Is There Any Potential Energy Of an Object in the Ground?

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C O N T E N T S:

- The gravitational potential energy an object has at the start of a fall is converted into kinetic energy as it falls, and this kinetic energy goes into producing sound, causing the object to bounce, and deforming or breaking the object as it strikes the ground.(More…)
- There is no friction. (a) What will be the kinetic energy at 2.0 m along the + x – axis? (b) What will be the speed of the object at 6.0 m along the + x – axis?(More…)

- I would like to better understand how physics explains the continuous “work” required to maintain the potential (gravitational) energy at a stationary height.(More…)
- Note: my intention is to not use the words “energy,” “potential” or “kinetic” unless the students initiate it, but to experience the cause/effect relationship between the ramp height, marble mass and cup movement.(More…)

**KEY TOPICS**

** The gravitational potential energy an object has at the start of a fall is converted into kinetic energy as it falls, and this kinetic energy goes into producing sound, causing the object to bounce, and deforming or breaking the object as it strikes the ground.** [1] In the absence of air resistance, which causes some energy to be lost, the kinetic energy just before the object strikes the ground would be the same as the gravitational potential energy it had at its highest point. [1] When work is done against the force of gravity to lift an object to some height above ground, the work done is stored as potential energy. [2] Using an example, a 10 kg object at rest on the ground (r0) has zero Kinetic and Potential Energy (simple model). [3]

Gravitational potential energy of an object on Earth is the result of the objects weight and its height above the ground (or whatever is defined as the ground level). [4] Answer Choice: D EGM061 : The gravitational potential energy of an object does not depend on the distance the object is above the ground (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.). [5] The mechanical energy of the object is conserved, E K + U, and the potential energy, with respect to zero at ground level, is U(y) mgy, which is a straight line through the origin with slope mg. [6]

Specifically it stores elastic potential energy–the type of energy stored when a material is deformed (as opposed to gravitational potential energy, the type you get when you raise an object off the ground). [7]

In all real collisions, energy is lost when it hits the ground, some of it going into creating a sound and some going into deforming or even breaking the object apart. [1] When the object hits the ground, the kinetic energy has to go somewhere, because energy isn?t created or destroyed, only transferred. [1]

When the object is released, the gravitational potential energy is gradually converted into kinetic energy as it picks up speed. [1] When you exert a force which is external to the object & Earth system and do work separating the object and the Earth the object & Earth system gains gravitational potential energy. [3] Near the surface of Earth, where the gravitational force on an object of mass m is given by F m g F m g, there is an associated gravitational potential energy, ? P E g m g h ? P E g m g h, where h is the height above some reference value (e.g., sea level), and the potential is defined to be zero at that reference height ( h 0 h 0 ). [8] An object at a certain height above the Moon’s surface has less gravitational potential energy than at the same height above the Earth’s surface because the Moon’s gravity is weaker. [9] The difference in gravitational potential energy of an object, in the Earth-object system, between two rungs of a ladder will be the same for the first two rungs as for the last two rungs. [8] The object alone has been treated as a system and that object alone cannot have gravitational potential energy. [3] Figure 7.10 shows the gravitational potential energy of three objects. [8] If you suddenly release the body, this potential energy will again be converted, but this time into kinetic energy (the object will gain velocity as it falls). [3] Potential energy is independent of state of rest or of motion, which affects the kinetic energy possessed by the object. [10] By lifting it, the object gains potential energy (not kinetic energy). [3] The short version is that when an object falls toward Earth, it gains speed and momentum, and its kinetic energy increases as its gravitational potential energy falls, but this explanation skips many important details. [1] As the separation between the object and the Earth the potential energy of the object-Earth system increases. [11] Let us derive an expression for the potential energy associated with an object at a given location above the surface of earth. [11] Keeping in mind that the potential represents the potential energy per unit mass of a test object, you can envision what would happen to such a test object located at some particular point along the x -axis. [8] Gravitational energy is the potential energy associated with gravitational force, as work is required to elevate objects against Earth’s gravity. [9] Gravitational potential energy is defined as the work done in bringing the object to the present position in a gravitational field. [10] If an object falls from one point to another point inside a gravitational field, the force of gravity will do positive work on the object, and the gravitational potential energy will decrease by the same amount. [9] The factors that affect an object’s gravitational potential energy are its height relative to some reference point, its mass, and the strength of the gravitational field it is in. [9]

An object will definitely have potential energy if it is ______. [2] In this situation, the object’s kinetic energy would ______, its potential energy would ______, and its total mechanical energy would _____. [2]

If I hold a ball in my hand, we?d ordinarily say that it has potential energy equal to mgh, where m is mass, g is the acceleration of gravity, and h is the distance between the ball and the ground. [10] As the question states, we are considering Gravitational potential energy of a body at rest at the ground level. [10] Not if you define the ground to be the point where potential energy is zero. [10]

