Blockchain Smart Cities

Blockchain Smart Cities
Blockchain for Smart Cities Image link: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Smart_City.jpg
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • To enable efficient IoT ecosystems for smart cities, it?s important to create new data monetization opportunities for IoT sensor network operators able to provide smart city authorities with real-time processed and analyzed environmental data.(More...)
  • Blockchain could revolutionize the way city governments do business, from smart contracts and identification to voting and managing parking demand, according to industry experts on a panel at the Smart Cities Connect conference last week in Kansas City, MO. (More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Nokia is launching a set of services, based on Internet of Things (IoT), data analytics, and blockchain technologies, for economically and environmentally sustainable "smart cities."(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS

To enable efficient IoT ecosystems for smart cities, it?s important to create new data monetization opportunities for IoT sensor network operators able to provide smart city authorities with real-time processed and analyzed environmental data. [1] The most significant news for smart cities in 2018 has been the partnership that IOTA has formed with the city of Taipei. [2]

These populations are perhaps the ones who stand to gain the most from blockchain, the Internet of Things (IoT) and the advent of smart cities -- if done right. [3] Empowered by a high level of blockchain security and other characteristics, smart cities are expected to set a brand new quality of life for the urban population. [4] This isn?t a primer on blockchain, cryptocurrencies, or smart cities; here's a good piece on how and why you might use blockchain in applications. [5] I managed to get both smart cities and blockchain into the title of this piece. [5]

Have you ever heard about smart cities where traffic, public services and document circulation are fully automated? The smart city concept integrates big data and the internet of things (IoT) to optimize the efficiency of urban processes and services and connect to residents. [6] This combination of blockchain technology and precision coding can go a long ways toward providing the heavyweight security required to protect the lightweight IoT devices that will enable smart cities. [7] Alibaba Cloud & Waltonchain signed an agreement on strategic cooperation aimed at using blockchain technology in the field of smart cities. [6]

Mike Cartwright, CTO of Digital Town, a company that bills itself as building the word?s largest smart city network, discussed the company?s view on how blockchain technology can form the building block for smart city services. [5] Blockchain, the underlying technology for cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, has also emerged as a secure ledger platform that will rapidly accelerate the adoption of smart city digital services. [8]

In a brief introduction to the technology at a packed panel discussion near the end of Smart Cities Connect, McRoberts noted blockchain makes financial and other transactions as easy as sending an email, as opposed to now, when it is easier to send $50,000 of diamonds than $50,000 in cash from Kansas City to London. [9] By developing smarter cities and utilizing blockchain as a secure resource, city leaders can provide community members with the tools they need for success. [3] In terms of the number of projects being implemented, including those where blockchain is used by Google, Uber, Amazon, IBM and other corporate giants, Dubai ranks first in the world, thanks to the government-supported Smart City program. [6] Warren Karlenzig, president of Bay Area-based consultancy Common Current, has advised national governments, major global cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Los Angeles and Seoul), and the private sector on smart city partnerships, technology, and go-to market opportunities. [8] Taipei is pioneering a move to the new paradigm of smart cities by using IOTA?s tangle technology to help create a range of new technologies for its residents. [2] Chinese authorities plan to create 1000 smart cities, where technologies and data collected should improve the lives of every resident, Deloitte reports. [6]

Smart cities started in the early 2000?s with broadband and progressed to solution architectures such as LED lighting systems, where now digital services using predictive analytics built on the Internet of Things generating Big Data are becoming prevalent. [8] Smart cities can reduce resource consumption, using IoT devices to optimize the use of electricity and water; reduce traffic congestion and air pollution through smart coordination of traffic lights, parking availability, and public transportation; and harness the power of big data and ubiquitous IoT devices to enhance the efficiency and livability of the urban environment. [7]

In January 2013, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development formally announced the first list of national pilot Smart Cities, referring to this technology as a "sector that should be strengthened and encouraged." [6] Besides being efficient and sustainable, smart cities must create interoperable platforms that produce innovation ecosystems and services capable of predicting and monitoring real-time events--a capability previously reserved for very few. [10] Smart cities will need to retrieve, process, interpret and act upon real-time environmental data in a timely manner to ensure they remain sustainable environments for their citizens. [1]

Providing for smart contracts, i.e. legal arrangements written in the code -- They are stored and replicated on the blockchain system and don?t need human intervention for their execution. [4] We can help operators generate new revenue utilizing their existing network by providing solutions for smart city players, such as city, transport, travel and public safety authorities." [1] Nokia envisions IoT-based, real-time monitoring systems able to provide timely environmental information for smart city management. [1]

Different specialists provide their own definitions but admit that smart cities present a problem with the convergence of urban planning and technological innovation. [4] The future is fast approaching in the form of smart cities. [7] While a new concept in itself, smart cities incorporate existing and developing technologies. [4] One of the examples of smart contract applied to the concept of smart cities is Slock.it. [4]

Blockchain could revolutionize the way city governments do business, from smart contracts and identification to voting and managing parking demand, according to industry experts on a panel at the Smart Cities Connect conference last week in Kansas City, MO. [9] Taipei Taps IOTA Blockchain Tech for Smart City Upgrade You are using an outdated browser. [11]

Urban planner working at an industry advocacy group, working on blockchain and smart cities. [12] TechCrunch reported that blockchain has the unlimited potential to create smart cities and grids. [13] They are laying the foundations (metaphorically speaking) for the backbone blockchain in Asia, where supply chain, smart cities and smart retail all come together via a shared big-data based ecosystem. [12]

Smart cities is one of the fastest growing cross-sectorial arenas of innovation for IOTA. Building on our work and partnerships across mobility, energy or data marketplace, these smart city ecosystems bring it all together. [14] With 43 percent of families struggling for shelter and basic utilities, perhaps the poorer and more vulnerable in the population can gain the most from blockchain technology, the Internet of Things ( IoT ), and eventually the creation of smart cities. [13] In detail i am investigating what blockchain technology can contribute to the development of smart cities, especially in transportation and mobility sector. [12] A combination of blockchain technology and precision coding will enable smart cities to avoid such a fate, Emery says. [15]

An analysis in CoinTelegraph, a cryptocurrency trade magazine, explores how blockchain is being used to advance "Smart Cities," where technology runs systems automatically, like lights sensors that save electricity and infrastructure sensors on roads. [15] By leveraging advances in technology, such as blockchain, and smart urban planning, we can increase the carrying capacity of our cities. [14]

Smart Payments - Facilitate all municipal payments on a blockchain based solution, including: city programs, assistance, welfare, payroll, etc. [14] "Blockchain can help secure smart city data exchanges and provide accountability for multi-service integrations by creating and managing device identities and encryption keys," Andrew Hacker, a cyber security expert in residence at Harrisburg (Pa.) [16] One promising new technology supporting the Smart City Revolution is blockchain and other distributed ledger technologies. [14] Taiwan's capital is partnering with Berlin nonprofit IOTA Foundation for its IoT-driven Tangle technology as well as BiiLabs, a blockchain startup, for its transformation into an app-driven smart city, one that IOTA's co-founder Dominik Schiener says will affect voter fraud. [11] Dubai was one of the first to incorporate blockchain into its smart city design, notably in government for bill paying and passports, and in business creation and transactions. [16] Smart city initiatives involving blockchain include: smart waste management, decreased pollution, improved transportation, increased business productivity, peer-to-peer (P2P) green energy networking, decentralized identity management, and improved government efficiency. [14]

Waltonchain is both a hardware (microchips) and software (blockchain) project offering a wide range of solutions perfect for powering a smart city. [14] Let?s take a look at a few projects supporting the smart city revolution by leveraging blockchain and similar technologies. [14] Another smart city focused on the blockchain is Dubai, which reportedly is preparing to unveil nearly two dozen blockchain apps that are currently in pilot form across various agencies ranging from infrastructure to education, to healthcare. [11]

If we talk about blockchains so there are wide range availability of smart city blockchain and one of the best, reliable, trusted and relevant blockchain 4.0 for smart cities is Pingvalue. [17] Dubai was one of the first cities to announce the use of blockchain for smart transactions. [18]

Its trial run in Fremantle, according to PowerLedger, will involve a large solar and water treatment setup that will demonstrate how blockchain technology could be used to coordinate smart grids in cities. [19] These "smart cities" will be powered by blockchain technology and other distributed ledger technology. [14]

