Renewable Energy And Energy Security

Renewable Energy And Energy Security
Renewable Energy And Energy Security Image link: https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/112200/new-wind-turbines-help-air-force-go-green/
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • The usage of renewable energy sources increases the energy security because it brings extensive socio-economic benefits to Israeli and Jordanian populations, added pathways for bilateral cooperation and allows countries to achieve their climate mitigation goals.(More...)
  • As the sources of global energy continue to change, so, too, will the world's definition of energy security.(More...)
  • As recently as July of this year, a reliability draft-study came to that conclusion, and the grid industry weighed in on this issue of concern : "Officials at four grid operators, serving about 133 million customers, agreed renewables do not harm energy security or reliability.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • From a macroeconomic point of view, it would be tempting to conclude that the transition to renewables (solar, wind ?) will gradually end today's geopolitics of fossil fuels based on historical relationships between energy producers and consumers.(More...)
  • The developing countries not only have to increase their commercial energy production in the upcoming years by using renewable sources but also have to reduce the disparities within their own rich and poor to provide easy energy availability and accessibility to all in a sustainable way.(More...)
  • The fact that no blackouts occurred under three different scenarios suggests that many possible solutions to grid stability with 100 percent wind, water and solar power are possible, a conclusion that contradicts previous claims that the grid cannot stay stable with such high penetrations of just renewables.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS

The usage of renewable energy sources increases the energy security because it brings extensive socio-economic benefits to Israeli and Jordanian populations, added pathways for bilateral cooperation and allows countries to achieve their climate mitigation goals. [1] ADBI and the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Institute will hold a 2-day course-based training program for officials of 11 CAREC countries to share critical knowledge on developing renewable energy to achieve energy security. [2] The rise of renewable energy, electric vehicles and new ways of storing energy will further reshape the concept of energy security in the years ahead. [3] Examine the role of renewable energy in promoting energy security in Central Asia. [2]

This paper applies a Divisia index approach to investigate the factors governing renewable energy development in China, including the supply mix, energy security, carbon emission, and to forecast these requirements for the year 2020 and 2030. [4] Scenario analyses suggest that strong and continuing renewable energy policies will be helpful to achieve sustainable energy development in China and a strong synergy between renewable energy and energy security would emerge in the future. [4]

Long-term measures to increase energy security center on reducing dependence on any one source of imported energy, increasing the number of suppliers, exploiting native fossil fuel or renewable energy resources, and reducing overall demand through energy conservation measures. [5] " Emerging symbiosis: Renewable energy and energy security," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 4572-4578. [4] China will have one less excuse to expand its regional military presence for the sake of energy security as it raises the share of domestically-produced renewable energy in its energy mix. [6] Energy security and substitution rate have relatively closer relationships with new and total renewable energy consumption respectively than that of other factors. [4]

Corey Peck and Steve Peterson's work in applying system dynamics to global trade in polysilicon for solar photovoltaics in order to investigate the energy security of renewable energy supply chains was recently publish in Sustainability (January 2018). [7] Renewable energy, produced with widely available low-cost energy resources, is often included as a component of national strategies to address energy security and sustainability. [7] Concerns about climate change, energy security, and energy prices are driving the switch to renewable energy. [8]

Many energy security analyses omit potential future changes in the energy mix, the implications that a growing uptake of renewable energy could have, and the influence of broader societal transformations. [9] The first attempts to address energy security in a renewable energy world are emerging, but few efforts to date capture the true complexity to reach or sustain such a future society. [9]

With rising demand for fossil fuels coupled with uncertainty over the availability of fossil fuels in the future, rising concerns over energy security (both for general supply and specific needs of facilities), and the potential that buildup of greenhouse gases may be causing undesirable impacts on the global climate, it is essential to find ways to reduce load, increase efficiency, and utilize renewable energy resources in all types of facilities. [10] Use of renewable energy can increase energy security and reduce dependence on imported fuels, while reducing or eliminating greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy use. [10]

For those countries where growing dependence on imported gas is a significant energy security issue, renewable technologies can provide alternative sources of electric power as well as displacing electricity demand through direct heat production. [5] Page 2 of 3 Forum Theme & Objectives Context: For the last decade, efforts have been deployed to expand Renewable Energies (RE) produc- tion and increase Energy Security (ES) within and beyond the Frontiers of the MENA coun- tries. [11]

As the sources of global energy continue to change, so, too, will the world's definition of energy security. [3] Strengthening energy security by diversifying energy sources to include alternative green resources has therefore become crucial. [2] While natural gas resources are undoubtedly at the heart of Europe's energy concerns, the Continent has also become a leader in conceptualizing energy security beyond supply volumes alone. [3] This modern interpretation of energy security, which features flexibility in supply chains as its cornerstone, is becoming increasingly common in today's globalized world. [3] Alongside electricity production, it is providing new solutions for mobility and energy security worldwide. [12] For nearly a decade, lobbyists, academics and politicians alike have hailed the shale revolution as the guarantor of U.S. energy security. [3] With its growing population and rapidly increasing energy needs, Pakistan?s energy security is undermined by the overriding share of imported fossil fuels in its energy mix. [13] At least, it is based on some definitions of energy security, of which there are many. [3]

