Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_energy_storage

C O N T E N T S:

- This energy is referred to as the particles rest energy or rest mass.(More…)
- What is the difference between rest mass and relativistic mass?(More…)
- Stable equilibrium exists if the net force is zero, and small changes in the system would cause an increase in potential energy.(More…)
- When an object moves from one location to another, the force changes the potential energy of the object by an amount that does not depend on the path taken.(More…)
- His result states that if the electron velocity is v and its “rest mass” is m_o (i.e., the mass when v0), then, for velocities much less than the velocity of light, the electron total energy (potential plus kinetic) means that the electron rest mass corresponds to energy equal to m_oc 2.(More…)
- In a 1967 paper, Feinberg postulated a type of hypothetical particles with a rest mass M that also has an imaginary value ( M 2 <0).(More…)

- In practice, physicists often use natural units, a set of units where time and space both have units of length, the speed of light is 1 (and has no units), and mass, momentum, and energy all have units of mass.(More…)

**KEY TOPICS**

** This energy is referred to as the particles rest energy or rest mass.** [1] The rest mass of a body may be considered a form of potential energy, part of which can be converted into other forms of energy. [2] In Special Relativity, the energy corresponding to the rest mass of a body, equal to the rest mass multiplied by the speed of light squared. [3] ‘E_0 ‘ is the rest mass energy with ‘m_0 ‘ being the rest mass and. [4] The kinetic energy of a high speed particle is equal to the difference between the total energy and the rest mass energy. [4] The total energy of a system of high-speed particles includes not only their rest mass but also the very significant increase in their mass as a consequence of their high speed. [5]

** What is the difference between rest mass and relativistic mass?** How can an object moving at the speed of light have any mass at all, i.e. phot. [1] For all intents and purposes, physicists don?t use the concept of relativistic mass but say that there is only one mass that exists which is the rest mass and that mass does not change for an object during motion. [1] Rest mass is the mathematical relation between an external force (acting on a real object at absolute rest) and the objects acceleration. [1] The rest mass of an object is clearly defined as the mass it possesses when it?s at rest relative to the observer?s reference frame. [1] Rest mass is the mass of the electron when its momentum is 0 (zero). [1] What is the physical meaning of rest mass in mass-energy equivalence? How can the rest mass of a particle (also its inertial mass at rest) be. [1] For a body at rest (that is, v 0 ), the relativistic mass is equal to the rest mass because the Lorentz factor resolves to 1. [1] The concept of rest mass and relativistic mass is one that is shunned by many physicists, mainly because it introduces a lot of discrepancies into calculations. [1]

** Stable equilibrium exists if the net force is zero, and small changes in the system would cause an increase in potential energy.** [6] Neutral equilibrium exists if the net force is zero, and small changes in the system have no effect on the potential energy. [6]

Graphically, this means that if we have potential energy vs. position, the force is the negative of the slope of the function at some point. [6] There is a deep connection between force and potential energy. [6] If the potential energy function U(x) is known, then the force at any position can be obtained by taking the derivative of the potential. [6] This is a general result that is true for the force associated with any potential energy. [6] By applying the relationship between force and potential energy, you will eventually arrive upon an intuition which is akin to treating the curve like the tracks of a roller coaster. [6] To get a more nuanced understanding of equilibrium than force alone can offer us, we turn to the connection between force and potential energy. [6] We now know that the (negative of) slope of a potential energy vs. position graph is force. [6] Everything we say here about the relation of force to potential energy is strictly true when the force depends on only one spatial dimension. [6] Since only myself and the field are acting on the object, this also must be the amount of potential energy the object gains. [6] This equation states that massive particles have an intrinsic amount of potential energy. [1] Graphed below is the potential energy of a spring-mass system vs. deformation amount of the spring. [6] The unstable equilibrium should be at higher potential energy than any nearby point. [6] The conclusion is that the equilibrium positions are the positions where the slope of the potential energy vs. position curve is zero. [6] Pictured is the real potential energy vs. separation relationship for two hydrogen atoms. [6]

There are three basic forms of energy: potential energy, kinetic energy, and rest energy. [7] Therefore, the quantity “m 0 ” used in Einstein’s equation is sometimes called the “rest mass.” (The “0” reminds us that we are talking about the energy and mass when the speed is 0.) [7] A photon has no rest mass, but it has momentum. (Light reflecting from a mirror pushes the mirror with a force that can be measured.) [7] Except in nuclear reactions, the conversion of rest mass into other forms of mass-energy is so small that, to a high degree of precision, rest mass may be thought of as conserved. [2]

** When an object moves from one location to another, the force changes the potential energy of the object by an amount that does not depend on the path taken.** [8] The kinetic energy lost by a body slowing down as it travels upward against the force of gravity was regarded as being converted into potential energy, or stored energy, which in turn is converted back into kinetic energy as the body speeds up during its return to Earth. [5] Natures Electrical Properties Electric Potential Energy is a potential energy (measured in joules) that results from conservative Coulomb forces and is associated with the configuration of a particular set of point charges within a defined system. [8] It says that the sum of kinetic energy, 1 2 mv 2, and potential energy, mgz, at any point during the fall, is equal to the total initial energy, mgz 0, before the fall began. [5] When the pendulum stops briefly at the top of its swing, the kinetic energy is zero, and all the energy of the system is in potential energy. [5] When a pendulum swings upward, kinetic energy is converted to potential energy. [5] When a block slides down a slope, potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. [5] Then it slows down as its kinetic energy is changed back into potential energy. [7] With respect to the exterior of the cell, typical values of membrane potential range from -40 mV to -80 mV. Electric Potential is the amount of electric potential energy that a unitary point electric charge would have if located at any point in space, and is equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from the arbitrarily chosen reference point (usually infinity) to that point without any acceleration. [8] Fluid Mechanics Bernoulli’s Principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid’s potential energy. [8] Potential Energy is energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors. [8] Therefore, a body may not proceed to the global minimum of potential energy, as it would naturally tend to due to entropy. [8]

** His result states that if the electron velocity is v and its “rest mass” is m_o (i.e., the mass when v0), then, for velocities much less than the velocity of light, the electron total energy (potential plus kinetic) means that the electron rest mass corresponds to energy equal to m_oc 2.** [9] When any massive object with rest mass M (taken to be in energy units) has velocity vc (or relativistic velocity b v/c 1), the object’s mass-energy becomes infinite. [10] When any particle (tachyon or tardyon) has rest mass M and mass-energy E, it has a momentum P (in energy units) given by E 2 P 2 + M 2. [10]

We can define the gravitational potential energy of an object with total mass M and test mass m separated by distance r as U -Mm/r, assuming spherical symmetry, recognizing that below its surface, M will also be a function of r. [11] Show that the gravitational potential energy of an object of mass at height on Earth is given by. [12]

If another 0.200-kg mass is added to the spring, the potential energy of the spring will be Question options: the same. [13]

I was pointing out to Bunni that even within a Newtonian framework, stating that ‘”gravity is zero ” is not necessarily correct, because we can talk about the gravitational potential energy instead of force. [11] The di²erence in gravitational potential energy of an object (in the Earth-object system) between two rungs of a ladder will be the same for the ±rst two rungs as for the last two rungs. [12] I know this was to demonstrate Conservation of Energy, but if you did the same trick with one of the objects already lifted you would have CREATED potential energy. [14] You still have to convert potential energy into kinetic to use sympathetically. [14] Why do we use the word “system”? Potential energy is a property of a system rather than of a single object–due to its physical position. [12] Compare its kinetic energy K, to its potential energy U. Question options: K decreases and U increases. [13] When it does positive work it increases the gravitational potential energy of the system. [12] The gravitational potential energy, on the other hand, is at its most extreme value there. [11] Oh, forgot to tell you, gravitational potential energy ;;;;;this quip you are using is not the proper application of GPE, once again, follow your own advice & stop trying to apply Pop-Cosmology fantasies to real science, you know, like the IMMUTABLE Inverse Square Law that obliterates any possibility for the existence of black holes with infinite gravity & density at it’s center. [11] We de±ne this to be the gravitational potential energy put into (or gained by) the object-Earth system. [12] Because gravitational potential energy depends on relative position, we need a reference level at which to set the potential energy equal to 0. [12] Show how knowledge of the potential energy as a function of position can be used to simplify calculations and explain physical phenomena. [12]

** In a 1967 paper, Feinberg postulated a type of hypothetical particles with a rest mass M that also has an imaginary value ( M 2 <0).** [10] That Ice Cube neutrino with meV rest mass had ca. 40GeV kinetic energy. [15] Here’s where particle physics appears as an axiom for creation.That ice cube 40GeV neutrino produced many new, never ever existed before, new rest mass particles some 3.5 billion years after its creation in a far distant blazar of a galaxy. [15] Early on, in a thermal regime far far greater than 10^Kelvin, all of these particles with or without rest mass coexisted as equals, a Utopia or Hog Heaven if so you wish. [15]

