What Is the Difference Between a Grid and a Substation?

What Is the Difference Between a Grid and a Substation?
What is the difference between a grid and a substation? Image link: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Birkenhead_Substation_(1).jpg
C O N T E N T S:


  • A substation proposed by Pepco has become a focal point of the grid modernization debate in Washington, D.C. and could be the turning point in how the nation’s capital handles its electric power.(More…)
  • Our analysis focused on power plants and substations in particular, recognizing that many of these long-lived pieces of infrastructure, which are centrally important to the power grid, are already exposed to flood risks and will face increasing levels of exposure as seas rise.(More…)
  • Even de-energizing a substation before it floods can make a big difference in repair times, given the comparative calamity of equipment that gets flooded while electricity is still coursing through.(More…)


  • Generally a station is where power is generated and a substation is where it is either transformed to a higher or lower voltage for either transmission or distribution and which generally does not involve any power generation.(More…)


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A substation proposed by Pepco has become a focal point of the grid modernization debate in Washington, D.C. and could be the turning point in how the nation’s capital handles its electric power. [1] Pepco’s application to the District of Columbia Public Service Commission (DC PSC) for its Capital Grid project includes the refurbishment of three existing substations and the building of a new substation in the district’s Mt. [1] With the MEDSIS process still under way, Pepco in May 2017 filed with the PSC for approval of more substation investments as part of its Capital Grid project. [1]

Most utilities drop the substation from the power grid at 170 ms, if a fault even lasts that long. [2] This is especially true for grounding rod applications for substation grounding grids and transmission poles. [2] Mechanical performance benefits of copperweld products, like ground rods and substation grounding grids, are well known in the industry. [2]

Our analysis focused on power plants and substations in particular, recognizing that many of these long-lived pieces of infrastructure, which are centrally important to the power grid, are already exposed to flood risks and will face increasing levels of exposure as seas rise. [3] It also participates in the multi-state Southwest Power Pool grid so it can rely on the Western Cooperative substation for power. [4] The grid was originally designed with large central station generation – for example, coal, oil, nuclear, natural gas, hydro – with transmission and distribution substations to deliver electricity to the end customer. [5] It’s rare to be separated from the grid, and typically that might only happen in severe weather, such as a tornado taking down the transmission line to the substation. [4] This type of attack can bring down the grid – as well as any facilities that are connected to the affected substations – for 9 to 18 months. [5] “U.S. power grid could be knocked out by a handful of substation attacks.” [6]

Are you looking to make a difference in your career? We?re working on smarter grids, cleaner energy and tools to help people manage energy more efficiently. [7]

Even de-energizing a substation before it floods can make a big difference in repair times, given the comparative calamity of equipment that gets flooded while electricity is still coursing through. [3] The cost difference between the grid and Russell power is $30 to $40 a megawatt, Banks said, or about three to four cents a kilowatt hour. [4]


Generally a station is where power is generated and a substation is where it is either transformed to a higher or lower voltage for either transmission or distribution and which generally does not involve any power generation. [8] The utility’s analysis included the use of demand response, photovoltaic distribution generation and storage batteries, but found that while the safe and reliable alternatives to future substations “may be on the horizon, the Mt. [1] The PSC declined to take up that request as part of the substation approval process but said it would open a docket to establish a working group that could address “in a more global way the future outlook for energy growth,” including the feasibility of more energy storage and increased generation distribution. [1] The PSC approved — and Pepco built — the Waterfront substation, while the MEDSIS process led to the creation of working groups to study the issues, resolutions to define the terms of the debate and the hiring of the Smart Electric Power Alliance (SEPA) as a consultant on the process. [1] In this role, Silberman manages all consulting services for the engineering and design of Northern States Power (NSP) substation and transmission line projects. [9] In this role Kevin manages the departments of Substation Engineering, System Protection Engineering, CAD Engineering Services, and Relay, SCADA, and Telecommunications Technical Support for Wisconsin Power and Light operating company. [9]

Proper design, construction and maintenance of our substations and the equipment contained within allows utilities to transport and delivery power at lowest reasonable costs. [10] Environmental advocates would like to explore distributed energy alternatives that they say would cost ratepayers less than Pepco’s new substations. [1] In a filing before the PSC, DOEE submitted the findings of a report it commissioned by Synapse Energy Economics that finds Pepco’s load forecast, which justifies the need for a new substation in Mt. [1]

