof vest along the border anymore. [12] Some GOP legislators also oppose the wall, saying it might hinder border trade. [11]

The Wall Street Journal reported Friday that the $18 billion would be used by the administration to construct 306 miles of new fencing and to reinforce more than 400 miles of the existing barrier between the U.S. and Mexico. [43] Because of the presence of natural barriers, Trump said, the solar wall would need to span only 700 to 900 miles (1,125 to 1,450 kilometers) to be effective in halting illegal migration. [45] Trump made the construction of a wall along the U.S.-Mexican a campaign promise during the lead up to the 2016 presidential election, but since taking office he has had little success in securing funds for the construction of a wall. [43] Even Republican leaders concede the proposed Trump Border Wall is unnecessary and impractical to build and fund at such an exorbitant cost expense of $18 Billion, particularly in light of the just passed tax cuts for corporations and the wealthy that will add $1.5 Billion to the U.S. national debt. [10] U.S.-Mexico border security experts contend that the proposed Trump Border Wall is totally unnecessary and wasteful spending of federal monies as other technology is available to secure the border at significant cost savings than the astronomical $18 Billion for 316 new miles of border fencing. [10] NBC 7’s Mari Payton has a deeper look at how much security efforts around the border wall prototype has cost the city and county of San Diego. [46]

By leveraging any criminally forfeited assets of El Chapo and his ilk, we can offset the wall?s cost and make meaningful progress toward achieving President Trump?s stated border security objectives.” [47] While Mattis said he?s in constant contact with Homeland Security and Customs and Border Enforcement officials, a series of questions still dominate the mission, such as costs and extent of time the troops will be deployed. [44]

On March 17, 2017 the U.S. Customs and Border Protection released two Requests for Proposal to award multiple contracts and initial task orders for the design and construction of wall prototypes. [45] President Trump has said he may need a good government shutdown to get his wall. [11] “Build WALL through M!” Trump tweeted last month, followed by media reports confirming with White House sources that “M” stood for military. [44] Trump again said Mexico would pay for the wall — and in return, Mexico afforded aid to Texas in the wake of Hurricane Harvey. [47] Mexico once again reminded Trump via press release that it will “under no circumstances” pay for the wall, offering “full solidarity” with the people of Texas and offering aid, “as good neighbors should always do in trying times.” [47] Before taking office, Trump started floating the idea of having Congress pay for the wall. [47] Trump started considering a 20% tax on Mexican imports to pay for the wall. [47] Trump told reporters on Air Force One that only 700 to 900 miles of wall may be needed. [45]

During the campaign, the president pledged to build a “big, beautiful wall” and crack down on illegal immigration. [46] “Among many other things, we will build the wall!” he said of his plans to follow through with his campaign promise of dividing the United States and Mexico. [47] Despite saying during his campaign that the Mexican government would be responsible for paying for the wall, Trump’s incoming administration started mentioning the idea that it may be better to use previously implemented legislation to try to fund his wall than to rely on the Mexican government, which was under no obligation to pay for the structure. [47] Texas Senator Ted Cruz was completely serious when he introduced a bill called the Ensuring Lawful Collection of Hidden Assets to Provide Order (EL CHAPO) Act, in which he recommended that all funds forfeited to the U.S. government with El Chapo’s arrest be used to fund the wall. [47]

“San Diegans have made it clear, we do not want Trump’s wasteful wall dividing our communities further,” Gomez said in an emailed statement to NBC 7 Investigates, “Refugees and immigrants are all welcome here, and San Diego will continue bridging our communities closer.” [46] The controversial wall, a hallmark of Mr. Trump’s campaign, has yet to materialize. [12]

Without continued pressure from Trump, Democrats are likely to block spending on the wall by offering to support other GOP priorities, such as more tax cuts for business groups. [11] SAN DIEGO – Like color swatches in a paint store, eight proposals for a wall between the United States and Mexico spring from the earth in the desert between San Diego and Tijuana. [48] Democrats sharply oppose the wall as because it is a symbol which distinguishes the United States from other countries, and also because it is a solid barrier hindering the northward flow of cheap workers, welfare-aided consumers and future government-dependent voters towards the Democratic-dominated cities along the coasts. [11] More than 1,100 kilometers of that stretch already is fenced, but nowhere is the barrier as massive as the wall described in the new plan. [45]