**POSSIBLY USEFUL**

** In practice, physicists often use natural units, a set of units where time and space both have units of length, the speed of light is 1 (and has no units), and mass, momentum, and energy all have units of mass.** [1] In the accepted big-bang-and-inflation scenario, and before for we had evidence for the existence of dark energy, it was possible to talk about the possible fate of the universe (open or closed) in terms of the initial expansion as balanced by the total mass only. [16] Since when our electron is moving it has more energy that if it would be stopped, and since relativity tells us that massenergy, then we know that the moving electron has a bigger mass than if it would be stopped. [1] The total energy of the universe can not be zero, because there can be no particles of negative mass. [16] The latter increase is the reason why the mass of the universe is large – during inflation, the total energy grew exponentially for 60+ $e$-foldings, before it was converted to matter that gave rise to early galaxies. [16]

What does it mean for a particle like a photon to have a rest-mass of zero? Does it mean that a photon, or for that matter a gluon, has no mas. [1] With this conception one not only obtains the representation of an elementary particle by using only the field equations, that is, without introducing new field quantities to describe the density of matter; one is also able to understand the atomistic character of matter as well as the fact that there can be no particles of negative mass. [16] If we had started from a Schwarzschild solution with negative $m$, we should not have been able to make the solution regular by introducing a new variable $u$ instead of $r$; that is to say, no “bridge” is possible that corresponds to a particle of negative mass. [16] It would be useful to read the paper to understand further more why there can be no negative mass particles. [16] In that case, one can also define that even the mass of an object in Lorentz transformations is not invariant. [1]

A particles rest energy is invariant of which reference frame you are in. [1] The momentum is the energy that was added to this electron to accelerate it to the speed of s. [1] In the light of mass/energy equivalence, the energy of the universe cannot be zero. [16] Note, however that the issues are changed rather a lot by the presence of dark energy in the universe. [16]

This is what “canceled out by the negative energy of the gravitational field” means, but it’s kind of a vacuous notion. [16] This isn’t a physically useful notion of energy in a gravitational theory. [16] In loose terms the difficulty boils down to the fact that gravitational energy can not be localized. [16] In popular science books and articles, I keep running into the claim that the total energy of the Universe is zero, “because the positive energy of matter is cancelled out by the negative energy of the gravitational field”. [16] The claim that the total energy in the universe is zero can be rigorously justified. [16] If the universe is infinite the total energy is not really defined, but it is still true that the total energy in an expanding volume of space is asymptotically zero when the region is large enough for the homogeneity of the universe to be a good enough approximation. [16]

The reason for this is that during Lorentz transformations between reference frames, many of the quantities such as the rate of passage of time, distance of objects, total energy of the objects are not invariant i.e they change. [1]

This raises the question of whether if you use relativistic mass in Newton?s equation of gravitational force, would you get infinite gravitational force between an object with mass which travels at the speed of light (hypothetical) and every other object in the universe. [1] The concept of relativistic mass also indicates that the gravitational force between two objects increases as the velocity increases because the mass of one object increases (the Lorentz factor increases with velocity), which is quite possibly not the case. [1]

The definition is needed because it is technically possible to theorize that an object possesses more mass than normal when it is moving, and the mass that it possesses when it is in motion relative to the observer is called relativistic mass. [1] The relativistic mass in fact becomes infinite at the speed of light because the Lorentz factor resolves to an undefined quantity (plug v c in the Lorentz factor equation above and you will get 1/0, which is undefined). [1] The concept of the existence of relativistic mass introduces not a small amount of problems. [1]

The restoring force of the spring (or anything that oscillates) will be zero when the slope is zero, which occurs at the equilibrium point, i.e., where the object comes to rest when it stops vibrating. [6] Physically, this quantity represents the same thing as the particles rest mass/energy. [1]

Imagine a box is lifted through a potential field, like lifting an object against gravity. [6] It the force depends on movement in two or three dimensions, then technically we say that force is the negative of the gradient of the potential. [6] In two or three dimensions, the force is the derivative of the potential in the direction of “steepest slope.” [6]

We can therefore replace the amount of work done by me, \(W\), with the amount of potential gained, \(\Delta U \). [6] The stable equilibrium should be at lower potential then any nearby point. [6]

The cosmological constant has a constant energy density while the volume increases, so the total energy carried by the cosmological constant (dark energy), on the contrary, grows. [16]

When Einstein generalized classical physics to include the increase of mass due to the velocity of the moving matter, he arrived at an equation that predicted energy to be made of two components. [7] E represents the energy of a particle m 0 represents the mass of the particle when it is not moving p represents the momentum of the particle when it is moving c represents the speed of light. [7] It is impossible to make any mass go at the speed of light because to do so would take infinite energy. [7]

The mass or the amount of matter in something determines how much energy that thing could be changed into. [7] This famous “mass-energy relation” formula (usually written without the “0”s) suggests that mass has a large amount of energy, so maybe we could convert some mass to a more useful form of energy. [7] When energy transforms into mass, the amount of energy does not remain the same. [7] In classical physics, laws of this type govern energy, momentum, angular momentum, mass, and electric charge. [2] Such laws apply in addition to those of mass, energy, and momentum encountered in everyday life and may be thought of as analogous to the conservation of electric charge. [2] It is a famous equation in physics and math that shows what happens when mass changes to energy or energy changes to mass. [7] There is a slight difference in the mass of the resulting krypton and barium, and the mass of the original uranium, but the energy that is released by the change is huge. [7] It means that energy and mass are different forms of the same thing. [7] According to the theory of relativity, energy and mass are equivalent. [2] Special relativity also relates energy with mass, in Albert Einstein’s Emc 2 formula. [7] Energy turns into mass and mass turns into energy in a way that is defined by Einstein’s equation, E mc 2. [7] In most radioactivity, the entire mass of something does not get changed to energy. [7] With the advent of relativity physics (1905), mass was first recognized as equivalent to energy. [5]

A falling body has a constant amount of energy, but the form of the energy changes from potential to kinetic. [2] “Potential energy” just means the energy something has because it is in some higher position than something else. [7]

Matter cannot quite reach the speed of light, as this would require an infinite amount of energy. [8] The fastest possible speed at which energy or information can travel, according to special relativity, is the speed of light in a vacuum c 299,792,458 metres per second (approximately 1,079,000,000 km/h or 671,000,000 mph). [8] Especially when high speeds are involved, as in motor racing and cycling, drafting can significantly reduce the paceline’s average energy expenditure required to maintain a certain speed and can also slightly reduce the energy expenditure of the lead vehicle or object. [8] Energy is a number which you give to objects depending on how much they can change other things. [7] In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). [8] Electromotive Force is the voltage developed by any source of electrical energy such as a battery or dynamo. [8] A device that supplies electrical energy is called electromotive force or emf. [8]

Such replacements include energy and momentum, which can be derived informally from taking the time and space derivities of the plane wave function. [8] If one moment of time were peculiarly different from any other moment, identical physical phenomena occurring at different moments would require different amounts of energy, so that energy would not be conserved. [5] When energy moves from one form to another, the amount of energy always remains the same. [7] Conservation of energy implies that energy can be neither created nor destroyed, although it can be changed from one form (mechanical, kinetic, chemical, etc.) into another. [2] “Kinetic energy” just means the energy something has because it is moving. [7]

Conservation of energy, principle of physics according to which the energy of interacting bodies or particles in a closed system remains constant. [5] The device of associating mechanical properties with the fields, which up to this point had appeared merely as convenient mathematical constructions, has even greater implications when conservation of energy is considered. [5] The conception of energy continued to expand to include energy of an electric current, energy stored in an electric or a magnetic field, and energy in fuels and other chemicals. [5]

Spring as a device is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy. [8] Another way of expressing this idea is to say that matter can be transformed into energy. [7] This fact is expressed in physics by saying that energy, momentum, and angular momentum are conserved. [5] The laws of conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are all derived from classical mechanics. [2] In any collision (as in any other phenomenon), energy, momentum, and angular momentum are always conserved. [2]

It would do that forever except that the movement of the rope in the ring and rubbing in other places causes friction, and the friction takes away a little energy all the time. [7] For a long time, people thought that the conservation of energy was all there was to talk about. [7] Action has the Dimension of Energy x Time, where a Physical System follows simultaneously all possible paths with amplitudes determined by the action. [8] The Quantum of action in the photon is not separated into a separate piece of time and a separate piece of energy. [8] The elastic efficiency of the resilin isolated from locust tendon has been reported to be 97% (only 3% of stored energy is lost as heat). [8] During the 1840s it was conclusively shown that the notion of energy could be extended to include the heat that friction generates. [5]

It is equal to Avogadro’s number multiplied by the energy of one photon of light. [7] In an isolated system the sum of all forms of energy therefore remains constant. [2] Emfs convert chemical, mechanical, and other forms of energy into electrical energy. [8] The notion of energy was progressively widened to include other forms. [5]

A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. [8] One component involves “rest mass” and the other component involves momentum, but momentum is not defined in the classical way. [7]