Over 66 percent of cities have implemented or are looking to roll out smart city technology to help them collect, aggregate, organize and analyze real-time data to help residents streamline their lives. [13] Taipei mayor Ko Wen-je recently traveled to Warsaw in a trip whose mission included a focus on smart cities, and this partnership with IOTA is evidence of his commitment to the technology. [11] IOTA partnered with Taiwan to become among the first blockchain-based smart cities. [14] Thought, an approach to analytics using artificial intelligence and machine learning, offers another way to manage smart cities, says Hacker, who is also the company's CEO. Thought "embeds smart logic into every bit of data," according to the company's white paper, so there is no difference between the data and the application. [16] Most smart cities have focused on high-speed data infrastructures, Wi-Fi accessibility and mobility. [16] According to Michael Winterson, MD of Managed Services at Equinix, in an essay in Open Access Government, a trade publication for governments worldwide, smart cities will make life easier by streamlining daily activities and eliminating bureaucracy. [15] The Chinese government has been proactive and plans to create hundreds of smart cities to support urbanization. [14] China plans to create at least 1,000 smart cities which will integrate technologies. [15] Smart Cities Dive Topics covered: energy, green building, transportation, waste solutions, connectivity, policy and more. [9] DigitalTown, Inc. (DGTW) powers Smart Cities to succeed in the Digital Age. [20] When applied to smart cities, Thought makes it possible to have self-healing power grids, instant alerts of cyber breaches, advance earthquake warnings, and instantaneous communications among industries and utilities, to improve quality of life. [16] We?re just beginning to scratch the surface of the effect IOTA can have on making the world of IoT ever-more connected and paving the way for not just smart cities, but a smart world." [11] While Lman remains unsure, these are questions that are pioneering the innovations in the development of smart cities in the future. [13] In terms of smart cities, Waltonchain has announced several projects in both China and Korea, including: smart sanitation, smart resource optimization, maritime port management, and more. [14] You can't build smart cities without the support of the government. [14] Brazil's Rio de Janeiro and Cape Town, South Africa, are among the few smart cities to focus their smart resources on national security. [16]

"IoT devices are expected to reach 50 billion by 2020, with an estimated 50 trillion interactions per day," said Lman Chu, the co-founder of Biilabs, a startup that is looking for an alternative solution for a smart city than the blockchain, "The existing blockchain technology that we have now can?t possibly deal with a transaction volume this large." [13] Alibaba is contributing cloud computing and artificial intelligence while Waltonchain is adding IoT and blockchain technology to support the Smart City Revolution. [14]

Blockchain projects like Waltonchain, IOTA, and Power Ledger are building solutions power the Smart City Revolution. [14]

One of the key highlights will be a panel discussion around the opportunities and challenges in smart city & blockchain which will include some of the brightest minds in both the smart cities and blockchain space. [21] This will be the first conference of its kind in the world championing the sharing economy and empowering smart cities through the utilisation blockchain. [21] The blockchain suits the sharing economy and can help build smart cities because of the trust vested in it. [18] Blockchain has very high relevance when it comes to Smart Cities. [17]

Smart Dubai won last year's prestigious City Project Award for the Dubai Blockchain Strategy, selected from 308 projects representing 58 countries. [22] I appreciate your question regarding the information of smart city blockchain. [17] As we know, lots of peoples do not trust on every smart city blockchain. [17] Using the blockchain technology in IoT Smart City promises a future of greater administrative efficiency, greater transparency, and greater access to public information. [23]

The city is looking to become one of the many blockchain-based smart cities. [18] IOTA is partnering with Taipei, Taiwan to become one of the first smart cities with applications like the TangleID citizen card based on IOTA's Tangle, a distributed ledger technology. [22] This article explains how blockchain-based smart cities can create sharing economies and lists other uses. [18] This feature is also critical for effective management of the large volumes of data that populations of sharing, smart cities produce. [18] Abstract: There is increased interest in smart vehicles acting as both data consumers and producers in smart cities. [24] Smart cities are the future, with enough functionality to reduce both physical and digital harm. [22]

It serves an innovative approach to the development of infrastructure in smart cities and thus promotes the contracting principles of blockchain that occurs between the stakeholders of Smart Industrial Project's processes such as Tendering, Contracting, and Delivery. [25] Smart cities are based on autonomous and distributed infrastructure that includes intelligent information processing and control systems heterogeneous network infrastructure, and ubiquitous sensing involving millions of information sources Due to the continued growth of data volume and number of connected IoT devices, however, issues such as high latency, bandwidth bottlenecks, security and privacy, and scalability arise in the current smart city network architecture. [26] For IoT to work for smart cities, there have to be incentives for network operators who manage the infrastructures that provide the government with these data. [27] For IoT sensor network operators that can provide authorities of smart cities with data processed and analyzed real-time to make IoT ecosystems efficient, creating new data monetization opportunities is a must. [28]

Billions of connected devices will generate huge amounts of data in the emerging IoT wherein smart cities will have to retrieve, process, interpret, and act on real-time environmental data as quickly as possible to maintain sustainable environments for its citizens. [28] Smart cities use this data to manage assets and resources efficiently. [27] Smart cities are characterized by data collection sensor networks connected to public services in order to increase quality and efficiency - and, in the process, citizen welfare. [29]

In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid network architecture for the smart city by leveraging the strength of emerging Software Defined Networking and blockchain technologies. [26] In this regard, Rizvi said "we can help operators generate new revenue utilizing their existing network by providing solutions for smart city players, such as city, transport, travel and public safety authorities." [27] Once the sale operations for the project have been established the City token will be the accepted payment method for Smart City Enterprise services and contracting client-to-client solutions. [25]

"With Taipei City always thinking ahead and with IOTA's technology, this partnership is a strategic move to usher in the era of smart cities to the citizens of Taipei. [30] "By 2020, the Global Smart Cities Market will climb to $1.4 trillion, with the industry rapidly evolving to integrate technology into infrastructure, mobility, surveillance and security, lighting and access control, and other community-oriented areas." [31] The project will be beneficial to companies and governments, as it will increase the speed of development of projects in the smart cities. [25] It will also decentralize the tendering process during the development of smart cities in order to provide an opportunity to smaller players who are often better. [25] The company is aiming for a real-time monitoring system based on the IoT which can provide timely environmental information for the management of smart cities. [28] We're just beginning to scratch the surface of the effect IOTA can have on making the world of IoT ever-more connected and paving the way for not just smart cities, but a smart world." [30] There will also be an education program that will educate the public on their duties in building smart cities that are safe, effective, eco-friendly, clean and comfortable living conditions. [25] It will allow stakeholder to measure quality of smart technologies for them to be implemented in smart cities. [25]

It has been disclosed that the primary objective of the cybersecurity experts is to deploy a trusted blockchain as a service (BaaS) platform in a country that is switching its focus towards IoT, smart cars and smart cities projects through China's Blockchain Centre of Excellence. [32] The Smart Dubai Office (SDO) took home the prestigious City Project Award for the Dubai Blockchain Strategy at the Smart Cities Expo & World Congress, which took place in Barcelona, Spain, on November 14-16, 2017. [33]

The Master?s in Smart Cities is designed to fill the current gap between the two most influential groups in Smart City systems implementation; it puts both city management professionals and technological urban innovators in contact, developing a common language in order to promote innovation in the current development of cities. [34] When do we speak about Smart Cities and How a city becomes a Smart City? The students will have obtained knowledge about urban history, the current urban ecosystem challenges and the international responsibilities and efforts to minimize the negative impact of the cities over the Earth using dates. [34]

In the case of Nokia?s sensor-as-a-service offering, which it alternately calls IoT for Smart Cities, the company says parking, trash management, environmental sensing, smarter lighting, and security (e.g., video surveillance) are primary commodities that MNOs can offer municipalities. [35]

According to Smart Dubai, a government entity charged with exploiting smart technologies to "empower, delivery and promote an efficient, seamless, safe and impactful city experience for residents and visitors", Dubai's blockchain strategy could save 25.1 million man hours, akin to 5.5bn dirhams, or $1.5bn, in savings per year. [36] Ingeniously, the offering includes a blockchain smart-contract element, which the Finnish company says will allow MNOs to bill smart city governments for processed and analyzed data. [35] Lastly, startup DigitalTown has recently produced a full-scale solution that aims to move smart city economies of the future onto the blockchain. [37]

"ArabianChain is the first company in the region to develop a public and decentralized platform for smart contracts on Blockchain," he says. [36]

