Layer 2 VPN Architectures

Layer 2 VPN Architectures
Layer 2 VPN Architectures Image link: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VPN_solution_classification.svg
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config)# l2vpn Enters Layer 2 VPN configuration mode.(More…)
  • Unlike the traditional VPNs over Layer 2 circuits, which needs extra separate networks for IP and VPN services, VPWS can share the provider?s core network infrastructure between IP and Layer 2 VPN services.(More…)
  • Simple answer: Layer 2 works with the Data-Link Layer and MAC addresses / Broadcast domains.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Like in the 3 rd example template, this one also shows the setup and the configuration of VPN instances, although there are only 2 instances here.(More…)
  • A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model.(More…)

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KEY TOPICS

RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config)# l2vpn Enters Layer 2 VPN configuration mode. [1] RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-l2vpn-bg)# bridge-domain bd1 Enters Layer 2 VPN VPLS bridge group bridge domain configuration mode. [1]

RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-l2vpn)# pw-status Enables all pseudowires configured on this Layer 2 VPN. [2]

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router (config)# l2vpn Enters Layer 2 VPN configuration mode. [2] This approach enables service providers to host a multitude of new services such as broadcast TV and Layer 2 VPNs. [1] Point to Point Layer 2 Services are also called as MPLS Layer 2 VPNs. [2] VPLS is a multipoint Layer 2 VPN technology that connects two or more customer devices using bridging techniques. [1] VPLS supports Layer 2 VPN technology and provides transparent multipoint Layer 2 connectivity for customers. [1] Some VPNs provide Layer 2 access to the target network; these require a tunneling protocol like the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol or the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol running across the base IPsec connection. [3] L2TPv3 defines the L2TP protocol for tunneling Layer 2 payloads over an IP core network using Layer 2 virtual private networks (VPNs). [2] The following figure shows how the L2TPv3 feature is used to set up VPNs using Layer 2 tunneling over an IP network. [2]

Too, it is possible to have either Layer 3 connectivity (MPLS IP VPN) or Layer 2 ( virtual private LAN service ) running across the base transport. [3]

Layer Two (2) Tunneling Protocol is an extension to the PPP protocol that enables ISPs to operate Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). [4]

RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-l2vpn-bg-bd)# ip-source-guard logging Enters the IP source guard configuration submode and enables source IP address filtering on a Layer 2 port. [1] RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-l2vpn-bg-bd)# security Enables Layer 2 port security on a bridge. [1]

RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router # l2transport Enables Layer 2 transport on the selected interface. [1]

IPsec VPNs are sometimes confused with Layer 2 or Layer 3 VPNs, which do not actually encrypt the data, but rather tunnel the traffic that flows through the VPNs; however, IPsec VPNs are VPNs that provide encryption and authentication to secure traffic. [5]

In High-Level HA Architecture for VPN Instances 2, this one also shows the setup and the configuration of VPN instances, although there are only 2 instances here. [6] Basic VPLS Architecture The VPLS network requires the creation of a bridge domain (Layer 2 broadcast domain) on each of the PE routers. [1] RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-l2vpn)# router-id 1.1.1.1 Specifies a unique Layer 2 (L2) router ID for the provider edge (PE) router. [1] RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-if)# l2overhead 20 Sets layer 2 overhead size. [1]

If the frame is IP-based, the load-balancing flow “src-dst-ip” configuration causes the Layer 2 interfaces to use the IP header for flow balancing hash calculation. [2] Pseudowire redundancy allows you to configure your network to detect a failure in the network and reroute the Layer 2 service to another endpoint that can continue to provide service. [2] In Multipoint Layer 2 Services, point-to-point (P2P) pseudowires (PWs) are setup at PE routers participating in a Multipoint Layer 2 Services domain, to provide Ethernet LAN emulation. [1]

API server The OpenStack Networking API includes support for Layer 2 networking and IP Address Management (IPAM), as well as an extension for a Layer 3 router construct that enables routing between Layer 2 networks and gateways to external networks. [7] Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol version 3 (L2TPv3) over IPv4 provides a dynamic mechanism for tunneling Layer 2 (L2) circuits across a packet-oriented data network, with multiple attachment circuits multiplexed over a single pair of IP address endpoints, using the L2TPv3 session ID as a circuit discriminator. [2] Pseudowires transport Layer 2 protocol data units (PDUs) across a public switched network (PSN). [2]

Layer 2 QinQ VLANs in L2VPN attachment circuit: QinQ L2VPN attachment circuits are configured under the Layer 2 transport subinterfaces for point-to-point EoMPLS based cross-connects using both virtual circuit type 4 and type 5 pseudowires and point-to-point local-switching-based cross-connects including full interworking support of QinQ with 802.1q VLANs and port mode. [2] Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (L2VPN) emulates the behavior of a LAN across an L2 switched, IP or MPLS-enabled IP network, allowing Ethernet devices to communicate with each other as they would when connected to a common LAN segment. [2] IP source guard (IPSG) is a security feature that filters traffic based on the DHCP snooping binding database and on manually configured IP source bindings in order to restrict IP traffic on non-routed Layer 2 interfaces. [1] Configure a loopback interface to originate and terminate Layer 2 traffic. [1] This example configures interfaces for Layer 2 transport, adds them to a bridge domain, and assigns them to split horizon groups. [1] Perform this task to configure an interface or a connection for Point to Point Layer 2 Services. [2] Multipoint Layer 2 Services enable geographically separated local-area network (LAN) segments to be interconnected as a single bridged domain over an MPLS network. [1] This enables service providers to connect customer sites with existing Layer 2 networks by using a single, integrated, packet-based network infrastructure. [2] Multipoint Layer 2 Services Label Switched Multicast (LSM) is a Layer 2 based solution that sends multicast traffic over a multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) network. [1] Multiprotocol Label Switching integrates the performance and traffic-management capabilities of data link Layer 2 with the scalability and flexibility of network Layer 3 routing. [8] Same-port local switching allows you to switch Layer 2 data between two circuits on the same interface. [2] A L2TPv3 over IPv6 tunnel is a static L2VPN cross-connect that uses Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol version 3 (L2TPv3) over IPv6, with a unique IPv6 source address for each cross-connect. [2]

Create a Phase 2 VPN called Dynamic-VPN that uses Dynamic-VPN-Gateway as the gateway and Dynamic-VPN-Policy as the Phase 2 policy. [5]

In the IP Interworking mode, the Layer 2 (L2) header is removed from the packets received on an ingress PE, and only the IP payload is transmitted to the egress PE. On the egress PE, an L2 header is appended before the packet is transmitted out of the egress port. [2] Traffic Injection from L2TPv3 over IPv6 Tunnel feature allows you to inject diagnostic traffic through Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol version 3 (L2TPv3) Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) tunnel. [2] Tunnel selection does not need a loopback interface when Multipoint Layer 2 Services are directly mapped to a TE tunnel. [1] Refer to the Implementing Layer 2 Multicast with IGMP Snooping module in the Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Router Multicast Configuration Guide for information on configuring IGMP snooping. [2] The Cisco ASR 9000 Series Routers implement the Layer 2 tunneling or Layer 3 forwarding depending on the subinterface configuration at provider edge routers. [2]

Pseudowire Headend (PWHE) is a technology that allows termination of access pseudowires (PWs) into a Layer 3 (VRF or global) domain or into a Layer 2 domain. [1] Using this feature, service providers can deliver Layer 2 connections over an MPLS backbone, instead of using separate networks. [2] This is similar to Ethernet private line (EPL), a Layer 1 point-to-point service, except the provider edge operates at Layer 2 and typically runs over a Layer 2 network. [2] Some of the components present in a Multipoint Layer 2 Services network are described in these sections. [1] Broadcast, multicast and unknown unicast traffic can be sent through ingress replicaton or label switched multicast in the Multipoint Layer 2 Services domain. [1] IGMP snooping uses the information in IGMP membership report messages to build corresponding information in the forwarding tables to restrict IP multicast traffic at Layer 2. [2] This example shows how to configure a to perform Layer 2 switching on traffic that passes through Ethernet Flow Points (EFPs). [1] VPLS transports Ethernet IEEE 802.3, VLAN IEEE 802.1q, and VLAN-in-VLAN (q-in-q) traffic across multiple sites that belong to the same Layer 2 broadcast domain. [1]

Perform this task to enable Layer 2 port security on a bridge. [1] By snooping the IGMP membership reports sent by hosts in the bridge domain, the IGMP snooping application can set up Layer 2 multicast forwarding tables to deliver traffic only to ports with at least one interested member, significantly reducing the volume of multicast traffic. [2] These configuration examples show how to create a Layer 2 VFI with a full-mesh of participating Multipoint Layer 2 Services provider edge (PE) nodes. [1] Refer to the Configuration Examples for Multipoint Layer 2 Services section for examples on these bridging features. [1] The successful transmission of the Layer 2 frames between PE routers is due to the configuration of the PE routers. [2] This module provides conceptual and configuration information for point-to-point Layer 2 (L2) connectivity. [2] A layer 3 subinterface must have an IPv4 or IPv6 address and cannot be configured in the layer 2 transport mode. [1] During these types of switching, Layer 2 address is used instead of the Layer 3 address. [2]

L2TPv3 over Ipv4 Tunnels is supported only on layer 2 transport sub-interfaces and not on physical interfaces. [2] RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-if)# l2transport Enables Layer 2 transport on the selected interface. [2] An ARP spoofing attack affects the devices connected to your Layer 2 network by sending false information to the ARP caches of the devices connected to the subnet. [1] They can also communicate with dedicated servers, firewalls, load balancers, and other networking infrastructure on the same layer 2 VLAN. GRE and VXLAN VXLAN and GRE are encapsulation protocols that create overlay networks to activate and control communication between compute instances. [7] AToM encapsulates Layer 2 frames at the ingress PE router, and sends them to a corresponding PE router at the other end of a pseudowire, which is a connection between the two PE routers. [2] IP Interworking is a solution for transporting Layer 2 traffic over an IP/MPLS backbone. [2] IGMP snooping provides a way to constrain multicast traffic at Layer 2. [2] L2TPv3 over IPv6Tunnels is supported only on layer 2 transport sub-interfaces and not physical interfaces. [2] It accommodates many types of Layer 2 frames such as Ethernet and Frame Relay using AToM tunnels. [2] ARP enables IP communication within a Layer 2 broadcast domain by mapping an IP address to a MAC address. [1] The IPSG feature provides source IP address filtering on a Layer 2 port, to prevent a malicious hosts from manipulating a legitimate host by assuming the legitimate host’s IP address. [1] A Layer 2 subinterface does not contain an IP address and must be configured to operate in the Layer 2 transport mode. [1] IP SourceGuard (IPSG)–Enables source IP address filtering on a Layer 2 port. [1] The native bridge domain refers to a Layer 2 broadcast domain consisting of a set of physical or virtual ports (including VFI). [1] Perform this task to create a Layer 2 Virtual Forwarding Instance (VFI) on all provider edge devices under the bridge domain. [1] The Layer 2 encapsulation is removed from an IP packet by the ingress PE?s attachment circuit facing ingress line card. [2] MTU can refer to the size of a Layer 2 frame or the size of a Layer 3 packet (depending on the vendor). [5]

Perform this task to configure PWHE layer 2 subinterfaces and add it to the bridge-domain. [1] VPLS is a Layer 2 multipoint service and it emulates LAN service across a WAN service. [1] Multipoint Layer 2 services are also called as Virtual Private LAN Services. [1] Support was added for Multipoint Layer 2 Services Label Switched Multicast feature. [1] With a 1,514-byte Layer 2 MTU, and 54 bytes of Layer 2 through Layer 4 headers, there can be 1,460 bytes of user data. [5] VPLS technology includes the capability of configuring the Cisco ASR 9000 Series Routers to perform Layer 2 bridging. [1] Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) transports Layer 2 packets over a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) backbone. [2] ATMoMPLS is a type of Layer 2 point-to-point connection over an MPLS core. [2] The egress PE removes the encapsulation and sends out the Layer 2 frame. [2] Juniper refers to the MTU as the complete Layer 2 frame, including the header. [5]