Conservation of linear momentum expresses the fact that a body or system of bodies in motion retains its total momentum, the product of mass and vector velocity, unless an external force is applied to it. [2] The angular momentum of each bit of matter consists of the product of its mass, its distance from the axis of rotation, and the component of its velocity perpendicular to the line from the axis. [2] Angular Momentum is the rotational analog of linear momentum, which is a vector quantity defined as the product of an object’s mass, m, and its velocity, v. Linear momentum is denoted by the letter p and is called “momentum” for short. [8]

Yukawa Potential is the amplitude of potential, m is the mass of the particle, r is the radial distance to the particle, and k is another scaling constant, so that 1/km is the range. [8] The restoring force is a function only of position of the mass or particle. [8] The force due to gravity and the mass of the object at the end of the pendulum is equal to the tension in the string holding that object up. [8] Center of Mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating. [8] Thrust is when a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system. [8] Second law The resultant force is equal to mass times acceleration. [8] As a vector, the calculated net force is equal to the product of the object’s mass (a scalar quantity) and its acceleration. [8] When released, the restoring force combined with the pendulum’s mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. [8] If you knew the number of protons and neutrons in a piece of matter such as a brick, then you could calculate its total mass as the sum of the masses of all the protons and of all the neutrons. (Electrons are so small that they are almost negligible.) [7] Conservation of mass implies that matter can be neither created nor destroyed–i.e., processes that change the physical or chemical properties of substances within an isolated system (such as conversion of a liquid to a gas) leave the total mass unchanged. [2] Units of mass are used to measure the amount of matter in something. [7] The center of mass is the particle equivalent of a given object for application of Newton’s laws of motion. [8] The traveling object may be detected directly (e.g., ion detector in mass spectrometry) or indirectly (e.g., light scattered from an object in laser doppler velocimetry). [8] It is a hypothetical point where entire mass of an object may be assumed to be concentrated to visualise its motion. [8] List of Moments of Inertia is the mass moment of inertia, usually denoted by I, measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analogue to mass. [8] As speeds get closer to the speed of light, then the changes in mass become impossible not to notice. [7] When something we are pushing is already going at some large part of the speed of light we find that it keeps gaining mass, so it gets harder and harder to get it going faster. [7] Human beings ordinarily do not notice this increase in mass because at the speed humans ordinarily move the increase in mass in almost nothing. [7] By throwing out all these particles that have mass it has made its own mass smaller. [7] If the axis passes through the body’s center of mass, the body is said to rotate upon itself, or spin. [8]

Gravity Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion (wiki) First law If a body is at rest it remains at rest or, if it is in motion, it moves with uniform velocity, until it is acted on by a resultant force. [8] Proper acceleration, being the acceleration (or rate of change of velocity) of a body in its own instantaneous rest frame, is not the same as coordinate acceleration, being the acceleration in a fixed coordinate system. [8] Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion (this includes changes to its speed, direction or state of rest). [8]

A property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force. [8]

If a force is conservative, it is possible to assign a numerical value for the potential at any point. [8] If the force is not conservative, then defining a scalar potential is not possible, because taking different paths would lead to conflicting potential differences between the start and end points. [8]

The potential is monotone increasing in r and it is negative, implying the force is attractive. [8]

Energy is not created or destroyed but merely changes forms, going from potential to kinetic to thermal energy. [5] The truly conserved quantity is the sum of kinetic, potential, and thermal energy. [5]

At all times, the sum of potential and kinetic energy is constant. [5] Energy captured in a potential well is unable to convert to another type of energy ( kinetic energy in the case of a gravitational potential well) because it is captured in the local minimum of a potential well. [8]

The expressions for the kinetic energy of the object, and for the forces on the parts of the object, are also simpler for rotation around a fixed axis, than for general rotational motion. [8] In certain particle collisions, called elastic, the sum of the kinetic energy of the particles before collision is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of the particles after collision. [5] When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into thermal energy (that is, it converts work to heat ). [8] When friction slows the block to a stop, the kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy. [5]

The total energy, momentum, and angular momentum in the universe never changes. [5]

Which comes to our mass in momentum unless acted on by a force – theorecticly a force requires no energy to stop mass in momentum Benni.you’re changing velocity by stopping a mass in momentum, that’s a change in energy. [11] As the stream of photons are reflecting each photon imparts energy moving electrons which emit photons in the process, as there is a force on the mirror implies reaction where the only reaction possible, as waves are massless as energy is massless, is the electrons mass in motion to its higher orbit which cannot produce a force because it stays within the same atom. [11] The 3 He-D fusion reaction (ignition temperature 30 keV) generates 77% of its energy in charged particles, resulting in substantial reduction of shielding and radiator mass. [10] The rocket’s total initial mass consists of the vehicle’s empty mass, the reaction fluid’s mass, and the energy source’s mass, half of which is the mass of the antimatter. [10] The amount of the released energy is usually proportional to the total mass of the collided matter and antimatter, in accordance with the mass-energy equivalence equation, E mc2. “- Well, I truly hope that DM is just a flaky theory and not something more sinister. [11] The amount of blast energy utilized for thrust is 7%, and the amount of pulse mass that intercepts the plate is 39%. [10] We can obtain the amount of antimatter needed for a specific mission by substituting Eq. (11.16) into Eq. (11.15) to get the mass of the energy source ( m e ). [10] Remember Einstein’s famous e mc 2 ? For our thermal calculations, we will use the percentage of the fuel mass that is transformed into energy for E. [10] Tritium, with one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, is transformed by the weak interaction beta-decay process into mass-3 helium (two protons and one neutron) by emitting an electron and an anti-neutrino ( 3 H 3 He + e – + n e ) with an excess energy of 18.6 keV. This is the lowest energy beta decay known, and therefore the one which is affected most strongly by the mass of the electron neutrino. [10] Because of the relativistic relation of mass, energy, and momentum ( E 2 P 2 + M 2 ) it is the mass-squared of the neutrino that is actually determined by the tritium end-point measurements. [10] Einstein used a similar thought experiment to that used by Poincare to illustrate mass energy equivalence and almost the same equations although strangely enough he did not refer to either Poincare, Rutherford or anyone else?s work in his paper. [9] They are mostly used as attitude jets on satellites, and in situations where energy is more plentiful than mass. [10] Is DM a form of Mass or Energy or both or neither? What is its purpose exactly? Does it self-propagate like the CMBR as space expands, or does it remain static? We don’t know. [11] Energy is derived from the transformation of mass to energy. [11] I agree that the velocity/momentum of a bullet/projectile in flight may be changed by certain factors, but which requires the stopping energy of a mass. [11] Imparted with a launch energy of 76 GJ, a one tonne payload the size and shape of a telephone pole with a carbon cap would burn up only 3% of its mass and lose only 20% of its energy on its way to solar or Earth orbit. [10] Conservation of energy isnt subverted, the extra energy for the increased “mass” comes from the sympathists energy source (a fire, themselves, etc.). [14] Dual-mode use the neutron and bremsstrahlung radiation energy to heat a blanket of cold reaction mass which thrusts out of separate conventional exhaust nozzles. [10] Dual-mode use the neutron and bremsstrahlung radiation energy (which is otherwise wasted) to heat cold reaction mass, in parallel to the fusion products exhaust. [10]

They burn fusion fuels, and for reaction mass use either the fusion reaction products or cold propellant heated by the fusion energy. [10] To make the fusion reactor into a fusion rocket, the fusion energy has to be used to accelerate reaction mass. [10]

If you shift to pulse mode along with increased propellant mass flow, the reactor’s effective energy output increases. [10]