** There is no friction. (a) What will be the kinetic energy at 2.0 m along the + x – axis? (b) What will be the speed of the object at 6.0 m along the + x – axis?** Answer: (a) 24 J (b) 2.2 m/s Diff: 1 Page Ref: Sec. 8 – 9 11) A 20 – kg object is resting at the top of a table 1.6 m above ground level. [12] Before it falls – if we assume it?s stationary – the object possesses energy in the form of gravitational potential. [1] We can think of the mass as gradually giving up its 4.90 J of gravitational potential energy, without directly considering the force of gravity that does the work. [8] We usually choose this point to be Earth?s surface, but this point is arbitrary; what is important is the difference in gravitational potential energy, because this difference is what relates to the work done. [8] Note that the units of gravitational potential energy turn out to be joules, the same as for work and other forms of energy. [8] Gravitational potential energy may be converted to other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy. [8] Viewed in terms of energy, the roller-coaster-Earth system?s gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. [8] The final kinetic energy is the sum of the initial kinetic energy plus the gravitational potential energy. [8] You can study the conversion of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy in this experiment. [8] Figure 7.5 (a) The work done to lift the weight is stored in the mass-Earth system as gravitational potential energy. (b) As the weight moves downward, this gravitational potential energy is transferred to the cuckoo clock. [8] When it does positive work it increases the gravitational potential energy of the system. [8] Note that “height” in the common sense of the term cannot be used for gravitational potential energy calculations when gravity is not assumed to be a constant. [9] To have a physical quantity that is independent of test mass, we define the gravitational potential V g V g to be the potential energy per unit mass. [8] We define this to be gravitational potential energy ( PE g ) ( PE g ) put into, or gained by, the object-Earth system. [8] Since gravitational potential energy depends on relative position, we need a reference level at which to set the potential energy equal to 0. [8] The potential energy due to elevated positions is called gravitational potential energy, and is evidenced by water in an elevated reservoir or kept behind a dam. [9] Trebuchet : A trebuchet uses the gravitational potential energy of the counterweight to throw projectiles over long distances. [9] A book lying on a table has less gravitational potential energy than the same book on top of a taller cupboard, and less gravitational potential energy than a heavier book lying on the same table. [9] The idea of gravitational potential energy has the double advantage that it is very broadly applicable and it makes calculations easier. [8] Oh, and the same concept applies for determining electric potential, not just gravitational potential energy. [10] Therefore we call the quantity $mgy$ as the gravitational potential energy $Ug$. $Ug \equiv mgy$. [11] If the book falls off the table, this potential energy goes to accelerate the mass of the book and is converted into kinetic energy. [9] What is the shape of each plot? If the shape is a straight line, the plot shows that the marble?s kinetic energy at the bottom is proportional to its potential energy at the release point. [8] The negative work done by such forces gets stored as potential energy. [3] The work done by the external forces is $mgh$ and this is the increase in the potential energy of the object-Earth system. [11] We interpret negative work done by the system as an input of energy to the system and call it potential energy. [11] The potential energy ? P E g ? P E g is proportional to the test mass m. [8] The equation for change in potential energy states that ?PE g mgh ?PE g mgh. [8] It?s essential to remember that the zero of potential energy can be assigned wherever you like; so there is no unique answer to this question. [10] Why do we use the word system ? Potential energy is a property of a system rather than of a single object–due to its physical position. [8] The equation represents a transfer of energy into the system and the energy appears in a different form called potential energy. [11] If it is at the same level or below your level it does not possess any potential energy. [10]

Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) is the energy of position based on the vertical height of an object relative to some reference level below. [4] What is the change in the gravitational potential energy of this object? Use g 10 m/s 2. [12] This is especially true for electric forces, although in the examples of potential energy we consider below, parts of the system are either so big (like Earth, compared to an object on its surface) or so small (like a massless spring), that the changes those parts undergo are negligible if included in the system. [13] How far would it have to be stretched to have a potential energy of 0.10 J? Diff: 1 Page Ref: Sec. 8 – 2 17) A force acting on a 2.00 kg object is given by F ( x ) (2.00 N/m) x + (1.00 N/m 3 ) x 3. [12] Fact 12: In order to have potential energy, the object must be changed by any type of force. [14] Fact 15: Potential energy is transformed into some other energy when the object is acted by a force. [14] There is a strong force between objects, e.g. two magnets when held apart have more potential energy than when they are close together. [14] When the system change and only one object is in motion, which is when potential energy turns into kinetic energy. [14] Potential energy is very important because it helps to keep track of the energy that is stored in an object, and that can be letter put into a kinetic energy. [14] Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. (Grades 6 – 8) Details. [15] The lowest height in a problem is usually defined as zero potential energy, or if an object is in space, the farthest point away from the system is often defined as zero potential energy. [13] Potential energy is the energy that an object has because of its position and is measured in Joules (J). [15] Fact 16: When objects raise its speed, the potential energy decreases. [14] Fact 6: Elastic potential energy is the one that is saved in objects that can be compressed or stretched. [14] Potential energy can be described as 3 characteristics that a specific object has. [14] Potential energy is energy that links the structure of two or more objects. [14] It is important to remember that potential energy is a property of the interactions between objects in a chosen system, and not just a property of each object. [13]

Within the context of mechanical energy, potential energy is a result of an object’s position, mass and the acceleration of gravity. [15]

Often, the ground is a suitable choice for when the gravitational potential energy is zero; however, in this case, the lowest point or when h 0 is a convenient location for zero gravitational potential energy. [13] Item EG013004: When a coconut falls from a tree, it has the most gravitational potential energy at its highest point above the ground. [5]

You had potential energy (stored energy) when standing on the stool, which completely changed into kinetic energy (energy of motion) right before you landed on the ground. [15] The potential energy possessed by a body depends on its mass and height from the ground. [14] What has more potential energy: a boulder on the ground or a feather 10 feet in the air? (Answer: The feather because the boulder is on the ground and has zero potential energy. [15] Fact 10: Ball in someone?s hand has more potential energy that a ball on the ground. [14] Lifting a wrecking ball away from the ground, it potential energy rises. [14] If I want to lift something up off the ground (like a textbook or a car), I can calculate another kind of energy–gravitational potential energy. [16]

The total mechanical energy of a system (with the constraint of no nonconservative forces present) is equal to total kinetic energy plus total gravitational potential energy. [4] In confining our lesson to conservative forces (a more in-depth analysis of work-energy principles will include non-conservative forces as well) we will specifically discuss gravitational potential energy and (translational) kinetic energy. [4] As long as there is no friction or air resistance, the change in kinetic energy of the football equals the change in gravitational potential energy of the football. [13] The block started off being pulled downward with a relative potential energy of 0.75 J. The gravitational potential energy required to rise 5.0 cm is 0.60 J. The energy remaining at this equilibrium position must be kinetic energy. [13] Gravitational potential energy mgh where m is the mass (kg), g is acceleration due to gravity on earth (9.8m/s/s) and h (m) is height above the reference level. [4] The formula for gravitational potential energy is P.E. mgh, m is a mass in kilograms, g is acceleration because of gravity (9.8 m/s2) and h represents height in meters. [14]