The excess power or off peak power generated by wind generators or solar arrays is then used for load balancing in the energy grid. [11] Electrical energy is stored during times when production (especially from intermittent power plants such as renewable electricity sources such as wind power, tidal power, solar power ) exceeds consumption, and returned to the grid when production falls below consumption. [11] The demand side can also store electricity from the grid, for example charging a battery electric vehicle stores energy for a vehicle and storage heaters, district heating storage or ice storage provide thermal storage for buildings. 2 At present this storage serves only to shift consumption to the off-peak time of day, no electricity is returned to the grid. [11] Increasingly, however, operators are storing lower-cost energy produced at night, then releasing it to the grid during the peak periods of the day when it is more valuable. 74 In areas where hydroelectric dams exist, release can be delayed until demand is greater; this form of storage is common and can make use of existing reservoirs. [11] An alternative to grid storage is the use of peaking power plants to fill in demand gaps. [11] Utilities with less natural gas or hydroelectric generation are thus more reliant on demand management, grid interconnections or costly pumped storage. [11] Depending on these factors, beyond about 20-40% of total generation, grid-connected intermittent sources such as solar power and wind turbines tend to require investment in grid interconnections, grid energy storage or demand side management. [11] Uprating such a dam with additional generators increases its peak power output capacity, thereby increasing its capacity to operate as a virtual grid energy storage unit. 64 65 The United States Bureau of Reclamation reports an investment cost of $69 per kilowatt capacity to uprate an existing dam, 64 compared to more than $400 per kilowatt for oil-fired peaking generators. [11] Grid energy storage is used to shift generation from times of peak load to off-peak hours. [11] Another grid energy storage method is to use off-peak or renewably generated electricity to compress air, which is usually stored in an old mine or some other kind of geological feature. [11]

There are grid situations where baseload thermal plants, nuclear or wind turbines are already producing excess power at night, dams are still required to release enough water to maintain adequate river levels, whether electricity is generated or not. [11] Where AC grid power was not readily available, isolated lighting plants run by wind turbines or internal combustion engines provided lighting and power to small motors. [11]

The stores are used – feeding power to the grids – at times when consumption that cannot be deferred or delayed exceeds production. [11] The electrochemical grid storage was made possible thanks to the development of the electric vehicle, that induced a fast decrease in the production costs of batteries below $300/kWh. [11] One approach is to reuse unreliable vehicle batteries in dedicated grid storage as they are expected to be good in this role for ten years. [11]

Similar grid modernization efforts are underway in states such as California, Hawaii and New York, which is working through Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s Reforming the Energy Vision program. [1] In a recent report, the North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center noted that 36 states have embarked on grid modernization plans. [1]

We?re working on smarter grids, cleaner energy, and tools to help people manage energy more efficiently — all important steps toward the future of energy. [7] Noting that the district is experiencing its highest population growth in four decades, Pepco said the Capital Grid project will “address current and future energy needs,” help build grid resilience to withstand and recover from events such as severe storms, and help the District reach its goal of generating half its electricity from renewable sources by 2032. [1] The Capital Grid project, however, is receiving pushback from environmental advocates, local residents and even the district’s Department of Energy & Environment (DOEE). [1]

The need for grid storage to provide peak power is reduced by demand side time of use pricing, one of the benefits of smart meters. [11] Renewable supplies with variable production, like wind and solar power, tend to increase the net variation in electric load, increasing the opportunity for grid energy storage. [11]

As of 2017 update, the largest form of grid energy storage is dammed hydroelectricity, with both conventional hydroelectric generation as well as pumped storage. [11] Simplified grid energy flow with and without idealized energy storage for the course of one day. [11] Functioning as a virtual grid storage unit in this way, the uprated dam is one of the most efficient forms of energy storage, because it has no pumping losses to fill its reservoir, only increased losses to evaporation and leakage. [11] Learn how energy storage is changing the grid starting with the most impactful development of incorporating energy storage into distributed energy resource (DER) systems and the integration of both into the grid. [10]

Demand for electricity from the world’s various grids varies over the course of the day and from season to season. [11] There are 2 methods, the first is to use the electricity for water splitting and inject the resulting hydrogen into the natural gas grid. [11]

Powercorp in Australia have been developing applications using wind turbines, flywheels and low load diesel (LLD) technology to maximize the wind input to small grids. [11] While a large number of applications can be designed on top of the cloud, in this paper the focus will be on a real-time distributed state estimation algorithm that enables the automatic reconfiguration of the grid. [12]