As solar and wind power costs continue to fall and deployment grows, please join our panelists as they analyze the outlook for renewable energy globally and renewable energy policies in the United States, China, and countries around the world. [14] Island states have a unique set of circumstances that disadvantage traditional fossil fuels and that advantage renewable energy, presumably of solar and some wind. [14] "Pakistan is rich in renewable energy potential, and can with this assessment develop policies, investment opportunities and energy development actions to harness it," said Abid Sher Ali, Pakistan?s Minister of State for Power. [13] Well, China had a banner year last year in terms of renewable energy development, investing about $126 billion into clean energy, which is its largest on record. [14] One thing to watch in China is a new ministerial reshuffling of the government agencies that actually control renewable energy development and climate change policy there. [14] The interesting thing is--and, again, from a U.S. policy perspective, is you have countries that have willingness to put a ban on the combustion engine, right? And as you--if that trend accelerates, you know, that?s going to be a much more powerful tool than even some of this renewable energy, which is going to happen naturally anyway, you know, because I think eventually it?s going to offer in some locations superior service. [14] These are physical centers located in developing countries to build the entrepreneurial capacity of the local startup community, to build the innovation ecosystem to get new local companies into climate sectors--growing climate sectors, including but not limited to renewable energy. [14] I would like to address how the state of renewable energy, as has been described here, and we all know will impact the developing countries, because, remember, the energy needs are the greatest in the developing countries. [14] Among the renewable energy sources, hydropower has been the most prominent, comprising almost a third of the country?s electricity generation. [13] This project investigates the role of renewable energy sources to achieve sustainable and secure energy future for the region. [1] Discussing the potential of other renewable energy sources, IRENA notes that hydropower has a sizable share in Pakistan?s energy mix, with 7.1 GW of installed grid-connected capacity, and finds that the country has up to 60 GW of economic and technical hydropower potential. [13] It?s also true that because the clean tech revolution or the renewable energy revolution, with the dramatic price drops that David mentioned, coincides with this great investment boom that?s going to come, they can leapfrog technologies. [14] My own reading of the literature is that there might be stresses in the short term--like temporary supply gaps that spike up prices--but that over the medium and long term technologies adapt, supply comes back into the market, and the markets work and will bring these materials into the renewable energy supply chain in sufficient amount. [14] Israel and Jordan's energy mix are both dominated by fossil fuel usage and produce only 4% of their energy supply from renewable energy. [1] Major renewable energy projects have a lower rate of return than fossil fuel energy projects. [2] Two barriers hinder the development of renewable energy projects. [2] It points out that the country needs to set a target for renewable energy development, as well as coordinate the development and implementation of an integrated energy plan. [13] I think the major challenge for places like Cape Verde getting to 100 percent renewable energy is not going to be the cost of renewable energy. [14] I think there?s going to be tremendous growth in the renewable energy sector. [14] I think you can think about the renewable energy sector as a stool with three legs to it. [14] A new report prepared by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in cooperation with the Government of Pakistan provides an overview of the country?s energy sector and offers recommendations on how to further utilize its renewable resources. [13] Although, the cost of renewable energy projects in Pakistan has come down significantly, they are still generally higher than thermal energy. [13] Many banks and financial institutions are reluctant to lend to renewable energy projects, considering them risky. [2] So it?s very hard to have 100 percent renewable energy grid with that type of variability. [14] Although Israel and Jordan have set targets to attain 10% renewable energy by 2020 the progress is slow and both countries may not reach this goal if the implementation occurs at the current pace. [1] None of this is going to happen unless the capacity of the developing countries to implement these large amount of newish technology, new renewable energy technology is put in place. [14] Plenty of examples of what the Bank is doing--the World Bank Group is doing to support developing countries, to implement this new wave of renewable energy. [14] We?re sitting in Washington and we?ve been thinking about policy and renewable energy here in the United States. [14] Improve understanding of various policy, regulatory, technical, and financial aspects of renewable energy deployment, including key challenges and opportunities for increasing uptake of renewable energy in the region. [2] If we were going to start with the country that?s having the most impact on renewable energy, we probably would have started with China. [14] Today, a fifth of the world?s electricity is produced by renewable energy. [12] You have all this interest in renewable energy, advanced infrastructure, you know, both in mobility and in electricity. [14] It is suggested that Pakistan should encourage renewable energy zoning and competitive procurement to reduce overall system costs. [13] There?s increasing discussion of the geopolitics of renewable energy as well. [14]

Amy is the senior fellow for energy and environment, and director of the program of energy security and climate change at the Council on Foreign Relations. [14] The second reason is strategic: by increasing the proportion of renewable sources in its energy mix for electricity consumption, China can mitigate geopolitical tensions by making the country less reliant on unstable regions for energy security. [6] Japan has long addressed this weakness with a three-pronged energy security strategy, largely within the framework of economic security: increase the efficiency of consumption; diversify fossil fuel suppliers, including through Japanese national oil and gas company exploration and investment; and increase domestic supply through nuclear power. [15] The Group of Five, precursors to the G8, first met in 1975 to coordinate economic and energy policies in the wake of the 1973 Arab oil embargo, a rise in inflation and a global economic slowdown. 14 NATO leaders meeting in Bucharest Romania, in April 2008, may discuss the possibility of using the military alliance "as an instrument of energy security". [5] The impact of the 1973 oil crisis and the emergence of the OPEC cartel was a particular milestone that prompted some countries to increase their energy security. [5] In other countries energy security has historically been a lower priority. [5] The aftermath of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami cut one leg out from under Japan?s energy security stool altogether, however, bringing the share of nuclear power in Japan?s primary energy consumption from around 13% to less than 1%. [15] " Climate protection and China?s energy security: Win-win or tradeoff," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 157-163. [4] "Ethanol fuels: Energy security, economics, and the environment". [5] "The OSCE has a comparative advantage as a platform for addressing energy security issues and reducing energy risks in the OSCE area," said the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities, Vuk ?ugi?. [16] Increasing energy security is also one of the reasons behind a block on the development of natural gas imports in Sweden. [5] With all the oil wells located around the world energy security has become a main issue to ensure the safety of the petroleum that is being harvested. [5] In the context of energy security, security of energy supply is an issue of utmost importance. [5]

U.S. renewable energy companies investing in China worry about intellectual property being appropriated without fair compensation, the loss of financial control, and national security. 43 These are valid risks to consider when investing in China, but at the same time evidence is anecdotal and hence difficult to substantiate or to disprove. [6] You could read just about anything into that statement, though if the U.S. Department of Defense has any say in the matter of national security then things are looking good for renewable energy. [17]

As recently as July of this year, a reliability draft-study came to that conclusion, and the grid industry weighed in on this issue of concern : "Officials at four grid operators, serving about 133 million customers, agreed renewables do not harm energy security or reliability. [18] In contrast to the United States government?s retreating commitment to the industry under President Donald Trump, 12 China has the political incentive, economic capability, and moral consensus needed to lead the global renewable energy sector. [6]