The potential energy difference depends only on the initial and final positions of the particles, and on some parameters that characterize the interaction (like mass for gravity or the spring constant for a Hooke’s law force). [13] By choosing the conventions of the lowest point in the diagram where the gravitational potential energy is zero and the equilibrium position of the spring where the elastic potential energy is zero, these differences in energies can now be calculated. [13] If we use the gravitational potential energy reference point of zero at y 0, we can rewrite the gravitational potential energy U as mgy. [6] Let’s look at a specific example, choosing zero potential energy for gravitational potential energy at convenient points. [13]

You can find the values of (a) the allowed regions along the x-axis, for the given value of the mechanical energy, from the condition that the kinetic energy can’t be negative, and (b) the equilibrium points and their stability from the properties of the force (stable for a relative minimum and unstable for a relative maximum of potential energy). [6] The conservation of mechanical energy and the relations between kinetic energy and speed, and potential energy and force, enable you to deduce much information about the qualitative behavior of the motion of a particle, as well as some quantitative information, from a graph of its potential energy. [6]

The line at energy E represents the constant mechanical energy of the object, whereas the kinetic and potential energies, K A and U A, are indicated at a particular height y A. [6] In the graph shown in Figure 8.11, the x-axis is the height above the ground y and the y-axis is the object’s energy. [6]

Fact 5: Gravitational potential energy and height are directly connected. [14] Fact 13: The two main types of potential energy are gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy. [14] Therefore, energy is converted from gravitational potential energy back into kinetic energy. [13] This loss in kinetic energy translates to a gain in gravitational potential energy of the football-Earth system. [13] The elastic potential energy of the spring increases, because you’re stretching it more, but the gravitational potential energy of the mass decreases, because you’re lowering it. [13] What is the change in potential energy in moving from x 1.00 m to x 2.00 m? Diff: 1 Page Ref: Sec. 8 – 2 14) A mass of 3.0 kg is subject to a force F(x) 8.0 N – (4.0 N/m)x. [12] What is the force that is associated with this potential energy function? A) 3.00 N + (1.00 N/m 2 ) x 2 B) – 3.00 N – (3.00 N/m 2 ) x 2 C) ( – 0/500 N/m 2 ) x 2 + ( – 1.00 N/m 2 ) x 4 D) (0.500 N/m 2 ) x 2 + (1.00 N/m 2 ) x 4 E) – 3.00 N – (1.00 N/m 2 ) x 2 Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: Sec. 8 – 2 16) A linear spring has a spring constant of 20 N/m. [12] If the spring force is the only force acting, it is simplest to take the zero of potential energy at x 0, when the spring is at its unstretched length. [13] Therefore, we can define the difference of elastic potential energy for a spring force as the negative of the work done by the spring force in this equation, before we consider systems that embody this type of force. [13] We saw earlier that the negative of the slope of the potential energy is the spring force, which in this case is also the net force, and thus is proportional to the acceleration. [6] Therefore, based on this convention, each potential energy and kinetic energy can be written out for three critical points of the system: (1) the lowest pulled point, (2) the equilibrium position of the spring, and (3) the highest point achieved. [13] Some of these are calculated using kinetic energy, whereas others are calculated by using quantities found in a form of potential energy that may not have been discussed at this point. [13] In this lesson, students are introduced to both potential energy and kinetic energy as forms of mechanical energy. [15] Do a dramatic demonstration of jumping down on the banana or an empty soda can. (Be careful! Banana peels are slippery!) Explain the ideas of potential energy and kinetic energy as two different kinds of mechanical energy. [15] When is wrecking ball released, potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy, moving faster and faster in the direction of Earth. [14] When you drop a ball, you demonstrate an example of potential energy changing into kinetic energy. [15] A ball that you hold in your hand has potential energy, while a ball that you throw has kinetic energy. [15] The higher the wrecking ball is it is harder to lift it, but wrecking ball has more gravitational potential energy stored. [14] The coconut has the same amount of gravitational potential energy at all the positions. [5] Gravitational potential energy is a potential energy influenced by gravity. [14] A simple system embodying both gravitational and elastic types of potential energy is a one-dimensional, vertical mass-spring system. [13] The gravitational potential energy is higher at the summit than at the base, and lower at sea level than at the base. [13] Fact 4: The pendulum of a clock, when is at the top of swing has gravitational potential energy. [14] Fact 11: Conservative force is able to store energy like potential energy. [14] Potential energy is the energy of position and kinetic energy is the energy of motion. [15] The increased potential energy of the cars is converted into enough kinetic energy to keep them in motion for the length of the track. [15] A hands-on activity demonstrates how potential energy can change into kinetic energy by swinging a pendulum, illustrating the concept of conservation of energy. [15] As the cars start down the first hill, potential energy is changed into kinetic energy and the cars pick up speed. [15] Students calculate the potential energy of the pendulum and predict how fast it will travel knowing that the potential energy will convert into kinetic energy. [15] Swinging Pendulum – Students predict how fast a pendulum will swing by converting potential energy into kinetic energy. [15] When using the potential energy it turns into kinetic energy. [14] View this simulation to learn about conservation of energy with a skater! Build tracks, ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy, potential energy and friction as he moves. [13] A person standing on a stool has potential energy (sometimes called gravitational potential energy) that could be used to crush a can, smash the banana, or really hurt the foot of someone standing under you. [15] A roller coaster exhibits both kinetic and potential energy copyright Copyright Microsoft Corporation 1983-2001. [15] We need to pick an origin for the y-axis and then determine the value of the constant that makes the potential energy zero at the height of the base. [13] Let’s choose the origin for the y-axis at base height, where we also want the zero of potential energy to be. [13] Notice how we applied the definition of potential energy difference to determine the potential energy function with respect to zero at a chosen point. [13] The numerical values of the potential energies depend on the choice of zero of potential energy, but the physically meaningful differences of potential energy do not. [13] The equilibrium position of the spring is defined as zero potential energy. [13] The equilibrium location is the most suitable mathematically to choose for where the potential energy of the spring is zero. [13] Assuming the spring is massless, the system of the block and Earth gains and loses potential energy. [13] When the spring is expanded, the spring’s displacement or difference between its relaxed length and stretched length should be used for the x-value in calculating the potential energy of the spring. [13] Notice that the potential energy, as determined in part (b), at x 1 m is U(1 m) 1 J and at x 2 m is U(2 m) 8 J; their difference is the result in part (a). [13] Since U depends on x 2, the potential energy for a compression (negative x) is the same as for an extension of equal magnitude. [13] The potential energy for a particle undergoing one-dimensional motion along the x-axis is U(x) 2(x 4 − x 2 ), where U is in joules and x is in meters. [6] This is true for any (positive) value of E because the potential energy is unbounded with respect to x. [6] Each of these expressions takes into consideration the change in the energy relative to another position, further emphasizing that potential energy is calculated with a reference or second point in mind. [13] Often, you can get a good deal of useful information about the dynamical behavior of a mechanical system just by interpreting a graph of its potential energy as a function of position, called a potential energy diagram. [6] Therefore, we need to define potential energy at a given position in such a way as to state standard values of potential energy on their own, rather than potential energy differences. [13] Before ending this section, let’s practice applying the method based on the potential energy of a particle to find its position as a function of time, for the one-dimensional, mass-spring system considered earlier in this section. [6] The potential energy curve as a function of position is shown in Fig. 8 – 8. [12] The bigger the height or the mass is the potential energy is bigger. [14] You refered to a “reference level” so if I hold a brick up in the air and ask how much potential energy does it have, I would answer mgh where h is the height above the floor. [4] A potential energy determines the form of existence of matters at atomic level. [14] The total potential energy of the system is the sum of the potential energies of all the types. (This follows from the additive property of the dot product in the expression for the work done.) [13] Let’s look at some specific examples of types of potential energy discussed in the section on Work. [13] After integration, we can state the work or the potential energy. [13] Fact 8: Tennis ball, trampolines, bungee ropes, they all have elastic potential energy. [14] Fact 22: Quaterback?s hand before the ball has been released is a potential energy. [14] Fact 14: The name potential energy is because there is a potential for using stored energy. [14] Potential energy can be divided based on 4 types of stored energy. [14] The formula of the potential energy depends on the type of potential energy. [14] We consider various properties and types of potential energy in the following subsections. [13] For each type of interaction present in a system, you can label a corresponding type of potential energy. [13] Substitute the potential energy U into Equation 8.14 and factor out the constants, like m or k. [6] A book resting on the edge of a table has potential energy; if you were to nudge it off the edge, the book would fall. [15] Fact 19: A car on a top of the hill has the most potential energy. [14] Fact 3: But, the concept potential energy dates all the way in the Ancient Greece, it was used by a Greek philosopher Aristotle. [14] Fact 7: The body has more elastic potential energy the more it can be stretched. [14] Fact 9: The energy that has been saved by fossil fuels is called chemical potential energy. [14] Fact 17: Using a bow and arrow, potential energy from the archer is transferred through it hand to the bow. [14] Fact 18: Energy from the fossil fuels has been called chemical potential energy. [14] Fact 23: Wheels on roller skates have potential energy while they are not moving. [14] Joule (J) is the standard unit for measuring potential energy. [14] This formula explicitly states a potential energy difference, not just an absolute potential energy. [13]