Figure 2. 4 Virtual Hub Functions, the Virtual Hub is an object virtually realizing a physical layer 2 switch (switching hub) using software, and a plurality of Virtual Hubs can be created in the VPN Server. [9] Buy D-Link DES-3010PA Managed Layer 2 Switch with fast shipping and top-rated customer service. (TCO 1) What is the key function of the Cisco Borderless Architecture distribution layer? (Points : 2) Acts as a bride between core and distribution layers Aggregates layer 2 data to access layer Facilitates end user access to the network Establishes layer 3 routing boundaries Provides access to a secure data channel Question 2. [9] CCNA 2 Chapter 1 What is a basic function of the Cisco Borderless Architecture access layer? aggregates Layer 2 broadcast domains aggregates Layer 3 routing boundaries provides access to the user provides high availability What is a basic function of the Cisco Borderless Architecture distribution layer? acting as a backbone aggregating all the campus blocks. [9]

Layer 3 (L3) switch works as routing over IP network THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LAYER 2, 3, AND 4 NETWORK SWITCHES With the rapid development of computer networks over the last decade, high-end switching has become one of the most important functions of a A switch is a Layer 2 (data link) device with physical ports and that the switch communicates via frames that are placed on to the wire at Layer 1 (physical). [9] Connect the -modem cable to the console port on the rear of the switch. e, “IP”) networks over one layer 2 (i. ) A switch determines the source and destination addresses of each packet and forwards data only to the specific devices, while hubs transmit the packets to every port except the one that received the traffic. [9]

A standard switch is known as a layer 2 switch and is commonly found in nearly any LAN. The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is used on LAN-switched networks. 99 Each of these FortiLink ports is added to the logical hardware-switch or software-switch interface on the FortiGate. [9] Address Learning Layer 2 switches and bridges remember the source hardware address of each frame received on an interface, and they enter this information into Basically a layer 2 switch operates utilizing Mac addresses in it’s caching table to quickly pass information from port to port. [9]

B) Enables packets to be sent from one network to another C) Determines if a packet is safe for a network Dell Networking N2048P 48Port 1GbE PoE+ Layer 2 Managed GB Switch – USED – WILL NOT POWER ON – SOLD AS IS – NO RETURNS ABOUT U.S. Techretire provides its’ clients with technology retirement services and is focused on maximizing return on investment while safeguarding companies from potential risks and liabilities. [9] What it really means is that the switch also has a router built into them which operates at layer 3. provide treatment to packets for the main network, and any subnetworks below it – that includes everything that a layer 2 “smart switch” can do, plus do some network layer treatment. [9]

The Layer 3 Switching Concept For the one’s who are in the same probleme in the future, i manage to resolve the probleme, first, you should now that iptables can’t filter protocole who don’t use ip header, so in my case, my protocole is layer 2 (like arp), the best tool for that is ebtables. 2SX. Without STP, Layer 2 LANs simply would stop functioning, because the loops created within the network would flood the switches with traffic. [9] You can use this mode to configure a NetScaler appliance to behave as a Layer 2 device and bridge the packets that are not destined for it. [10] Either move both vlan interfaces to the same switch and use second switch purely as layer 2 device (similar to what @Solitarium suggested) or create another vlan interface that routes between two switches and configure static routes. [9] Layer 2 switch is A network device that forwards traffic based on MAC layer (Ethernet or Token Ring) addresses. [9] QuickSpecs HPE OfficeConnect 1920 Switch Series Overview Page 4 ? Port Isolation The port isolation feature isolates Layer 2 traffic for data privacy and security without using VLANs. [9] Acts as a bride between access and distribution layers Establishes layer 3 routing boundaries Aggregates layer 2 data to access layer The IBM BladeCenter Layer 2/3 Copper and Fiber Gigabit Ethernet Switch Modules are switch options that enable administrators to consolidate full Layer 2-3 LAN switching and routing capabilities into a BladeCenter chassis. [9] Is it possible that I can configure an access-list on a Layer 3 interface vlan to restrict access,on a 2960 Switch ? Figure 3-3 shows a typical Layer 2 Catalyst switch and the decision processes that take place to forward each frame. [9] By default, every switch port on platforms such as the Catalyst 2950, 3560, or 4500 is a Layer 2 interface, whereas every switch port on a Catalyst 6500 (native IOS) is a Layer 3 interface. [9] The Layer 2 bridging functions include integrated routing and bridging (IRB) for support for Layer 2 bridging and Layer 3 IP routing on the same interface, and virtual switches that isolate a LAN segment with its spanning-tree protocol instance and separate its VLAN ID space. [9] Spanning-tree is a layer 2 protocol developed to avoid any layer 2 loops in the network when you have different paths to one or more destination. one normal SW multiplexes the upstream signals and de- OLT with this Generally speaking, a Layer-3 switch (routing switch) is primarily a switch (a Layer-2 device) that has been enhanced or taught some routing (Layer 3) capabilities. [9] Technically a basic layer 2 switch doesn’t care what network range something is in, it’s all How to configure and verify switch administration and Layer 2 Protocols. [9] Switching and filtering are based on the Layer 2 MAC addresses, and, as such, a Layer 2 switch is completely transparent to network protocols and users? applications. 3. duplicates the electrical signal of each frame to every port. [9] What is one function of a Layer 2 switch? When a Layer 2 Ethernet frame reaches a port on the Network Switch the switch reads the source MAC address of the Ethernet frame as a part of learning function, and it also reads the destination MAC address also as a part of forwarding function. [9] Which one of the following is not a function of network layer? a) routing b) inter-networking c) congestion control d) none of the mentioned View Answer A switch (as a switch) operates at layer 2, forwarding frames based on layer 2 (MAC) information. learns the port assigned to a host by examining the destination MAC address. [9] Svi is used in layer 2 switch only for managing the switch on the contrary, svi is considered as a routed port in l3 switch to perform routing with “ip routing” enabled globally. 252. [9]

What additional command must be issued by the technician to activate the interface to forward traffic You can configure one or more bridge domains to perform Layer 2 bridging. [9] You can use the configuration utility or the command line to enable Layer 2 mode. [10] Server-to-switch distributed trunking: supports Layer 2 LACP groups from a single server across two different switches for active-active server NIC teaming configurations Power down idle ports: power down blocks of idle Gigabit and 10GbE ports to save power; idle ports can be reinitialized The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. [9] Layer 3, the network layer of the OSI model, provides an end-to-end logical addressing system so that a packet of data can be routed across several layer 2 networks (Ethernet,Token Ring, Frame Relay, etc. What this means is you cannot have the same vlan on different switches. [9] What is one function of a Layer 2 switch? forwards data based on logical addressing. – Jason Berg Jun 4 ’10 at 6:14 Hi all, I’ve got a basic Layer 3 switching question here I have three Procurve switches in the network – two of them are layer 2 switches, and one is a layer 3 switch. [9] A switch can operate at both layer 2 (data link) and layer 3 (network). [9] Switch is a network device that works on OSI Layer 2, the Data Link Layer. [9] It sounds like you want a “router on a stick” config. The Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) creates one path through a switch network in order to prevent Layer 2 loops. [9] The DGS-3000-10TC is part of the Layer 2 family of D-Link?s managed switch product line that provides wired Gigabit speed access for metro and campus networks. [9] Layer 2 defines how data is formatted for transmission and how access to the physical media is controlled. 0, March 2006 Chapter 1 About This Manual The Managed Layer 2 Switches GSM7212, GSM7224, and GSM7248 Hardware Installation Guide contains information for hardware installation of the Configuring the Layer 3 Interfaces. [9] The reason we are having a discussion about layer 2 or layer 3, is that your choice of either layer has advantages and disadvantage in terms of Configuring LAN Ports for Layer 2 Switching This chapter describes how to use the command-line in terface (CLI) to configure Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10-Gigabit Ethernet LAN ports for Layer 2 switching in Cisco IOS Release 12. [9] By default, the management IP address you configure on a Layer 2 Switch applies globally to all the ports on the device. [9] A switch is considered a Layer 2 device, operating at the data link layer; switches use packet switching to receive, process and forward data. [9] Layer 2 switching is efficient because there’s no modification to the data packet; if the frame is going from one Ethernet segment to another Ethernet segment on the same switch, the frame is Layer 1 device for example have no idea about packets, IPs etc, its pure function is to take electrical signals comes in one way and send the other. [9]

What is one function of a Layer 2 switch? determines which interface us used to forward a frame based on the destination MAC address What are two advantages of modular switches over fixed-configuration switches? By looking at the graphic in 1. [9] One consequence of this is that since layer 2 switches use MAC addresses to direct traffic, a layer 2 switch cannot be used to connect from one subnet to another. [9] One such environment is the electric utility substation, RUGGEDCOM 19? Layer 2 The field-modular RUGGEDCOM RSG2488 is the most versatile offering for when a Layer 2 switch hears a group leave message or a response timer expires, the switch will remove that host?s switch interface from the group. [9] Layer 2 Switch (70W) Control function allows servers to directly connect to the switch for fast, reliable data One to one and many to one VLAN Group These frames are units of data at Layer 2 (the Data-Link layer), of the 7 layers OSI reference model, and this is why switches are refer to as “Layer 2 devices”. [9]

In the layer 2 of the OSI model, the data link layer, lie the function and operation of a network bridge. [9] Combining the packet handling of routers and the speed of switching, these multilayer switches operate on both layer 2 and layer 3 of the OSI network model. [9] Layer 2 is known as Data link layer and Layer 3 is known as Network Layer in OSI Stack. [9] For network engineers and architects, understanding the difference between a Layer 3 and Layer 2 network can greatly enhance the overall security and speed of your network infrastructure. [9] The advanced Layer 2 and 3 feature set includes allows a server or switch to connect to two switches using one logical trunk for redundancy and load sharing Multi-layer switching (MLS) is the terminology used to describe the technology whereby Layer 2, Layer 3, and Layer 4 switching technologies are combined. [9] A layer 2 switch can assign VLANs to specific switch ports, which in turn are in different layer 3 subnets, and therefore in different broadcast domains. [9] A Layer 3 switch can perform IP routing tasks as well as Layer 2 tasks such as VLANs. [9] Layer 3 switches are used primarily when a large company wants to use VLAN?s to segregate their Well, Layer 2 Vlan the basic is you can create some vlan but you cannt give the routing between vlan. [9] This describes how to use the Layer 2 traceroute utility in Cisco Switches. what is the function of bulb,battery,wire and switch need answer now,sorry 1 educator answer Which one of the four parts (battery, switch, light bulb and wires) of a circuit can be left out Layer 2 vs Layer 3-Difference between Layer 2 and Layer 3. [9] The Layer 3 switch functionally exists somewhere between being a Layer 2 switch and being a Gateway Router. [9] In this paper, we propose switching of TCP connections where one end or both are layer 2 endpoint is a router function, any Bridges and switches are data communications devices that operate principally at Layer 2 of the OSI reference model. 4 shows the connection of an optical ring and a copper ring via the Standby function. [9] Durable dual layer PCB design Dual layer PCB is more durable and reliable than single sided PCB. These devices also provide an interface between the Layer 2 device and the physical media. [9] Layer 2 logical interfaces are created by defining one or more logical units on a physical interface with encapsulation The Layer 2 traffic can be classified as unicast (one to one), multicast (one to many), and broadcast (one to all). [9] Since the Layer 2 interfaces on the Palo Alto behave like a normal switch with no STP enabled, the whole spanning tree process should work as normal from the perspective of two Cisco switches. [9] This scalable, full-featured business-class switch is perfect for VoIP applications by using robust Quality of Service (QoS) So, a hub actually performs OSI layer 1 functions, repeating an electrical signal, whereas a switch performs OSI layer 2 functions, actually interpreting Ethernet header information, particularly addresses, to make forwarding decisions. [9] The remote “box” is, essentially a radio transceiver and the central switch performs both Layer 2 Ethernet switching and controls the remote radios as depicted in the diagram on the left by the fact that the intelligence is now in the central switch device. [9] Hub vs Layer 2 Switch Hubs and switches are devices that we use to interconnect our computers in LANs. [9] A layer 2 switch will pass traffic from port 1 to port 2 without repeating it to every other port. 2 m s but with the longest frame the delay is 1. [9] Layer 2 Switch means it is able to worked both the layer 1 and layer 2 Layer 3 Switch means it is able to worked with both layer 1 and layer 2 as well as layer 3 also layer 3 switch means like Router,which will be route the traffic. 21 ms. [9] What are two reasons a network administrator would segment a network with a Layer 2 switch? (Choose two. [9] Layer 2 and Layer 3 refer to different parts of IT network communications. [9] VLANs allow for greater flexibility by allowing different layer 3 networks to be sharing the same layer 2 infrastructure. [9] Mode Acronym Status 1) Fast Ramp FR ON 2) Layer 2 mode L2 OFF. 9) Layer 3 mode (ip forwarding) L3 ON. [10] In the Configure Modes dialog box, to enable Layer 2 mode, select the Layer 2 Mode check box. [10]