The Department of Homeland Security said it would waive certain environmental rules to build the wall. [47] The lawsuit asks a judge to order that Trump cannot build the border wall until it’s clear it would comply with environmental standards, according to Reuters, and asks that the Department of Homeland Security would not be able to waive federal guidelines for the project. [47] Democrats contend that President Trump may risk a federal government shutdown on January 20th and failing to reach an agreement on providing relief to the 800,000 DACA recipients just to gain leverage for Congressional funding of the totally unnecessary Trump Border Wall. [10] Prior to the government shutdown on January 19, Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer told Trump that Congress would fund his border wall if Democrats could keep DACA protections in place, an attempt to fund the government before it went dark, The Atlantic reports. [47]

President Donald Trump signed an executive order last year calling for the construction of a new border wall spanning the length of the U.S.-Mexico border. [12] SAN DIEGO, CA — President Donald Trump may not have spent money on his signature border wall yet, but San Diego taxpayers have already spent hundreds of thousands of dollars to just have the prototypes built. [43] President Trump asked for $18 billion to build the first phase of the border wall. [47] Gen. Xavier Becerra filed a lawsuit against Trump over his plans to build the border wall. [47] Donald Trump told reporters on Air Force One 13 July 2017 that his previous remark about placing solar panels on his proposed border wall with Mexico was no joke. [45] As Hurricane Harvey hit Texas, Trump doubled down on his claim that Mexico will pay for the border wall in a tweet. [47]

Senator Ted Cruz introduced a bill that would call for Mexican drug lord El Chapo pay for the wall. [47] U.S. Representative Henry Cuellar told The New York Times that the wall was a “14th-century solution to a 21st-century problem.” [47] The prospect of the wall has inspired several artistic protests, such as a billboard-size image of a little boy peeking into the U.S. over the fence. [12]

Gomez sponsored a resolution condemning the wall project before construction began. [46] The suit, filed in a San Diego federal court, alleges the wall violates federal environmental standards, and goes against Constitutional separation of powers and states? rights. [47] Back in San Diego, Border Patrol agent Joshua Wilson says the wall makes it easier for agents to do their jobs. [12]

The Post also noted that in May, the Center for Biological Diversity released a report that identified 93 species that will be put at risk if a wall is constructed. [47] Since actually taking office, however, he’s faced numerous challenges, like gaining support for the wall and his attempts to secure funding. [47] Early snags in Trump’s wall plans included criticism and disagreement from politicians in Texas, who refused to have Trump’s wall run through their cities and potentially ruin their local economies. [47] Rep. Beto O?Rourke, D-Texas, brought up concerns about the wall and the new deployment Thursday that were echoed in a letter from several House Democrats to Mattis and Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen. [44] The planned $18 billion over a decade in spending on the wall matches the $1.6 billion already approved for 2018 by the GOP-controlled House and Senate, amid protests from Democratic Party leaders. [11] According to the Washington Post, the Trump administration told lawmakers the first phase of the border wall would cost $18 billion. [47] The proposed cost $1.8 billion per year cost would consume less than one-2,088th of the 2018 federal budget, expected to be around $3,800 billion. [11] Operation Jump Start under Bush cost an estimated $1.2 billion for two years, while Operation Phalanx under Obama came in at costs of about $110 million in the first year. [44] An internal Homeland Security report forecast the total cost could be as much as $21.6 billion. [45]

The expected construction cost is only 1 cent for every $20 spent by the federal government. [11] The wall’s cost would be offset by a reduced northward flow of illegals and drugs, so cutting the federal government’s cost for welfare, unemployment and policing. [11]

On August 1, the Department of Homeland Security announced that it will waive certain environmental rules to begin construction of Trump’s border wall along a 15-mile stretch of land between of San Diego, California, and Mexico. [47] According to The Hill, the House Homeland Security Committee approved a border security bill on October 4 that includes $10 billion for border wall construction. [47]