Syracuse, NY The Associate Engineer, Grid Modernization role will work within a multi-disciplinary team responsible for all phases of implementation including technology. [13] The proposal comes as the grid modernization debate is heating up across the country and for the district could also lead to a first-of-its-kind independent regulatory body that would take over some utility planning functions. [1] The DERA bill puts the D.C. Council “square in the middle” of the District’s grid modernization efforts, Rabago said. [1]

Coordinating with multiple disciplines to determine scope and cost for interconnecting generators and large customer load to the SCE grid. [7] Technologies optimized for the grid should focus on low cost and low density. [11]

Underground ground grids are typically pure copper, except for the ground rods that tie the underground grounding grid to low resistivity soil; they, too are copperweld. [2] On a separate track, the DC PSC is in the midst of a process aimed at modernizing the District’s grid. [1]

Electro Industries, the leader in power monitoring and smart grid solutions, is looking for a Hardware Design Engineer to join our. [13] The evolution of the power systems towards the smart grid paradigm is strictly dependent on the modernization of distribution grids. [12]

Select Newsletter: Utility Dive Topics covered: smart grid tech, clean energy, regulation, generation, and much more. [1] An alternate and complementary approach to achieve the similar effect as grid energy storage is to use a smart grid communication infrastructure to enable Demand response. [11] As the power grid developed, copper-weld wire became less popular for use on high voltage lines between towers and poles, and more widely popular for grounding applications based on significant factors. [2] Jeffrey T. Jordan, P.E., is the Power Grid Product Manager for Copperweld Bimetallic LLC in Nashville, TN, USA. He is circuit breaker and grounding application expert for copper-weld grounding wire solutions. [2] Customers desire solutions that outperform standard copper solutions, particularly to prevent instances of theft of above-ground wires and when the power grid is feeding critical applications. [2] Pressed onto a steel core and then drawn to size, the clad layer of CCS in power grid applications can range in size from 10 mil to 13 mil. [2]

Grid energy storage (also called large-scale energy storage ) is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large scale within an electrical power grid. [11] Any electrical power grid must match electricity production to consumption, both of which vary drastically over time. [11] In terms of power grid market acceptance, the major utilities, electrical co-ops, municipalities, and local authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) often specify something else. [2]

Experience within the Transmission, Distribution and Substation electrical construction industry is essential to the success of this. [13] He has been with Alliant Energy/WPL for more than 30 years, during which he has worked a variety of engineering management positions and experienced as a substation and transmission engineer and senior system protection engineer. [9] One test specifically measured the performance of grounding conductors for substation and transmission applications. [2]

The DOEE recommends that $10 million in MEDSIS funds be made available for distributed energy resources that could defer the need for a new substation by two years. [1] Orange and Rockland Utilities recently dedicated a new $26 million electric substation to provide improved service reliability. [10] In 2017 the California Public Utilities Commission installed 396 refrigerator-sized stacks of Tesla batteries at the Mira Loma substation in Ontario, California. [11] During 2017, preventable animal incursions have led to serious outages, costly repairs and damaged reputations for utilities and other substation operators. [10]

Learn step-by-step the design and construction process of the substation, from initial site review and selection, to substation start-up and commissioning. [9] Buffalo, NY A minimum of 5 years’ experience in substation protection and control design. [13]

The successful candidate for this position is responsible for the engineering and design of substation electrical facilities, acting as a Responsible Engineer for complex substation projects (infrastructure replacement, distribution/load growth and/or bulk power), and resolving technical issues associated with substation engineering. [7] The Substation Engineer (ENG3) will work with Substation Projects – Northern Team, within Substation Projects Engineering group in Southern California Edison?s (SCE) Transmission & Distribution Organization. [7]

Previously a senior maintenance planning engineer for Alliant Utilities, he has 27 years of experience in power delivery system planning, protection and control, maintenance, and substation design. [9] Energy: Power: Principles of Substation Design and Construction You are using an outdated browser. [9]