The fully managed Layer 2 switching solution provides advanced security, agile traffic control, and intelligent PoE (Power over Ethernet) in hospitality, health care, business and educational environments. [9] Switch does look at layer 2 information – Ethernet payload, L3 switch look at IP payload too, if need. [11] The D-Link DGS-1500-20 SmartPro 16-Port Layer 2 Gigabit Switch is designed for small/medium businesses who require functions like L3 Static Routing and Single IP Management (Virtual Stacking) without upgrading to a fully managed switch. [9] Route switch modules (RSMs) can also be added to these switches, allowing them to act as both a Layer 2 switch and a Layer 3 router. [9] Functions may HP 6600 Switch Series allows a server or switch to connect to two switches using one logical trunk for redundancy and load sharing Layer 2 switching ?HP’s Juniper Layer 3 Switch (EX2200-C-12T-2G) One is connecting the customer to the switch over Category 6 cable. [9] Forwarding – The switch does 2 types of message Layer 2 vs Layer 3: To Choose a Layer 2 Switch or Layer 3 Switch? Now that we know the difference between the two layers, what metrics would you choose one over the other comes down to the flexibility of being able to route the packets. [9] Identify Layer 2 Switch or Layer 3 Switch ? Thanks for all the information. kinda like consolidating devices. [9]

It can be best described by what more it does compared to a Layer 2 switch and what less it does compared to a Gateway Router. [9] If a switch is configured to work only as a bridge, it is called a layer 2 switch. [9] A Layer 2 LAN switch performs switching and filtering based on the OSI data link layer (Layer 2) MAC address. [9] A Layer 2 LAN switch with Layer 3 features can make switching decisions based on more information than just the Layer 2 MAC address. [9] Switch is a layer 2 device which works on the basis of MAC address (physical address) of a device. [9] With Layer 2 mode disabled (which is the default), the appliance drops packets that are not destined for one of its MAC address. [10] If another Layer 2 device is installed in parallel with the appliance, Layer 2 mode must be disabled to prevent bridging (Layer 2) loops. [10]

” Next, select all of the existing interface and VLAN labels and assign them to Layer 2. [9] What is one function of a Layer 2 switch? forwards data based on logical addressing. g. [9] Description: The NetVanta 1234 is a fully managed, Layer 2, 24-port Ethernet switch designed for fast, secure, cost-effective LAN switching. [9] Layer 2 bridging is one of the services provided by a Logical Router. [9] With MAC-based forwarding disabled and Layer 2 or Layer 3 connectivity enabled, a route table can specify separate routers for outgoing and incoming connections. [10] These switches possess the fast-switching hardware of layer 2 switches, with the logical routing capabilities of a router. [9] In the previous article in this DCI series (Why is there a “Wrong Way” to Interconnect Datacenters?) I explained the business case for having multiple data centers and then closed by warning that extending Layer 2 domains was a path to disaster and undermined the resiliency of having two data centers. [9] These devices will have Layer 2 connectivity with the FortiSwitch ports. [9] Layer 2 mode controls the Layer 2 forwarding (bridging) function. [10] Mode Acronym Status 1) Fast Ramp FR ON 2) Layer 2 mode L2 ON. [10] Layer 2 Switch on Campus 2 Layer 2 Switch on Campus In the human body, the brain is considered the core of the body as without the brain the body would not be able to function properly. 10 and Fe0/0. [9] A switch works at Layer 2 of the OSI model– the data-link layer. [9] Managed Layer 2 Switches GSM7224 and GSM7248 Hardware Installation Guide To connect a console to the switch: 1. [9] The main difference between a hub and a layer 2 switch is their complexity. [9]

Unlike the traditional VPNs over Layer 2 circuits, which needs extra separate networks for IP and VPN services, VPWS can share the provider?s core network infrastructure between IP and Layer 2 VPN services. [12] As regard with VPLS vs VPWS, we know they both can build a Layer 2 VPN service to meet today?s high speed network requirement. [12] Virtual private wire service or VPWS is built on MPLS network and provides point to point connections that connect end customer sites in a VPN. It?s also a Layer 2 technology that consists of three main elements, PE routers, Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) and Label Switched Path Tunnel. [12]

A VPWS Layer 2 VPN can be a full mesh or a hub and spoke topology. [12]

Simple answer: Layer 2 works with the Data-Link Layer and MAC addresses / Broadcast domains. [9] Developed in 1980s, Layer 2 (L2) switches have been widely applied to high-speed data transmission in the enterprise between end stations. representing a specific networking function. [9] This page compares OSI Layer 2 Vs Layer 3 and mentions difference between Layer 2 and Layer 3. [9] There These days Layer 3 engines are no longer bottlenecks and can keep pace with Layer 2 engines. [9] Which of the following functions of OSI Layer 2 is specified by the protocol standard for PPP, but is implemented with a Cisco proprietary header field for HDLC? a. [9] The device supports a complete lineup of layer 2 features, including 802. [9] Layer 2 switching is the number one choice for providing plug-and-play performance. [9]

Preserve plug-and-play features of classical Ethernet: One of the main advantages of a Layer 2 network is its plug-and-play nature, and the administrator is relieved of heavy configuration unlike in a Layer 3 network. [13] This solution will provide the data center network design for a Layer 2 overlay across a Layer 3 fabric to help provide the application workload mobility and network virtualization required by multitenant environments. [13] This approach decouples the tenant network view from the shared common infrastructure, allowing organizations to build a scalable and reliable Layer 3 data center network while maintaining direct Layer 2 adjacency in the overlay network. [13] The idea is to take the advantages of a Layer 3 routing protocol and at the same time maintain the simplicity of a Layer 2 network. [13] It uses MAC-in-UDP tunneling to build Layer 2 overlay networks across a Layer 3 infrastructure. [13]

HSRP and Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) can be used to provide the first-hop redundancy with a Layer 2 link in place between the two aggregation switches. [13] Layer 2 table scaling: TRILL uses a MAC-in-MAC encapsulation, where the traffic from the host is encapsulated by the ingress RBridge. [13] For Layer 2 traffic within a VXLAN VNI, the traffic will go directly between the local VTEP and the remote VTEPs. [13] The VTEP-on-a-stick design keeps the IP gateway of the VXLAN-extended VLANs on the aggregation switches, which preserves the IP gateway placement of the traditional Layer 2 data center pod. [13] Scaling the MAC desk: With the emergence of virtual machines, with every VM assigned a MAC deal with, the dimensions of the Layer 2 table can develop by a massive margin,in particular at the middle of the records center network that learns the MAC cope with of all the VMs. The price of the hardware may additionally growth with the increase inside the size of the hardware Layer 2 table. [13] Cisco is working on a BGP EVPN control plane for VXLAN. The current multicast-based VXLAN lacks a control plane and has to rely on flooding and learning to build the Layer 2 forwarding information base in the overlay network. [13] Note: Because of a known software issue, the peer links of the vPC VTEPs and the Layer 2 links to the routers in the routing block can’t be on the 40 Gigabit Ethernet links of Cisco Nexus 9300 platform switches before Cisco NX-OS Release 6.1(2)I2(2a). [13] Control protocol: TRILL uses Layer 2 IS-IS as its control protocol. [13]

Virtual private LAN service (VPLS) is a Layer 2 technology that uses MPLS and VPN to connect different LANs over the Internet. [12]

It has a VTEP-on-a-stick design, in which one or a pair of Cisco Nexus 9300 VTEPs is connected to the aggregation switches through a Layer 2 link and a Layer 3 link. [13] If the size of the Layer 2 table at the middle is less,it is able to bring about a few entries no longer being found out. this may result in a Layer 2 lookup leave out, that could result in a flood within the community. [13] The ingress RBridge encapsulates the original Layer 2 frame with a new source and destination MAC, which are the MAC addresses of the source RBridge and the next-hop RBridge respectively; a TRILL Header, which has the Ingress and Egress nickname that identifies the source and destination RBridge, respectively; and the original Layer 2 frame with a new CRC. The incoming 802.1q or q-in-q tag needs to be preserved in the inner header. [13] The chapter on TRILL discusses all the boundaries of cutting-edge Layer 2 networking in element and how TRILL addresses them. [13] There is a double-sized vPC between the two pairs of switches for Layer 2 connectivity. [13] Inefficient usage of hyperlinks: To avoid loops in a Layer 2 community, the STP ensures that there’s best one direction from a source to a destination. [13]

This means broadcast packet on layer 2 has been reduced so that the network bandwidth will be conserved. [12] In VPWS, CE routers are used to carry out Layer 2 switching and have to decide which virtual wire could be used to send data to another customer site. [12] DHCP Snooping –It records the users?information that has applied for IP address through the layer 2 equipment. [12]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Like in the 3 rd example template, this one also shows the setup and the configuration of VPN instances, although there are only 2 instances here. [6] IKE Phase 2 is responsible for generating the encryption keys used to encrypt the data traffic within the VPN. Just like in Phase 1, messages are exchanged between the two VPN gateways, and there are some similarities. [5] You must configure an IPsec policy that defines which Phase 2 proposal will be selected and if PSK will be used for the VPN, if applicable. [5]

A remote-access VPN usually relies on either IP Security ( IPsec ) or Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ) to secure the connection, although SSL VPNs are often focused on supplying secure access to a single application rather than to the entire internal network. [3] In addition to IPsec and SSL, other protocols used to secure VPN connectivity and encrypt data are Transport Layer Security and OpenVPN. [3] For environments that want additional security insurance around their VPN setup and don?t have a major concern for the number of new tunnels per second, it?s a good idea to use PFS to provide another layer of negotiation to ensure that keys aren?t compromised. [5] SSL VPNs are widely deployed for their simplicity, in part because they often utilize the Secure Sockets Layer of a web browser (although SSL VPNs can also use separate applications to process this traffic as well). [5] When the VPN gateway receives the UDP traffic, it will simply decapsulate the ESP or AH packet from the UDP layer. [5]

One issue with terminating IPsec remote access clients on VPN gateways in contemporary networks is that often the users are located behind a device that performs source NAT. When performing source NAT on IPsec traffic, a device can modify the source address and UDP port in the packet and therefore make the hash (which was calculated on the original packet) invalid. [5] The SRX automatically copies the DSCP bits from the original packet to the IPsec packet so that the network devices between the two VPN gateways can provide the appropriate processing on the encrypted traffic. [5]

Now that the IPsec proposal and the policy have been configured, the VPN object can be completed with the final configuration of Phase 2. [5] In this section, we cover the following regarding Phase 2 configuration: Phase 2 proposal, Phase 2 policy, and common VPN components. [5] In Phase 2, the remainder of the VPN negotiation process completes, and the encryption keys are exchanged to be used to secure the data that traverses the VPN. [5] NAT-T also uses UDP port 4500 (by default) rather than the standard UDP port 500 (which is only used for IKE negotiations, not ESP or AH), because the VPN gateway might try to process the traffic as IKE rather than as actual data traffic that is to be processed. [5] For the proxy ID, just use local-id 0.0.0.0/0, remote-id 0.0.0.0, and service Any to simplify the IKE configuration to the respective gateways, and demonstrate that proxy IDs only impact negotiation by making sure both sides match, but not what traffic can pass through the VPN. [5]