Trump promised a border wall during his announcement to run for president. [47] President Trump is using the building of his proposed Border Wall as a negotiating chip in providing relief to over 800,000 DACA recipients, which Democrats oppose the use of DACA recipients as human pawns for the political whims of Trump. [10] In addition to these $18 Billion for Phase I of the Trump Border Wall, CBP is requesting Congress to allocate another $8 Billion for hiring of 10,000 new personnel and training, $5 Billion for new acquisition of new border technology, and $1 Billion for development of new access roads along the U.S.-Mexico border, totaling over $32 Billion during the next decade. [10] Soon after, Trump, frustrated with inaction over his demands for a border wall, issued an April 4 memorandum requesting state governors to deploy National Guard troops to the southern border until the wall is built. [44] Roughly six months after Trump announced that he was considering a 20% tax on Mexican imports to pay for the border wall, Paul Ryan and Republicans in the House of Representatives decided not to move forward with the border adjustment tax proposal. [47] Democrats offered to fund Trump’s border wall in exchange for DACA, but Trump refused. [47]

Executive Order 13767 directed the Government to build a border wall with Mexico. [45] Then when negotiating government funding, Congress left out funding for the border wall in order to avoid a federal shutdown. [47] Members of Congress agreed on legislation to help the government stay afloat through September, but funding for Trump’s border wall wasn’t on the list of nonnegotiable expenses that Democrats and Republicans agreed upon to reach that decision. [47] Congress has until September 30 to reach a funding deal, and Democrats have refused to agree to a plan that funds a border wall, CNBC reported. [47]

Deputies from the San Diego County Sheriff?s Department also provided security for the border wall prototypes. [46] City records show the city of San Diego paid close to $278,000 for security surrounding the border wall prototypes. [46]

The Tohono O’odham tribe, whose reservation is split between the U.S. and Mexico, was gearing up to fight for their land if Trump’s border wall cut their community into two. [47] As we have been hearing, one issue that’s sure to be part of immigration talks in coming weeks is the president’s proposed border wall with Mexico. [12] Latest White House demand on immigration: $18 billion for a border wall. [11]

Trump’s goal is to have one-half (50%) of the almost 2,000 miles long U.S.-Mexico border fenced by 2027. [10] According to The Atlantic, Schumer acquiesced to an unnamed amount to fund the border wall in exchange for permanent protections for about 700,000 people under the Dream Act, a key part of the federal budget that Republicans and Democrats have yet to officially pass. [47] On the same day, the House of Representatives approved $1.6 billion for the construction of Trump’s border wall, which was part of a larger $788 billion spending bill. [47] San Diego City Council Member Georgette Gomez has been critical of the border wall project, calling it “a huge waste of taxpayer dollars.” [46] House Speaker Paul Ryan said in a statement hailing the passage of border wall funding. [45] The border wall is absolutely against the core foundational values of the United States. [12]

While Democrats complain the $18 billion price tag for the Trump wall is too high, the “Dreamers” amnesty bill they want Trump and Republicans to pass in exchange for funding the wall (or ideally in spite of the wall) would cost U.S. taxpayers even more than the construction of the border partition over 10 years. [49] President Donald Trump responds to reporter questions about the cost of building a wall on the U.S.-Mexican border during a meeting on immigration. [50]

President Trump campaigned on a promise to build a “big, beautiful wall” on the border to stop illegal immigration and drug trafficking, and promised Mexico would pay for it. [51] That?s the finding of recent immigration studies showing the $18 billion wall President Trump plans to build along the southern border will pay for itself by curbing the importation of not only crime and drugs, but poverty. [49]

Trump rejected the proposal in favor of a tougher border bill introduced by Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa), which limits the number of DACA beneficiaries to 1.8 million, curbs family visas, or so-called chain migration, and phases out the diversity visa lottery, while earmarking $25 billion in funding for the wall and other border security. [49] Trump has already threatened dire consequences if he doesn’t get his way, tweeting in July that he would shut down the government over his border security agenda, including the wall and other immigration proposals. [52]

The Trump administration is asking Congress for nearly $18 billion to build more than 700 miles of new and replacement barriers along the southwest border, reports the Wall Street Journal. [51]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(52 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (34) A House Committee Approved $10 Billion For the Border Wall | Teen Vogue

2. (26) Will A Border Wall ‘Pay For Itself’ Because Immigrants Cost the Government Money?