"The use of renewable energy is above all a regional issue and concerns particularly the power sector, which has a large impact not only on environment and the energy policy, but also on investment plans and consumer preferences," said Yedil Kopenpov, chairman of the board of the joint stock operation Kazakhstan Operator for Electricity and Capacity Market. [16] This article will argue for the case of China?s future leadership in the sector by examining domestic incentives for the Chinese government to reduce carbon emissions and pollution, China?s ambitious targets in renewable energy investment, the international community?s consensus on climate change, geopolitical implications of transitioning to renewable energy, and current government policy towards inbound investment in the sector. [6]

As renewable energy usage diffuses globally as an externality from China?s development of the sector, more countries will have the potential to become energy producers and hence be less dependent on unstable regions such as MENA and Russia for conventional fossil fuels. [6] "Based on these results, I can more confidently state that there is no technical or economic barrier to transitioning the entire world to 100 percent clean, renewable energy with a stable electric grid at low cost," says lead author Mark Z. Jacobson, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University who is also a senior fellow at the Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy and the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. [19] The event was an interactive forum for sharing experiences and best practices for safe integration of renewable energy into electricity grids, modelling solar and wind maps, achieving energy efficiency in district heating and using renewable energy as a motor for green growth. [16] While subsidies have likely increased domestic production, they?ve also diverted capital from more productive activities (such as energy efficiency) and constrained the growth of renewable energy (solar and wind enjoy fewer subsidies and, generally, receive much less preferential political treatment). [20] "This is important because the greatest barrier to the large-scale implementation of clean renewable energy is people's perception that it's too hard to keep the lights on with random wind and solar output." [19] The argument is used to undermine large investments in renewable energy, presenting a rhetorical barrier to higher rates of wind and solar adoption. [20] The most obvious and widely publicized barrier to renewable energy is cost--specifically, capital costs, or the upfront expense of building and installing solar and wind farms. [20] This page explores the barriers to renewable energy in detail, with a focus on wind and solar. [20] Renewable energy opponents love to highlight the variability of the sun and wind as a way of bolstering support for coal, gas, and nuclear plants, which can more easily operate on-demand or provide "baseload" (continuous) power. [20] The inconsistencies of power produced by wind, water, and sunlight and the continuously fluctuating demand for energy often hinder renewable energy solutions. [19] It is currently the world?s largest producer of wind and solar energy, 9 and the largest domestic and outbound investor in renewable energy. 10 Four of the world?s five biggest renewable energy deals were made by Chinese companies in 2016. [6] " Potential cooperation in renewable energy between China and the United States of America," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 403-409. [4] " Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 342-353. [4] " Energy, economics and environmental impacts of renewable energy systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(9), pages 2716-2721, December. [4] " China?s regional assessment of renewable energy vulnerability to climate change," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 185-195. [4] " Drivers promoting renewable energy: A dynamic panel approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 1601-1608, April. [4] " Overview of environmental impacts, prospects and policies for renewable energy in Taiwan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 119-147, April. [4] " Towards a low carbon energy future - Renewable energy cooperation between Germany and Norway," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 216-222. [4] " The renewable energy consumption-growth nexus in Central America," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 343-347, January. [4] The international community should be assured that China is genuinely interested in leading the world in one particular sector: deployment and investment in renewable energy. 8 China is already leading in renewable energy production figures. [6] While China has been a leader in market expansion of renewable energy, its openness to foreign investments in importing foreign renewable technology is more ambiguous. [6] China?s advances in renewable energy is also changing the nature of foreign investment entering the sector. [6] The 2015 OPEN awardees list was also peppered with renewable energy projects, including a cutting edge electrohydrodynamic system for harvesting offshore wind energy by leveraging positively charged airborne water droplets, so there's that. [17] Renewable energy also got a share in the ARPA-E love this year, with millions to continue the MARINER macroalgae project. [17] The country currently relies mainly on bank loans and corporate bonds for financing renewable energy projects, which does not necessarily lead to high-quality results. [6] Greater investment in native renewable energy technologies and energy conservation is envisaged instead. [5] The first is ecological: China?s stated ecological objectives of developing renewable energy are relatively uncontroversial and widely supported for the positive externality its investments in technology and deployment will bring. [6] China?s leadership in renewable energy growth will benefit global geopolitics in two ways. [6] The results of the forecasts reveal the challenges of long-term deployment for renewable energy technologies. [4] In light of this geopolitical complication, they are also working on smaller roadmaps to help individual towns, many of which have already committed to achieving 100 percent renewable energy. [19] Even more encouragingly, renewable energy capital costs have fallen dramatically since the early 2000s, and will likely continue to do so. [20] VIENNA, 12 December 2017 - Best practices in renewable energy and energy efficiency in Central Asia were the focus of a two-day expert workshop that ended with a site visit to a waste heat incineration plant today in Vienna. [16] Renewable energy is an efficient tool to support China's endeavors to keep energy independence and mitigate climate change. [4] They went on to finance--and continue to fund-- climate disinformation campaigns, aimed at sewing doubt about climate change and renewable energy. [20]

Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. [5] Countries that do not take the necessary steps to integrate distributed energy resources will face heightened energy security risks, potential infrastructure redundancies and investment challenges that adversely will affect their Energy Trilemma performance. [21] Rather than pursuing this narrow view of energy security, Latin American countries should embrace the advantages of electricity diversification by interconnecting. [22] NAVFAC is focused on a new pipeline of work which includes executing approximately 700 megawatts of distributed energy generation projects to improve the energy security posture at 26 installations through third-party financed Enhanced Use Leases. [23] The primary purpose of the Municipal Energy Reform Project (MERP) is to enhance Ukraine?s energy security. [24] The Energy Market Development activity supports Ukraine in strengthening its energy security through a one-year, $5 million cooperative agreement with the United Nations Office for Procurement Services (UNOPS). [24] New approaches to system management, supported by enhanced information technology systems, including smart grids, are required to manage energy security challenges. [21] Kate?s work includes providing technical assistance on EE and RE technologies to meet energy goals, developing net zero energy strategies, valuing energy security, and evaluating PV interconnection solutions on New York City?s secondary network distribution system. [25] Past government investments in energy innovation have markedly improved our energy security today. [26] NAVFAC is assisting Commander, Naval Installations Command and Marine Corps Installations Command (CNIC) in using the Energy Security Framework to assess installation performance against established standards and to prioritize DON resources to address highest mission priority energy security deficiencies at installations. [23] The Energy Security Assessment Tool (ESAT) was created by a working group made up/consisting of ASN (EI&E), CNIC, Marine Corps Installations Command, NAVFAC and other installations subject matter experts to measure their performance relative to established standards. [23] By 2025, distributed generation will be driven by environmental sustainability targets and goals to increase energy security and resiliency. [21] As the executive director of the Naval Facility Engineering Command's Resilient Energy Program Office (NAVFAC REPO), I can confidently say installation energy security is a key contributor to these efforts, and we adjusted our course to ensure we remained aligned with the DON mission for enabling combat-ready naval forces. [23] At NAVFAC REPO, we are taking several steps to implement the guidance set forth in the Energy Security Framework and working with our installations to realize its vision. [23] The "Energy Trilemma" -- the challenge of balancing energy security, energy affordability and environmental sustainability -- provides a framework to understand the disruptions and opportunities of increased decentralization in the energy system. [21] Using this initial assessment, these groups are using the ESAT to evaluate energy security gaps. [23] We look forward to continuing to pursue the horizon of energy security with additional opportunities we have identified which will provide reliable, resilient, efficient and secure energy systems to meet supported command mission requirements. [23] With the experience gained and guidance provided by leadership, we have set a steady course to energy security for 2018. [23]

There is thus a clear role for renewables to boost energy security and economic growth. [27]

A growing number of states have set renewable portfolio standards specifying a percentage of all electricity generated must come from renewable energy sources such as wind, hydroelectric, solar, landfill gas, geothermal or biomass. [8] The good news is that the renewable energy sources like wind, solar and geothermal are abundant in Latin America and costs are declining rapidly. [22]

Over the next dozen years, increasing renewable energy while connecting transmission lines between countries would save $30 billion compared to the current trajectory, because renewables have zero fuel costs and extending power lines is much cheaper than building new power plants, according to the Inter-American Development Bank. [22] Integration allows countries to take better advantage of this and reduces the need to pair intermittent renewable energy sources with baseload power from fossil fuels. [22] More than 25 percent of Bryan Municipal Utilities? power supply comes from renewable energy sources. [8] The cost of renewable energy is highly dependent on technologies manufactured through global supply chains in leading manufacturing countries. [7] Renewable energy sources in Latin America can be complementary; they are available at different times of the day and year in different countries. [22] Renewable energy combined with regional integration also allows countries to diversify energy sources, protecting against the impacts of climate change on hydroelectric supplies. [22]

CleanChoice Energy customers receive 100% renewable energy from wind and solar power. [18] Evidence increasingly shows that relying more on renewable energy like solar and wind makes America's electrical grid both more secure and more resilient to interruption; not less, as some have feared. [18] If the region expands renewable energy and grid integration, electricity sector carbon emissions will drop by 15 percent and other contaminants by 10 percent. [22] To meet this additional demand, Latin America is on a path to increase energy generation from fossil fuels, especially natural gas, while modestly expanding renewable energy from 64 percent of the energy matrix today to 70 percent in 2030. [22] It will increase the efficiency of heating service delivery to end users and promote the substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. [24] NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. [25] Kate Anderson leads the Engineering and Modeling Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). [25] Renewable energy is energy that comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, and plants, and it is naturally replenished. [8] The Department of Defense's acceptance of renewable energy may also speed innovation and the development of devices for clean energy storage and collection--in the same way the 1960's Space Race spawned inventions like duct tape and water filters. [18] Learn how you can be a part of the renewable energy revolution, and switch to clean energy today. [18] When Johnson returned to the U.S., he, co-founded Clean Capital, a renewable energy investment firm. [26] Bryan helps offset generation costs by receiving revenue through capacity contracts and selling renewable energy credits on the market. [8] The renewable energy sector, for example, is one of the leading employers of veterans. [26] Latin America already has the largest share of renewable energy of any region in the world, but more than 80 percent of its renewable energy comes from large hydroelectric dams. [22] Kate leads a team of technical experts who support government and private entities with techno-economic modeling and analysis, field assessments, design, and implementation of energy efficiency (EE), renewable energy (RE), storage, and microgrids. [25]

Integrating clean energy sources also improves energy security. [22] Our work in renewable, locally available energy and energy-efficiency technology supports energy security, economic growth, environmental protection, and improved governance. [28] Poland, Europe's biggest exporter and second-biggest consumer of coal, is cautiously embracing renewables to improve the security of its energy supply and meet European Union targets. [29] Simply stated, the United States wants to help our partners increase their energy security by increasing the diversity, not only of their supply, but of their suppliers as well. [30] Energy security, as security of supply, has been applied to conceptualise the complexity of energy in foreign and energy policy. [9] "According to the official Polish Government Energy Policy Strategy, coal will remain the key element of the country's energy security until at least 2030," according to the World Energy Council. [29] Problematically, conventional energy security analysis, including when looking at unexpected events, has primarily focused on a set-up of fossil fuel and nuclear energy technologies. [9] The increased availability of American LNG will contribute to global energy security, providing more options for the world's energy consumers. [30] The black swans generated in the workshop and later analysed, exemplify unexpected events that could influence the scenarios and their energy security. [9] The benefits of our shale revolution have given a tremendous boost to both our domestic economy and our energy security. [30] As regards energy security, various sudden events and surprises could play a major role. [9] Sovacool BK, Brown MA (2010) Competing dimensions of energy security: an international perspective. [9]