Phase 1 should use Aggressive mode, and PFS (Diffie-Hellman Group2) should be used to secure the VPN, terminated on the ge-0/0/0 Untrust interface. [5] Tunnel mode is the most common VPN mode on the Internet because it easily allows entire networks (particularly those with private address space) to communicate over public IP networks. [5] The SRX product suite combines the robust IP Security virtual private network (IPsec VPN) features from ScreenOS into the legendary networking platform of Junos. [5] A VPN secures the private network, using encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted. [4] VPN services can also be defined as connections between specific computers, typically servers in separate data centers, when security requirements for their exchanges exceed what the enterprise network can deliver. [3]

If the goal is to ensure that Phase 2 keys are active for only a certain period of time, seconds is the appropriate choice; if the goal is to keep keys active until a certain amount of data has been sent (based on VPN usage), kilobytes is preferred. [5] Phase 2 of the VPN should use AES128-SHA1 as the proposal, and no PFS. [5] When troubleshooting VPN establishment, you must first verify that Phase 1 is completed successfully before moving on to Phase 2, and this command helps provide that information. [5] XAuth negotiation technically takes place between Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the VPN establishment, but is herewith discussed as part of the Phase 1 negotiation. [5] XAuth occurs between Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the VPN establishment process. [5]

The Phase 2 IPsec policy defines how the VPN is established. [5] This is often overlooked in the configuration and is a source of confusion when experiencing issues establishing the VPN. Note that the interface must also include the IPsec unit number; if it is not defined, it is set as unit 0, but if the unit is not correct, establishment issues will occur. [5] This is not special to the VPN configuration, as it also applies to standard traffic to determine the egress interface and egress zone. [5] A few parameters must be configured as part of VPN monitoring, including what device to ping, what source interface is used, and whether the traffic is optimized. [5] For this to work properly, the SRX must know not only which VPN to send the traffic into on the st0 interface to which it is bound, but also which next-hop will be used for routing that traffic on the interface. [5] You?d want to use a loopback interface rather than a reth interface if you have multiple upstream/downstream connections (e.g., multihomed Internet connections) and you don?t want to terminate multiple VPNs on your device, one for each segment (which would rely on dynamic routing to fail over between VPNs). [5] If you can?t distinguish the interfaces for management, you should at least use different URLs for management versus Dynamic VPNs, leverage access lists if possible, and use different nonstandard ports. [5] There are three main network protocols for use with VPN tunnels. [4] Companies and organizations will typically use a VPN to communicate confidentially over a public network and to send voice, video or data. [4] A remote access VPN uses a public telecommunication infrastructure like the internet to provide remote users with secure access to their organization’s network. [3] VPNs should use Main mode in a point-to-multipoint configuration. [5] From a configuration perspective, it?s trivial to configure a VPN to use IKEv2 instead of IKEv1 (or allow it to use either). [5] The goal of this case study is to configure an IPsec client VPN on the SRX. The configurations will largely be the same as in the preceding case study, except where noted. [5] When the user wishes to connect to the SRX, he simply does so by logging in to the SRX?s Dynamic VPN web interface, which triggers the VPN session on the user?s PC. The administrator does not need to provision any software or configuration, as this is automatically installed on the user?s system. [5] In the case of point-to-point VPNs, an IP subnet and logical interface must be used for each VPN. When only a few VPNs are used, the consumption of IP subnets and logical interfaces might not be much of a concern. [5] Secure tunnel interfaces are virtual interfaces that place all of the traffic that arrives in them into VPNs that are bound to the tunnel interface. [5] Both VPN gateways establish the VPN tunnel to each other, and all traffic between the two gateways appears to be from the two gateways, with the original packet embedded within the exterior IPsec packet. [5] Because the VPN gateway is not typically initiating traffic (except in the case of dynamic routing protocols), it typically doesn?t notice if or when the VPN has failed, at least not until the IPsec keys expire and the VPN needs to be renegotiated. [5] If there is an issue with routing to the remote gateway, or if a device is limiting access (e.g., IKE traffic, ESP/AH traffic, NAT-T tunneled traffic), VPN establishment will fail. [5] A VPN client on a remote user’s computer or mobile device connects to a VPN gateway on the organization’s network. [3] In this example, we demonstrate how to leverage the built-in Dynamic VPN client on the branch SRX Series devices to connect remote clients to the corporate network. [5] A v irtual p rivate n etwork ( VPN ) is a network that is constructed using public wires — usually the Internet — to connect remote users or regional offices to a company’s private, internal network. [4] The justification for using VPN access instead of a private network usually boils down to cost and feasibility: It is either not feasible to have a private network — e.g., for a traveling sales rep — or it is too costly to do so. [3] SSL VPNs (including the Juniper Networks Secure Access SSL VPN Gateway) gained popularity because of their interoperability with end systems and their ability to function within most networks. [5] Because additional effort is not required to configure the encryption on the VPN gateway, most network administrators or organizations simply encrypt and authenticate. [5] Newer hybrid-access scenarios put the VPN gateway itself in the cloud, with a secure link from the cloud service provider into the internal network. [3] A proxy ID is a mechanism for identifying the traffic carried within the VPN, and it contains two components: the local and remote IP prefix, and the service. [5] In the case where traffic is arriving encrypted from the VPN (to be decrypted; e.g., Untrust to Trust) the proxy ID source address will be the remote ID, the destination address is the local ID, and the service is the application. [5]

By using an anonymous VPN service, a user’s Internet traffic and data remain encrypted, which prevents eavesdroppers from sniffing Internet activity. [4] The VPN can be established immediately when the configuration is applied (and subsequently whenever the VPN expires), or it can be established on-traffic when there is user data traffic. [5]

It?s time to make use of that information and provide you with some real-world guidance on how to select the appropriate properties for your SRX VPN configuration. [5] During these initial Phase 1 IKE negotiations, a secure channel must be established between the two VPN peers; however, a question might arise: how do you form a secure communication channel that can be negotiated over an insecure network? The answer is to use the Diffie-Hellman key exchange method. [5] In this chapter, we covered a wide variety of the most common IPsec technologies that most network administrators are likely to interact with when building site-to-site and remote access VPNs. [5]

Allow any HTTP traffic to or from the 10.0.0.0/8 network to 192.168.1.0/24 for the East-Branch VPN created in the previous steps. [5] IP Protocol 50 (ESP) if using ESP. If this is blocked, IKE negotiation might complete successfully, but VPN traffic will not be able to communicate when using ESP. [5] In addition to the choice of VPN protocol, there are two different modes that determine how the traffic is exchanged in the VPN. [5] The VPN protocol and mode the VPN uses (ESP/AH and Tunnel/Transport). [5]

Tunnel mode encapsulates the original IP packet within another packet in the VPN tunnel. [5] Only one mode is used for negotiation of Phase 1 of the VPN tunnel, and the mode must be configured the same on both sides of the tunnel; otherwise, Phase 1 is not able to complete. [5] If a gateway or host has a dynamic IP address, typically Aggressive mode should be used for the best interoperability (although depending on the implementation of the VPN gateways, Main mode might be able to be used). [5] Aggressive mode is an alternative to Main mode IPsec negotiation and it is most common when building VPNs from client workstations to VPN gateways, where the client?s IP address is neither known in advance nor fixed. [5] Even though VPN monitoring is not an IPsec standard feature like DPD, it can be used with other vendors? devices and does not require the VPN peer gateway. [5] Point-to-multipoint VPNs allow the device to connect to multiple peer gateways on a single logical interface. [5] On the SRX, if an access list is enabled on the external interface terminating the VPN or the lo0 interface that blocks any of the services mentioned in Step 1, the VPN will not be able to establish. [5] In addition to public Wi-Fi security, a private VPN service also provides consumers with uncensored Internet access and can help prevent data theft and unblock websites. [4] To ensure safety, data travels through secure tunnels, and VPN users must use authentication methods — including passwords, tokens or other unique identification procedures — to gain access to the VPN server. [3] Consumers use a private VPN service, also known as a VPN tunnel, to protect their online activity and identity. [4] VPN performance may be affected by a variety of factors, among them, the speed of users’ internet connections, the types of protocols an internet service provider uses and the types of encryption the VPN uses. [3]

In addition to providing a secure way for remote users to transmit or access information, VPN services are used for other purposes, as well. [3] Typically, XAuth is used with client remote access VPNs to provide further authentication, such as authentication to a corporate directory service such as Active Directory, which IKE does not allow. [5] Placing the VPN at the end of the processing chain allows other services to take place on the plain-text traffic (e.g., UTM, IPS, NAT, ALG, etc.) and the reverse operation can happen after the traffic is decrypted, returning from another IPsec peer. [5] If they are bound to the wrong interface, VPN negotiation might establish, but the traffic will not go through the right VPN. [5] The VPNs should be terminated on the ge-0/0/0.0 interface and ensure that IKE traffic can be processed on this interface. [5] This VPN should be terminated on interface ge-0/0/0.0 using the IKE policy Dynamic-VPN-Policy. [5] Typically, you should not terminate a VPN on a local interface when using HA, and in fact this isn?t supported for active/active HA clusters. [5] Once the st0. x interface has been created, the VPN must be bound to the appropriate secure tunnel interface. [5] Point-to-point VPNs map a single VPN to a single logical interface unit, so the SRX connects directly to a single peer VPN gateway on the interface. [5] While the VPC has an attached private virtual gateway, you network has a customer gateway which needs to be configured to enable the VPN connection. [6] Only the respective networks for each side should be allowed through the VPN, with any service allowed between the networks. [5] One of the most common types of VPNs used by businesses is called a virtual private dial-up network ( VPDN ). [4] This slideshow highlights the best VPNs used in enterprise wide-area networks (WANs) and offers principles for designing and. [3] With 10 remote sites, only 10 VPNs would need to be maintained in a hub and spoke network, whereas 25 would need to be maintained in a full mesh network.) [5]

RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-l2vpn-xc-p2p)# neighbor 1.1.1.1 pw-id 2 RP/0/ RSP0 /CPU0:router (config-l2vpn-xc-p2p-pw)# Configures the pseudowire segment for the cross-connect. [2] MPLS transport profile (MPLS-TP) tunnels provide the transport network service layer over which IP and MPLS traffic traverse. [2] Layer 3 VPN service termination and L2VPN service transport are enabled over QinQ sub-interfaces. [2] Although we covered NTP configuration earlier in the book, it is a very important function of VPN, so we will reiterate how to configure it here. [5] Create a Dynamic VPN client configuration called Dynamic-VPN-Clients that uses the Dynamic-VPN configuration we defined for user dynvpn. [5] Increasingly, enterprises also use VPN connections in either remote access mode or site-to-site mode to connect — or connect to — resources in a public infrastructure-as-a-service environment. [3] The optimal setup for two VPN gateways is to have both of them use static IP addresses. [5] VPN monitoring allows the SRX to send ICMP traffic either to the peer gateway or to another destination on the other end of the tunnel (e.g., a server), along with specifying the source IP address of the ICMP traffic. [5] On-traffic will establish the VPN only when there is traffic to be tunneled through the SRX, while immediately will trigger the SRX to always keep the IPsec tunnel up. [5]