Providing scope for substation elements of interconnection and method of service studies. [7] Even if the load forecast were accurate, the DOEE argues there are lower?cost, more sustainable and resilient alternatives to building a new substation. [1] Residents are concerned about health and safety hazards from the proposed substation and its use of open space — owned by Pepco — that is near a school. [1] The MEDSIS process arose as a response to protests over another Pepco substation. [1] Therefore, this article provides explanations and test data to show how the copper-welding process outperforms standard copper conductors in transmission and substation grounding applications. [2] The test results indicate that copperweld can, in fact, be engineered to outperform standard copper conductors for today?s transmission and substation grounding applications. [2]

IEEE Standard 80, IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding, identifies both cladding and plating as appropriate solutions where theft may be problematic. [2]

Participate in the mentoring and training of new engineers as required to help develop the technical expertise of the Substation Projects group. [7] Whether you’re working on a substation design project yourself or with a project manager, this course will give you the tools and skills to successfully complete a design from start to finish. [9]

In order to keep the supply of electricity consistent and to deal with varying electrical loads it is necessary to decrease the difference between generation and demand. [11] Advances to the electric grid must maintain a robust and resilient electricity delivery system, and energy storage can play a significant role in meeting these challenges by improving the operating capabilities of the grid, lowering cost and ensuring high reliability, as well as deferring and reducing infrastructure investments. [11] A report released in December 2013 by the United States Department of Energy further describes the potential benefits of energy storage and demand side technologies to the electric grid: “Modernizing the electric system will help the nation meet the challenge of handling projected energy needs–including addressing climate change by integrating more energy from renewable sources and enhancing efficiency from non-renewable energy processes. [11] TransmissionHub will discuss the effects that renewable energy and energy storage are having on the electric grid. [14]

This technology includes ZEBRA, Sodium-sulfur batteries and liquid metal. 12 Sodium sulphur batteries are being used for grid storage in Japan and in the United States. 13 The electrolyte is composed of solid beta alumina. [11] “Green Car Congress: Daimler and partners deploying world’s largest 2nd-life EV battery storage unit for grid support”. [11]

Missouri passed legislation in June aimed at accelerating grid modernization in the state and Ohio regulators in August released their roadmap for grid modernization. [1] The distributed state estimation algorithm and the automatic network reconfiguration will be presented as an example of coordinated operation of different distribution grid services through the cloud. [12] The proposed architecture is based on a cloud solution, which allows the communication with the smart meters from one side and provides the needed interfaces to the distribution grid services on the other one. [12] This paper presents a smart metering infrastructure that unlocks a large set of possible services aimed at the automation and management of distribution grids. [12]

Power grid grounding historically consisted of pure copper stranded wire. [2] IEEE Standard 80 permits the plated components to be used in the power grid. [2]

The comment period on the Capital Grid project ends in December and approval could come as soon as year end, with construction beginning in 2019 and completion as soon as 2026. [1] Pepco’s substation-focused Capital Grid proposal is moving forward more quickly than the MEDSIS grid modernization process. [1]

Although the overall goal of the project is to store and discharge excess solar power in the day/night cycle to allow higher levels of solar penetration, Xcel also wants to evaluate the ability of these batteries to regulate grid voltage, provide backup power, and reduce peak demand, all of which lead to lower operating costs for the utility. [15] In 2017, Investor-Owned Utility Xcel Energy announced plans for a CES pilot project in Colorado, citing increasing demand for rooftop solar, especially in areas of the country like the Southwest, and that implementing battery storage can increase the amount of solar the local grid can handle. [15]

United Power cites curbing peak demand as the main reason for the installation, which will help to improve their overall grid efficiency. [15] As consumers become active power producers who demand clean, reliable, and affordable power, the transforming grid needs innovative technical solutions that can unlock new business models and revenue streams. [16] At the local scale, benefits of energy storage include the ability to provide backup power, mitigate flicker, and integrate more renewable capacity while maintaining local grid stability. [15] Energy storage supports diverse applications including firming renewable production, stabilizing the electrical grid, controlling energy flow, optimizing asset operation and creating new revenue. [16] Create a new and more flexible grid by locally integrating renewable generation and smart devices with energy storage and real-time communication. [16] AEP has installed a variety of community energy storage systems, aimed at shaving peak load, demonstrating grid islanding, storing renewable production in the day, and supporting sub-transmission. [15] Peak i Reduce grid capacity needs during peak periods with local storage. [16] The utility also notes that community storage provides an efficient solution for increasing distributed intelligence and speed on the grid. [15] Transmission and distribution deferrals may be a straightforward costs for utilities to consider in a cost-benefit analysis for a CES system in a particular context, but the value of CES to provide other services like frequency and voltage regulation to the grid through a utility?s distribution management system are not well-quantified. [15] CES systems may offer utility benefits, including potential cost savings, grid services and, in some cases, the ability to defer transmission and distribution upgrades. [15]