"Based on these results, I can more confidently state that there is no technical or economic barrier to transitioning the entire world to 100 percent clean, renewable energy with a stable electric grid at low cost," said Jacobson, who is also a senior fellow at the Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy and the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. [31] At the end of last month, the country's upper house of parliament approved the removal of clean power investment roadblocks within a new renewable energy law aimed at putting Poland back on track to meet its EU commitment of 15 percent renewables by 2020. [29] Barbosa LS, Bogdanov D, Vainikka P, Breyer C (2017) Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for south and central America. [9] Since 2012, the government has adopted a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Law (REEEL) that sets the legal framework for various incentives, developed a National Energy Strategy Plan underpinning the national targets for renewable energy generation and completed two rounds of auctions for the licensing of over 600MW of solar and wind projects. [27] With 700MW of solar and 400MW of wind projects in the pipeline, the renewable energy capacity is expected to ramp up rapidly. [27] From water and wind to solar and geothermal energy, we are drawing on our strong base of science, engineering, and computational modeling to advance the potential of these American-made renewable energy sources. [32] As we are preparing to take into use a renewable energy system that is increasingly distributed and can harness the abundance of solar and wind energy, changes could become faster, and even more transformative, than today. [9] Renewable energy solutions are often hindered by the inconsistencies of power produced by wind, water and sunlight and the continuously fluctuating demand for energy. [31] The single bulk supplier, National Electric Power Company (Nepco), is obliged to buy the electricity from renewable energy generators according to the regulations set out by REEEL. The financial responsibility of grid connection also resides with Nepco according to this law and the terms of purchase are negotiated in the power purchase agreements (PPAs). [27] Bogdanov D, Breyer C (2016) North-east Asian super grid for 100% renewable energy supply: optimal mix of energy Technologies for Electricity, gas and heat supply options. [9] Thomas Sattich of the University of Stavanger in Norway writes that when the wind blows hard, surplus renewable energy is pushed to neighbours such as Poland, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands, clogging up their electricity systems. [33] There could be as many as 100 Northeast Ohio companies that serve the renewable energy sector, according to a rough estimate from Wire-Net, an economic development non-profit tied to manufacturing. [34] Region based micro level planning in an inclusively integrated manner is required for meeting the energy needs for development, thus at all levels of production and consumption the renewable energy resources have to be included. [35] Jacobson and colleagues previously developed roadmaps for transitioning 139 countries to 100 percent clean, renewable energy by 2050 with 80 percent of that transition completed by 2030. [31] Grid expansion is needed to allow the integration of renewable energy projects and the Green Corridor project is expected to remedy this to some extent, by allowing access from these areas to the main consumption centers in and around Amman. [27] Science, engineering, and supporting analysis at PNNL enables the efficient and sustainable use of energy resources and integrates both renewable energy and buildings with the grid. [32] Ruotsalainen J, Karjalainen J, Child M, Heinonen S (2017) Culture, values, lifestyles, and power in energy futures: a critical peer-to-peer vision for renewable energy. [9] Excess renewable energy also brings down wholesale power prices, which is bad for investment. [33] We are working to drive down the costs of energy technologies, overcome challenges to large-scale renewable energy deployment, and revolutionize buildings as energy assets. [32] Emerging technologies such as AI and renewable energy systems add to the complexity of societies, and thus to the world of VUCA and post-normality. [9] Renewable energy technologies have a potential to promote peer-to-peer, as it allows citizens to become energy producers and thus increase their independence. [9] This paper argues that as humanity is anticipating a transition into renewable energy systems - and towards the potential of energy abundance they promise - broad and deep discontinuity developments should be paid more attention to. [9] This project is not without opposition, but the discussion around renewable energy projects and infrastructure in Ohio is ever more robust. [34] This year's change came partly in response to criticisms from other EU members, 11 of which have already met the 2020 renewable energy goals set in 2008. [29] The concept of VUCA is relevant when discussing and constructing scenarios for the renewable energy transformation within the context of societal change - renewable energy may further the VUCA world, as the following will claim. [9] These semi-backcasting scenarios represent energy futures based on renewable energy as radically different from the present, and contextualise such change with emerging societal futures. [9] Instead of addressing the transition to renewable energy as an ecological or techno-economic issue, the scenarios probe alternative possibilities on how the society at large could change under the new energy regime. [9] It is often assumed that the transition to renewable energy requires reducing energy consumption, and that the energy abundance provided by oil has come to an end. [9] The country?s worst performance was on Low-Carbon Business & Clean Energy Value Chains Parameter III. It took 38th place, a decline of 11 places from 2016, reflecting the low number of renewable energy equipment manufacturing businesses and dearth of companies offering services such as testing and certification. [27] Jordan?s renewable energy market has been characterized by strong government support in recent years and the results are beginning to show. [27] Renewable energy accounted for 5% of Jordan?s total generation in 2016 - half way to its 10% target for 2020. [27] A bill that would overhaul the way Ohio mandates the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency is likely to get a vote in the Senate this week. [34]

Energy availability and accessibility are very significant for energy security and it is very important for the society to accept and adopt major changes in areas like transportation, housing, urbanization and playing their own individual parts.The evolution of human behavior must also play a very constructive role in attaining Energy security to one and all. [35] The European Parliament says it increases Europe?s dependence on a single route for gas imports, which is bad for energy security. [33] If surprise is the new normal, its implications for energy security - our critical life supporter - should be anticipated by using various kinds of foresight tools. [9] Then again, a positive interpretation of the same factors might emphasize localised energy solutions, which actually would have a positive impact for energy security. [9] In a Futures Clinique, covering the broad range of discontinuities in detail is an ambitious task; but provides useful grounds for analysing their implications for energy security beyond conventional risk assessment. [9] It allowed the participants to develop their understanding about alternative futures and open its implications for energy security. [9]

The enhanced use of fuel cells will provide energy security, security of supply and due to their distributive nature, fuel cells can provide a locality, state, or country more physical security. [36] The Bureau serves as the principal advisor to the Secretary of State on energy security, policy, operations, and programs. [37] ENR promotes U.S. interests globally on critical issues such as: ensuring economic and energy security for the U.S. and our allies and partners; removing barriers to energy development and trade; and promoting U.S. best practices regarding transparency and good governance. [37] The Bureau of Energy Resources (ENR) leads the Department of State's efforts to forge international energy policy, strengthen U.S. and global energy security, and respond to energy challenges from around the world that affect U.S. economic policy and national security. [37] American energy security begins here! We are working diplomatically to promote U.S. LNG exports to help diversify global energy supplies and to deepen global energy security. [37] Through diplomacy and a wide range of programs, ENR works to ensure worldwide energy security by fostering diverse global energy supplies from all sources of energy. [37] A heavy dependence on just a few countries for these resources poses energy security risks'. [38] Discusses enhancing national energy security and international relationships. [36] While the United States has made great strides in improving its energy security, challenges and risks remain. [39] Karen Evans Sworn in as DOE Assistant Secretary for Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response Karen S. Evans will serve as the Energy Departments first Assistant Secretary for Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response. [40]