For his part, H.E. Wesam Lootah, CEO of the Smart Dubai Government Establishment (SDG), said: "Taking part in such a prestigious event centred around smart cities, which culminated in our winning this premier international award, is a great honour for Dubai and a testament to the emirate?s status as a world leader in embracing cutting-edge technology. [33] "We are honoured to have our efforts recognised here, at the premier Smart Cities Expo & World Congress," said Her Excellency Dr Aisha Bint Butti Bin Bishr, Director-General of the Smart Dubai Office (SDO). [33] We?re just beginning to scratch the surface of the effect IOTA can have on making the world of IoT ever-more connected and paving the way for not just smart cities, but a smart world", he added. [38] Smart cities will be characterized by power grids that will be able to balance electricity supply and demand. [34]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Nokia is launching a set of services, based on Internet of Things (IoT), data analytics, and blockchain technologies, for economically and environmentally sustainable "smart cities." [1] At the municipal level, blockchain has the potential to create countless smart networks and grids, altering how we do everything from vote and build credit to receive energy. [3]

What aspects of a city would be run by IoT and blockchain, say, in ten years? Unmanned cars and trains can run in the cities and control over airspace no longer requires dispatchers. [6] In 2016, the Crown Prince of Dubai announced a plan to secure government documents on the blockchain by 2020, making it the first blockchain-powered city. [4] It looks so promising, in fact, that Dubai?s government has announced its plans to start running the city on blockchain, executing all of its transactions and placing all of its documents with its algorithms. [4] Although it was initially created as a digital platform for cryptocurrencies and financial transactions, blockchain also has potential applications in other spheres, including city management. [10] In New York City, the 115-year old automotive company has a City Solutions group working with Microsoft, Google and others on urban business challenges from "drones to blockchain". [8] The city of Austin is currently piloting a program in which its 2,000 homeless residents will be given a unique identifier that?s safely and securely recorded on the blockchain. [3]

"Based on blockchain, the distributed ledger technology that is taking finance, healthcare, and a range of other industries by storm, our platform allows you to easily integrate third parties into your data market -- expanding your customer base and service offerings. [1] The authorities of the state also intend to promote the use of blockchain "to transform the delivery of public and private services, redefine the relationship between government and the citizen in terms of data sharing, transparency and trust, and make a leading contribution to the State's digital transformation." [6]

Much like the internet IPO boom of the late 1990s that created enormous wealth - until it came crashing down - the underlying technology of cryptocurrencies, blockchain (like the web technologies of the late 90s), may well form the basis for a secure, distributed application platform that may be less dominated by a few major players than the internet is today. [5] Blockchain provides the secure, distributed underpinning for peer-to-peer transactions, payments, and identification services and pretty much whatever else you can enable through its smart contracts. [5] Nokia?s S2aaS is powered by a blockchain with a built-in micropayment platform, which supports smart contracts for "anonymized, private and secure micro-transactions that allow operators to monetize analyzed data and generate new revenue streams." [1] This comprehensive program launched by then-governor Jack Markell is designed to stimulate the use and development of blockchain technologies and smart contracts in both the private and public sectors of the state. [6]

Bear with me; there are some good concepts here that present an alternative view on the use of blockchain for communities and cities. [5] It's not just about cryptocurrencies or payment services, but about whole cities with all processes controlled by blockchain. [6] Where will we go next with blockchain and what can this powerful new tool do for cities? Our latest National League of Cities report, Blockchain in Cities, provides mayors and other local officials with some clues. [3]

Noel Shannon from Hyperion Solar energy described in Power Technology how blockchain in energy markets can effectively create an open-source funding opportunity for renewables from solar projects, with each blockchain cryptocurrency unit representing a unit of solar energy, say one watt. [8] Companies managed to create an electronic ledger of invoices that uses a parallel platform to the blockchain employed in Bitcoin transactions. [6] This is where Blockchain tech could help us gain an edge over the attackers as Blockchains help us to create applications which provide data immutability, integrity, and confidentiality. [2] The Estonian government has introduced blockchain to provide its citizens access to control their personal data. [6] It's worth noting that the authorities officially recognized electronic transactions recorded in blockchains as verifiable data, and the bill was signed in order to legalize blockchain transactions for accounting and other business records for local companies. [6] It's already known that blockchain national standards include data security, business and application standards, and other credibility and interoperability standards. [6]

A few months later, the National Committee of Experts on Internet Financial Security Technology published its Compliance Blockchain Guidelines. [6] Blockchain is the technology of the moment (and of the future). [10] In 2017, the state announced the Illinois Blockchain Initiative, which calls on the consortium of state agencies to cooperate in exploring innovations presented in distributed ledger technology. [6]

It may take years before blockchain, which will interact with IoT, artificial intelligence and big data, will be integrated to manage urban services and public infrastructures. [6] Using blockchain, with its cryptographic private and public key pair mechanism, for creating a third value - a digital signature - can be a secure solution. [4] Using blockchain, which is the secure, decentralized mechanism behind cryptocurrency, we have an opportunity to bring connectivity to scale without compromising security in the process. [7]

This caused Estonia to reconsider its attitude toward data security and reach out to what we are now calling blockchain. [6] Currently, Chinese authorities are actively studying blockchain in terms of more orderly data storage. [6] Li Ming, an official working with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, has revealed that the Chinese national standard plan for blockchain has been completed and is to be announced publicly soon. [6] Besides, a blockchain record interconnects government records, such as laws, expenses, contracts, permits, etc., thus simplifying the coordination of services. [4] Consider how the Tel-Aviv based ride-sharing company LaZooz is building a decentralized, ride-hailing system that uses blockchain to pay system drivers and to avoid the estimated 10-20 percent or transactional revenue that goes to an Uber, Lyft, or AirBnb for their services. [8] The use of blockchain for tackling these issues doesn?t remain purely theoretical with a number of launched blockchain-empowered projects. [4] Local authorities recognized the potential of blockchain in the provision of public services and launched a number of projects currently in different stages of implementation. [6]

Now we are entering an era where, thanks to blockchain, there will be a way to keep a running tally on transactions to provide frictionless financial settlements, claim processes, energy generation, and so much more. [8] In energy, blockchain is also likely to have significant impact through facilitating transactions that bypass gatekeepers such as publicly owned or municipal utilities. [8] As every transaction is verified against other peers in the blockchain network, you can be sure that your platform is secure." [1] In order to pass to the digital asset processing on a blockchain, the owner of the assets, or the transactor, needs a digital identity to engage in those transactions. [4] In Brooklyn, the start-up LO3 worked with Siemens to demonstrate how blockchain can be used as a means to facilitate localized peer-to-peer transactions for PV solar energy credits through an urban microgrid. [8] Forbes recently provided an extensive scenario where, outside of retail purchases, blockchain would be at the juncture of nearly every urban transaction. [8] Given the scenario outlined above and the need for responses to today?s urban challenges, blockchain could be a great ally. [10] Looking further under the hood, we begin to discover how blockchain will become the lingua franca in urban metros. [8]

Digital technologies could become the engine of economic progress, and blockchain, without a doubt, could be one of them. [6] Drivers will be able to control the charging process using a special application, and blockchain registry will be responsible for calculating the energy spent, making payments and identifying users. [6] The Brooklyn Microgrid has a rapidly expanding base of 100 local residents using blockchain to share credits for excess solar energy that is generated from well-situated local rooftop arrays. [8] In the areas of energy and mobility, for instance, blockchain has enabled transactions of everything from solar energy credits to paying drivers and cutting costs for participants in ride-sharing programs by leveraging existing systems effectively cutting out brokers or third parties. [8] Through enhanced trust, consensus and autonomy, blockchain brings widespread decentralization to transactions. [3] With blockchain, we can design an alternative way to build and track transactions. [3]

Devices can present credentials to participate within an IoT environment, with these credentials stored to -- and later validated from -- a public blockchain such as Ethereum. [7] To unleash this potential, public agents such as mayors and administrative teams must discover how the capabilities of blockchain systems can assist them in their management duties. [10]

Blockchain is a hot topic for various reasons, especially the fact that it provides better security than other systems. [10] Again, as in the case of Estonia, blockchain has become a solution to the security problem. [6] Because of these concerns, blockchain looks like a promising solution to this problem. [4] Blockchain looks like a solution for backing up the self-sovereign identity. [4]

This results in blockchain system feedback, such as transferring money and receiving the product or service. [4]

Currently, IOTA is working with the city to create the first smart service, citizen identity cards which will be called TangleID Cards. [2] With unmanned trains, automated sensors, flying taxis, solar panels, and Wi-Fi benches, perhaps it has everything that an avid futurist needs. The authorities of the Emirates are not stopping at what has already been reached and are actively implementing the most innovative ideas in order to turn the city into the first blockchain-based smart megapolis by 2020. [6]