You can only increase particle energy so much; you then start to get vacuum arcing across the acceleration chamber due to the enormous potential difference involved. [10] Charged particles from the antimatter reaction create bremsstrahlung x-rays as they heat up the hydrogen. You want as much as possible of the expensive antimatter energy turned into heated hydrogen, but at the same time you don’t want more x-rays than your engine (or crew) can cope with. [10] The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) system captures the neutronic energy of a nuclear reaction using a heat exchanger cooled by water or liquid hydrogen. The exchanger uses thin foil or advanced dumbo fuel elements with cermet (ceramic-metal) substrates, jacketed by a beryllium oxide neutron reflector. [10] Remember, all nuclear thermal rockets are using nuclear energy to heat hydrogen propellant for rocket exhaust. [10] To use the energy for propulsion, you have to either somehow direct the gamma rays and pions to shoot out the exhaust nozzle to produce thrust, or you have to used them to heat up a propellant and direct the hot propellant out the exhaust nozzle. [10] Both approaches have a problem with getting the fusion reaction energy to heat the propellant. [10] Since it is tightly wrapped around the reaction, it is very efficient at getting the fusion reaction energy to heat the propellant. [10] Energy is efficiently transferred from fuel to propellant by direct molecular collision, radiative heat, and direct reaction fragment deposition. [10] Bremsstrahlung radiation energy: This occurs when the hot plasma ions from the fusion reaction collide with the electrons (which are there because “ionization of fusion fuel atoms” means “ripping off their electrons and tossing them into the plasma soup” ). [10] The neutron and bremsstrahlung energy produced by the fusion reaction is basically wasted energy when it comes to rocket propulsion. [10] Neutron energy: Many fusion reactions or side reactions also produce deadly and worthless neutron radiation. [10] For instance, D-T (deuterium-tritium) fusion produces 80% of its energy in the form of uncharged neutrons and 20% in the form of charged particles. [10] Propellant is hydrogen. Bombard Boron-11 atoms with Protons (i.e., ionized Hydrogen) and you get a whopping 16 Mev of energy, three Alpha particles, and no deadly neutron radiation. [10] 80% of its energy output is in highly energetic neutral particles (neutrons) that cannot be contained by magnetic fields or directed for thrust. [10] The charged particles are directed as thrust by the magnetic nozzle, so they are not counted as wasted energy. [10] The thrust can be increased by increasing the hydrogen propellant density to 10 18 cm -3, but then you start having problems with the hydrogen plasma radiatively cooling (losing its thrust energy). [10] It is the ability to remove this energy, either with an external space radiator or regeneratively using the hydrogen propellant, that determines the maximum power output and achievable Isp for the GCR engines. [10] Because the uranium plasma and hot hydrogen are essentially transparent to the high energy gamma rays and neutrons produced during the fission process, the energy content of this radiation (~7–10% of the total reactor power) is deposited principally in the solid regions of the reactor shell. [10] The fissioning energy can be estimated from the Zubrin total power of 427 GW divided by the energy content of Uranium 235 of 83 TJ/kg.) [10] We assume that 7% of reaction energy P rx reaches the solid, temperature-limited portion of the engine and that the remainder is converted to jet power at an isentropic nozzle expansion efficiency of η j. [10] It is the amount of energy that reaches various solid, temperature-limited regions of the engines that ultimately limits the power generation and therefore the specific impulse. [10] The amount of amplification of thrust or specific impulse requires the value of N, or energy ratio between the pulsed mode and the stationary mode (pulsed mode energy divided by stationary mode energy). [10] Therefore, it would require all the energy in the universe and more to accelerate the object to a velocity of b 1. [10] This energy is associated with the state of separation between two objects that attract each other by the gravitational force. [12] The work done against the gravitational force goes into an important form of stored energy that we will explore in this section. [12] Larry Niven postulates something like this in his “Known Space” series, the crystal-zinc tube makes a science-fictional force field which reflects all energy. [10] This concentrates the most intense electric fields along the cavity axis, placing 95% of the energy into the propellant, with less than 5% lost into the discharge tube walls. [10] Neutron energy does not heat the reactor, it passes through and directly heats the propellant. [10] About a third of the reaction energy is X-rays and neutrons stopped as heat in the shields (partly recoverable in a Brayton cycle), another third escapes as neutrinos. [10] Troublesome neutrons comprise a small part of its energy (4% at ion temperatures 50 keV, due to a D-D side reaction), and moreover the energy density is 10 times less then D-T. Another disadvantage is that 3 He is so rare that 240,000 tonnes of regolith scavenging would be needed to obtain a kilogram of it. (Alternatively, helium 3 can be scooped from the atmospheres of Jupiter or Saturn.) [10] The neutron energy output can be reduced to 40% by catalyzing this reaction to affect a 100% burn-up of its tritium and 3 He by-products with D. [10] The antiprotons annihilate protons in uranium atoms, the energy release splits the atoms, creating a shower of neutrons, and a normal chain reaction ensues. [10]

They studied the kinematics of high energy particle reactions at large accelerators, they built timing experiments that used cosmic rays, and they probed many radioactive decay processes for some hint of tachyon emission. [10] Helium 3 is an isotope of helium, and deuterium (abbreviated D) is an isotope of hydrogen. The 3 He-D fusion cycle is superior to the D-T cycle since almost all the fusion energy, rather than just 20%, is deposited in the plasma as fast charged particles. [10] The fusion of 10% hydrogen to 90% boron (using 11 B, the most common isotope of boron, obtained by processing seawater or borax) has an even higher ignition temperature (200 keV) than 3 He-D, and the energy density is smaller. [10]

The OH molecules then transfer their energy to a stream of hydrogen propellant in a thermodynamic rocket nozzle by relaxation collisions. [10] The range of a pion at that energy can be measured on the RANGE scales below, traveling through vacuum, hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant at 300 atm, nitrogen (N 2 ) propellant at 100 atm, and tungsten radiation shielding. [10] Using detailed calculations they didn’t explain, the report said hydrogen at 300 atm was about 65% efficient at converting the pion energy into heated propellant, while nitrogen at 100 atm was more like 95%. [10] Propellant is hydrogen. 1 atom of Deuterium fuses with 1 atom of Helium-3 to produce 18.35 MeV of energy. [10] This energy that is deposited in the moderator can be regeneratively removed by the incoming hydrogen propellant. [10] A significant portion of the energy required to run the Hall Effect thruster is used to ionize the propellant, creating frozen flow losses. [10] You can arrange matters in such a way that each kilogram of propellant still gets the same share of energy. [10] The fission fragment exhaust loses energy while the cold propellant gains energy. [10] As a drive, it sucks up and contains the energy of a fusion reaction, and re-radiates the energy as the equivalent of a photon drive exhaust. [10] In addition to creating thrust, the nozzle also harvests some of the exhaust energy to charge up the primary power system capacitors for the subsequent pulse. [10] There is, however, a limitation on how much energy can be absorbed by the hydrogen and turned into thrust without overheating the cavity wall or the exhaust nozzle. [10] Consider the central problem of rocketry: how can one burn fuel at a high enough exhaust velocity to provide reasonable thrust without an unreasonable expenditure of energy. [10] Since the reactor’s energy has to be divided up to service more propellant per second, each kilogram of propellant gets less energy, so the exhaust velocity and specific impulse goes down. [10] The combined exhaust velocity of the fission fragment + propellant energy is lower than the original pure fission fragment, so the specific impulse goes down. [10]

The ideal propellant is thus easy to ionize and has a high mass/ionization energy ratio. [10] The difference is that fission fragment energy heats the reactor and reactor heat gives energy to the propellant. [10] Thermodynamics will not allow heat energy to pass from something colder to something hotter, so it cannot make the propellant hotter than the reactor. [10] In a conventional solid-core NTR the propellant is not exposed to enough neutrons to get any measurable energy from them. [10] The lead shell is to convert the high energy radiation into a form more suited to be absorbed by the propellant. [10] The amazing thing is that the only by-product of this process from something to nothing was energy in the form of the emission of particles and waves. [9] The pulse energy can be brought down to microfission levels by the use of exotic particles. [10] The more you do this, the more it will reduce the energy delivered to each particle. [10] Instead you get some energy, some charged particles, and some uncharged particles. [10]

About two thirds of this energy must be rejected as waste heat, but the remainder is thermally used to generate electricity or to breed tritium to be added to the fuel to facilitate the cat D-D pellet ignition. [10] If used as fuel, its specific energy (218 MJ/kg) produces a theoretical specific impulse of 2.13 ksec. [10] A “target” of fusion fuel can be brought to ignition by “inertial confinement”: the process of compressing and heating the fuel with beamed energy arriving from all sides. [10] A pulse of 5 μg of fuel (3 × 10 18 antiprotons) contains 900 MJ of energy, and at a repetition rate of 0.8 Hz, a power level of 700 MW th is attained. [10] Dr. John Schilling figures that as an order of magnitude guess, about one day of full power operation would result in enough fuel burnup to require reprocessing of the fissionable fuel elements. (meaning that while there is still plenty of fissionables in the fuel rod, enough by-products have accumulated that the clogged rod produces less and less energy) A reprocessing plant could recover 55-95% of the fuel. [10]

Anyway the thrust power basically is the fraction of the antimatter annihilation energy that becomes charged pions. [10] There are some designs that try to harvest the wasted neutron and bremsstrahlung energy by attempting to turn it into electricity instead of thrust. [10] D-D (deuterium-deuterium) fusion gives you only 66% of the energy in neutrons. [10] D- 3 He (deuterium-helium-3) fusion gives off maybe 5% of its energy as neutrons. [10] In U 235 fission, only about 2% of the energy goes into neutrons (unlike D-T fusion). [10] Fusion Gain: how many times bigger is the fusion energy compared to the input energy. [10] For the trip times included in this analysis the total radiation dose to the crew is proportional to the energy required for the mission. [10] Mission energy requirements and total trip crew radiation dose The crew-to-nozzle separation is constant at 100 meters. [10] The reaction is confined to a magnetic bottle instead of a chamber constructed out of metal or other matter, because the energy of antimatter easily vaporizes matter. [10] In any quantum reaction process the energy cost squared appears in the denominator of the probability, and if that energy is zero, it should make for a big probability. [10] In an antimatter rocket, the source of the propulsion energy is separate from the reaction fluid. [10] The energy liberated by burning chemical fuel brought astronauts to the moon, but that rocket science makes for a long trip to Mars. [10] As a rule of thumb, the collector mirror of a laser thermal rocket can be much smaller than a comparable solar moth, since the laser beam probably has a higher energy density than natural sunlight. [10] Concrete development began with the Atomic Energy Commission’s Project Rover in 1955 — three years before NASA’s founding — and continued with the NERVA rocket prototype, which fired for nearly 2 hours straight during ground tests before budget cuts ended development in 1972. [10] At the other end of the shock tube we find structed diffuser serves to concentrate the energy of the shock wave, and the valve 12, connecting tube with a nozzle rocket. [10]