Proxy IDs are negotiated in Phase 2/IKE-Auth and are meant to provide information about the type of traffic that will be carried over the VPN. In reality, proxy IDs do not enforce any real control over the actual traffic that passes over the VPN; however, they must match to establish the VPNs. [5] If the traffic is not being permitted by policy, it cannot enter the VPN. You can determine this by doing a flow debug to enable logging on the policies to ensure that the traffic is being permitted. [5] Instead Juniper has developed a targeted VPN debugging facility where you specify the local and remote IP addresses and enable the debug accordingly. [5] Ensure that the ge-0/0/0.0 interface allows inbound IKE and HTTP/HTTPS connections so that the user can access the web interface and make sure VPNs can establish properly. [5] You simply terminate the VPN to the loopback interface, so regardless of what the underlying routing dictates for reaching the peer, the endpoints will remain the same. [5] In Phase 1 of the VPN, you must define on which interface the VPN will terminate. [5] Phase 1 policies define the actual criteria of the VPN tunnel as well as which proposals can be used as part of the Phase 1 negotiation. [5] VPN monitoring and DPD results can then be used by the SRX to consider the VPN up or down, and make alternative arrangements if available to send the traffic over another VPN. [5] The VPN authentication algorithm is used to create a hash of the traffic to ensure that it has not been modified or forged. [5] Monitor the VPN by pinging the IP address 192.168.1.50 using a method in which the pings are only sent in the absence of traffic every three seconds with a failure threshold of three. [5] IP addresses are not commonly used for remote access VPNs because the client IP address is typically not static, but there is nothing technically wrong with using an IP address for the client IKE identity. [5] To help alleviate this requirement, and empower remote users to be able to access corporate resources, remote access VPNs are used to provide this functionality. [5] Hub and spoke VPN networks provide a simple method of accomplishing this goal, as illustrated in Figure 10-2. [5] An important aspect of VPN technologies, including VPLS, is the ability of network devices to automatically signal to other devices about an association with a particular VPN. Autodiscovery requires this information to be distributed to all members of a VPN. VPLS is a multipoint mechanism for which BGP is well suited. [1] IKE allows both sides to renegotiate VPNs on the fly so that the encryption keys are constantly changing, making it more difficult for an eavesdropper to compromise the security of the network. [5] ESP is the most widely deployed VPN protocol because it not only performs authentication, but also provides security by encrypting the data. [5] Although renegotiating often provides some security advantage, it can be costly from a performance perspective on the VPN gateways when operating on a large scale. [5]

The IPsec policy defines the proposal and PFS configuration for the VPN. [5] Two types of VPNs can be configured on the SRX–policy-based VPNs and route-based VPNs–and their underlying IPsec functionality is essentially the same in terms of traffic being encrypted. [5] This performs encryption and authentication on the traffic within the VPN, thus protecting the confidentiality of the traffic within the VPN. It also authenticates the data within the VPN, ensuring that it has not been modified and that it originated from the correct source. [5] If this is blocked, IKE negotiation might complete successfully, but VPN traffic will not be able to communicate when using NAT-T. [5] If I’m using a L2TP for my VPN and it doesn’t allow me to remotely access some of my Server service for instance call server. [3] VPN services are critical conduits through which data can be transported safely and securely. [3] When selecting the VPN encryption algorithm, the important things to remember are the sensitivity of the data within the VPN, the amount of data sent over the VPN in terms of throughput, and whether the algorithm that is used will be accelerated by hardware. [5] The authentication parameter defines what authentication algorithm is used to ensure that data have been received from the correct VPN peer and that they haven?t been modified. [5] The first decision you should make when determining how to deploy your VPNs is whether IKE will be used to negotiate the VPN keys or whether to use manual keys. [5] The SRX offers detailed breakdowns of the debugging of VPN establishment, even down to the individual IPsec messages that are sent and received by the SRX. Let?s cover the individual troubleshooting steps that you can use to help troubleshoot a VPN issue. [5] The Dynamic VPN client can only use IPsec to create a secure connection to the SRX. SSL support may come at a later point in time. [5]

VPN monitoring is not a standard IKE component, but rather relies on sending peers from the gateway through the IPsec tunnel to determine if it is up. [5] Anti-Replay protection can be enabled independently on each side of the VPN. Because the IPsec messages always contain the sequence number, the option for Anti-Replay is essentially whether or not the VPN gateway monitors the connection to determine the existence of a replayed packet. [5]

End-node devices in the remote location do not need VPN clients because the gateway handles the connection. [3] Dynamic VPN is a feature that is specific to branch SRX Series devices that allows client systems to create remote access VPNs that are terminated on the branch SRX Series gateways. [5]

If the VPN is expected to have large periods of inactivity during which the session and translation might time out, NAT keepalives should be enabled to generate “artificial” traffic to keep the session active on the NAT device. [5] An SRX VPN monitoring option, called Optimized, sends only the ICMP traffic through the tunnel when there is an absence of user traffic. [5] Make sure the policy is configured to tunnel the traffic to the correct VPN. [5] This protocol does not encrypt the traffic within the VPN, but simply authenticates the traffic to ensure that it came from the correct source and has not been modified. [5] DPD is primarily used with VPNs where dynamic routing is not used (e.g., OSPF), because dynamic routing protocols can both detect a failure and default over to another path without the need for DPD. [5] Diffie-Hellman groups refer to the size of the key length used for negotiating the VPN. There are several different groups, not all of which are supported by all vendors. [5] A few properties are defined in the IPsec policy, including which proposals are to be used, as well as whether PFS is to be used on the VPN. [5] This chapter details the technologies behind both site-to-site and remote access VPNs and how these technologies are implemented on the SRX. There has also been a great deal of development when it comes to new IPsec features since Junos Security, so we examine some of these new features and how they can improve the functionality that the SRX has to offer when it comes to IPsec. [5] Branch SRX devices support both the Dynamic VPN and the Pulse client, but they only support termination via IPsec today for performance reasons. [5] Starting in version 10.2, the branch SRX Series devices support a VPN technology called Group VPN (also known by the Cisco implementation GETVPN), based on RFC 3547. [5] VPNs not only secure communication between two devices, but they also create a virtual channel that data can traverse. [5]

The important thing to remember as part of the Phase 1 configuration is that Phase 1 is not actually used to encrypt the data within the VPN, but rather to establish the secure channel to negotiate the Phase 2 keys that will be used to establish the IPsec VPN. [5] IPsec VPNs come in many different flavors and support a multitude of configuration options to adapt to the needs of various networks while securing the data that travel in the VPN. This adaptive variation, and the fact that IPsec VPNs are popularly deployed, demand that we take a little time to demystify these options and provide you with some insight into how the different features can be used. [5] Proxy IDs can be manually defined in the Phase 2 IPsec VPN configuration, or they can be derived from the respective policies that are used for the VPN in the case of policy-based VPNs. [5]

Note that even when point-to-multipoint is used, each VPN can still be segmented by security policies, as intrazone blocking is hardcoded into each zone. [5] It is important to note that the names of the proposals, policies, and VPNs do not have to match those of the Phase 1 policies used, as they will be referenced accordingly, but name matching is often done for simplicity of management. [5] For instance, if three different VPNs negotiate the proxy IDs as Local: 0.0.0.0/0, Remote 0.0.0.0/0, and Service Any, that is fine; however, the same VPN can only have this once. [5] VPN technology was developed as a way to allow remote users and branch offices to securely access corporate applications and other resources. [3] At the time of writing this book, the automatic spoke-to-spoke functionality is still in development, but you can look at deploying such VPNs leveraging Junos Space Security Design to establish the remote VPNs. [5] The disadvantage of preshared key VPNs is that they don?t scale easily without compromising security (by using the same key). [5] Using DPD, a gateway can perform some alternative action such as defaulting to another VPN whenever a failure is detected. [5] Branch VPN gateways should use 198.18.5.254 as the primary VPN connection and 198.18.4.254 as the backup. [5] This is advantageous when multiple gateways use the same policy, proposals, or both, and allows for template-like functionality for VPNs. [5] Responder must accept the proposal and provide the other VPN gateway with a proposal of the encryption and authentication algorithm. [5] If the payload is a labeled packet then the packet is forwarded based on the virtual circuit (VC) label or the VPN label for L2VPN and L3VPN respectively. [1] Remote access VPNs are limited to IKEv1 and don?t support bidirectional traffic today. [5] Remote access VPNs are created by running software on the end systems that will establish a VPN to the central site VPN gateway such as an SRX, as shown in Figure 10-5. [5] In the case of preshared keys, the preshared keys must match on both VPN gateways for the VPN to complete Phase 1. [5] This references the IKE VPN gateway object configured in Phase 1. [5] The show security ike security-associations command shows any VPNs that have passed Phase 1 and have an active IKE security association for Phase 1. [5]

IPsec can establish a VPN in one of two ways: via the Internet Key Exchange protocol or via manual key exchange. [5] The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is a technology for creating VPNs, developed jointly by Microsoft, U.S. Robotics and several remote access vendor companies, known collectively as the PPTP Forum. [4] In remote access VPNs with NAT-T, the packet is encapsulated yet again in a UDP packet. [5] It?s recommended that you enable NAT-T whenever remote access VPNs are deployed. [5]

Route-based VPNs use a virtual interface known as a secure tunnel interface (st0 interface) in which all traffic routed into the interface will be sent into a VPN. The traffic is directed into the interface just like any other traffic decision through the use of routing, hence the term route-based VPN. [5] With route-based VPNs, the appropriate routing must be configured to route the traffic into the correct tunnel interface. [5]

Route-based VPNs are more powerful, with the ability to not only control traffic, but also interact with dynamic routing protocols, provide automatic failover, and integrate more generally into the network architecture. [5]

This AWS architecture diagram describes the configuration of security groups in Amazon VPC against reflection attacks where malicious attackers use common UDP services to source large volumes of traffic from around the world. [6]

One important point to consider is that, although the EWS broadly emulates an Ethernet Layer 1 connection, the service is provided across a shared infrastructure, and therefore it is unlikely that the full interface bandwidth will be, or needs to be, available at all times. [2] Ethernet Ring Protection (ERP) protocol, defined in ITU-T G.8032, provides protection for Ethernet traffic in a ring topology, while ensuring that there are no loops within the ring at the Ethernet layer. [1]

EVPN defines a new BGP Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) used to carry all EVPN routes. [2] The core network backbone, the distribution layer and the access layer are shown here. [6] A simplified and more cost optimized model for the L3 networks is enabled by moving the TDM complexity into the access layer. [2] This feature enables an interworking layer in the access network(s) to terminate all non-Ethernet functionality and translate these connections to a Ethernet centric service which can be terminated on the Layer 3 edge routers. [2] Configured at Layer 3, IGMP provides a means for hosts in an IPv4 multicast network to indicate which multicast traffic they are interested in and for routers to control and limit the flow of multicast traffic in the network (at Layer 3). [2]

This includes encryption and authentication for Layer 4 through Layer 7 in ESP mode, or just authentication for AH for Layer 4 through Layer 7 of the original IP packet. [5] A set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer. [4]

The IPsec tunnel is just an abstraction layer on top of the standard flow processing itself. [5]

At S-PE we have 2 PW-HE interfaces (1 for each PW) and each uses a different interface list for tx pin-down (has to match the static config at P routers for rx pin-down). [1] The split-horizon group command is used to designate bridge ports or PWs as members of group 2. [1] Phase 1 should use 3DES-MD5 for the proposal with Diffie-Hellman Group 2. [5] Create a proposal called Dynamic-VPN that uses 3DES-SHA1, preshared keys, Diffie-Hellman Group 2, and a lifetime of four hours, and set a description. [5]

Use a policy-based VPN for this configuration to allow the clients access to the Campus Core networks (10.0.0.0/8). [5] A site-to-site VPN uses a gateway device to connect an entire network in one location to a network in another — usually a small branch connecting to a data center. [3] There are two high-level uses for IPsec VPNs: to secure data between two or more computer networks and to secure data between a remote user and a computer network. [5] Phase 2 primarily deals with securing the data traffic located within the IPsec VPN tunnel. [5] Fragmentation might be required on VPN traffic because of the overhead associated with IPsec VPNs (either ESP/AH overhead or overhead associated with Tunnel mode) and the underlying MTU of the physical data links. [5]

You must enable IKE under the host-inbound-traffic configuration fields before IPsec VPNs are allowed to be established on the SRX. Additionally, if you are using any stateless ACL or security policies for traffic coming from or to the junos-host zone, you need to make sure that IKE and ESP/AH are permitted, otherwise negotiations will fail. [5] In a point-to-point VPN configuration, the st0 interface can function similarly to a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) interface in that it doesn?t have to be numbered (configured with an IP address) because there are only two hosts on the communication channel (the IPsec VPN). [5] The external interface is the interface on which the SRX terminates the IPsec VPN. The interface that the traffic terminates on must match the interface defined for that gateway or Phase 1 negotiations will fail. [5] XAuth is an authentication mechanism that is commonly used for remote client IPsec VPNs, and it takes place between Phase 1 and Phase 2. [5] Phase 2 IKE configuration requires several parameters to be defined for the IPsec VPN to be established. [5] With policy-based VPNs, you can override the proxy IDs that are derived from the policy by defining them (like you would with route-based VPNs) in the Phase 2 configuration. [5] When only a few VPNs are needed, or if the VPNs are simple, it might make sense to use policy-based VPNs because they are easier to set up and have fewer components (from a configuration perspective) than route-based VPNs. [5]