Cities such as Santiago de Chile, Toronto, Tel Aviv, Oslo, Milan, London, and Stockholm are already developing blockchain-based projects, while Dubai has set the high-priority objective of becoming the world?s first fully blockchain-powered city by 2020. [10]

NetworkWorld notes that the idea behind the product is to provide a way for mobile network operators (MNOs), many of which use Nokia cell site equipment, to monetize existing infrastructure, such as towers, by selling live environmental sensor data to cities and others. [1] Nokia?s Sensing as a Service (S2aaS) provides intelligent analytics on environmental data gathered from IoT-connected sensors, which operators can sell to cities and other authorities. [1] "Cities need to become digital in order to efficiently deliver services to their habitants," said Asad Rizvi, head of Global Services business development at Nokia. [1] The optimistic view is that cities are the world?s innovation laboratory--as they have been throughout history--and can therefore be expected to generate solutions in various spheres that define the quality of urban life: infrastructure, transport, healthcare services, education, leisure, safety, etc. [10] The Ford GoBike share program, which launched in five Bay Area cities in 2016, was said by knowing observers to be part of Ford?s strategy to build a repository of data and usage habits from younger urban shared-mobility users. [8]

If you want to read about how blockchain-based technology might be used to empower cities, read on. [5]

Bloomberg New Energy Finance reported an increase in major public-private smart city technology deals to 35 global cities in 2017, up from eight in 2016. [8] This definition, roughly paraphrased from Wikipedia, incorporates many of the common concepts: "A smart city incorporates information and communication technologies to enhance the quality and performance of urban services, such as energy, transportation and utilities, in order to reduce resource consumption, wastage and overall costs. [5]

"Smart infrastructure, which is shared, secure, and scalable, is needed to ensure urban assets and data are efficiently used. [1] This will help create an entire system of smart unmanned trucks for the transport of products or materials. [6] There are many definitions of "smart city," and each city will modify it to reflect its major goals and challenges. [5] The wide use of technologies operating with open data poses a challenge to the smart city concept, with the primary concern being the safety and privacy of personal data. [4] Smart city technology is growing ever more common here in the U.S. and around the world. [3] With the forecasts saying that by 2050 68 percent of the world?s population will be urban, the concept of the smart city looks like the most technically advanced solution on how to adapt a city area and infrastructure to its new challenges. [4] DigitalTown, a leading provider of smart city portal solutions, is launching a blockchain-based distributed ledger for managing shared ownership of each city in its global network of city portals. [39]

Across the global network of more than 20,000 cities, DigitalTown has reserved 80 per cent ownership interest of each city portal for local and regional institutions who are committed to local online economic development. [39] For cities where the municipality, or its proxy itself does not license the platform for their city, each resident of a city is to be allocated a fractional ownership unit of the city platform. [39]

"Local ownership of a unified city platform provides the organising framework to regain control over the online economy, achieve self-sustaining economic development, and equip local stakeholders to win in the digital age." [39] What if the city wanted to develop its own currency for this purpose, which are essentially credits to spend on local dining and entertainment as a reward for meeting certain conservation goals? In Digital Town?s integrated city platform, it would be relatively easy to implement. [5]

A secure platform for local innovation : Software developers in a city can use DigitalTown's application program interface (API) at no cost. [39]

For the field of city management, the transformative potential of this technology is enormous. [10] In parallel, other professionals involved in city governance--architects, jurists, economists, geographers, and executives of municipal corporations--must also further their understanding of this technology. [10]

This strategy, in turn, is supported by horizontal tools like city marketing, with an abundance of data. [10] Blockchain technology allows city management to be distributed among all parties involved. [10]

Enhanced security and audibility of votes -- A blockchain-based ID will eliminate the question of whether a citizen has the legal right to vote, while the security and immutability of actions, once made on blockchain, will make corrupted elections a thing of the past. [4] Who's next in the blockchain queue? West Virginia will launch the blockchain-based pilot version to conduct mobile voting in 2018 regional elections. [6]

These types of use cases -- plus existing opportunities from blockchain -- could potentially be transformative for municipal operations. [3] Tool for tech-savvy users -- The blockchain ecosystem today is still mostly about early adopters who are willing to spend time, effort, and energy exploring it, managing keys, and securing devices. [4] Reshaping existing peer-to-peer platforms -- BeeToken is a recent example of a house-sharing platform, representing an updated version of AirBnB based on blockchain principles. [4] To prevent more financial frauds Standard Chartered, together with a government agency in Singapore, utilized the blockchain and developed a unique cryptographic hash for each invoice. [6] While many governments are figuring out what blockchain is and how it can be applied, Estonia has established the Institute of e-residency where a resident from any country in the world can get their e-residency in Estonia. [4] While IoT devices themselves lack the resources to host a blockchain, the immutability of the system coupled with cryptographic keys can be used to establish root identity for devices. [7] It would interesting to know that blockchain was used in Estonia before it became mainstream, and even before Satoshi Nakamoto invented Bitcoin. [6]

The smart-city era opens up a wide range of possibilities for blockchain development. [10] Ready to start building Dapps? Dive deep into blockchain development. [1] In April 2017, the Wuzhen Think Tank released a white paper on the development of China's blockchain industry. [6]

The ultimate goal is for these various stakeholders to deliver the local benefits of the blockchain ecosystem to society at large. [10] This is where Blockchains have a lot of promise for the future. [2] Cointelegraph covers fintech, blockchain and Bitcoin bringing you the latest news and analyses on the future of money. [6]

Blockchain is proving to be a secure enough system to make this a reality. [3] Blockchain council creates an environment and raise awareness among businesses, enterprises, developers, and society by educating them in the Blockchain space. [2] Blockchain has the potential to change the global technical, financial, legal, and tech infrastructure of intermediaries into a decentralized peer-to-peer marketplace. [4] The state of Delaware was the first to announce the Delaware Blockchain Initiative in 2016. [6] The new authorities are slow in the mass adoption of blockchain, being more focused on traditional models of economics and business management. [6] Once the requirements processed in a blockchain oracle are met, the contract executes itself automatically. [4] With the help of blockchain, we can turn microgrids into a reality on a macro scale, enabling communities to more easily embrace solar power and other more sustainable sources, which in turn will result in fewer emissions and lower healthcare costs and rates of disease. [3] The Australian government announced a grant of $8 million for a blockchain project to create'smart utilities', and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) plans to use the technology to prevent a recurrence of the disaster in 2011, when a leak at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused significant and widespread disruption. [6] IOTA is one the most ambitious Blockchain projects in this space as it is trying to be the backbone of the whole internet of things market as a payment processor and a smart contract platform. [2] What if the DMV issued not only driver license cards but also blockchain-based IDs? With blockchain?s open ledger and smart contracts, you could have a secure way of proving that you are who you are on the internet, while controlling who gets access to your ID information and how it can be used. [5]

As more and more people move into cities, there is no doubt that cities would need to upgrade their infrastructure to become more efficient and secure. [2] Self-driving cars, now very much a reality, need a payment processor that is not only cheap and fast but also capable of handling millions of transactions per second to keep the hundreds of cities worldwide functioning. [2] The scenario showed how each interaction would be transparent, verifiable, and nearly impossible to forge or hack, while adding to the valuable stores of Big Data on which artificial intelligence can be used by cities and their partners to analyze for future improvements and efficiencies. [8] These are the cities of the future, and they are already being created. [6] So far, cities -- and the rest of the IoT industry -- haven?t done a very good job of implementing security. [7] Because of the growing number of Internet users and devices, it is now much easier to traverse the biggest cities in the world using just your smartphone. [2] Cities have moved beyond dealing with potholes, streetlights, and trash collection--a simplified version of vertical government, which was based on the classic city-hall organizational model. [10] Today, Dubai is considered one of the most digitally progressive cities in the world. [6] The premise is that communities (towns, cities, and so on) can control their own destinies and promote local commerce - as well as keep more of the economic value they generate. [5] In essence, Digital Town want to provide a platform for cities to be their own local Google, Expedia, Amazon, Airbnb, et al, for their citizens. [5] Ford, Silicon Valley stealth startup Autonomic, Qualcomm, and Waze announced last month the development of a cloud-based mobility platform for cities to manage self-driving vehicle ride hailing, deliveries, and bicycle sharing that will feature everything from payment processing to parking and traffic logistics. [8]

The main idea of its integration into the foreign trade of the city is to create a single safe and transparent platform. [6] From the point of view of a city aiming to benefit its residents, some of what this type of platform enables could be extremely useful. [5]