Discussed in this work are: progress in the clean use of coal; increased availability of International Energy Agency's hydrocarbon resources; improved modes for transport of natural gas; demonstration of nuclear fusion energy technology; extensive integration of renewable energy sources into the conventional energy system; environmentally sound electric production and distribution; and efficient and flexible fuel use in transport and in technologies for energy end-use. [36] The development and use of renewable energy sources can enhance diversity in energy supply markets, contribute to securing long term sustainable energy supplies, help reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, and provide commercially attractive options to meet specific energy service needs, particularly in developing countries and rural areas, helping to create new employment opportunities there. [36] It is clear that alternative energy sources that are renewable and sustainable are needed to fill the world's energy needs. The potential for the expansion and growth of renewable energy sources such as solar, hydro power, wind, biomass, hydrogen, and geothermal is enormous. [36] Renewable energy sources include solar water heating, photovoltaic (PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal. [10] Produces data and reports on the various renewable energy sources/topics including: biodiesel, fuel ethanol, geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind. [36] Consider the use of larger scale, on-site renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind turbines. [10] The renewable energy resources included in this report are: biomass (wood, wood waste, municipal solid waste, ethanol, and bio-diesel); geothermal; wind; solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic); and hydropower. [36] Presents information on U.S. renewable energy consumption, capacity and electricity generation; U.S. solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities; and U.S. geothermal heat pump manufacturing activities. [36] Renewable energy sources were brought to the forefront during the mid-1970's as a result of the oil crisis and growing concerns about the supply and environmental effects of nuclear and fossil fuels. [36] This overview posits that the future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the new regime of renewable energy, and to some extent natural gas-based systems, not in conventional oil and coal sources. [36] This work covers the role of renewable energy sources; the assessments of individual programs; and an overall assessment of the Office of Power Technologies. [36] Incorporate facility survivability concepts in the design of critical facilities, including on-site renewable energy sources that will be available to power the building soon after a major storm passes. [10] The emphasis of the OPT programs is to produce electricity from renewable energy sources. [36] The Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy has begun the work to build the largest wind farm in the Middle East. [41] REN21 is the global renewable energy policy multi-stakeholder network that connects a wide range of key factors including governments, international organizations, industry associations, etc. with the gold to provide a mechanism for knowledge exchange, policy development and joint action. [36] Because of these developments, market opportunity now exists to both innovate and to take advantage of emerging markets to promote renewable energy technologies, with the additional assistance of governmental and popular sentiment. [36] Evaluate the use of building scale to take advantage of on-site renewable energy technologies such as solar water heating, and geothermal heat pumps. [10] This guide is an introduction for students to renewable energy technologies and the political and economic conditions necessary for their implementation. [36] Clean energy specialist Gwen Andersen works to increase the speed with which developing countries adopt renewable energy by working on finance. [28] Having established an understanding of Federal and California renewable energy policies, the report then compares the policies of the other countries to similar laws enacted in the United States. [36] Micro-grids typically integrate small-scale renewable energy generation like photovoltaics (PV) with natural gas turbines and even fuel cells. [10] Innovations in this area are emerging to promote markets in renewable energy development and resources. [36] Resources available to identify deep energy retrofit design opportunities are available from the Rocky Mountain Institute and Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides are available from the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. [10] A common definition of renewable energy is that it is a sustainable energy source that is replaced rapidly, by a natural ongoing process. [36] We also work with entrepreneurs to help them learn how to install solar systems and run renewable energy businesses. [28] Industry specialists suggest that the future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in renewable energy. [36] Secretary Perry to Travel to National Renewable Energy Laboratory Secretary will tour the Energy Systems Integration Facility and the Science and Technology Facility with Senator Cory Gardner. [40] ISES, a non-profit UN-accredited membership NGO founded in 1954 and provides a global voice for renewable energy. [36] Briefly describes U.S. Federal legislation that encouraged the growth of renewable energy. [36] Mily Cort-Posas has more than 15 years of experience in renewable energy and cleaner production, working for the last six years for DAI in Honduras as a renewable energy and cleaner production specialist. [28]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

From a macroeconomic point of view, it would be tempting to conclude that the transition to renewables (solar, wind ?) will gradually end today's geopolitics of fossil fuels based on historical relationships between energy producers and consumers. [42] The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for renewable sources of energy - that is, the unit-cost of electricity over the lifetime of a generating asset - is plummeting. [12] According to the report, titled Renewables Readiness Assessment, the sector is now taking off with 24 additional letters of intent issued by the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB), amounting to a total installed capacity of 556.5 MW, at an advanced stage of completion. [13] You know, I think it?s a lot easier to get to high shares of renewables if your overall pie is smaller, right, and you?re using less energy. [14] A massive diffusion of renewables into the world's energy mix could also lead to new, unexpected interdependencies such as dependencies to critical materials, a new geopolitics of patents and the implementation of a renewable diplomacy. [42]

Because neither country can hope to ever completely power its economy with the cleanest of fossil fuels, both have placed a premium on alternative energy sources such as wind, solar, hydro and, at times, nuclear power to limit their reliance on foreign energy. [3] I think this is key for China?s Belt and Road initiative, and making sure that power-sector development under the Belt and Road initiative looks at solar energy and wind power is going to be really important for the future of the planet. [14] You know, for a long time, wind energy development led solar development in China, but that market has slowed a bit, partly due to real growing pains, I think, in the industry. [14] By turning to its untapped, tremendous solar, wind and biomass potential, the South Asian country could spur social and economic development, while improving energy access, says IRENA. [13] It is by increasing the role of solar, wind and biomass among its energy sources that Pakistan could reap social and economic benefits. [13] Solar energy is the world?s cheapest and fastest-growing power source, but its rise is in danger of stalling. [14]