For convenience, we refer to this as the gained by the object, recognizing that this is energy stored in the gravitational ±eld of Earth. [12] Then the emission of a neutrino-antineutrino pair to supply the needed momentum with zero energy cost would make the process go. [10] The momentum of a photon is p E/c, where E is the energy of the photon. [10] The pions can be absorbed by the propellant and their energy utilized. [10] Propellant: lithium. 1 atom of Deuterium fuses with 1 atom of Tritium to produce 17.6 MeV of energy. [10]

Half of this energy is bremsstrahlung X-rays, which must be captured in a lithium heat engine. [10] Annihilation usually results in a release of energy that becomes available for heat or work. [11]

The magnetic field cannot be vaporized since it is composed of energy instead of matter. [10] Dark Matter? Dark Energy? Both? Or maybe just Pop-Cosmology off on another of it’s unending rants hoping to prevail against the immutable Laws of Physics such as the Inverse Square Law that Ojorf has been unable to figure out. [11] Remember: unless you are using only electron-positron antimatter annihilation, mixing matter and antimatter does NOT turn them into pure energy. [10] As a rule of thumb, in space, energy is cheap but matter is expensive. [10]

It is an unavoidable characteristic of the nuclear fission process that about 7 to 10 percent of the energy release is high-energy gamma and neutron radiation that will go through the hydrogen gas but be stopped in the surrounding solid reactor structure. [10] The remaining energy (neutron, bremsstrahlung, and cyclotron radiation) must be captured in a surrounding jacket of cold dense Li plasma. [10] The neutron and bremsstrahlung radiation energy is considered to be waste. [10] The drawback of course is that the 95% fission-fragment energy is increased as well as the neutron energy. [10] The fission of the 235 U atom produces 165 MeV of energy plus 12 MeV of neutral radiation (gammas and a couple of fast neutrons). [10] The pesky neutrons cannot be so directed, so they do count as wasted energy. [10] In a fission nuclear reactor 95% of the reactor energy comes from fission-fragments, and only 5% come from prompt neutrons. [10] In pulse mode, that 5% energy from neutrons could be higher than the 95% fission-fragment energy in stationary mode. [10] When struck by a thermal neutron, a fissile nuclide splits into two fragments plus energy. [10]

If c designates the speed of light in vacuum and E the electromagnetic energy, then the radiation energy flux is SEc. [9] Setting vc, since the emitted radiation travels at the speed of light, and combining pmcS/c^2 with SEc, Poincarobtained a result he expressed in these terms: “We can regard electromagnetic energy as a fictitious fluid of density which moves in space in accordance with Poynting?s laws.” [9] There is something physical about electromagnetic waves Demonstrated in the Christmas lectures, where light reflecting of a mirror sets the mirror in oscillation Is this energy in motion? Compton scattering is what it is. [11]

The catch is, you have to arrange for the protons to impact with 300 keV of energy, and even then the reaction cross section is fairly small. [10] In other words the reaction energy that cannot be contained and directed by the magnetic nozzle. [10]

You might be able to put a band-aid on the problem by dialing up the required energy per newton of thrust. [10] They recognized at once that the ceaseless emissions pointed to a vast store of energy within atoms?–?energy that might someday be released for useful power or terrible weapons, however people chose. [9] This has about the energy of an Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power, or 43 tons of TNT. For each milligram. [10] Solar power is relatively lightweight but the energy is so dilute you need huge arrays. [10]

Subsequent capacitor recharges are by harvesting exhaust energy. [10] In both cases tha amount of energy that can be generated in, and released from, the fireball is essentially unlimited. [10] Depending on how the work is applied, it will increase (or decrease) a specific quantity of energy. [11] The two sets of orange bars is because while the range is relatively constant for all high energies, the range becomes dramatically less at the point where the pion energy drops below 100 MeV (the “last 100 MeV”). [10] Turbopumps are penalty-weight, turbopumbs need complicated plumbing to supply the energy needed to spin the little darling, and turbopumps contain several points of mechanical failure with all their moving parts. [10] If I understand this correctly you could create perpetual energy by linking with the highest point on a turbine, breaking the link, and then linking again. [14] If a hundred billion antiprotons at 1.2 MeV in a 2 nsec pulse are shot at a target of three grams of HB: 235 U in a 9:1 molar ratio, the uranium microfission initiates H-B and releases 20 GJ of energy. [10] The system illustrated uses a 5-meter magnetic nozzle to transfer the microexplosion energy to the vehicle. [10] The illustrated design uses combined input beam energy of 38 megajoules, arrayed in a ring surrounding the ejected iceball target. [10]

Meanwhile some of the energy in the nozzle field compression can be harvested to charge up the capacitors for the next round. [10] Therefore, the main strategy is to try and direct the drive energy with magnetic fields instead of metal walls. [10] Therefore, within the ranges used in this analysis one can estimate the crew radiation dose by knowing the energy needed for the mission. [10] This is about 10 -6 of the lowest neutrino energy ever detected, neither of the above detection schemes can be used in this energy range, and there is no known alternative method of detection. [10] Part of the energy of the reactor is used to drive the pump, which feeds into the reactor core liquid working medium, where it vaporizes and heated at high pressure. [10]

An electro-magnetic wave imparts energy to outer orbital electrons causing them to move into higher orbits within the electron shell structure of an atom. [11] Their high exhaust velocity is poorly matched to typical mission requirements and therefore, wastes energy. [10]

If the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured for a very large number of similar tritium decays, one finds a bell-shaped “spectrum” of energies ranging from essentially zero electron energy to a maximum of about 18.6 keV. This maximum-energy tip of the electron’s kinetic energy distribution is called the “endpoint”, and is the place where the neutrino is emitted with near-zero energy and where the neutrino’s mass will make it’s presence known. [10] When the endpoint region is made linear (using a plotting trick called a Kurie plot), then the straight-line dependence of the electron’s kinetic energy takes a node-dive just before it reaches zero, displaying the effect of neutrino mass. [10]

Gas-core engines have the potential of producing a specific mass in the range 0.6 to 0.02 kilogram of weight per kilowatt of thrust power. [10] These results are presented in terms of a parameter commonly used to describe lowthrust propulsion devices, engine specific mass, which is the ratio of engine weight to thrust power (in kg/kW). [10] With that penalty weight the propellant load will have to exceed 500,000 to 1,000,000 pounds to capitalize on the increase specific impulse the engine enjoys over a conventional solid-core NTR. And even then the fuel mass flow ratio would be below 25. [10] The design is trying to increase the propellant to fuel mass flow ratio to something between 25 and 50. [10]

In order to radiatively transfer this higher power to the propellant, the uranium fuel temperature increases, necessitating an increase in reactor pressure to maintain a constant critical mass in the engine. [10] Using propellant to control the reactor would happily reduce the engine mass even more, and increase the engine reliabilty. [10] If you increase the engine pressure to 2,000 psi with a partial-pressure ratio of 80, preventing the reaction chamber from exploding will increase the reactor mass to something between 250,000 to 500,000 pounds. [10] The important statistics: Specific impulse is 1870 seconds (18,300 m/s), thrust 409,000 newtons, engine mass 32,000 kg, thrust-to-weight ratio 1.3. [10] The critical mass requirements are listed in table I. These engine weight calculations were carried out for a specific impulse of 5000 seconds and a thrust level of 4.4×10 4 newtons. [10] The specific mass of a gas-core engine varies from a high of 0.6 to a little less than 0.02 for specific impulses from 3000 to 7000 seconds and thrust levels from 4.4×10 +3 to 4.4×10 +5 newtons. [10]