As a practical matter, competing against that vast array of giant internet businesses is a daunting task, for either a city or Digital Town. [5] The first city of the future is supposed to be Yinchuan, where they have already abandoned traditional payments. [6] What if the city of Austin, for example, wanted to promote water and energy conservation in the summer months (it does today via some incentives and disincentives). [5]

The Smart City program, launched in 2014, involves the phased implementation of more than 545 projects that will change the way residents and visitors of Dubai interact with the city. [6] A growing interest in the smart city development has engaged many software development companies into the development of different initiatives. [4]

Local owners who enter partnership agreements with DigitalTown are also granted 'right of first refusal' for each city portal, thereby securing a path to consolidating full local ownership. [39]

Greater participation in elections -- In 2016, a digital voting platform Plebiscito Digital ("Digital Plebiscite?), based upon blockchain technology, was launched in Columbia to provide access for expatriates to voting in the Colombian Peace Plebiscite. [4] This is an official recognition of the beginning of a new digital era in China, which gave a big impetus to the development of blockchain technology. [6]

A remarkable feature of the blockchain technology is the elimination of the need for a central authority and trusted middlemen in contacts between untrusted parties entering a transaction process. [4] We strongly believe private-public relationships bringing blockchain technology to state infrastructure will create advancements that benefit everyone involved. [6] The blockchain technology ensures a neutral, non-hierarchical, accessible, and secure information database in environments where there is currently no confidence among their actors. [4] A pilot program is being developed to track, ship and deliver imported and exported goods using blockchain technology. [6]

In many ways, it could be a crucial component of what is needed to circumvent outdated systems and build long-lasting solutions for cities. [3]

"Smart cities" are a framework for addressing the unique challenges of urbanization by combining new technology, advanced urban planning, energy and transportation management, and business planning. [14] Smart Energy - Create a more resilient power grid by using a blockchain powered p2p energy market. [14] The state launched the Delaware Blockchain Initiative in 2016 to stimulate the use and development of blockchain technologies and smart contracts in private and public sectors. [15] Smart contracts programmed into the blockchain would then execute business processes by drawing on these vast repositories of live data. [40] Distributed ledgers, smart contracts, and other blockchain technologies could form the foundation on which other exponential technologies combine and scale. [40]

In addition to privacy and security for individuals, blockchain will also protect systems from hackers, says Vaughan Emery, founder and CEO of Atonomi, a blockchain-based arm of CENTRI technology, which provides IoT security, in an essay in TheHill.com. [15] The fact that the Australian government is willing to finance a blockchain venture involving an ICO--albeit one whose tokens are focused on utility--demonstrates a certain optimism that might make it an attractive place for more startups that wish to develop their own products that use this technology. [19]

Blockchain will help to secure cities that rely on big data collection, according to stories. [15] Read the executive brief Running Future Cities on Blockchain. [40] Blockchain can help reduce that risk of attack, but most cities have yet to go down that technological road. [16] "The project, which involves academic, infrastructure and technology partners, will assess how cities can use blockchain technology and data analytics to integrate distributed energy and water systems. [19] For cities, the opportunities for blockchain use are endless, said Shekkar Gupta, COO for The Solutions Group. [9] Because the IoT is only as strong as the password protection used, integrating blockchain directly into IoT devices isn?t the answer for cities. [16]

A blockchain system embedded into the city structure is projected to save about $1.5 billion and 25.1 million man-hours due to increased efficiency in the processing of documents, eliminating lines. [15]

The second macro trend supporting the "smart city movement" is the ability to leverage new technology. [14] Other city planners are struggling to determine what they want from smart technology. [16] By linking together multiple technologies, this "smart city" could then begin to automate basic city services. [40] With those potential cost savings, Matthew Delcambre, Director of the Center for Business & Information Technologies at the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, said it can help cities including Lafayette, LA that have a goal of becoming 10% more efficient with 10% less resources while improving resiliency and city services. [9]

Why aren't more cities smarter? Because, as with connected, smart homes, there is the serious potential for cyber attacks on unprotected systems. [16] The emerging technology could be a significant component that removes outdated systems to build more sustainable cities and solutions for the future. [13] The emerging technology could help develop smarter cities and ensure that large institutions and communities are more inclusive of everyone. [13] The great urban migration requires nations to make their cities "smarter" by leveraging the technological breakthrough, employing concepts such as Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technology. [14] As cities get bigger and the technology improves, there may be a greater push to using blockchain technology. [16]

Secure Identity Platform allows individuals own create a digital identity that will be stored on a distributed ledger built with a blockchain. [14] Blockchain News is your source for the latest news and opinion on Blockchain and Distributed Ledger technology and intelligence. [20] Blockchain will be the key to provide the security for the data, Winterson says. [15] We provide AI-based development and support services to companies focused in AI, quantum-AI and AI-enabled blockchain development. [15] Enthusiasm for blockchain is not just accelerating, but spreading beyond financial services, as SAP and other global organizations consider all the ways it could remove friction and risk in business transactions. [40] As promising as blockchain already is, the business world may still be underestimating how profoundly it could change transactions, organizations, and industries. [40] As the physical world becomes ever more quantified, being able to guarantee the integrity and provenance of digital and physical assets and the transactions in which they?re involved will become a core competitive advantage -- and blockchain is deliberately designed to embed that guarantee in every transaction. [40]

Also, i think that users should be able to monetize their data and blockchain could be a solution. [12] Shoppers could grant permission for vendors to access their purchase history, preferences, and other data stored on a blockchain ledger. [40] Essentially, Power Ledger will track the energy production, storage, and usage on the blockchain in one of California?s largest public electric vehicle charging facilities. [14] The program is piloting a system to allow consumers to produce and sell their own renewable energy P2P on the blockchain. [14] The federal government recognized the potential of blockchain in the provision of public services and launched a number of projects currently in different stages of implementation. [15] Dubai will apply blockchain to city-wide logistics and storage industries, as well as shift to a 100% paperless government and storage system. [14] The Indian government acknowledges that many smart-city initiatives will be implemented on a blockchain for enhanced security, immutability, resilience, and transparency. [14]

Critically, blockchain would allow buyers to limit access to their personal or proprietary data to specific organizations over a defined period of time, for example, until the end of their shopping experience or the close of their fiscal year. [40] Digital technologies could become the engine of economic progress, with blockchain a central aspect. [15] While IOTA has a different approach to Cyberview, Lman understands that "IOTA and blockchain, to be honest, are trying to solve the same old problems as the technologies that came before them. [13] Instead of a blockchain, the IOTA network is powered by a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) called the Tangle. [14]

He listed possible -- albeit experimental, at this point -- uses for blockchain like waste management, managing parking, welfare, land titling and municipal bonds. [9] By the end of 2016, major players like Bank of America and Goldman Sachs were laying claim to promising blockchain technologies, filing patents at roughly twice the pace they had at the start of the year. [40] The more technologies we connect using the blockchain as a framework, the more value we can derive. [40] PwC survey: 84% of companies now using blockchain, so what does. [20]

It?s in this area that blockchain could provide the breakthrough that we need," Winterson writes. [15] "Running blockchain is highly taxing for computer devices," Hacker says, because it uses more CPU resources than smaller embedded devices can handle. [16] Everything could be further automated by adding artificial intelligence into blockchain smart contracts to make decisions without human involvement. [40] Machine learning apps programmed into smart contracts, which are also embedded in the blockchain, could optimize routing. [40]

The city utility company could feed power consumption data into an AI to generate energy-saving recommendations, and leverage smart contracts that automatically manage power consumption between smart appliances and the grid to lower costs and improve energy efficiency. [40] It?s the data that this technology creates - more specifically, concerns around how we keep this data secure - that is hindering the rise of the smart city. [15] The partners are exploring ways in which IOTA's technology can be integrated into the smart city to bolster data integrity and trust in public service and beyond. [11]

Imagine that a city has a digital ledger in which every house or apartment has a presence containing all relevant information about the home, from property ownership and mortgage balance to transactional data like utility use, property tax assessment, and past and current contractor relationships. [40] Every interaction is transparent, verifiable, and nearly impossible to fake or alter -- and just as importantly, it adds to a vast store of data the city can then use machine learning to analyze for future improvements and efficiencies. [40]

Local ownership of a unified city platform provides the organizing framework to regain control over the online economy, achieve self-sustaining economic development, and equip local stakeholders to win in the Digital Age." [20] A secure platform for local innovation: Software developers in a city can use DigitalTown?s Application Program Interface (API) at no cost. [20]