Actually, China is having as well, right? So I think it?s important to look at these sort of global trends and the role that China plays as a responsible stakeholder, not just in terms of being a leader domestically in climate energy policy, but increasingly in terms of its investments abroad as well. [14] You may know that China has a very powerful super-ministry, the national development and reform commission, which for many years was really the champion for climate and energy policy, and now these--the jurisdiction over this is being moved into a new environmental ministry that will sort of take the role that the ministry of environmental protection has played--sort of China?s EPA--and expand it a bit. [14]

Doing so would support national prosperity and job creation, whilst enhancing security of supply, improving access and moving Pakistan towards greater energy independence." [13] Beijing's energy policies are therefore intimately linked to its broader security strategy of boosting its naval capabilities, both to protect the choke points its imports pass through and to extend its reach into the South China Sea. [3]

These enable further energy stability solutions, including wind-solar hybrid generation, grid management using utility scale batteries, and plausible alternative power storage options such as pumped hydro or a gas grid to create an adequate balancing mechanism. [12] About 20 years ago the share of fossil energy in the global energy mix was about 80 percent. [14] Mr. Bey's work includes studies on the global impact of rising U.S. energy production, the recent fall in oil prices, Russia's political influence on Europe through energy, and long-term trends in energy and manufacturing. [3] He focuses on energy and political developments in OPEC member states and the consequences of such developments on oil producers and the international oil market. [3] "Pakistan is undergoing rapid economic and industrial development, which in turn is fueling strong energy demand growth across the country," said Adnan Z. Amin, IRENA Director-General. [13]

Critical materials and patents on energy transition technologies could then become the new specific assets of the upcoming international climate negotiations for numerous countries. [42] It could also ensure that if we are going to export natural gas, that countries that are going to have carbon pricing and carbon restrictions are not going to put restrictions on U.S. imports of U.S. energy. [14] In a physical sense, U.S. energy supplies are quite secure: The country is already a net exporter of coal, and it is expected to become a net exporter of natural gas by the end of the year. [3]

Much like Eastern Europe, China and Japan depend heavily on imports to satisfy their energy needs. As it stands, they are the largest and third-largest net importers of oil in the world; they switch positions in their net imports of natural gas. [3] If you look at what?s coming out of the trade rep?s office and the big report on Section 301, you know, a lot of focus on China 2025 and making sure that trade policy in terms of forced tech transfer and other kinds of acquisition and CIFIUS rules, and all the different tools we have in trade are aligned to make sure that China does not take unfair advantage in markets in the areas of infotech, robotics, new energy, vehicles, batteries, satellites, drones. [14] Joanna, as people here may know, is an expert in China and China?s energy sector. [14] It?s not even going to happen as much or as quickly or at such a scale with the closest comparator in the energy sector, which is off-grid solar. [14] I talked a bit about the off-grid solar market, what an opportunity it is from a business point of view, from an energy access point of view, from a climate point of view. [14]

All the while, it has built up as many land-based supply chains as possible to open its doors to other sources of energy and raw materials from Central Asia and Russia. [3] By contrast, many Eastern European states are equally concerned by their lack of alternative energy sources. [3] As the public's fears of nuclear meltdown have hampered Japan's attempts to bring its nuclear reactors online, however, Tokyo has become even more reliant on foreign sources of energy. [3] The capacity of more stable sources of energy will need to keep up. [12] To the International Energy Agency, the term refers to "the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price." [3] Despite this progress, Europe's reliance on Russian energy is a persistent source of contention among EU members. [3]

Just to further complicate the complications we?re talking about when you try to coordinate efforts between countries on clean tech innovation, I?ll remind everyone that there?s 1 billion people out there without access to modern or reliable energy services. [14] Energy pipeline projects intended to bypass Eastern Europe, such as Nord Stream II, are deeply concerning to countries like Poland, Ukraine and Slovakia for precisely this reason. [3] Surprisingly, resource-rich countries also experience energy insecurity because they overly depend on their natural resources, which could make them vulnerable to energy price shocks. [2]

I am the inaugural fellow at the Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia University. [14] As technological progress reshapes the structure of global energy markets in the 21st century, the priorities of producers and consumers around the world will doubtless change. [3] A lengthy shipping shutdown in the Strait of Hormuz, moreover, would wreak havoc among Asian economies by restricting their energy supplies, carrying consequences that would ripple throughout the global economy as well. [3] The United States' energy strategy abroad, therefore, is simply an extension of its broader imperative to keep global sea lanes open. [3] Matthew Bey is an energy and technology analyst for Stratfor, where he monitors a variety of global issues and trends. [3]

U.S. President Donald Trump has even taken their expectations a step further, envisioning a world of American "energy dominance," where the country's oil exports would fortify the supplies of its closest allies. [3] SANDALOW: I?ll just--I?ll pick up on some of that, because I spent a lot of time working on the nuclear issues in particular at the U.S. Department of Energy. [14] It affects even the president?s and Secretary Perry?s pronouncements, whatever you want to call it, U.S. energy dominance, because, you know, if we say, for example, we dismantle the methane leakage rules. [14]

For its part, the United States has traditionally centered its energy policy on the goal of self-sufficiency. [3] Sharp dips in Middle Eastern oil production would push energy prices upward worldwide — including in the United States. [3] Energy is an important infrastructure I think component of this. [14] When you think about people needing to get out of the heat or needing to desalinate water, you know, having cheap and available energy is going to be a big part of that. [14]

My final point is that, again, we are a development institute, and we try never to forget that the goal of energy is to help people live their lives better. [14] As human development accelerated, the unsustainability of such energy became apparent. [12]

I mean, so one thing we haven?t talked about is demand and the sort of energy efficiency side of the equation, which you mentioned. [14] In stark contrast to the Continent, however, Japan and China do not share Europe's concerns about the use of energy as a means to political ends. [3] Rather than sinking tens of billions of euros into the massive projects that would be needed to ease Eastern Europe's reliance on Russian energy, Western Europe would prefer to simply make those supplies more difficult for the Kremlin to use in service to its political agenda. [3] The traditional funders of energy projects can?t get their mind around it. [14]