Backup i Store energy to maintain service continuity and grid resilience in the event of an outage. [16]

GE?s Reservoir Energy Storage solutions integrate across the grid to help our customers do more than they ever thought possible. [16] Although “it depends” is often the correct answer when asking whether energy storage makes sense in a particular context, utilities are exploring opportunities to incorporate community energy storage (CES) systems into the local grid. [15] Utilities and electric co-ops that are adding batteries to the grid cite many benefits for residential, commercial, and other grid-level stakeholders. [15] Xcel created a pilot project in Stapleton, a suburb of Denver, to incorporate six customer batteries and six grid batteries of various sizes. [15]

The rapid deployment of low-carbon technologies such as wind and solar is making it increasingly difficult to forecast variable generation, creating challenges around grid stability, congestion and market volatility. [16] In April 2019, Electricity Transmission is becoming a separate company within the National Grid Group. [17] Frequency i Provide fast regulation of grid frequency to balance supply and demand. [16] Contingency i Provide fast ramp-rate to meet grid requirements for online dispatch within a short delay of operating reserve. [16]

More connected devices and smart sensors create fast decision-making on dynamic and nodal prices, while intelligent control systems and internet-enabled software optimize power plants and the grid. [16] To many consumers, the term “Smart Grid” probably comes across as being an institutional buzzword. [18]

Synthetic i Compensate losses of grid inertia caused by high renewable penetration. [16] The growing penetration of distributed energy resources, including renewables and storage, is creating more “prosumers” and increasing distribution grid complexity. [16]

At the broader grid-scale, these systems can provide voltage regulation, peak demand shaving, load-leveling at substations, power factor correction, and other ancillary services. [15] Primary distribution lines carry power from substations to transformers, and secondary distribution lines carry power from transformers to service drops for customers. [18] As power demand and population grow across the state, so too does the need for new power lines and substations. [19] Just as there are linemen and engineers planning and maintaining power lines, there?s a team dedicated to scoping and designing new substations — a process that can take up to a year. [19] Power outages can occur due to disruptions at any point in the system, from power plants, to transmission and distribution lines, to the many critical substations enabling power flow in between. [3] With a skilled and dedicated team at the helm, Georgia Transmission is able to build and maintain substations that are capable of helping deliver energy to more than 4 million Georgians safely, reliably and affordably. [19] Strategically placed and designed substations deserve equal credit for their important role in getting reliable, affordable energy to Georgians. [19]

AEP began installing batteries in Charleston, WV in 2006 in lieu of upgrading substations as a way to reduce costs. [15] The NETS consists of approximately 7,200 kilometres (4,474 miles) of overhead line, 1,500 kilometres (932 miles) of underground cable and 342 substations. [17] We help keep the lights on in Georgia by building and maintaining high-voltage transmission lines and substations for local EMCs. [19] “There are different voltages, ratings, capacities, populations and topographies There?s no one substation that looks like another.” [19] Storm surge has the potential to inundate coastal assets like power plants and substations, and inland flooding from extreme precipitation threatens to submerge many more. [3] In our analysis of the South Carolina Lowcountry, 54 major substations (representing more than 27 percent of the total) and seven power plants in the mapped region could be exposed to flooding from a major storm today, including nearly 90 percent of those (14 out of 16) in Charleston. [3] In our analysis of southeastern Virginia, 57 major substations (representing 43 percent of the total) and four power plants in the mapped region could be exposed to flooding from a major storm today, including more than 80 percent of the substations in Norfolk and Hampton. [3]

Dispatchable i Control solar generation at request of power grid operators or according to market needs. [16] To Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co. and other utilities like it, a smart electric grid is one that has fewer, shorter outages. [18] Vegetation management, select undergrounding, use of smart grid equipment, and grid hardening can all help to limit the scale and duration of outages. [3]

The necessary perform of good grids are Electronic power acquisition, management of power generation and distribution. [20] The grid can operate without the internet, but the internet cannot operate without power. [5] The way the grid works, on any given day the Southwest Power Pool will dispatch Russell to generate anywhere from 6.5 megawatts to 13 megawatts to contribute over a specific length of time based on forecasts for power across the grid. [4] As members, Russell and other small cities both draw power and contribute power to the grid. [4]