TechNode reported that IOTA, a distributed ledger technology has paired up with Taipei, the capital city of Taiwan to transform it into a smarter city. [13] While these changes can benefit everyone in society, blockchain technology can be a new player that creates a more inclusive and fairer city of the future. [13] The government of Australia announced an AU$8 million fund to begin a blockchain project in the city of Fremantle, involving an ICO. [19]

A copy of the Blockchain whitepaper describing the fractional ownership distributed ledger can be obtained at DigitalTown.com/blockchain. [20] Rather than run blockchain on IoT devices, Hacker suggests bumping up CPU-intensive processing for blockchain maintenance, mining and consensus algorithms to what he calls super-nodes, while the less intensive functions are performed on IoT devices or other nodes with limited resources. [16]

Tangle is being used in the first IOTA/Tapei project app and is known for Internet of Things (IOT) applications ranging from smart watches to "feeless micropayment-based electric vehicle charging." [11] It includes independent patented technology such as sanitation smart watches for staff, smart trash cans, ultra-low power multi-channel detection devices, and other advanced technology and equipment for all levels of environmental waste management. [14] Citilink Technology (a Walton subsidiary) created an award-winning Smart Waste Management System being run on top of Waltonchain. [14]

Applications initiatives include smart resource allocation optimization, urban management, and business ecosystem redesign. [14] New York; Singapore; Seoul, South Korea; and Stockholm, Sweden, are furthest along in smart development, according to management consultant McKinsey & Company. [16] This will help create an entire system of smart unmanned trucks to move products or materials. [15]

City government could also benefit from blockchain?s transparency and its cost savings, which can come from auditing and enforcing smart contracts and avoiding fees that can be associated with other payment methods. [9] Perth-based company Power Ledger is a blockchain-based decentralized energy market provider with several smart city pilot projects live around the world. [14] DigitalTown ( OTC PINK:DGTW ), a leading provider of smart city portal solutions, has announced the launch of a Blockchain-based Distributed Ledger for managing shared ownership of each city in its global network of city portals. [20]

Across the global network of more than 20,000 cities, DigitalTown has reserved 80% ownership interest of each city portal for local and regional institutions who are committed to local online economic development. [20]

Cities face strained resources, shortage of power, insufficient water supplies, poor government services, unaffordable cost of living, inadequate public transportation, frequent traffic jams, pollution, depleting natural resources, among other things. [14] IOTA recently announced a pilot project helping 5 cities in the EU becomes "energy positive." [14] These cities are attempting to produce more energy than they consume. [14] These technologies can be used to make cities more efficient, transparent, secure, and more resilient. [14] One thing is for sure, the cities of the future will look nothing like today. [14] Decentralized power production and consumption offers tremendous efficiencies as well as makes future cities more resilient. [14] The first macro trend supporting the need for "smarter cities" is the rise of urbanization around the globe. [14] Cities provide economic opportunities, better education, and dramatically better opportunities for women. [14] Dubai is considered one of the most digitally progressive cities in the world with unmanned trains, automated sensors, flying taxis, solar panels and Wi-Fi benches. [15]

The company provides turn-key hosted solutions to power "Digital Towns", which improve Quality of Life for residents and visitors through integrated solutions for economic development, civic engagement and digital inclusion for cities around the world. [20]

City staff can monitor the taxi?s safe operation and ensure the taxi company bills accurately for the ride, check traffic status and push out notifications to all affected drivers, make sure parking is available, confirm the traveler?s opt-in agreement for city wi-fi, provide the coffee shop?s owner with information on the effectiveness of the day?s coupon, and confirm that the building?s elevators are functioning according to the latest safety codes. [40] "We are delighted to host this project in the City of Fremantle. [19] IoT sensors could instantly sense a problem (say, a downed electrical cable) and alert the appropriate city agency?s AI to dispatch a technician. [40] A business traveler hops into an autonomous electric taxi at the airport and tells it to take her to a meeting in the city center. [40]

Smart City technology is therefore quickly catching on internationally. [13] In November 2017, the Australian government announced they will be providing funding for a smart city project in Fremantle, Australia. [14] Waltonchain is a heavyweight in the Smart City Revolution, and is projected by many to be a top 10 project by 2020. [14] Dubai?s created a Smart City Initiative, part of which aims to turn Dubai into the first blockchain-powered city by 2020. [14] Taipei has therefore in January 2018, signed a partnership agreement with the IOTA Foundation to explore smart city solutions. [13] Waltonchain does have government-level partnerships as well and is also working with Alibaba Cloud to implement their smart city solutions. [14] As part of the worldwide rollout of the DigitalTown SmartCity platform, DigitalTown is scheduled to exhibit at the following events: World Chambers Federation in Sydney from September 19-21, International City Managers Association Expo in San Antonio from October 22-25, and Smart City Expo in Barcelona from November 13-15. [20] For example the child chain set up to run a smart city on the walton chain ecosystem could be ToS (an sDAG platform) capable of 100k tps+. [12] CyberView, a blockchain-based government-owned company currently working on building Cyberjaya, a town in Malaysia into a smart city and global tech hub. [13]

The maiden project to test the mettle of the Taipei City project is citizen cards equipped with TangleID, designed to protect locals from identity theft and voter fraud as well as medical-record data. [11] Taipei City joins the likes of participants including Microsoft that have turned to IOTA's data marketplace (though as IOTA stressed, the Microsoft relationship is not a partnership.) [11] Taipei City is raising its fintech profile and will be powered by IOTA's distributed ledger technology. [11] It's already in use in homes and across 150 Taipei City elementary schools. [11]

Local owners who enter partnership agreements with DigitalTown are also granted "Right of First Refusal? for each city portal, thereby securing a path to consolidating full local ownership. [20]

Dubai is developing a system to track, ship and deliver imported and exported goods using blockchain technology to create a single safe and transparent platform. [15] Blockchain technology is a perfect solution for creating digital identities and self-sovereign identities. [14] Unlike blockchain technology, the Tangle network does not slow down with large volumes since, when every transaction is added, two other are validated. [13] Blockchain technology is still in its relative infancy, especially in terms of its widespread use. [9] Sonsetebo believes that IOTA is significantly more future-proof than blockchain technology because of the way it stores information and processes payments. [13] Blockchain technology can increase the carrying capacity for cities around the world. [14] McRoberts emphasized that it has "never been hacked," so is safer for cities than other methods of cybersecurity and has already been used successfully by the United Nations in distributing aid in Syria by verifying the identity of those who need it through a retina scan. [9]

Government Services - Smart contracts can be used for digitising citizen rights and identification, transparent voting, tax, track ownership of assets, remove paper, and automate bureaucratic processes. [14]

Towards the end of last month, the University of Sydney also developed a blockchain project that was able to process more transactions per second than VISA's own system does. [19]

Blockchain can also be very relevant to urban planning and the management of public space, sustainable transportation, public safety, the environment, the circular economy, smart buildings, etc. [17] Inspired by the success of these initial uses, the city is now looking to implement blockchain for governmental services. [18] Bin Bishr explains that the manual lays out specifically how a city can convert every sector to work on top of blockchain. [41]

The government body says it took "ample time" to make sure it selected the right use cases, especially since it was dealing with a "nascent technology like blockchain, where nothing had been implemented before". [41] Differently from traditional blockchain usage (e.g., Bitcoin and Ethereum), the proposed framework uses a blockchain design that decouples the data stored in the transactions from the block header, thus allowing for fast addition of data to the blocks. [24] Digitize health records on blockchain to provide patients and care providers with secure access to medical data. [17]

Blockchain is a democratic technology - one of the people - because it decentralizes power. [18] People are now starting to distinguish between the cryptocurrencies and blockchain as a technology," she added. [41]

Blockchain is becoming popular among governments to improve their services. [18] With more than 6,000 attendees and 800 government delegations, Smart Dubai said that Wednesday?s Future Blockchain Summit was the world?s largest blockchain event ever. [41] Wasam Lootah CEO, Smart Dubai speaks at the Future Blockchain Summit. [41] "In 2017, we did this huge exercise to map all the city?s experiences that are applicable to be converted on top of blockchain," said Aisha Butti Bin Bishr, director general of Smart Dubai. [41]

This paper considers the implementation of Blockchain technology in sensor networks as an element of IoT. The concept of "Rolling Blockchain" was proposed, which can be used to build WSN with the participation of Smart Cars, as nodes of the network. [42] This paper proposes a framework called SpeedyChain, that leverages blockchain technology to allow smart vehicles to share their data while maintaining privacy, integrity, resilience and non-repudiation in a decentralized, and tamper-resistant manner. [24]