If the object is lifted straight up at constant speed, then the force needed to lift it is equal to its weight The work done on the mass is then We define this to be the gravitational potential energy put into (or gained by) the object-Earth system. [17] As we saw before, the gravitational potential energy of an object is affected by three factors, which include mass of the object, height to which it is raised, and the pull of gravity at that point. [18] The gravitational potential energy is dependent on three factors, which include the mass of an object, its height from the surface of the Earth, and the magnitude of gravitational force exerted near the planet’s surface. [18] The gravitational potential energy of an object near Earth?s surface is due to its position in the mass-Earth system. [17] In contrast to kinetic energy, an object can have gravitational potential energy whether it is moving or not. [19] When such an object is lowered in height in a gravitational field, its potential energy decreases and gets converted into kinetic energy. [18] More the mass of the object being raised, more will be the work done to lift that object and higher will be its potential energy at the raised position. [18] The work done on an object against the pull of gravity, can be estimated from its potential energy. [18] Work done against gravity in lifting an object becomes potential energy of the object-Earth system. [17] When work is done in such a way, to lift an object, its potential energy increases. [18] Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object or system due to gravitational attraction. [20] The difference in gravitational potential energy of an object (in the Earth-object system) between two rungs of a ladder will be the same for the first two rungs as for the last two rungs. [17] The potential energy is the energy which is stored in the object due to its relative position or due to the electric charge. [21] The energy of an object associated with its position in a gravitational field, is called gravitational potential energy. [18] Show transcribed image text (8) (1.5 pts) For each of the following processes, does the potential energy of the object(s) increase or decrease? Processes Increase Decrease The distance between two oppositely charged a. b. [22] Question : (8) (1.5 pts) For each of the following processes, does the potential energy of the object(s) inc. [22] When an object is raised, it attains a higher negative value of potential energy. [18]

The amount of gravitational potential energy ( U G ) of the ball depends on how high it is above the ground ( h ) and its weight ( W mg, where g 9.8 N/kg). [19] After this, it will turn around and fall back the ground as all the potential energy it had at the highest point is transformed back into kinetic energy as it falls to the ground. [19] Whether they are in motion or stationary, they also have potential energy because they are on a table above the ground. [23]

Potential Energy – This is energy due to an object’s position. [23] Potential describes energy possessed by an object or system due to its position relative to another object or system and forces between the two. [20]