Magnetic confinement tries to use the actual fusion plasma as propellant, resulting in a ridiculously small mass flow and thus a tiny thrust. [10] This puts your maximum exhaust velocity at 7,600,000 m/s, giving you a mass flow of propellant of 34.6 grams per second at 1 terawatt output, and a thrust of 263,000 Newtons per terawatt. [10] With that much exhaust velocity, you could actually have a rocket where less than 50% of the total mass is propellant (i.e., a mass ratio below 2.0). [10] Chemical rockets achieve their large thrust with high mass consumption rate (dm/dt) but low exhaust velocity; therefore, a large fraction of their total mass is fuel. [10] How much oomph a rocket gets from its fuel depends largely on how fast it can hurl particles out the back, which in turn hinges on their mass. [10] A small amount of fissionable fuel (1/4 to 1 % by mass of the hydrogen flow rate) is exhausted, however, along with the heated propellant. [10] Prompt feedback actuators maintain a critical fuel mass in spite of the turbulent flow of water or hydrogen propellant. [10] They figured the uranium loss would be acceptable as long as 25 to 50 times as much hydrogen propellant escapes compared to uranium fuel (measured by mass). [10] Since uranium has something like 238 times the molecular weight of hydrogen increasing the mass flow ratio is very hard to do. [10] The thrust will be this times the mass flow, so 1 kg/s would give 84 Newtons. [10] There are some who frequent this chatroom who imagine that if you think of an electro-magnetic wave as being a photon, then they start imaging a PARTICLE in their minds, then imagine a photon can thus be treated as a tiny piece of virtual mass subject to 1/2mv for the purpose creating a photon sphere of a BH. Jonesy, being one who has been here numerous times talking about ESCAPE VELOCITY of a photon, Schneibo as well, others. [11] This one is drawn for the case when 90% of the starting mass is propellant. (ed note: a mass ratio of 10) Jet velocity (exhaust velocity) and starting acceleration are the graph scales. [10] Independently of assuming a specific ship’s mass and propellant fraction, he takes the hard canon facts of Epstein’s experimental ship having an acceleration of 6.9 gees and a delta V of 5% c, and calculates a result of an exhaust velocity of 13,000,000 meters per second and a mass ratio of 3.0 to 3.3. [10] For thermal drives in general, and NTR-SOLID in particular, the exhaust velocity imparted to a particular propellant by a given temperature is proportional to 1 / sqrt( molar mass of propellant chemical ). [10] When used as a rocket, an ablative nozzle, made of nested layers of whisker graphite whose mass counts as propellant and shadow shield, is employed (much like the ACMF ). [10] “Working mass” is another name for “reaction mass”, “working fluid”, or “propellant”. [10] Better: ion drives want propellant that can be easily ionized, mass drivers don’t care what you use for propellant. [10] A reusable antimatter-powered vehicle using a single-stage-to-orbit has been designed with a dry mass of 11.3 tons, payload of 2.2 tons, and 22.5 tons of propellant, for a lift-off mass of 36 tons (mass ratio 2.7:1). [10] Even though only a fraction of the pulse unit’s mass is officially tungsten propellant, you have to count the entire mass of the pulse unit when figuring the mass ratio. [10] The dry mass and the mass ratio implied that the silicon carbide propellant shell has a mass of 362 metric tons. [10] If we can develop antimatter engines that can handle jets with the very high exhaust velocities Eq. (11.16) implies, this constant mass ratio holds for all conceivable missions in the solar system. [10] This mode has the highest exhaust velocity/specific impulse and the lowest thrust/propellant mass flow of the three fusion engine types. [10] Note that the “engine mass” entry for the various models does not include extras like the mass of the exhaust nozzle, mass of control drums, or mass of radiation shadow shield. [10] It is calculated by figuring if the given thrust can accelerate the engine mass greater than one gee of acceleration. [10] You can alter the Thrust, Engine Mass, and/or the Eff, but no other values. [10] By fixing the engine geometry in Table 4 the mass of the BeO moderator remains constant at 36 mT. However, the pressure vessel and radiator weights are both affected by the thrust level. [10] The Orion engine will need a thrust greater than the mass of the spacecraft, the standard was T/W of 1.25. [10] Dr. Zubrin responded, and he defends the performance of the Zubrin drive as depicted in the game (as high thrust & high specific impulse rocket with low mass and low radiators). [10] Higher specific impulse or higher thrust produces a lower, and therefore better, specific mass. [10] Jondale Solem calculates that the specific impulse is a function of the mass and yield of the nuclear charges, while the thrust is a function of the yield and explosion repetition rate. [10]

At the exact CENTER of a MASS gravity is ZERO. -Benni The gravitational force is zero. [11] Sometimes the Pop-Cosmology aficionados imagine they can employ gravitational lensing effects to assert that there are gravity fields so intense that those gravity fields can capture an electro-magnetic wave & eternally bend it into an orbit around a mass from which it can never escape, they point to the supposed effects of DM causing gravitational lensing as evidence for such a preposterous theory. [11] Alpha particles, each having a charge of +2e and a mass of 6.64 0-27 kg, are accelerated in a uniform 0.50 T magnetic field to a final orbit radius of 0.50 m. [17] They came from the local interstellar cloud. from : The entire universe in blog form April 18 2016 The Taste of Alien Dust By Phil Plait Saturn and Cassini image below is to show collision of solar system of earth particles of various mass moving against the interstellar cloud gas and energized particles of various mass. [18] Dark matter, a mysterious form of matter that makes up about 80 percent of the mass of the universe, has evaded detection for decades. [11] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo’s mass dominates the total mass. [11] A typical figure is of the total mass of a gas core engine with radiator, about 65% of the mass is the radiator. [10] “Specific power” expresses how much power the ship generates for each kilogram of its mass, that is, its total power divided by its mass. [10] With these engines, the Engine Mass value includes the mass of the power plant (unless the value includes “+pp”, which means the mass value does NOT include the mass of the power plant). [10] The advantage is that you have power as long as the sun shines and your power plant has zero mass (as far as the spacecraft mass is concerned). [10] The drawback is that this reduces the mass flow through the reactor, limiting reactor power. [10] The down side is that due to the low mass flow, the thrust is minuscule. [10] Unfortunately, said nozzle was not compatible with the DUMBO active cooling needs. Dumbo does, however, have a far superior mass flow to the NERVA, and thus a far superior thrust. [10] The total rate of mass flow through the plenum chamber is about 196 kg/s. [10] This mode has the highest thrust/propellant mass flow and the lowest exhaust velocity/specific impulse. [10] Mass flow/thrust is small and cannot be increased without lowering the exhaust velocity/specific impulse. [10] A second object with four times the mass of the first if released from the same height. [13] The rule of thumb is that as long as the hydrogen mass expelled is 25 to 50 times a high as the uranium mass expelled the uranium losses are within acceptable limits. [10] They accelerated at a constant rate of 100 gees, and were traveling at a relativistic speed by the time the nearby mass of the enemy ship detonated them. [10] His lower estimate is still around 1.7% the speed of light so we are still talking about sub 2.0 mass ratios. [10] He gave a numerical illustration of the phenomenon: “If the apparatus has a mass of one kilogram, and if it has sent in one direction, with the velocity of light, three millions of joules, the velocity due to the recoil is 1 cm per second.” [9] Poincaralso invented something he called relativistic mechanics in which he derives an expression for the velocity dependence of the electron mass. [9] Using ? for the mass of the recoiling body, and v for its velocity, the equation is ?v S/c2. [9] A terrestrial mass driver running up the side of an equatorial mountain can launch payloads at the Earth escape velocity (11 km/sec). [10] When Einstein calculated Photon Deflection in General Relativity to within 0.02% of error, he did it based on the visible mass of the Sun & the consequential force of gravity based on the quantity of it’s visible mass. [11] The majority of the engine mass will be due to radiation shielding, which will severely reduce the acceleration (drastically lowered thrust-to-weight ratio). [10] The engine is admirably compact with a nicely low critical mass, and an impressive thrust-to-weight ratio of 5-to-1. [10] The thrust-to-weight ratio will be about 40, which implies an engine mass of about 33 metric tons. [10] The drawback is the required heat radiator adds lots of mass to the engine. [10] The solar moth might be carried on a spacecraft as an emergency propulsion system, since the engine mass is so miniscule. [10] The Penn State ICAN-II spacecraft was to have an ACMF engine, a delta-V capacity of 100,000 m/s, and a dry mass of 345 metric tons. [10] This could be charged up and run in a similar manner to an electrospray engine, or if it the dust is magnetically susceptible, it could be accelerated by something similar to a coil gun, mass driver, or linear accelerator. [10] Dr. Ramsthaler figures with such low engine mass, the spacecraft could afford to have seven engines. [10] Contains useful equations for calculating the mass of various engine components.) [10] In order to calculate the weights of the nozzle, turbopump, and pressure shell, it was necessary to calculate the pressure required to have a critical mass in the engine. [10] Propellant (percent): Mass of tungsten propellant in kilograms, as percentage of pulse unit mass in parenthesis. [10] The small shaped-charge bombs each have a mass of 230 kg (including propellant) and a yield of a quarter kiloton (1 terajoule). [10] The mass of the nuclear charge is the mass of “propellant”. [10] The propellant the ship will carry is not included in the mass value. [10]