Given this situation, no city can be considered smart anymore if it does not actively promote a sharing economy to make the best use of resources. [18] It is disconcerting to think that cities aren?t smart already because they really should be. [18]

The technology has helped the city replace paper contracts with smart contracts and link its financial and trade systems together. [18] The city uses the technology to track its imports and exports. [18]

"But all the use cases have been designed properly, with our partners," Bin Bishr told Gulf News on Wednesday at the Future Blockchain Summit. [41] South Korea, 17 June 2018 - Fresh from closing USD 22million in its initial coin offering (ICO) sale, Blue Whale Foundation (the blockchain platform building the world?s largest worker-centric decentralized ecosystem for the self-employed) will champion the "Trends in Blockchain and the Future of the Sharing Economy 2018" Conference in Seoul, Korea on 23 July 2018. [21] With this in mind, "Trends in Blockchain and the Future of the Sharing Economy 2018" Conference will set the stage to pioneer this new movement towards empowering participants in the sharing economy through blockchain. [21] Shaikh Khalid Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Chairman and Founder of the Bin Zayed Group with Dr. Jeffrey Lin, CEO of GCOX after signing an MoU on the opening day of Future Blockchain Summit held at DWTC. [41] With a proper environment setting up in the future, we improve the performance of the blockchain system in terms of robustness and sustainability. [23]

This project consists two parts of software development: the front end blockchain monitoring design, and the back end system implementation. [23] With distributed computing and distributed consensus, blockchain can foster a community of peers, who will work together to achieve the goal of development. [18] It achieves this using a proof-of-work mechanism that allows the blockchain to run automatically on distributed consensus. [18] Another topics that will be covered at the conference include use cases on how Southeast Asia is tackling challenges using Blockchain. [21]

Blockchain transactions involve two keys - a private and a public one. [18] With a blockchain record, they are interconnected, reinforcing the value of cross-cutting coordination of the services. [17] The goal of this project is to deploy blockchain on Peerster so that each node has the capability of calculating the hash value, broadcasting its information once it obtains the correct hash value, and validating the information sent by other nodes. [23] Dubai Customs, Dubai Trade and government-owned ICT firm Dutech have partnered with IBM, extending Dubai's entire economy onto the blockchain. [22] Digitize and transfer Kimberley certificates on blockchain to secure the diamond trade. [17] Maybe, this could help us to fight against the most difficult problem our society will face: by providing to IA what it needs from a decentralized blockchain run by individuals. [17] The small north-east European country has introduced blockchain to improve its public services, which were already online. [18]

Smart official paper provider working like any other institutions providing proof of identity, but enhanced because could be used from all over the world. [17] Smart food network working with multiple brands in a specific area in comparison to multiple areas and single brand. [17]

Blockchain-based smart city technology underpins Smart.London, the latest online initiative by DigitalTown for Londoners to manage shared ownership of city cooperatives. [22] Vehicles can use smart city data for decision-making, such as dynamic routing based on traffic conditions. [24] Today it signed TM Forum's Smart City Manifesto, pledging commitment to smart platforms that can manage the vast reservoir of city data. [22] As for the testing part, we would like to experiment the system on an actual surveillance camera network to measure the metrics of the system performance including network traffic, stability, etc. There definitely is a potential to expand the system to include more different kinds of IoT devices belonging to the Smart City category. [23]

Another program aims to keep a check on the air quality in the city by recording data and sharing it online. [18] City dwellers are generally hustlers looking to benefit from an out-of-control demand for goods and services. [18] In general, as the city population continues to grow, there is unquenchable need for solving the problems concerning efficiency, security, the environment, citizen participation, and the economy. [23]

Installed in citizens homes, as well as in 150 Taipei City elementary schools, Airbox is collecting and sharing air quality data online, making it one of the most comprehensive environmental sensor networks in the world. [22] Airbox is another smart city venture, a joint effort by Edimax, Realtek, Asus, and Academia Sinica, LASS and Taipei City. [22]

Dubbed the " Dubai Paperless Strategy ", the goal is a cornerstone of Smart Dubai to create a paperless government, eliminating over one billion pieces of paper annually. [22]

When the opportunity presented itself to use blockchain technology to make these votes more trustworthy, the city?s government ceased it to promote active citizenship. [18] Andhra Pradesh became the first Indian state to run pilot projects for the implementation of blockchain technology. [18] Blockchain technology is more universal and can be used also in other areas, for example, in IoT, WSN and mobile devices. [42] One of Bin Bishr?s biggest challenges now, she said, was to help people understand the benefits of blockchain technology, and distinguish it from bitcoin, the digital currency for which the technology was originally created. [41] Blockchain technology is exactly what we need to construct a single, decentralized database managed by software and shared by multiple users, without any third party authority. [23]

Several sectors are currently running pilot blockchain projects, including the Dubai Land Department, Dubai Municipality, Dewa and the Department of Naturalisation and Residency Dubai. [22]

Nokia is set to launch an Internet of Things (IoT)-based set of services, data analytics, and Blockchain technologies for what it claims to be economically and environmentally sustainable "smart cities." [28] The mobile communications technology provider introduced the service that would use blockchain to monetize data and facilitate payment for IoT data. [27] Based on blockchain, the distributed ledger technology that is taking finance, healthcare, and a range of other industries by storm, our platform allows you to easily integrate third parties into your data market -- expanding your customer base and service offerings. [28] Borsa Istanbul Decides to Launch Blockchain Platform for Customer Data and Documents Turkey?s local stock exchange, Borsa Istanbul, has been working to bring in a. [25]

In this webinar, blockchain professors and entrepreneurs, David Lee and Boyd Cohen will explore the myriad of reasons why a blockchain approach to the evolution of cities is the superior choice for improving quality of life, ensuring resilience and for enabling urban innovation. [43] These digital communities and cities are looking for an improved user experience--instant access to services, better routing of traffic, improved safety through real-time information, and, more generally, the use of technology to improve daily life and enhance urban sustainability in every sense of the word," says Jarrod Russell, Senior Analyst. [31] Recently, the concept of "Smart Cities" has developed considerably with the rise and development of the Internet of Things as new form of sustainable development. [26]

The system will be used to match public tender projects with the solutions of smart technology suppliers. [25] Rizvi continues, "Smart infrastructure, which is shared, secure, and scalable, is needed to ensure urban assets and data are efficiently used. [28]

To monetize these infrastructures, the service first digitizes them by creating automated smart contracts based on a blockchain framework. [27] Once the issue is addressed by the relevant team and flagged as resolved, the smart contract executes and sends the individual their reward in the form of a blockchain token. [29]

Topics also include how Ripple views blockchain as the internet of value, distinct from the internet of information, how to scale a technology, and how remittances create a test case for the way forward. [43] In this webinar, we will share market insights on expectations about technology adoption from the field and key insights on the spending landscape for key blockchain use cases and trends. [43] Now, blockchain is becoming a key technology driving this digital revolution. [43] Blockchain has given us the technology to bring together different financial silos, giving individuals, communities and entire economies more access to the financial network; and creating an open, inclusive and empowering global economy. [43] It?s here that blockchain - the shared ledger technology that underpins the virtual currency bitcoin - comes into its own. [29] The crypto revolution brought along with it the underlying technology of blockchain, allowing for the tokenisation of monetary value. [43]

Decentralization and security, the key advantages of Blockchain, offer tremendous potential for re-design the Data business by making User consent and data compliance an ingrained component in the value chain. [43] In Part 1, we discussed the algorithms and data structures used in a blockchain. [43] It?s that concern to leverage the crowd - the ultimate sensor network - that encouraged Vizsafe to explore the promise of blockchain and build in the ir own native " SPOT " token as a reward currency that can also be used to pay for upgrades, concessions and other goods and services at the venues - creating a self-contained token economy and incentivizing a "Doing Well by Doing Good" approach among a venue?s visitors, staff and partners. [29] Nokia?s new service is powered by a Blockchain which has a built-in micropayment platform. [28] Dr. Shiva Kintali is the Founder & CEO of TrueCerts, a blockchain powered digital certificates platform. [43] Join this session to understand how Viant, a blockchain enabled tracking platform, can provide you with transparency and accuracy about your product and its journey. [43] Nuggets Blockchain Company Exclusively Picked for Lafayette Plug and Play Business Accelerator Nuggets, a blockchain-powered e-commerce payment that also serves as an ID platform has. [25] Most of these projects have used ICO to finance their Blockchain based business model. [43]