Once the pull of gravity overcomes the force of propulsion, the ball falls back due to the conversion of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy, which aids its fall. [18] When the ball is dropped from a height of 1 meter, the gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as the ball falls. [20] When a ball is thrown straight up into the air, all its initial kinetic energy is converted into gravitational potential energy when it reaches its maximum height. [19]

Since gravity is the only force acting on a projectile while it is in the air, then the total energy doesn’t change at any point in its motion, although the energy can change forms from kinetic energy to potential energy or from potential energy to kinetic energy. [19] The change in gravitational potential energy, is with being the increase in height and the acceleration due to gravity. [17] The distance that the person?s knees bend is much smaller than the height of the fall, so the additional change in gravitational potential energy during the knee bend is ignored. [17] The loss of gravitational potential energy from moving downward through a distance equals the gain in kinetic energy. [17] The final kinetic energy is the sum of the initial kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy. [17] One can study the conversion of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy in this experiment. [17] Explain gravitational potential energy in terms of work done against gravity. [17] Figure 1. (a) The work done to lift the weight is stored in the mass-Earth system as gravitational potential energy. (b) As the weight moves downward, this gravitational potential energy is transferred to the cuckoo clock. [17] The change in gravitational potential energy (?PE g ) between points A and B is independent of the path. [17] Because gravitational potential energy depends on relative position, we need a reference level at which to set the potential energy equal to 0. [17] From now on, we will consider that any change in vertical position of a mass is accompanied by a change in gravitational potential energy and we will avoid the equivalent but more difficult task of calculating work done by or against the gravitational force. [17] Here the initial kinetic energy is zero, so that The equation for change in potential energy states that Since is negative in this case, we will rewrite this as to show the minus sign clearly. [17] This change in energy can be represented using a bar chart that shows how much kinetic and potential energy the ball has at different times. [19] We can calculate the mechanical energy of a ball that is going to be released from a high window, or the gravitational potential energy of the water in a reservoir used for hydropower. [20] Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential energy, and electrical energy. [23] Mechanical Energy – Mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of a body. [23] Some forms of energy are part kinetic and part potential energy. [20] A swinging pendulum has both kinetic and potential energy, thermal energy, and (depending on its composition) may have electrical and magnetic energy. [23] When the ball impacts the floor, the ball compresses and the kinetic energy is converted into mostly elastic potential energy (and some thermal energy). [20] Some of its kinetic energy does become potential energy, and potential energy is at a maximum when the ball reaches its highest point. [19] The “happy” ball is made of a polymer that, when compressed, stores elastic potential energy and releases a similar amount of kinetic energy when it is uncompressed. [20] As the ball moves upward, it slows down as its initial kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy. [19] All of the initial kinetic energy will become potential energy and the ball will stop momentarily. [19] Kinetic energy is energy of motion, while potential energy is energy of position. [23] If you launch a rubber band across the room, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, the energy of motion. [7] When you release it the rubber band starts to unwind, and the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as the car is propelled forward. [7] An explosion converts chemical potential energy into kinetic energy, radiant energy, and thermal energy. [20] Only differences in gravitational potential energy, have physical significance. [17] In its theoretical formulation, an important concept is the gravitational potential energy. [18] In Physics, the most commonly formed potential energy is Gravitational Energy. [21] When the ball is thrown up, with a force exerted by our muscles, it gains potential energy as it rises higher. [18] A ball sitting on a table has potential energy with respect to the floor because gravity acts upon it. [23] Calculate mass, acceleration of gravity, height by entering the required values in the potential energy calculator. [21] Calculate mass, acceleration of gravity, height in the same potential energy calculator by choosing the respective option. [21]

When it reaches the maximum height, all the energy has now been converted into potential energy. [19] You can use conservation of energy to determine how much potential energy the arrow has at its maximum height, and then use that information to calculate the maximum height the arrow will reach. [19] Why do we use the word “system”? Potential energy is a property of a system rather than of a single object–due to its physical position. [17] Show how knowledge of the potential energy as a function of position can be used to simplify calculations and explain physical phenomena. [17] Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in a stretched spring, rubber band, or other elastic material. [20] The more you stretch the rubber band, the more potential energy is stored, and the farther and faster the car should go. [7] Any value of potential energy at a distance lesser than infinity is taken to be a negative value. [18]

**POSSIBLY USEFUL**

** I would like to better understand how physics explains the continuous “work” required to maintain the potential (gravitational) energy at a stationary height.** [3] Suppose you want to launch an object from Earth?s surface with just enough energy to escape Earth?s gravitational influence. [8] When you lift an object on the Earth, the energy is strictly stored in the gravitational field. [3] This energy is associated with the state of separation between two objects that attract each other by the gravitational force. [8] If the collision is elastic, meaning the object can bounce, much of the energy goes into making it bounce up again. [1] If the collision is completely inelastic, the object is squashed or smashed, and all of the energy goes into creating the sound and the effect on the object itself. [1] When an object falls toward Earth, a lot of different things happen, ranging from energy transfers to air resistance to rising speed and momentum. [1] An alternative way to think about what happens as an object falls toward Earth is in terms of energy. [1]

Work (the energy expended) is equal to force times distance. [3] Where is that continuous energy requirement being accounted for? Molecular and environmental heat, relativistic mass gain and loss? I know that I wouldn’t be able to hold 10 kg above my head for long even though the standard calculation would say that, theoretically, no further work is required once height is reached. [3] The work done against the gravitational force goes into an important form of stored energy that we will explore in this section. [8] This person?s energy is brought to zero in this situation by the work done on him by the floor as he stops. [8] The magnitude of the object?s velocity v will drop toward zero as r approaches infinity, leading to a final energy of E f 0 E f 0. [8] At Earth?s surface, the total energy will be E i 1 2 m v 2 ? G m M R E i 1 2 m v 2 ? G m M R, where M and R are Earth?s mass and radius, respectively. [8] This shortcut makes it is easier to solve problems using energy, when possible, rather than explicitly using forces. [8] Energy was not cancelled, as you may have thought, but converted. [3]