There is great fundamental interest in the mass of the electron neutrino ( n e ), because it is a leading “dark matter” candidate. [10] They report that the system is extremely rare within the framework of galactic structure formation, and its characteristics strongly imply the effectiveness of enhancing mechanisms other than mass on dark matter halos. [11] Apropos of that last bit, one instrument, the Cosmic Dust Analyzer, was designed to let tiny grains of matter slam into it, so it can analyze their composition, mass, and even how fast they were going. [18] It remained to show that mE/c^2 also applies the other way around, i.e. when m designates an inertial mass associated with matter. [9] Let us calculate the work done in lifting an object of mass through a height, such as in. [12] Question options: Impossible to determine without knowing the mass of the object. [13] A mass-driver optimized for materials transport rather than for propulsion uses a higher ratio of payload mass to bucket mass. [10] For complicated reasons, a spacecraft optimized to use an antimatter propulsion system need never to have a mass ratio greater than 4.9, and may be as low as 2. [10] Or the reduced mass makes for a higher mass ratio to increase the spacecraft’s delta V. The reduced mass also increases the acceleration. [10] The mass ratio of an antimatter rocket for any mission is always less than 4.9:1, and cost-optimized mass ratios are as low as 2:1. [10] The low mass ratio of antimatter rockets enables missions which are impossible using any other propulsion technique. [10] The mass ratio for boosting off or onto Luna using an Al-O 2 rocket is 2.3. [10] To those rocket engineers inured to the inevitable rise in vehicle mass ratio with increasing mission difficulty, antimatter rockets provide relief. [10] The delta-V and exhaust velocity implied a mass ratio of 2.05. [10] The mass of the storage unit might be enough to negate the advantage of the high exhaust velocity. [10] The wet mass and the thrust implied an acceleration of 0.15 m/s 2 or about 0.015g. [10] An unloaded mag sail this size has a thrust of 100 N (at 1 AU) and a mass of 20 tonnes. [10] In his 1900 paper, Poincarexplicitly states that the total mass of the apparatus is equal to the material mass plus the mass carried off as E/c^2 by the electromagnetic “bullet” the apparatus has emitted. [9] In his head, he knew the fuel, so long as it didn’t pool into a critical mass somewhere in the thousands of kilomters of pipes on all sides of him, emitted only low intensity alpha rays which couldn’t penetrate his own skin, let alone the aluminum skin of the pressure tube. [10] Very close to your 11,000 km/s (but, importantly, independently of any assumptions of ship mass and fuel fraction). [10] D-T fusion has a starting mass of 5.029053 and a mass defect of 0.018882. [10] Since S Ec, we have ?v Ec/c2 E/c2 times c, where the E/c2 represents the role of mass. [9] The power plant mass can be omitted if the spacecraft relies on beamed power from a remote power station. [10] Alas, I could find no figures on the mass of the power plant. [10] With the mass of the power plant not actually on the spacecraft, more mass is available for payload. [10] Other advantages include efficient resonance heating (80%), and a low current, high voltage power conditioner, which saves mass. [10] Nuclear power can supply megawatts of power, but reactors have a mass measured in tons. [10] Much of a reactor?s mass is constant, regardless of power level. [10] Presumably the 2 kg plutonium lower limit is due to problems with making a critical mass, you need a minimum amount to make it explode at all. [10] The least unreasonable way of preventing this is to make a solid mass of frozen hydrogen (H 2 ) at liquid helium temperatures which contains 15% single-H by weight. [10] Beryllium oxide (BeO) is selected for the moderator material because of its high operating temperature and its compatibility with hydrogen. The open cycle GCR requires a relatively high pressure plasma (500 — 2000 atm; 1 atm 1.013 × 10 5 N/m 2 ) to achieve a critical mass. [10] Metallic hydrogen also probably does not need to be cryogenically cooled, unlike liquid hydrogen. Cryogenic cooling equipment cuts into your payload mass. [10] Several very careful experiments have been mounted to measure its mass through its effect on the beta decay of mass-3 hydrogen or tritium. [10] The mass of the Orion spacecraft with a full load of pulse units is the wet mass, and the mass with zero pulse units is the dry mass. [10] The ship will probably use lithium hydride (LiH) for a moderator instead, since is only has one-quarter the mass. [10] Mass drivers use electromagnetic accelerators to hurl mass. [10] Moving 5 tons of payload from low-Earth orbit to low Martian orbit with an 18-ton vehicle (mass ratio 3.6:1) requires only 4 milligrams of antimatter. [10] Maybe he’s even got pics? How about that Ojo, you got a pic of what a warped empty space looks like? While you’re at it Ojo, maybe you can put up a pic of a stellar mass in which the Inverse Square Law functions in such a way that the greatest attraction of it’s gravity field is at the CENTER of a mass & not it’s surface, yeah, that’s in GR? OK, quote it for us if you imagine you’re so literate in the thesis. [11] The latest information on reactor critical mass requirements, radiant-heat-transfer properties, and fluid mechanics were used. [10] The explosion of each low yield (335 GJ) atomic bomb energizes and vaporizes a set of low mass transmission lines, used to pump either another high current Z-pinch, or a bank of nanotube-enhanced ultracapacitors. [10] Electrodynamic zeta-pinch compression can be used to generate critical mass atomic bombs at very low yields. [10] The liners that plied from world to world obtained all their propellent mass here, filling their great tanks with the finely divided dust which the ionic rockets would spit out in electrified jets. [10] Instead of needing a fleet of cargo rockets, you just needed a mass driver launcher, a catcher and lots of ferrous cannisters (which can be manufactured at the mining site out of local materials). [10] I was told by one of the experimenters that if the a similar result had been found with the same errors but with the positive of the determined value for M n 2, there would have been much publicity, with press conferences announcing the discovery of a non-zero mass for the electron neutrino. [10] The contours follow the mass distribution reconstructed from WL (white) and optical i light (red) of the galaxies with photometric redshift within 0.06(1 + z cl ) of the cluster redshift (z cl ). [11] Such cost-optimized vehicles could have mass ratios closer to 2 than 4.9. [10] I assumed the yacht had a mass ratio of 4, since Jerry Pournelle was of the opinion that was about the maximum for an economical spacecraft. [10] In a ship with a mass ratio of 10, it would have a delta V of 3.63% c. [10] From this the specific impulse, nuclear yield, and the mass of the Orion propulsion module. [10] If you want to increase the thrust by 5 times, you increase the thrust power by 5 times, the propellant mass flow five times, and keep the exhaust velocity and specific impulse the same. [10] If you wanted to increase the thrust by, for instance 5 time, you have to increase the propellant mass flow by 5 2 25 times and decrease the exhaust velocity by 1/5 0.2 times. [10] The drawback is the low pressure will drastically reduce the propellant mass flow, which reduces the thrust (because thrust propellant mass flow times exhaust velocity ). [10] For instance a 500s Isp is maybe 25% of the Isp of the Xenon Hall Effect Thrusters they’re thinking of using for ARM. That would imply getting somewhere between 16x the thrust per unit time as running the same amount of power through the HET.You’d need 16x the propellant mass flow rate, but if you’re gathering hundreds of tonnes of regolith, rock, and boulders, I would think that wouldn’t be that hard to get say ~125tonnes of regolith. [10] When you have decided on the thrust and thermal power, and want to know how much propellant mass flow you need. [10] When you have decided on the thrust and propellant mass flow, and want to know how much exhaust velocity you will get. [10] The average temperature goes down (decreasing the exhaust velocity) while the propellant mass flow goes up (increasing the thrust). [10]

The propellant mass flow increases naturally because instead of just sending the fusion products out the exhaust nozzle, you are sending out the fusion products plus the cold propellant. [10] However the propellant mass flow goes up since the combined exhaust has more mass than the original pure fission fragment. [10] Heating molecular hydrogen to above 3,000 Kelvin will dissociate it into single-H. Sadly at the high pressures commonly used in solid-core reactors, the temperature and the propellant mass flow would combine into a heat flux high enough to destroy the reactor. [10] The trouble was inadequate propellant mass flow, the result of trying to squeeze too much hydrogen through too few channels in the reactor. [10]

This means additional cold propellant mass is moved around the fusion reaction chamber to be heated by the neutrons and bremsstrahlung radiation. [10] Fusion afterburners and fusion dual-mode engines use the fusion energy (plasma thermal energy, neutron energy, and bremsstrahlung radiation energy) to heat additional reaction mass. [10] Pure fusion rockets use just the plasma thermal energy, and just the fusion products as reaction mass. [10] Fusion afterburners use just the plasma thermal energy, but adds extra cold reaction mass to be heated by plasma energy. [10]

Amazingly enough, this constant mass ratio is independent of the efficiency ( η e ) with which the antimatter energy is converted into kinetic energy of the exhaust. (If the antimatter engine has low efficiency, we will need more antimatter to heat the reaction mass to the best exhaust velocity. [10] The fission fragment is one of the few propulsion systems where the reaction mass has a higher thermal energy than the fuel elements. [10]

The reaction mass ( m r ) is 3.9 times the vehicle mass ( m v ), while the antimatter fuel mass is negligible. [10] The accelerator throws the ship on its planned trajectory without the ship having to burn any fuel or reaction mass. [10]

A pure fusion engine just uses the hot spent fusion products as the reaction mass. [10] Asteroid sample return missions would benefit from development of an improved rocket engine This could be achieved by electrostatically accelerating solid powder grains, raising the possibility that interplanetary material could be processed to use as reaction mass. [10] No matter what the mission, the vehicle uses 3.9 tons of reaction mass for every ton of vehicle and an insignificant amount (by mass, not cost) of antimatter. [10] No matter what the required delta V, the spacecraft requires a maximum of 3.9 tons of reaction mass per ton of dry mass, and a variable amount of antimatter measured in micrograms to grams. [10]

Depending on the relative cost of antimatter and reaction mass after they have been boosted into space, missions trying to lower costs may use more antimatter than that given by Eq. (11.18) to heat the reaction mass to a higher exhaust velocity. [10] All of the other nuclear thermal rockets generate heat with nuclear fission, then transfer the heat to a working fluid which becomes the reaction mass. [10] Mass ratios are worthless because the propellant mass is zero, this drive sneers at the Tyranny of the Rocket Equation. [10] The relativistic mass increase factor g 1/(1 – b 2 ) 1/2 has a zero in its denominator, and the net mass-energy E is given by E gM. [10]