The routing decision causes the traffic to be sent into the VPN. The interesting part of route-based VPNs is that they can be used to leverage advanced features such as use of dynamic routing protocols. [5] When you?re setting up a VPN infrastructure with a large number of remote access tunnels, or when multicast or dynamic routing protocols are used, you should use route-based VPNs. [5]

They are required for route-based VPNs, where the traffic destined to the VPN is routed into the secure tunnel interface. [5] When building site-to-site VPNs, Main mode is the most common and secure way to establish the VPN because it provides additional security during the setup phase of the VPN tunnel and requires that six messages be exchanged during the negotiation. [5] When using policy-based VPNs, the action of “Tunnel” is used, which implies that the traffic is permitted along with defining the VPN to be used in that policy. [5] On top of configuring the external interface on which the IPsec VPN is terminated, you must also make sure that IKE traffic is allowed on the interface or zone on the SRX; otherwise, the SRX will drop the traffic before the IKE daemon can process it. [5] One liability of IPsec VPNs is that an attacker can capture valid packets and replay them into the network to try to confuse the VPN gateway or remote host. [5] IPsec VPNs have become a central component of modern computer networks for securing the data between different sites and remote users. [5]

Site-to-site VPNs are more common over the Internet than across private networks; however, many organizations are encrypting data between sites on private networks to secure the communication. [5]

Network Time Protocol is not a strict requirement for IPsec VPNs, but there is good cause for enabling it. [5] IPsec VPNs have been a core tenet of network security and stateful firewalls for well over a decade. [5]

IPsec VPNs can use two different modes when negotiating the IKE in Phase 1. [5] IPsec VPNs use underlying Layer 3 encryption to establish secure VPNs between a host and VPN gateway. [5] Standard Ethernet uses an MTU of 1,500 bytes of Layer 3 (including the IP header, Layer 4 header, and data), along with the 14-byte Ethernet header, for a total of 1,514 bytes. [5] ESP encapsulates, encrypts, and authenticates the original Layer 3 through Layer 7 IP traffic, whereas AH only encapsulates and authenticates the original Layer 3 through Layer 7 IP traffic. [5]

RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-l2vpn-xc-p2p)# neighbor 10.1.1.2 pw-id 2 RP/0/RSP0/CPU0:router(config-l2vpn-xc-p2p-pw)# Configures the pseudowire segment for the cross-connect. [2] Cisco IOS XR software supports LSP ping for point-to-point single-segment pseudowires that are signalled using LDP FEC129 AII-type 2 applicable to VPWS or signalled using LDP FEC129 AII-type 1 applicable to VPLS. [1]

Phase 2 should use AES128-SHA1 with ESP Tunnel mode for the proposal. [5] On the SRX, if you are going to another SRX or ScreenOS device and you are using static routing, the SRX can automatically exchange the next-hop tunnel information with the peer as part of the optional vendor attribute exchanges in Phase 2 (also known as auto NHTB). [5]

IKEv1 Phase 1 is used to create a secure channel to negotiate the Phase 2 encryption keys that will be used to secure the traffic. [5] This means Phase 2 times out before the Phase 1 key lifetime, which is an ideal event because only the keys in Phase 2 are used to encrypt the actual data, whereas the Phase 1 keys are only used to create a secure channel to negotiate the Phase 2 keys. [5] If PFS is to be used, it is configured in the IPsec policy, and actually takes effect after Phase 1 but before Phase 2 is negotiated. [5] IPsec does not have any official default timers for IPsec key negotiation but uses default key lifetimes (if not explicitly defined) of 86,400 seconds for Phase 1 and 3,600 seconds for Phase 2. [5] There is not technically Phase 1 and Phase 2 of IKEv2 like there is for IKEv1, but rather there are four exchanges (in a request/response format) that occur to negotiate an IPsec tunnel with IKEv2. [5] The SRX supports up to four Phase 1 and four Phase 2 IPsec proposals per gateway. [5]

To help ease configuration, the SRX has predefined proposal sets for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 IKE negotiations. [5] IKEv1 is split into two different phases, with Phase 1 operating in Main or Aggressive mode, and Phase 2 supporting Quick mode. [5] At this point, both parties have established a secure channel for negotiating the IPsec VPN in Phase 2 and Phase 1 is now complete. [5] The encryption algorithm defines which encryption algorithm is used to encrypt the data within the IPsec VPN. This is only applicable when using ESP, as AH does not encrypt the actual content of the VPN. [5] The gateway identifies the remote peer the IPsec VPN peers with and defines the appropriate parameters for that IPsec VPN. As we discussed earlier in this chapter, there are two types of gateways: those with static IP addresses and those with dynamic IP addresses (including remote clients). [5] NAT keepalives (also known as session keepalives ) might be required when the remote client or gateway is behind a device performing NAT. The NAT device maintains a table that maps the translations of each session (including that of the IPsec VPN session). [5] You should always use NTP when managing the SRX, but this is particularly true for devices running IPsec VPNs, the high-end SRX platforms, and HA clusters. [5] At the time of writing this book, the first major phase of IPv6 support for IPsec is in beta testing (well, technically, IPv6 IPsec support does already exist on the branch SRX for policy-based VPNs, but it?s a very narrow use case). [5] Policy-based VPNs utilize the power of a firewall security policy to define what traffic should be passed through a VPN. Policy-based VPNs allow traffic to be directed to a VPN on a policy-by-policy basis, including the ability to match traffic based on the source IP, destination IP, application, and respective to- and from-zones. [5] Although route-based VPNs do not require a policy with the Tunnel action, security policies to allow the traffic are still required. [5] Route-based VPNs still have a secure policy applied to them; however, the security policy does not use the action of Tunnel, but rather the action of Permit. [5] This information includes the proxy IDs, the IPsec policy, the tunnel binding (if route-based VPNs are used), and other properties of the VPN tunnel including replay detection, fragmentation, and VPN monitoring. [5] There are no compatibility issues with running a policy-based VPN to a route-based VPN. There is one exception: when running dynamic routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP), OSPF, IS-IS, or PIM on the VPN, only route-based VPNs can be used. [5] Two different VPN protocols can be used for IPsec VPNs, regardless of what IKE parameters are used to establish the VPN. The two protocols are ESP and AH. [5]

You can always use private IP addressing within the IPsec VPN because, as the name implies, it is private. [5] Here we cover the aspects of configuring both static and dynamic IP gateways and the various properties for IPsec VPN gateways. [5] The underlying technologies of site-to-site and remote access IPsec VPNs are essentially the same; the main difference is that a site-to-site VPN is typically terminated between two VPN gateways, such as two SRX platforms. [5]

If using IKEv1, Main mode is a better choice when you have an established identity for the peer such as a site-to-site VPN. Although there are six messages rather than three, it keeps the identity information in the clear. [5] When just using simple site-to-site VPNs, or VPNs between other organizations, preshared keys are easier to use. [5] Most site-to-site VPNs connecting over the internet use IPsec. [3] This section discusses the two main types of VPNs: a site-to-site VPN (with multiple remote sites) and a VPN that connects a remote IPsec client. [5]

Policy-based VPNs are primarily used for simple site-to-site VPNs and for remote access VPNs. [5] Additional policy processing such as application services (IPS, URL filtering, antivirus, logging, etc.) can be used in policy-based VPNs. [5] When using policy-based VPNs, the proxy IDs are derived from the firewall policy that is used. [5] Policy-based VPNs are targeted to very simple use cases without complex routing and NAT use cases. [5] In general, route-based VPNs are more powerful than policy-based VPNs, so they are generally preferred over policy-based VPNs, but simple implementations can still use policy-based VPNs. [5] It?s typically a best practice to use route-based VPNs on the SRX unless you have a special vendor interoperability scenario or legacy support for dial-up VPNs where you might be better off running policy-based VPNs. [5] If you don?t have an explicit reason to use policy-based VPNs, we suggest that you default to route-based VPNs. [5]

With a route-based VPN, you still need to define the correct security policy to permit the traffic. [5] If route-based VPNs are configured, check whether proper routing and security policies are configured. [5]

The main thing that needs to be configured as part of policy-based VPNs is the tunnel action of the appropriate security policy rule. [5] IPsec VPNs also are considered to have the strongest security of any kind of remote access. [5] Site-to-site VPNs commonly connect sites together, and another form of IPsec VPN allows a remote user to connect to a true site for remote access. [5] If so, NAT-T must be enabled (primarily for remote access VPNs and not site-to-site VPNs) because the ESP/AH packets will be modified, which will invalidate the hash for integrity checking. [5] Policy-based VPNs are common when configuring simple site-to-site VPNs or remote access VPNs, especially when interoperating with VPN products from other vendors. [5]

This can be a DN, an FQDN, an IP address, or a UFQDN. Typically, for site-to-site VPNs, the FQDN or hostname is used to define the local identity and the DN is used for certificate-based authentication. [5] When using site-to-site VPNs, the most common type of IKE identity is the IP address, assuming that the host has a static IP address. [5]

The basic or flat VPLS architecture allows for the end-to-end connection between the provider edge (PE) routers to provide multipoint ethernet services. [1] Currently, the time-division multiplexing (TDM) based services terminate on the Layer 3 edge routers directly. [2] Encapsulation of L2 protocol data units (PDU) into Layer 3 (L3) packets. [2] Layer 3 QinQ VLANs: Used as a Layer 3 termination point, both VLANs are removed at the ingress provider edge and added back at the remote provider edge as the frame is forwarded. [2]

The Phase 2 keys are the keys that are used to negotiate the user traffic. [5] Remember that Diffie-Hellman is used to negotiate the secure channel to negotiate the Phase 2 keys, but does not actually encrypt the data itself. [5]

Create a policy called Dynamic-VPN-Policy that uses the Dynamic-VPN Phase 2 proposal with PDF Diffie-Hellman Group 2. [5] Phase 1 is always negotiated as a period of time, but Phase 2 can be either a period of time or a certain amount of data that is transmitted in kilobytes. [5] This command is important because if IKE fails to complete Phase 1, it can?t proceed to Phase 2. (An exception is that if the IKE Phase 1 lifetime expires before the Phase 2 lifetime expires, there might not be a listing for the IKE security association, although there will be one for Phase 2. [5] When the Phase 2 security association expires, the Phase 1 IKE security association will need to be renegotiated first.) [5]

A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. [9] Network Switch : Its Different Layers,Advantages and Disadvantages 2. 2) a router operates at L3; L3 is the ‘Network Layer’ and this layer uses Network addresses for communicating with hosts. 2 #2 and #3 and comparing those photos to the graphics used in the Cisco switch design model shown in 1. [9] The network switch commonly refers to a multi-port network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. [9] Unlike Layer- 2 switching, which uses the MAC address for exchanging data, a Layer -3 switch uses the IP address to represent the destination of a data packet. [9] Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. [9] A LAN switch operates at the data link layer (Layer 2), as such it can support all types of packet protocols. [9] This model provides an abstracted view of VPN service configuration components at different layer. [14]