You are quite right in saying that the net work done on the object by the force that you exerted on the object and the gravitational force that the Earth exerted on the object is zero and hence the change in kinetic energy of the object is zero. [3] If we lift and object up, the net work is clearly zero because the kinetic energy after the lift and before the lift are the same (0). [3] Since the velocity of the object is zero both before and after raising the object, you are correct that the kinetic energy is zero in both cases. [3]

When we are interested in the influence of multiple masses on a test mass, the gravitational potential at any given point is simply the sum of the gravitational potentials of each individual object. [8] The origin is shown at the top of the graph, the locations of the two objects at x a x a are noted along the x -axis, and the gravitational potential is plotted in arbitrary units. [8] An object placed anywhere to the left of the origin will fall into the potential well (i.e., be drawn to the object at x ? a x ? a ). [8] Even without knowing the function describing the potential, the location of the potential wells in the plot make clear the locations of the objects. [8]

Consider an external agent lifting an object of mass $m$ from an initial height $yi$ above the ground to a final height $yf$. [11] On a body like our moon, where there is no atmosphere, this process wouldn?t occur, and the object would continue to accelerate due to gravity until it hit the ground. [1] When this happens, the object can?t accelerate anymore and continues to fall at that speed until it hits the ground. [1]

The mass of the object doesn?t affect how quickly it falls under gravity, but massive objects have more momentum at the same speed because of this relationship. [1] This acceleration causes the object to increase in speed by 9.8 meters per second every second it falls under gravity. [1]

When the change of distance is small in relation to the distances from the center of the source of the gravitational field, this variation in field strength is negligible and we can assume that the force of gravity on a particular object is constant. [9] The centre of mass of the system does not change and because the mass of the Earth is so much greater than the mass of the object the distance moved by the force acting on the Earth can be neglected compared with the distance moved by the force acting on the object $h$. [11] @AbhinavDhawan If you apply a force on the object alone then the object will move and so will the centre of mass of the object & Earth system. [3] The work done by those two internal forces is negative and essentially equal to $mgh$ since the Earth does not move very much compared the object. [11] The work is equal to the force required to lift the object times the distance you raised it. [3] The net work done is zero because the force that you exerted on the object and the gravitational force that the Earth exerted on the object are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. [3] If the system is the object and the Earth the work is done on the system by two external forces equal in magnitude to $mg$ and opposite in direction acting on the Earth and the object. [11] The two external forces have two equal and opposite internal forces (gravitational attraction) which are also acting on the object and the Earth. [11] Note that you must actually exert two equal magnitude and opposite direction external forces to increase the separation between the object and the Earth. [3] @NoahCygnus if you think about it, to separate the object and the Earth and not move the centre of mass of the system requires two external forces. [11] One of the forces is exerted by you on the Earth and the other force is exerted by you on the object. [3] We are considering earth and the object as a system, the forces they exert on each other are deemed internal. [11] Assume that only conservative forces are doing work on the object. [2] Imagine you are on an asteroid with negligible gravity, and that you “lift” an object up off the surface of the asteroid against the force of a spring, instead of against gravity. [3] The force ( F ) acting on the object is demonstrated in Newton?s second law, which states F ma, so the force mass acceleration. [1] A 6 kg object is moving at a constant velocity of 5 m/s, pulled to the right by a 15 N force in the presence of friction. [2] Substituting in values for G, M, and R gives v 11.2 10 3 v 11.2 10 3 m/s, which is the escape velocity for objects launched from Earth. [8] When an object falls toward Earth, it accelerates due to the force of gravity, gaining speed and momentum until the upward force of air resistance exactly balances the downward force due to the object?s weight under gravity – a point referred to as terminal velocity. [1]

This means it has the potential to pick up a lot of speed due to its position relative to the surface of the Earth. [1] An object?s gravitational potential is due to its position relative to the surroundings within the Earth-object system. [8] The gravitational potential is constant along each of the lines, which are known as isolines. [8]

While changes in the potential and kinetic energies depend only on h, changes in the potential and kinetic energies, expressed in terms of other quantities like time t or horizontal distance x, depend on constraints defined by how the roller coaster is constructed. [8] Like the contour lines on a topographic map, the relative spacing between adjacent isolines represents how rapidly the potential changes with location. [8]

Since the gravitational potential is a scalar quantity, the potential described as a function of location in three-dimensional space corresponds to a scalar field. [8] Figure 7.10 A gravitational contour plot showing the gravitational potential of three masses. [8]

An object has kinetic energy of 32 J. if the object’s speed is halved, then it’s new kinetic energy will be ___. [2] Momentum ( p ) is closely linked to speed ( v ) through the equation p mv, so the object gains momentum throughout its fall. [1]

Suppose that two point objects of mass M are located along the x -axis at x a x a. [8] GPE possessed by an object in a gravitational field is a number dependent on selection of zero reference point. [10]

Climbing stairs and lifting objects is work in both the scientific and everyday sense–it is work done against the gravitational force. [8] We assume the lifting is done slowly with no acceleration so the applied force from the agent can be modelled as being equal to in magnitude to the gravitational force on the object. [11] The left-right symmetry of the plot also indicates that the masses of the two objects are equal. [8] The locations of the three objects are clear from the contour plot, and the symmetry across the y -axis shows that their masses are not equal. [8]

This change of reference does not un-bind the earth and the object. [10] An object placed to the right of the origin will be drawn to the object at x + a x + a. [8] An object located precisely at x 0 x 0 will be in a state of unstable equilibrium. [8]

This is quite consistent with observations made in Falling Objects that all objects fall at the same rate if friction is negligible. [8] The force applied to the object is an external force, from outside the system. [8]

The air slows the object?s fall due to air resistance (essentially the force of all the air molecules hitting it as it falls), and this force increases the faster the object falls. [1]