He produces technical price updates on digital currencies and writes recent developments about blockchain. [27] The future of blockchain remains promising as enterprises move along their digital transformation journeys and look to blockchain to gain a competitive advantage. [43] This session will be particularly interesting to those who want to understand and get their hands dirty with blockchain, building the supply chains of the future. [43]

He is a frequent public speaker on AI, Blockchain, Cryptography and Game theory and their socio-economic and cultural impact. [43] An evidence based approach from the British Blockchain Association - the only organisation in the UK to increase the awareness, understanding and adoption of blockchain and DLT technologies in the UK. [43]

Nokia provides Sensing as a Service (SaaS) which allows mobile network operators (MNOs) to monetize their existing infrastructure, such as towers, by selling sensor data to cities and others. [27] Sensing as a Service (S2aaS) by Nokia is designed to provide intelligent analysis of environmental data gathered from sensors connected to the IoT. Operators can sell the analyses made to cities and other authorities. [28] The idea behind it, NetworkWorld cites, is to provide a means for mobile network operators to monetize already existing infrastructure through selling live environmental sensor data to cities. [28]

Nokia Global Services business development head Asad Rizvi says "Cities need to become digital in order to efficiently deliver services to their habitants." [28]

Under the partnership, IOTA and Taipei City will explore the possibilities of adapting IOTA's technology to meet the smart city needs through a number of projects, aimed at improving data integrity and authenticity concerns in public services and other domains. [30] Smart city enterprise network will link the smart technology between buyers and sellers and apply measureable standards, which unifies the smart projects delivery ecosystem. [25] The Smart City Enterprise is an integration business brand, which runs on the unique design of smart technology and is based on the principles of the classic industrial market. [25]

The products that the project will offer include the basic tender product that provides tender application guide for small and mid-size companies and business analytics that include statistics, reports, and dossiers about smart industry development. [25] Currently, there is an online information mess regarding the smart cities? industrial development. [25]

The platform supports smart contracts for "anonymized, private and secure micro-transactions that allow operators to monetize analyzed data and generate new revenue streams." [28] Designing an efficient, secure, and scalable distributed architecture by bringing computational and storage resources closer to endpoints is needed to address the limitations of today?s smart city network. [26] The smart city enterprise will offer its Ethereum based City tokens during its ICO to obtain funding for the project. [25] Taipei City has partnered with the IOTA Foundation, an open-source non-profit foundation, in order to drive the efforts towards reaching smart city goals. [30]

"IOTA is one of the innovative players in the cryptocurrency world because of its unique technology," said Wei-bin Lee, Commissioner of the Department of Information Technology in Taipei City Government. [30] We welcome the IOTA Foundation to Taipei City and are excited to embark on the future together." [30]

It has been installed in citizen homes as well as in 150 Taipei City elementary schools and is collecting and sharing air quality data online. [30]

It?s possible that rewards of relatively little value could be used to prompt civic-minded behavior, thereby actually saving cities time and money, and making them better places to live. [29] These companies, among others, showcase the top companies innovating and serving the needs of cities and municipalities. [31]

Last year?s crypto-boom has driven huge interest and aggressive development of enterprise applications for blockchain technology, particularly in financial services. [43] We argue that while the full potential of blockchain technology is yet to be realized, with major infrastructure challenges in place, the technology (particularly with the advent of the Ethereum blockchain, which is the first successful programmable blockchain), blockchain technology has created a new viable vehicle for early stage capital raising. [43] Ryan Ross speaks w/ Ripples Marjan Delatinne about how they are employing blockchain technology, how banks are beginning to use blockchain, and the fact that the phenomenon is beyond hype. [43] Blockchain technology is rapidly changing the way applications are built and function on the Internet. [43]

Drawing on his experience working with several blockchain initiatives, bank innovation teams and startups, he outlines the issues with existing governance models and the criteria that blockchain projects need to meet in order to be viable at enterprise production scale. [43]

There will be platform that will track the characteristics of smart contracts and identify their competitiveness while at the same time rate them. [25] After the citizen makes their report - which would be automatically timestamped and geo-tagged - a set of blockchain-based instructions known as a smart contract would be created. [29]

Called "Airbox", the project is a joint effort by Edimax, Realtek, Asus, and Academia Sinica, LASS, and Taipei City. [30] "We are so excited about teaming up with Taipei City," said David Sønstebø, Co-Founder of the IOTA Foundation. [30]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(43 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (43) 4 Blockchain Projects Leading the Smart City Revolution - Invest In Blockchain

2. (41) Smart Cities and Blockchain: Four Countries Where AI and DLT Exist Hand-in-Hand

3. (26) Blockchain Powered Solutions in Smart Cities - DZone Security

4. (20) Smart Cities: Blockchain-Based Sharing Economies & Other Uses

5. (20) Why Smart Cities Must Embrace Decentralization: The Case for Blockchain Cities

6. (19) SAP BrandVoice: Three Ways Cities Will Build Their Future On Blockchain

7. (17) Blockchain Helping to Speed Building of Smart Cities Seeflection.com

8. (17) Will Blockchain Be the Secret Sauce for Smart Cities?

9. (16) A Blockchain-Based Approach to Smart Cities - ExtremeTech

10. (15) Blockchain: The Decentralized Government of Smart Cities - Corporate Relations

11. (15) The Rise of Blockchain and the Era of Smart Cities | BTCMANAGER

12. (15) Smart City Enterprise ICO (CITY Token): Blockchain Sales Network?

13. (14) Why Most Smart Cities Haven?t Embraced Blockchain - ThirtyK

14. (13) Nokia Launches Blockchain-Powered IoT Sensing as a Service for Smart Cities | Bitcoin Magazine

15. (12) Blockchain technology could be the great equalizer for American cities TechCrunch

16. (11) Taipei Taps IOTA Blockchain Tech for Smart City Upgrade

17. (11) What are some blockchain ideas for smart cities? - Quora

18. (11) DigitalTown Introduces Blockchain Platform for Smart Cities - Blockchain News

19. (11) Nokia Rolls Out Blockchain-based IoT Service Dedicated for Smart Cities - CoinWire

20. (10) Blockchains Brilliant Approach To Fostering Smart Cities - Blockchain Council | Blockchain-council.org

21. (10) Three Smart Cities That Will Rule the Blockchain | The Daily Hodl

22. (9) Taipei partners with IOTA to tap blockchain for smart city efforts - EconoTimes

23. (9) Smart Dubai plans to sell its blockchain manual to other smart cities | GulfNews.com

24. (9) Blockchain could mean security, transparency for wide range of city services | Smart Cities Dive

25. (7) GitHub - angelzxw/Blockchain-in-Smart-City: A blockchain based implementation of IoT Smart City Application.

26. (7) Nokia Unveils Blockchain-based IoT Service For Smart Cities Ahead of Mobile World Congress | Smartereum

27. (7) Blockchain will be key to security for'smart cities' of the future | TheHill

28. (6) Australian Government Invests in Blockchain-Powered Smart City Projects - Cryptovest

29. (6) Blockchain Smart Rewards | Smart & Resilient Cities

30. (6) Blockchain for smart cities - Smart Cities World

31. (5) Master thesis: Blockchain and smart cities : CryptoCurrency

32. (5) Blue Whale Foundation - Utilizing Blockchain to Power Smart Cities And Champion the World?s Next Major Manpower Shift, The Sharing Economy - Ethereum World News

33. (4) [1807.01980] SpeedyChain: A framework for decoupling data from blockchain for smart cities

34. (4) Blockchain based hybrid network architecture for the smart city - ScienceDirect

35. (3) A-List in Smart Cities Index - COMPASS INTELLIGENCE

36. (3) Smart Dubai Wins Project City Award at 7th Smart City Expo in Barcelona | Al Bawaba

37. (3) Smart Cities Masters Program - Zigurat Innovation and Technology Business School

38. (2) IoT: Sensor-as-a-service, run by blockchain, is coming | Network World

39. (2) Could blockchain run a city state? Inside Dubai's blockchain-powered future | ZDNet

40. (2) [1806.11399] A Rolling Blockchain for a Dynamic WSNs in a Smart City

41. (1) Swiss firm to deploy its IoT blockchain technology in selected "smart cities? in China - Smart Cities World Forums

42. (1) The Blockchain Smart City - TxMQs Disruptive Technology Group

43. (1) Taipei Partners with IOTA to Become a Blockchain-Powered Smart City | CoinSpeaker

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