Network Layer (Layer 3) (Page 1 of 2) The third-lowest layer of the OSI Reference Model is the network layer. [9] Data Link Layer (Layer 2) (Page 1 of 2) The second-lowest layer (layer 2) in the OSI Reference Model stack is the data link layer, often abbreviated “DLL” (though that abbreviation has other meanings as well in the computer world). [9] The Catalyst 6500 is not the only Layer 3/Layer 2 switching device, but it has the most features and highest switching performance on the market today. [9] NSGs are simple, stateful packet inspection devices that use the 5-tuple (the source IP, source port, destination IP, destination port, and layer 4 protocol) approach to create allow/deny rules for network traffic. [15] Switch can be termed as a network bridge with multiple ports which helps to process and route packets at data link layer of the OSI reference model. [9] What is a Network Hub? Network hubs — also called repeaters — are even less advanced that switches; while a hub broadcasts the same data to all its ports, a network switch forwards data only to those A user on PC1 is unable to establish a terminal connection to router R1. layer that manages most of the physical resources on the ESX Server host. [9] A Layer-2 switch will forward both A multilayer switch is a network device that has the ability to operate at higher layers of the OSI reference model, unlike the Data Link Layer (DLL) traditionally used by switches. [9] The optimized operation Unfortunately this means if one layer is hacked, communications are compromised without the other layers being aware of the problem Security is only as strong as your weakest link What is a Switch? In networks the switch is the device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. [9]

Introduction BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (IP VPNs) have been widely deployed to provide network based Layer 3 VPNs solutions. [14] Offering true zero-touch provisioning, Meraki switches can be pre-staged and configured entirely from a LAYER 1 – Layer 1 has 2 sub layers (PLCP) Physical Layer Convergence Procedure and (PMD) Physical Medium Dependent. [9] From the ASA command line, one can quickly determine if the firewall is Layer-2 Transparent or Layer-3, routed, with the command’show firewall’: We’ll create a new layer named “Layer 2. [9] Figure 2 illustrates the combined Layer 2/Layer 3 switching function-ality. [9]

In combination with the Nokia Network Services Platform (NSP), the 7750 SR-s can be deployed to introduce scalable and integrated SDN control across IP, MPLS, Ethernet and optical transpor t layers. [16] NSGs and user-defined routing can provide a certain measure of network security at the network and transport layers of the OSI model. [15] A perimeter network (also known as a DMZ) is a physical or logical network segment that provides an additional layer of security between your assets and the internet. [15] Cisco Meraki access and aggregation layer switches provide the backbone for networks of every size, combining secure, scalable, robust performance with an elegant, intuitive management experience. [9] This layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment. [9] Some switches can also process data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality. [9] If the data link layer is the one that basically defines the boundaries of what is considered a network, the network layer is the one that defines how internetworks (interconnected networks) function. [9] The first tag function and as such, the term Layer 3 switching is used to One of the fundamental capabilities of routers and Layer 3 Buying a Layer 3 switch without the Understanding Ethernet Switches and Routers One layer above the physical layer is the data link layer above that of a switch at the Network layer. [9] A Layer 3 switch is a specialized hardware device used in network routing. [9]

Layer two device only cares about frames with mac addresses and its not aware of IP addresses, but also operate on L1, some switches also works on L3 DH-PFS4226-24ET-360 is a dedicated PoE switch designed especially for the security industry. [9] One of the greatest benefits of a Layer 4 switch is that this intelligent decision making capability is implemented by means of high speed hardware, thus allowing todays high capacity networks to function very efficiently. [9] Dual layer PCB is more durable and reliable than single sided PCB. The source MAC address within a frame is used by the switch to associate a port with that MAC address. [9] The GS-5220-8UP2T2X can be programmed for advanced switch management function, such as dynamic port link aggregation, Q-in-Q VLAN, Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP), Layer 2/4 QoS, bandwidth control and IGMP/MLD snooping. [9] In general, a Layer-3 switch (routing switch) is primarily a switch (a Layer-2 device) that has been enhanced or taught some routing (Layer 3) capabilities. [9]

MAC-based forwarding is useful when you use VPN devices because the appliance ensures that all traffic flowing through a particular VPN passes through the same VPN device. [10] After the point-to-site connection is established, the user can use RDP or SSH to connect to any VMs located on the Azure virtual network that the user connected to via point-to-site VPN. This assumes that the user is authorized to reach those VMs. [15] All communications to your corporate network go through the VPN tunnel. [15] <The source (a transmitting device such as router, firewall, or VPN device) of the inbound connection. [10]

A router is a Layer 3 (network) device that communicates with other routers with the use of packets, which in turn are encapsulated inside frames. [9] Futher, since the Layer 3 switch can route between VLANs, you can use a basic router that doesn’t support VLANs. all switch having the same function some of the configuration is different. 5 255. [9]

What should be done to remedy the problem; Refer to the exhibit. 1) a switch operates at L2; L2 is the ‘Data Link Layer’ and this layer uses MAC addresses for communicating with hosts. [9] The combined Layer 2/Layer 3 switch replaces the traditional router also. [9]

I am trying to assign an IP address to Interface g0/0 on a Cisco 892FSP. However, it keeps telling me that a layer two interface cannot be assigned an IP address. [11] It is a LAN device that can also be called a multiport bridge. 1 displays the three layers of the Cisco hierarchical model. [9] As such, they are widely referred to as data link layer devices. [9]

TESTED TO POWER ON AND FUNCTION NORMALLY. Beacon probing function is a software solution available on virtual switches for detecting link failures upstream from the access layer physical switch to the aggregation/core switches. [9] When you stack the 3750’s in the access layer, they become “one switch”, same as the core switch. [9]

Figure 2: a basic network with a hub and a switch A commonly used solution today is a switch. [9] For Layer 3 high availability you can rely on technologies like HSRP, VRRP, GLBP, etc. Start studying CCNA 2 chapter 1. [9] In the Configure Modes dialog box, to enable Layer 3 mode, select the Layer 3 Mode (IP Forwarding) check box. [10] Therefore, the switch will ignore the VTP message. its mean the gateway and routing must be configure on layer 3 device. [9] It is perfectly possible — and not terribly uncommon — to run two separate layer 3 (i. vlan interface with an ip address and ip routing enabled on the switch is layer 3 and does not pass broadcasts? Yes, that is correct. 3x Flow Control function. [9] A Layer 3 switch can typically route faster than a router, improving network performance. [9] Fig. A Layer 3 switch is a switch that also has the routing functionality of a router but no WAN ports. [9]

On the Distribution Switch, three layer 3 interfaces will be required. [9]

Layer 3 is the Network Layer and works with IP addressing and Routing? A number of layer management protocols, a function defined in the Management Annex, ISO 7498/4, belong to the network layer. [9] As we know function of each layer is to provide services to above layer, so DLL provide various services to Layer 3: Network Layer. [9] If you are using the Portal Support for Guest Network, the layer 3 activity such as DHCP serving is done on this device. he worked as a fitting or concentrator in the network. [9] There’s Layer 3 – which tends to keep things inside one network domain – e. [9]

You need some kind of layer 3 device such a router or layer 3 switch. [9] After reading this tip, you?ll know the difference between a switch, a router, and a Layer 3 switch. n. [9] The Layer 3 default gateway resides on the Aggregation switch with an IP address of 192. its function is to primarily prepare packets for transmission over the physical media. [9] With Layer 3 mode enabled (which is the default), the appliance performs route table lookups and forwards all packets that are not destined for any appliance-owned IP address. [10] If you disable Layer 3 mode, the appliance drops these packets. [10]

Users on your on-premises network connect by using the RDP or SSH protocol over the site-to-site VPN connection. [15] You can use a site-to-site VPN to connect your on-premises network to an Azure virtual network. [15]

This is a firewall ruleset that can be used in iptables which blocks all traffic on an interface (in this case eth0), except IPsec and the VPN concentrator ports. -November 18, 2012 Cisco today announced its intent to acquire privately held Meraki Inc. Cisco Meraki support engineers use real time web-based tools to securely and quickly diagnose and troubleshoot your network, providing the speed and service of an on-site visit without the hassle. [17] Since this Meraki MX64 is 100% cloud managed, installation and remote management is simple, it has a comprehensive suite of network services, eliminating the need for multiple appliances. all ports Wireless ? Indoor and outdoor access point models ? SD-WAN features for smart use of dual VPN ? Includes routing, application aware firewall The Domain admin is the authentication user you?ll need to create to allow the Meraki to verify that the user is allowed. [17] Enterprises need to consider how they can move away from a traditional perimeter security model (e.g. using VPNs for remote employees, contractors, vendors, and developers to access applications) and institute a zero trust security model that removes any level of inherited trust at all layers within the network. [18] Cisco Meraki’s layer 7 “next generation” firewall, included in MX security appliances and every wireless AP, gives administrators complete control over the users, content, and applications on their network. 065 seconds If you suspect that its a firewall or VPN concentrator you can use ike-scan to help test your theory. 1, Mac OS X, Kindle Fire and Linux devices. [17]

Figure 2: Passthrough or one-armed VPN concentrator mode selector in the Meraki dashboard. [17] Dual uplink ports 2 uplink support on all MX models for load balancing and redundancy LTE failover USB modem support in all models with automatic failover Site to site VPN Cloud orchestrated VPN (Meraki Auto VPN) with load balancing and self-healing capabilities Cisco Meraki Port Forwarding Firewall Part 03 rule Cisco Meraki Site to Site VPN Part 01 Cisco Meraki Site to Site VPN Part 02 Cisco Meraki Site to Site VPN Part 03. [17] Meraki MX Perimeter Firewall + ASAv VPN Concentrator- In my above videos, I recommend leveraging a separate firewall for VPN client services. 11ac Wave 2 wireless. [17]

Connect the WAN port of the VPN Concentrator to the DMZ network (or port) of the firewall as shown in Figure 1-6. all ports Wireless ? Indoor and outdoor access point models ? SD-WAN features for smart use of dual VPN ? Includes routing, application aware firewall setssidvlanid. [17] Packed with next generation firewall and performance features like traffic shaping, VPN and WAN optimization, MX100 is ideal for reducing overall IT cost while enhancing network reliability. the meraki, then will terminate the VPN traffic to the LAN port (it likely routes through itself internally to the wan port). [17] VPN-enabled Firewall — This is a conventional firewall protecting traffic between networks, but with the added feature of managing traffic using protocols specific to VPNs. [17] A “VPN Concentrator” is essentially an advanced router that is setup to handle multiple secure connections into the given network, or in other words, a VPN Concentrator is a device that handles multiple VPN tunnels remotely. [17] The IGNIS Firewall and VPN Concentrator is a built-in firewall that protects company, application and router networks and can also be used as a VPN concentrator for routers in the field. [17] For PPTP VPN connections, you need to open TCP port 1723 (for PPTP tunnel maintenance traffic). 11a/n radio, 3×3 810979011309 Meraki Wireless Cloud Managed Distributed Site Security Appliance. meraki. for more info, www. com to the firewall rules, but that’s not Now your L2TP VPN connection is created and all traffic will be encrypted. [17] What we are doing is, creating policy on VPN concentrator to exclude Skype for Business/Lync external server IP addresses traffic from VPN tunnel, mean deny Mainly need easy port forwarding for our camera system, and VPN setup. g. [17] Have you tried setting up VPN site to site? Other options are to set up firewall rules to allow ALL traffic from the other site (both ends) ONLY, and specifically the IAX port 4569 Specify the source IP so you don?t open up the whole world to these ports. 1 on the VLAN, and connect a second server over the VLAN at 10. [17] The VPN concentrator will reach out to the remote sites using this port, creating a stateful flow mapping in the upstream firewall that will also allow traffic initiated from the remote side through to the VPN concentrator without the need for a separate inbound firewall rule. [17] My Remote Office is using ASA 5505 and I want to route all traffic over VPN tunnel towards Meraki. [17]

Provide remote and mobile users with native VPN access to allowed network resources behind your TZ firewall. [17] You will need to have access as organization administrator to the particular Network in the Meraki dashboard. the fix is that within the meraki vpn setup, you need to actually list the Azure “supernet”, or address space. [17] A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, such as the Internet, and enables a computer to send and receive data as if it were directly connected to the private network. [19] Per Meraki I have enabled Keep Alive on the SonicWALL side which results in the VPN coming up right away but no traffic flows if it originates on the network behind the SonicWALL. Hi Jim- to each his own. [17] Other features include vMotion, Bulk Migration, High Throughput Network Extension, WAN optimization, Traffic Engineering, Load Balancing, Automated VPN with Strong encryption and disaster recovery. [20] Mac – smb://Classes.arch.virginia.edu/CLASSES (use Mac OS “Go/Connect to Server” utility) When logging into the CLASSES server by means of the Windows OS “Start Run” option, type eservices\ followed by your UVa computing ID (e.g., eservices\ejm9k ) similar to instructions for accessing the university’s computer network via UVA’s VPN system. [21] If you plan to use this behind an existing Firewall or gateway device, you can use the VPN concentrator mode, but NAT mode also works. [17] A VPN device is required to configure a Site-to-Site (S2S) cross-premises VPN connection using a VPN gateway. [17]