Figure 7.7 The work done on the kangaroo by the ground reduces the kangaroo’s kinetic energy to zero as it lands. [8] What is the mechanical energy of a body lying on ground? Can mechanical energy of a body be zero? Is mechanical energy always constant? Can a. [10]

The work done by the floor reduces this kinetic energy to zero. [8] The kinetic energy is 0 even after you did work on it, is because gravitational force did equal and opposite work on it I.e. negative work. [3] Kinetic energy is equal to one-half mass times velocity squared. [3]

The initial kinetic energy is zero, so that ?KE 1 2 mv 2 ?KE 1 2 mv 2. [8] When the book hits the floor, this kinetic energy is converted into heat and sound by the impact. [9]

It merely helps us to define height and associated work required to be done to raise a body above the ground level. [10] Occasionally, we take reference for GPE at the ground level as zero and corelate to height. [10]

A much better way to cushion the shock is by bending the legs or rolling on the ground, increasing the time over which the force acts. [8]

** Note: my intention is to not use the words “energy,” “potential” or “kinetic” unless the students initiate it, but to experience the cause/effect relationship between the ramp height, marble mass and cup movement.** [4] Due to the principle of conservation of energy, energy can change its form (potential, kinetic, heat/thermal, electrical, light, sound, etc.) but it is never created or destroyed. [15] Remind them that energy can be converted from potential to kinetic and vice versa. [15] Even though the potential energies are relative to a chosen zero location, the solutions to this problem would be the same if the zero energy points were chosen at different locations. [13] The particle in this example can oscillate in the allowed region about either of the two stable equilibrium points we found, but it does not have enough energy to escape from whichever potential well it happens to initially be in. [6] The battery contains electrical energy (in the form of electrical, potential or stored energy), which can be used by a flashlight or a portable CD player. [15] Nuclear energy is the stored potential of the nucleus of an atom. [14] Fact 2: The term “Potential energy” first has been used by William Rankine, a Scottish engineer, and physicist, in the 19th century. [14]

Gravitational energy can be increased when mass moves away from the epicenter of Earth or any object that is big enough to produce significant gravity (big planets and stars, our sun, etc). [14] Energy can make things move or cause a change in the position or state of an object. [15] It is the energy possessed by an object that is not in the motion. [14] Central Concept: The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide alternate approaches to predict and describe the movement of objects. [4]

Each one of these forms of energy is connected with a force that acts accordingly to the characteristic of the matter (mass, elasticity, temperature and electric charge). [14] I was under the impression that quantities described in physics class (work, force, energy, etc) really “exist” and we’re finding formulas for them. [4] The capacity for work, or energy, can come in many different forms. [15] The $5 analogy troubles me since it implies there are temporal aspects to work and energy — energy can also be right here, right now, too, just like the work you suggest. [4] If the conditions are right, you can use energy to do work. [4] The notion of work done on the cup is the bridge into the topic of energy. [4]

In the case the Black Panther scene, it appears that the impact of the bullets lead to an increase in some type of stored energy in his suit (maybe like in a battery or something). [16] After “charging up” the suit, the Black Panther uses some type of energy burst to flip over a car. [16] After the (several day) discussion of energy, including calculations, students will revisit their original illustrations of the model and label the path of the marble according to amount and type of energy the marble has for those spots including (but not limited to) 100% GPE, 100%KE, 50%KE, 50%GPE. This will be assessed based on accuracy. [4] This will segue into our (several class days) discussion of energy including learning how to calculate GPE, KE and ME. Students will then evaluate the marble/ruler/cup system in the context of energy and students will gather data to try and answer their individual “What would happen if [4]

How much energy could he get from these bullets? To estimate this, I need three things: mass of bullet, speed of bullet, and number of bullets. [16] Understand that energy can change from one form into another. [15] Examples of such forms are mechanical, electrical, chemical or nuclear energy. [15] Explain how energy can be converted from one form to another. [15] These two forms of energy can be transformed back and forth. [15] Engineers need to understand the many different forms of energy so that they can design useful products. [15] When dealing with energy, it helps to be able to calculate the energy in different forms. [16]

Mechanical engineers are concerned about the mechanics of energy — how it is generated, stored and moved. [15] What if you want to charge your smartphone? An iPhone battery has about 20,000 Joules of energy stored in it. [16] Just a few more bullets or some other stored energy to add to this and boom–you just flipped a car. [16]

As a side note, the ground absorbed your energy when you landed and turned it into heat. [15] We note in this expression that the quantity of the total energy divided by the weight (mg) is located at the maximum height of the particle, or y max. [6] The cool part is that this calculated value of energy doesn’t change for this closed system. [16] The $5 in the bank is similar to “energy” in that it is money you can use later. [4] In these reactions, there is absorbing and releasing the energy, but the complete result is getting energy from the sugar, and bodies use that energy to do some actions. [14]

It is a type of energy–but what is energy? It turns out that in a system with no external interactions we can calculate this thing called energy. [16] I am going assume that the car moves up a distance of 3 meters and that all of this is done by the Black Panther energy thing. [16]

After we understand gravitational potential and kinetic energy, including calculations, we will revisit the activity to give students an opportunity to re-design the materials into a new model and take measurements for basic calculations of gravitational potential and kinetic energy. [4] Students explore the physics exploited by engineers in designing today’s roller coasters, including potential and kinetic energy, friction and gravity. [15] The first goal is to give the students an activity in which to anchor our discussion of potential and kinetic energy. [4] The total amount of mechanical energy in a system is the sum of both potential and kinetic energy, also measured in Joules (J). [15] Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape such as stretch elastic band or a coiled spring. [14] Product design engineers apply the principles of potential and kinetic energy when they design consumer products. [15]