If so, they would need less reaction mass to reach the same mission velocity. [10] The reaction chamber is a cylinder which is spun to make the molten fluid adhere to the walls, the reaction mass in injected radially (cooling the walls of the chamber) to be heated and expelled out the exhaust nozzle. [10] Sail propulsion does not carry onboard reaction mass or does not use reaction mass. [10]

Warm up your reactor once, do a thrust burn, stop the propellant flow and use the heat exchanger and radiator to partially cool the reactor to power generation levels, and keep the reactor warm for the rest of the mission while generating electricity for the ship. [10] If we say we have a payload of 20 metric tons and the rest is propellant, you have 50 hours of acceleration at maximum thrust. [10]

A proton, starting from rest, accelerates through a potential difference of 1.0 kV and then moves into a magnetic field of 0.040 T at a right angle to the field. [17] For that probe and several others, xenon gas is ionized and then electrical potential is used to accelerate the ions until they exit the engine at exhaust velocities of 1550 kilometers per second, much higher than for chemical rocket engines, at which point the exhaust is electrically neutralized. [10] The potential for trace levels of radioactivity in the engine exhaust means that engineers can no longer let clouds of hydrogen gas billow into the atmosphere. [10] To start the engine, the anode on the upstream end is charged to a positive potential by a power supply. [10] A solar-powered electron gun (typical power is a few hundred watts) keeps the spacecraft and sail in a high positive potential (up to 20 kV). [10]

Field-Emission Electric Propulsion typically use caesium or indium as the propellant due to their high atomic weights, low ionization potentials and low melting points. [10] This ion rocket accelerates ions using the electric potential maintained between a cylindrical anode and negatively charged plasma which forms the cathode. [10] This is from Project Icarus: Analysis of Plasma jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion as potential primary propulsion driver for the Icarus probe. [10] There are many potential sources of powder or dust in the solar system with which to power such a propulsion system. [10] The pulse units contain chemical explosives, but there is much more explosive potential in the chemical booster fuel. [10] These microparticles are charged and then accelerated using an electrical potential field. [10] An object’s gravitational potential is due to its position relative to the surroundings within the Earth-object system. [12]

At moderate hydrogen densities there is a problem with the hydrogen sucking up every single bit of the thermal energy, lots of the charged particle reaction products escapes the hydrogen propellant without heating up hydrogen atoms. [10] As soon as the liquid hydrogen fills the center, the reactor goes critical and starts generating large amounts of thermal energy by the miracle of nuclear fission. [10]

Plasma thermal energy: When the fusion fuel undergoes fusion, the fuel atoms are ionized into useful hot plasma ions containing most of the fusion energy in a convenient easy-to-use form. [10] For instance, with D+T fusion, if the rocket needs P therm of 2 terawatts, the total energy needed is 2 / 0.21 9.52 terawatts. [10]

The thrust power, or jet power as it is sometimes called, is given by 1/2 (F×I sp ×g), which is simply the kinetic energy in the jet exhaust. [10] In this case we are heating the propellant with neutron kinetic energy, which has zippity-do-dah to do with thermodynamics. [10] If the work leads to a change in the (absolute) velocity, it will modify the kinetic energy. [11] They simply don’t know enough Special Relativity to comprehend that ESCAPE VELOCITY is derived from kinetic energy equations & therefore cannot be applied to a PHOTON, but they keep trying this kind of silliness anyway. [11]

The solution to this paradox (as can be demonstrated by considering particle systems) is that the processes producing the tachyons must also consume enough internal energy to account for the kinetic energy gain of the system. [10] What has this to do with the supposed Dark Matter and the gravitational lensing as a mirrored reflection of stellar/planetary bodies behind and farther away? To me, nothing. grandy brought it up so I just dropped the comment so as to let him know that I understand Kinetic Energy versus Electro-Magnetic Energy. [11] From a practical standpoint, the proton-antiproton annihilation reaction produces two things: high-energy pions with an average kinetic energy of 250 MeV, and high-energy gamma rays with an average energy of 200 MeV. [10] A tachyon drive vehicle might be made to hover at no energy cost (antigravity!), but could only gain kinetic energy if a comparable amount of stored energy were supplied. [10] They don’t know gravity has zero effect on “c”, they don’t know it because they don’t comprehend the difference between kinetic energy & electro-magnetic energy. [11]

Ionization losses are a small fraction of the total energy; the frozen flow efficiency is 90%. [10] The thermal energy released by fission events plus heat from collisions between fission fragments and dust grains create intense heat within the dust cloud. [10]

The rest becomes waste heat and has to be removed with heat radiators. [10] Since tachyons can have any mass-energy down to zero and are never at rest, they, like photons, cannot contribute to the excess of dark matter in the universe. [10] The rest of the matter in the universe is of the kind found in atoms. [11]

Clark and Sheldon estimate that only about 46% of the fission fragments provide thrust while the rest are wasted. [10] Calculate the velocity, in m/s, of the boat immediately after, assuming it was initially at rest. [13] Typically it operates for a few minutes at a time, then sits idle for the rest of the entire mission. [10]

Usually the spent fusion product mass will be miniscule compared to the cold propellant mass. [10] Note that the propellant mass flow is quite insufficient for open cycle cooling as you proposed in an earlier post in this thread. [10] For this trick you keep the propellant mass flow the same as it was. [10] Dr. Ramsthaler’s secret is a reactor with a radial outflow core: it maximizes propellant mass flow at low pressure but high temperature. [10]

Our analyses clearly demonstrate that this behaviour is energetically worthwhile: turtles can consume more than 200 kg, or more than 220 jellyfish per day (Table 2 )—nearly 50% of their body mass daily—and these prey intake rates could fuel between 51% and 59% of leatherbacks’ total annual energy needs, and as much as 29% of a typical 2-yr reproductive cycle (Fig. 3 ). [19] The prey consumption rates that we quantified for daytime hours (>200 kg d −1 or ~50% of leatherback body mass daily) are comparable to previous daily estimates for leatherbacks based on calculations of energy acquisition rates required to meet reproductive and maintenance energy budgets (100 kg d −1 to 250 kg d −1, or 26% to 70% of total body mass daily) 41 – 43. [19] A ~400 kg leatherback must maintain an energy intake rate equivalent to that calculated in this study for at least one year (360 days) to achieve a ~33% increase in body mass (i.e., the difference in body mass observed between turtles in Canada and turtles of the same carapace lengths on breeding grounds 19 ). [19] Because leatherbacks in Canada tend to be substantially more massive (~33%) than leatherbacks of the same carapace length measured on nesting beaches in the Wider Caribbean—a difference that is attributable to energy and mass gain between reproductive seasons 19 —we calculated a body mass for turtles away from Canada using a CCL-mass equation for turtles nesting in French Guiana (mass − 580.67; ref. 67 ). [19] Net energy intake (kJ d −1 ) (top panel) for leatherback turtles feeding in Nova Scotia, Canada, increased with prey biomass intake rates (kg prey per kg turtle body mass d −1 ; middle panel) and maintenance of increased thermal gradients (difference between body temperatures and water temperatures ; bottom panel). [19] The difference between energy costs (e.g., swimming activity, thermoregulation) and energy acquisition through prey—i.e., the net energy intake—varied according to both the biomass intake rates (relative to body mass), as well as size of the thermal gradient between leatherback body temperatures and ambient temperatures (Fig. 2 ). [19] Some turtles actually had negative net energy intake, which was mostly due to low biomass intake rates (≤0.3 kg prey per kg body mass), but also to maintenance of large thermal gradients (≥7.8 °C) (Fig. 2 ). [19] Fattening rates for leatherback turtles based on allometric equation derived for migratory birds (ref. 49 ) (i.e., “expected”), and based on actual calculations of net energy intake in this study (i.e., “estimated”). a Ref. 19 ; b based on average 442 kg body mass. [19] If you cut it to 4% of the mass (removing dark matter and dark energy), this cuts the radius by roughly one-third to about 6.5 AU and about 56 light minutes (about 15% farther than the orbit of Jupiter). [15] Estimates of total mass and energy consumed, prey biomass and energy consumption rates, and total prey items consumed daily by leatherback turtles foraging off Nova Scotia, Canada. [19] Mass is given in energy style units and electrical charge is given in units of the magnitude of the electron’s charge. [20] By combining the shower peak value with the measured shower energy, they can infer the mass – and thus the identity – of the UHECRs. [21] As the energy of the UHECRs increased from 10 18 eV to 10 20 eV, so did the mass. [21] Fossette et al. 44 suggested that leatherbacks could meet basic daily energy demands by feeding on more than 14,000 small (4 g wet mass) jellyfish for ~4 h d −1, or approximately 59 kg d −1 ; these estimates were based on only 39 sec of video footage of two turtles in the Solomon Islands. [19] We then converted these estimated individual jellyfish masses to energy content per gram wet mass using published calorimetric measurements for C. capillata (0.2 kJ g −1 ) 40. [19]

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