An electrical grid that accustomed does completely different operational and energy measures. [20] Clients explore ways to access renewable energy, profit from excess supply, and even operate off 100 percent internal power… with no grid support whatsoever. [21]

The U.S. electrical grid has been in place for decades and, by and large, has been a dependable electricity distribution network. [21] With all this in mind, it is imperative for CMTs, first responders, and recovery teams to understand the unique issues that can occur following control system cyberattacks that affect the equipment used in the grid. [5]

Preparations to host this event included electric grid resiliency measures taken by Xcel Energy (power provider). [22]

Russell’s power went out Aug. 29 when the transformer tripped a switch after failure of a load tap changer, a mechanical part that ensures the transformer operates safely and efficiently, at a Western Cooperative substation three miles east of Russell. [4] The problem is that Russell, like other small cities, has one lone tie-in to the Southwest Power Pool through a three-mile transmission line to the Western Cooperative substation. [4] A Sunflower Electric transformer is delivered to setup a temporary substation east of Russell after Russell experienced a blackout at 1:30 a.m. Thursday morning after a load tap changer failed in a Western Cooperative Electric transformer. [4] DNV GL has been contracted by Transmission System Operator TenneT to deliver the complete project certification for the Hollandse Kust Zuid offshore wind farm substations in the Dutch North Sea. [23] STX Europe has announced that the offshore substation foundation for the Rentel offshore wind farm has been installed off the coast of Belgium in the North Sea. [23]

A substation gateway with a proven history in data acquisition and distribution automation applications. [21] A new IEEE guide has been created by the Substations Committee D9 Group that considers AC and DC system components from the sources to the distribution. [22]

The control systems used to monitor and control power plants and substations do not have adequate cybersecurity, nor do the utilities have adequate control system cybersecurity policies and procedures. [5] Substations are ripe for electrical bridging opportunities due to the many exposed electrical contact points. [6] The gateway bridges the gap between substations and automation systems to provide essential communication and data concentration features. [21]

Maximum progressive smart grid technologies are in electrical transmission. [20] Roll-out of smart grid technology is applied in the re-engineering of the facility service industries. [20]

It should also be noted that concerns about the electric grid also affect chemical plants, pipelines, water systems, manufacturing, and transportation, as these industries all use similar equipment from the same suppliers with the same cyber vulnerabilities. [5]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(23 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (33) Grid energy storage – Wikipedia

2. (23) Proposed Pepco substation highlights DC’s grid modernization battle | Utility Dive

3. (15) Measuring the performance of copperweld vs. soft-drawn (pure) copper in transmission and substation grounding applications | IAEI Magazine

4. (13) Community Energy Storage: A New Revenue Stream for Utilities and Communities? | State, Local, and Tribal Governments | NREL

5. (13) Industrial Grid Energy & Battery Energy Storage Solutions | GE Power

6. (8) Rain slows ETA on Russell power transfer; human, mechanical burps cited in outage – News – The Hays Daily News – Hays, KS

7. (7) Hurricane Florence Threatens East Coast Electricity Infrastructure – Union of Concerned Scientists

8. (7) Substation Engineer at Southern California Edison

9. (7) Energy: Power: Principles of Substation Design and Construction

10. (6) What do substations do, exactly? Georgia Transmission

11. (6) Control System Cybersecurity Concerns | Domestic Preparedness

12. (5) A cloud-based smart metering infrastructure for distribution grid services and automation – ScienceDirect

13. (4) Substations | Transmission & Distribution World

14. (4) Substation Engineer Jobs, Employment in New York State | Indeed.com

15. (4) Smart Grids |Conferences | Global events | Europe | USA | Asia Pacific | Middle East

16. (4) Microgrid Content Journey

17. (3) Smart grid upgrades aim to improve the reliability of power delivery to Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co. customers

18. (2) Network and assets | National Grid ET

19. (2) MIPSYCON Program November 6, 2018 | College of Continuing & Professional Studies

20. (2) Rentel substation foundation installed – 4C Offshore

21. (2) How Do Animal-Caused Outages Occur? – Cantega

22. (1) Transmission and Distribution for electric distribution systems, Substations, & lines – TransmissionHub

23. (1) What is the difference between station and substation? – Quora