At the maximum height, the kinetic energy and the speed are zero, so if the object were initially traveling upward, its velocity would go through zero there, and y max would be a turning point in the motion. [6] Kinetic energy (KE) is the energy of motion and the motion of an object will increase with an increase in mass and also with an increase in velocity. [4] Now consider an object with a kinetic energy of 800 J and a mass of 12 kg. [15] Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of its motion and is also measured in Joules (J). [15] One type of energy is the energy an object in motion would have–we call this kinetic energy. [16] Based on the mathematical notion that work and energy are measured in the same units, and on the observations that as position changes, speed changes therefore affecting the amount of work done on the cup, provides evidence to help solidify the idea that the joules of mechanical energy that an object has based on its position and motion is equal to the total amount of work that can be done by that object. [4] Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. (Grades 6 – 8) Details. [15] The shape of an object, the position of an object, and its readiness to transform into Kinetic energy. [14] The kinetic energy of the object at the origin is 12 J. The system is conservative. [12] What happens to the kinetic energy of an object (like a bullet) when it collides with something (like Black Panther’s super suit)? If the bullet slows down, then its kinetic energy must decrease. [16] Kinetic energy is energy that specific object possesses while moving. [14]

The object is then picked up and moved to a height of 8.7 m above ground level. [12] Assuming a constant force (in both magnitude and direction), work can be calculated as W F d, where F is the component of the force parallel to the direction of motion and d is the resulting displacement of the object. [4] Work can, however, be taken to greater depth and be calculated as W F d cos ? where F is the magnitude of the constant force, d is the magnitude of the objects displacement, and ? is the angle between the directions of the force and the displacement, therefore allowing non-horizontal forces to be explored. [4] In Work, we saw that the work done on an object by the constant gravitational force, near the surface of Earth, over any displacement is a function only of the difference in the positions of the end-points of the displacement. [13] Work is done when a force moves an object over a given distance. [15] The total work done on an object should also consider all the forces experienced by the object. [4] A) 71 J B) 140 J C) 1740 J D) 320 J E) 1390 J Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: Sec. 8 – 2 12) A force on an object is given by F ( x ) (2.00 N/m) x + ( – 3.00 N/m 3 ) x 3. [12]

Since the ratio of the mass of any ordinary object to the mass of Earth is vanishingly small, the motion of Earth can be completely neglected. [13] This work involves only the properties of a Hooke’s law interaction and not the properties of real springs and whatever objects are attached to them. [13] The transition from KE to GPE and back is very abstract and difficult to follow, even with examples of objects moving under the influence of gravity without friction. [4] Use mathematical expressions to describe the movement of an object (Grade 8) Details. [15]

Your graph should look like a double potential well, with the zeros determined by solving the equation U(x) 0, and the extremes determined by examining the first and second derivatives of U(x), as shown in Figure 8.13. [6] If the boulder was 1 mm off the ground, it would probably have more potential energy.) [15] In part (c), we take a look at the differences between the two potential energies. [13]

The difference between the two results in kinetic energy, since there is no friction or drag in this system that can take energy from the system. [13] We also noted that the ball slowed down until it reached its highest point in the motion, thereby decreasing the ball’s kinetic energy. [13] The ball also speeds up, which indicates an increase in kinetic energy. [13] In a closed system, the total energy is constant such that this decrease in kinetic energy must be accompanied by an increase in some other type of energy (like thermal energy). [16]

If the mass is doubled, the kinetic energy is doubled and if the velocity is doubled, the kinetic energy is increased by four. [4] Note that a change in the velocity will have a much greater effect on the amount of kinetic energy because that term is squared. [15]

For now, I’m just going to assume all of this kinetic energy gets converted into the energy in the suit (it’s super advanced so it can do that). [16] Yes the Black Panther could use the kinetic energy from those bullets to charge two iPhones. [16] Everyone knows that the Black Panther isn’t going to use the kinetic energy charge his phone. [16]

The sum of KE and GPE is constant if only conservative forces are acting on it, thus meeting the conditions for the principle of Conservation of Mechanical Energy. [4] This principle states that the total mechanical energy is always the same, no matter how it is divided between KE and GPE. Accordingly, if KE decreases, GPE much increase and if GPE decreases then KE must increase. [4] This lesson introduces mechanical energy, the form of energy that is easiest to observe on a daily basis. [15] Repeat Example 8.10 when the particle’s mechanical energy is +0.25 J. [6] In this format, it is an introductory activity to provide a common experience to which all students can refer during discussion of mechanical energy. [4]

Hydrogen atoms, if they are exposed to the sun experience nuclear fusion, uniting to form helium and successively releasing large quantities of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation and thermal energy. [14]

**RANKED SELECTED SOURCES**(23 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (51) 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy | Texas Gateway

2. (46) What is Potential Energy: Types and Facts | Earth Eclipse

3. (45) 8.1: Potential Energy of a System – Physics LibreTexts

4. (41) Kinetic and Potential Energy of Motion – Lesson – TeachEngineering

5. (27) Using Your Marbles: Making Energy Work for You

6. (22) newtonian mechanics – Work and Gravitational Potential Energy – Physics Stack Exchange

7. (20) What Happens As an Object Falls Toward Earth? | Sciencing

8. (18) 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy College Physics chapters 1-17

9. (17) 8.4: Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability – Physics LibreTexts

10. (16) How Much Kinetic Energy Could Black Panther Collect From Bullets? | WIRED

12. (13) Does a body at rest (at ground) possess potential energy? – Quora

13. (12) The Formula to Calculate Gravitational Potential Energy

14. (11) Conservation of Energy in Projectile Motion: Examples & Analysis | Study.com

15. (11) Gravitational Potential Energy | Boundless Physics

16. (9) a What is the change in the gravitational potential energy if the satellite

17. (9) 1. Energy is a Physical Quantity

18. (7) Energy – Definition and Examples

19. (6) Physics Unit 4 – work, power and energy Flashcards | Quizlet

20. (4) Potential Energy Calculator

21. (4) Build a Rubber Band-Powered Car – Scientific American

22. (3) AAAS Science Assessment ~ Items ~ EG013004

23. (2) Solved: (8) (1.5 Pts) For Each Of The Following Processes,. | Chegg.com