3. (24) Will Trump?s Wall Pay for Itself? – FactCheck.org

4. (18) Legal or not, Trump?s wall is already being built — High Country News

5. (16) Trump’s border wall: A look at the numbers | Fox News

6. (15) Trumps border wall could run up billions in unseen costs: GAO report – Business Insider

7. (14) How Much Will Trump’s Wall Cost? | Metro US

8. (14) Trump?s Border Wall Could Waste Billions of Dollars, Report Says – The New York Times

9. (14) 23 Amazing Things You Can Do for the Cost of a Few Border-Wall Miles

10. (14) What’s Next for Trump’s Border Wall? – The Atlantic

11. (14) House panel approves $10B for Trump border wall, over cries it’s a boondoggle | Politics | Dallas News

12. (12) Gov’t report warns Trump’s wall may bust the budget, face delays, won’t work as planned

13. (12) Trump’s Wall Could Run Up Billions In Unforeseen Costs, Watchdog Report Warns | HuffPost

14. (11) Trumps DHS Says 700-Mile Border Wall To Cost Just $1.8 Billion Per year | Breitbart

15. (11) A US government watchdog is warning that Trump’s border wall could cost billions more than he claims – AOL News

16. (11) How Much Do National Guard Troops At The Border Cost? Trump’s Plan Weighs Heavy On Taxpayers

17. (10) Costs soar to $33 billion for Trumps US-Mexico border wall

18. (10) Everything We Know About Donald Trump’s Proposed Border Wall | Fortune

19. (10) U.S. Says It Can Pay for 100 Miles of Wall on 2,000-Mile Border – The New York Times

20. (10) Great Wall of Mexico

21. (10) Trump to request money to build wall during budget talks Las Vegas Review-Journal

22. (9) Prototypes For Donald Trump’s Border Wall Begin Construction In San Diego : The Two-Way : NPR

23. (9) Trump’s border wall: US military is as unlikely to pay for it as Mexico | US news | The Guardian

24. (9) One Year After the Election, Where Is Trump’s Wall? – TheStreet

25. (9) NBC 7 Investigates Looks at Local Border Wall Costs and Immigration Arrests – NBC 7 San Diego

26. (9) Border wall prototypes a first small step on Trump campaign promise | Reuters

27. (8) CBP Estimates $18 Billion Cost for First Phase of Trump U.S.-Mexico Border Wall – Eagle Pass Business Journal

28. (8) Will Trump?s wall ever be built? | PBS NewsHour

29. (8) About That Border Wall Trump Said Mexico Will Pay For – Bloomberg

30. (8) Why Trump?s Border Wall Could Cost More Than $25 Billion | The Fiscal Times

31. (8) Trump’s Steel Tariffs Throw Trump’s Border Wall Into Doubt – CityLab

32. (8) Trump Administration Seeks Border Wall Builders as GAO Warns About Costs | 2018-08-22 | Engineering News-Record

33. (8) Mattis: Military cost to build Trump?s border wall could be limited to bombing-range fences – News – Stripes

34. (7) It’s official: Trump wasting billions on border wall | Newsday

35. (7) To pay border wall's bill, Trump would trim surveillance costs, freeze pay – Chicago Tribune

36. (7) How Much Will Trump’s National Guard Deployment to U.S.-Mexico Border Cost American Taxpayers?

37. (6) How much will the border wall cost? Not even its creators want to know

38. (6) AP FACT CHECK: No way to gauge Trump’s border wall promises | WTOP

39. (5) Trump’s border wall cost is 0.0338 percent of federal spending, says new analysis – Washington Times

40. (5) Trump's border wall prototypes got video surveillance system, at unknown cost – The San Diego Union-Tribune

41. (5) Watchdog Report: Border Wall Could Cost Far More Than Estimated – Newsy Story Page

42. (4) Trump’s border wall will cost $18 million. Here are four better ways to spend that money — Quartz

43. (4) Trump’s Border Wall Prototypes Are Complete. Now What?

44. (4) The Cost Of Trump’s Border Wall Prototypes To San Diego Taxpayers | Imperial Beach, CA Patch

45. (3) Cutting welfare to illegal aliens would pay for Trump’s wall

46. (2) Trump Administration Seeks $18 Billion Over Decade to Expand Border Wall – WSJ

47. (2) What Trump’s ‘big, fat, beautiful’ Mexico wall will look like – U.S. News – Haaretz.com

48. (2) Trump Border Wall Would Cost Nearly $18 Billion | The Crime ReportThe Crime Report

49. (1) Congress to tackle border wall funding amid Trump shutdown threat

50. (1) Letter: Some ways to look at Donald Trump’s border wall

51. (1) President Trump: “Great” Border Wall Can Be Built In One Year | Video | RealClearPolitics

52. (1) Planning mistakes mean Trump?s border wall could be pricier and less effective