VPN Client — This is software running on a dedicated device that acts as the tunnel interface for multiple connections. [17] If you have just joined, please introduce yourself to the group. the MX Security Appliances automatically configure VPN parameters needed to establish and maintain VPN sessions. [17]

RE: VPN Phone w/Cisco Meraki Cisco Meraki MX Firewalls were definitely more expensive that the Juniper SRX models we had previously but the easy of use, configuration, consistency and insight the Meraki dashboard provides made it an easy choice to use the better produce, Meraki. [17]

Scenario : Use a dedicated WAN link to provide functionality similar to the site-to-site VPN. Option : Use ExpressRoute. [15] VPNs provide security by the use of tunneling protocols and through security procedures such as authentication and encryption. [19] VPNs provide security by the use of _____ and through security procedures such as _____ and _____. [19]

VPN concentrator technology enables the USG2200-VPN to handle more than 3,000 VPN tunnels to provide secure access to company resources between branch offices, partner offices, telecommuters, BYOD environments, and mobile employees. [17] My test will be to open up an RDP session from my home lab RRAS VM to my Azure VM. Hi, I am trying to set up the Cisco Meraki Virtual VPN concentrator to allow my MR12 access point to VPN into the private network. 4. [17] Thanks in advance for any replies. access to Meraki wireless, wired, and VPN networks. [17] It is time to stop trusting your endpoints implicitly and reduce the complexity and risk associated with traditional VPN access and flat networks. [18] In many deployment scenarios, an external firewall is situated between Arubadevices. configuring port forwarding on cisco MX80 meraki firewall appliance. having to VPN to each network, connect to the firewall, and So, my Meraki trial hardware will be here Monday. [17] Note: Unlike Meraki wireless networks, VPN users cannot be assigned a group policy during authentication at the time of this writing. 11b/g/n or 802. [17] A virtual private network (VPN) _____, and enables a computer to _____. [19]

Configure the number of ports available for each VPN protocol. [19] I was wondering if anyone has a config for the firewall (what ports need opened) when using IP Sec and IKE private key exchange when the VPN concentrator is behind the firewall. [17]

At this point you will want to put the “Domain Admin” (not an actual domain admin! but the VPN authentication user) into a separate OU to wall off these VPN users., shoretel vpn concentrator firewall ports Best VPN Fast? how to shoretel vpn concentrator firewall ports for It?s been a glorious night for Utah Jazz fans. 11) are filtered Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 13122. [17] The Cisco Meraki Z1 is an enterprise class firewall / VPN gateway with five Gigabit Ethernet ports and a dual-radio 802. [17] The Meraki MX84 Cloud Managed Security Firewall Appliance has a comprehensive suite of network services, eliminating the need for multiple appliances. 2 and Meraki MX60. [17]

SEC530.2: Network Security Architecture continues hardening the infrastructure and moves on to layer three: routing. [22] The Remote Desktop Gateway component, also known as RD Gateway, tunnels Remote Desktop Protocol sessions through an HTTPS connection, thus encapsulating the session with Transport Layer Security (TLS). [19]

This first section of the course describes hardening systems and networks at every layer, from layer one (physical) to layer seven (applications and data). [22] Traditional perimeters are modeled on the principle of least privilege at each layer, where the inner layers of the network (host, application, data) inherit trust from the outer layers (physical and DMZ perimeter). [18]

The Cisco Catalyst 3850 Series is the next generation of enterprise-class stackable Ethernet and Multi-gigabit Ethernet access and aggregation layer switches that provide full convergence between wired and wireless on a single platform. [13]

By leveraging the power of Meraki?s Enterprise Cloud Controller Dashboard,the MX600 provides centralized visibility,control and security to your entire To continue to make it possible to setup the VPN connection between the Meraki device and the Cisco IOS router., a leader in cloud networking. [17] A VPN concentrator is a type of networking device that provides secure creation of VPN connections and delivery of messages between VPN nodes. [17]

It is a type of router device, built specifically for creating and managing VPN communication infrastructures. [17] Overview: The Cisco Meraki Z-Series teleworker gateway is an enterprise class firewall, VPN gateway and router. [17] EAA can be deployed alongside of VPNs for app-specific access and control, allowing organizations to gradually transition to a perimeter-less environment, and phase applications away from requiring VPN access. [18] The Meraki MX Security Appliance has the important task of managing the local LAN security as well as controlling access to the Internet or VPN. I have downloaded the mib file from Meraki and imported it to PRTG. TZ firewalls support secure SSL VPN connections for Apple iOS, Google Android, Windows 8. [17] The Meraki MX450 is a rack-mount Large-Branch Networking and Security appliance with VPN Concentrator functionality. showing here combined solution to using VPN Concentrator and firewall. [17] Anyone using a ASA behind a meraki mx device to act as a vpn concentrator. [17]

The VPN concentrator is located in a remote data centre, where it is behind a pfSense firewall. [17] DATASHEET Meraki Teleworker VPN Secure Remote Access Secure Remote Access Meraki Teleworker VPN makes it easy to extend the corporate LAN to remote sites, without requiring all clients and devices to have client VPN software. [17] Hi I want to monitor our Meraki network using PRTG. The SRXN3205 Wireless-N VPN Firewall takes care of all your security needs, with support of up to 5 SSL VPN tunnels and 5 IPsec VPN tunnels simultaneously, hacker protection via SPI firewall, DoS how to windows 2018 vpn firewall ports for Spanish law states that rape must include some element of coercion — violence or intimidation — to be charged as such. [17] When a VPN connection is dialing, it should use that port right?when it fails then it means that port is blocked right? The firewall also has a Site-to-Site VPN configuration available, but I don’t think that would work in this situation. update_ports. [17] Cisco Meraki and Azure VPN. Wisconsin Gov. Site-to-site VPN. Implementing and Configuring Meraki Technologies is a five-day course that will enable students to effectively use Meraki products to build a comprehensive network. [17]

Cisco ASR 1000 series Aggregation services Routers mixture more than one WAN connections and community offerings, which include encryption and traffic management, and forward them across WAN connections at line speeds from 2.5 to 2 hundred Gbps. [13] For Layer 3 routed traffic between VXLAN VNIs, the traffic will first reach the IP gateway of the source VXLAN VLAN IP subnet that is on the routers in the routing block and will be routed to the destination VXLAN VLAN IP subnet by the gateway router. [13] A separate set of Layer 3 links can be installed for routing between the VXLAN VLAN to non-VXLAN VLANs or an IP network. [13] The Layer 3 links are used to establish VXLAN tunnels with the in-rack VTEP access switches to extend the host VLANs across the Layer 3 network. [13]

This section focuses on using application layer security solutions that an organization already owns with a modern mindset. [22] The encapsulated packets will be forwarded to the destination rack through the underlay Layer 3 network. [13] Figure 14 depicts a VXLAN routing solution by adding a routing block to the Layer 3 pod network. [13] DX-05XXGTX-L3R series are power packed with the complete Layer 3 routing protocol suite including RIP, OSPF, BGP4,. [23]

Host 1 uses its MAC address of A as the source MAC (SMAC) and sends a classical Ethernet frame, which is destined to Host 2 with a destination MAC (DMAC) address of B. On receiving this frame, the ingress RBridge (Nickname 10) does a (VLAN, DMAC) lookup. [13] LAN connections have increased too, with 8 Ethernet ports (up from 4 on the previous model) and the addition of 2 brand new SFP fiber ports. [17]

Stateful firewall Auto VPN? self-configuring site-to-site VPN If you would like to be notified when the”Cisco Meraki MX84 12 Port Cloud Managed Security I am attempting to setup a client VPN through our Cisco Meraki MX80 security appliance/router. [17] If you use the Cisco Meraki MX Firewall to connect to third party firewalls such as Juniper Netscreen?s you will notice that clients who are connected to the Meraki VPN client won?t have access to VPN sites even if you allow them access on the Meraki?s Site-to-Site VPN page. [17]

Lan-to-Lan IPSEC VPN between two Cisco Routers With IPSEC VPNs, businesses can connect together remote office LANs over the Internet w. [13]

The two encryption tunnels protecting a data flow can use either Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) generated by a Virtual Private Network (VPN) Gateway or Media Access Control Security (MACsec) generated by a MACsec Device. [24] VPN Gateways and MACsec Devices are implemented as part of the network infrastructure. [24]

The CSfC Enterprise Gray Implementation Requirements Annex provides cost effective techniques to deploy all three Data-in-Transit CPs at the same time using centralized certificate and Virtual Private Network (VPN) management. [24] There is a wide range of VPN technology available, such as VPLS and VPWS. Based on the use of Ethernet transport, VPLS and VPWS provide high-speed communications. [12]

Due to DWDM is a physical layer architecture, it can support Time Division Multiplex and data formats like Gigabit Ethernet, Fiber Channel with open interfaces over a physical layer. [12] The Data-at-Rest (DAR) Capability Package (CP) Version 4.0 enables customers to implement two independent layers of encryption for the purpose of providing protection for stored information using NSA approved cryptography while the End User Device (EUD) is powered off or in an unauthenticated state. [24]

Using EVPN service and with the help of MPLS core network, users can connect the offices located in different areas via the lay 2 network for sending messages. [12] It includes 24 10/100/1000Base-T Ports and 4 10G SFP+ ports to extend your home or business network at gigabit speeds. Equipped with ARM CPU and BCM53346 chip, the Lay 2 switch has a switching capacity of 128Gbps, which is compliant with the international standard. [12] FS.COM S1130-8T2F 8-port PoE managed switch comes with 8 10/100/1000Base-T RJ45 Ethernet ports, 1 console port, and 2 gigabit SFP slots of which the transmission distance can be up to 120 km. [12]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(24 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (218) 10. IPsec VPN – Juniper SRX Series [Book]

2. (140) What is one function of a layer 2 switch_

3. (49) https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/asr9000/software/asr9k-r6-4/lxvpn/configuration/guide/b-l2vpn-cg-asr9000-64x/b-l2vpn-cg-asr9000-64x_chapter_0101.html

4. (48) Meraki vpn concentrator firewall ports

5. (46) https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/routers/asr9000/software/asr9k-r6-3/lxvpn/configuration/guide/b-l2vpn-cg-asr9000-63x/b-l2vpn-cg-asr9000-63x_chapter_0110.html

6. (28) Networks Baseline

7. (20) What is VPN (virtual private network)? – Definition from WhatIs.com

8. (14) Packet forwarding modes

9. (13) Enterprise Network Archives – Fiber Optic Equipment Solutions | FS.COM

10. (11) VPN – Virtual Private Network | Webopedia Definition

11. (8) Azure Network Security Best Practices | Microsoft Docs

12. (6) Windows Server Administration/Remote Access – Wikiversity

13. (5) AWS Architecture Diagram Examples to Quickly Create AWS Architectures

14. (4) Time to Eliminate Traditional VPNs – The Akamai Blog

15. (4) Capability Packages

16. (3) SANS Institute

17. (2) Newest Questions – Network Engineering Stack Exchange

18. (2) draft-evenwu-opsawg-yang-composed-vpn-00 – YANG Data Model for Composed VPN Service Delivery

19. (2) OpenStack Docs: OpenStack Networking

20. (1) Nokia 7750 SR-s R16 Data Sheet En | Multiprotocol Label Switching | Computer Network

21. (1) VMware Cloud Foundation 3.0 Architecture Poster – Cloud Foundation

22. (1) Assignment 2 – 2D Excersize in Geometrical Modeling

23. (1) Layer 3 Switches – Switches – Products

24. (1) Implementing Cisco MPLS (MPLS) | Sunset Learning Institute