Even this simple explanation raises more questions than it answers: What is an affordable price, and what's the tradeoff between the affordability and reliability of supplies? Faced with unique challenges in the energy sector, every nation would respond to these questions in a slightly different way based on their own priorities. [3] Europe's energy policy revolves around Russia's ability to use energy supplies as a political weapon, and the Continent's inability to stop it. [3] Unlike many of their Eastern European peers, Western European states have avenues other than Russia for accessing energy supplies. [3] Modernizing and improving these grids will thus become a defining feature of the energy policies of the future. [3] Varun Sivaram argues that realizing solar's potential will require innovation--creative financing, revolutionary technologies, and flexible energy systems. [14] Throughout the entire modern age, mankind has used fossil fuels to meet its energy requirements. [12] In support of these measures, Brussels has passed legislation to knit the European market more closely together. (Chief among these bills is the Third Energy Package, which bars Russian energy giant Gazprom from owning the European pipelines that ferry its natural gas to the Continent.) [3] All of these endeavors have undermined Russia's ability to manipulate the energy supplies of specific European customers, even if it retains the ability to influence the natural gas imports of the Continent as a whole. [3]

And, I mean, we built more solar energy--or more--you know, by far more renewables this year than we did fossil, in terms of just installed capacity, right? So this is--this is a trend that is already there, right? We are building more wind and solar than we are building coal, oil, and gas globally, right? And so I think that?s a very positive sign. [14] Where is this all going? What technologies are going to be important? How are different countries approaching this issue of renewable power? What?s the impact between nations? And we couldn?t have a better panel to talk about this. [14] More than 100 countries have identified renewable power as one of their prime ways of meeting their commitments under the Paris climate agreement. [14] Another program we have to build the capacity of the developing countries to implement more renewables is a network of climate innovation centers. [14]

I wanted to add just one thing to this renewables optimism/pessimism argument, because I feel like the--if we talk about bringing in--you know, increasing electricity access, increasing the amount of supply on the system, the vast majority of that is going to come from grid extensions, because that?s where the economic--that?s where the economic lie and prefer, and increasing reliability of existing grids. [14] Renewable energies and advanced technologies will inevitably and fundamentally alter the way national and regional electricity grids operate, placing a considerable amount of stress on them in the process. [3] You know, we?ve done some high-penetration renewables studies in China, and it?s much easier to get to these, you know, very high levels of renewables on the grid if you?re bringing the overall demand down. [14] Maybe they will be just--be able to leap frogging with the renewables, with the solar PVs, meeting their demand of household transportations, but not necessarily to meeting this constant demand, and a huge demand, of the industries. [14]

They can put in place these very aggressive renewables targets, which sends a signal to investors, sends a signal to, you know, the development banks and others that are trying to help get--bring power to the people there, that this is what they would actually prefer, right, in terms of a technology strategy. [14] Mack?s (sp) question about critical materials, there?s been a lot of work going into this, looking at whether lithium in particular, and cobalt, and rare-earth metals are going to be stressed by the development of renewable power. [14] For renewable power to continue its rapid advancement, the right decisions need to be taken. [12] The article alleges that renewable power presently in Pakistan is more costly than Thermal. which is totally incorrect and misrepresentation of actual facts and ground realities. [13] So although there?s enormous growth in renewable power, it?s still pretty small. [14]

Many European states, moreover, have moved to the leading edge in adopting renewables, banning fossil fuel vehicles and, in France's case, approving plans to prohibit oil and natural gas production. [3] I think most of the governors in different states have found that trying to scroll back renewable portfolio standards is a politically dangerous program. [14] You know, I think this is certainly an important piece to be watching as well, you know, really pushing the efficiency side, because that?s the only way to make renewables work in a large way. [14] I think that takes you a certain distance in managing variable renewables. [14]

I did a report on this last year and we looked at a number of issues, including the role of critical materials like cobalt, and lithium, and rare earth metals and renewable supply chains, and whether there?s opportunities for cartelization associated with that. [14] I love the stats you used earlier, 20 percent 40 years ago of renewables, now it?s still 20 percent. [14] Renewable electricity transmission is around 22 percent globally, and most of that is hydropower. [14] The current percentage of renewable generation in the electricity mix is quite small. [14]

In terms of the influence of China with renewables in Africa, it?s profound--is probably an understatement. [14] In its report, IRENA presents options for Pakistan to strengthen its policy, regulatory and institutional framework, in order to accelerate renewables deployment. [13] Careful protectionism or liberalisation of the renewables sector - according to each country?s requirements - is necessary so as not to harm sector growth in the long run. [12] Current policies include feed-in tariffs and auctions for renewable projects. [1] My question is, David, you started out with some pessimistic statistics about the amount of renewable that?s sort of in the global--in global use now. [14] As you build more renewables into the system--and you mentioned about the integration--but the fundamental thing is the investors, you build more renewables in the system, they have decreasing value of that investment. [14]

Another quick note on Amy?s point about the geopolitics of the oil supply is I think China is also experiencing some very interesting thinking at this moment about oil supply security. [14] I wanted to ask about a point you raised at the outset, David, with regard to critical materials and security of supply, and also geopolitical relations and implications of countries that are either rich or poor in these materials. [14]

To counter its naval deficiencies, Tokyo has formed a close alliance with the primary guardian of global maritime security: the United States. [3]

I think that some of these initiatives--you know, making a distinction between some technologies where there?s no national security at risk, you know, like CCS or some other technologies where, you know, power to you if you bring together scientists to work on a project together, and companies to work on commercialization together. [14] I think Amy anticipated, and maybe headed off my question about national security concerns if China does become the global leader in battery technology, in particular. [14]

The Government of Punjab has introduced the Access to Clean Energy Investment Program, a rural electrification scheme, developed with the goal of reducing the burden on the national grid and with specific emphasis on solar PV systems for schools in off-grid localities. [13] New communities in these countries could be fully powered by a stable clean energy supply through a combination of generation, storage options and smart grids. [12] The infirm nature of the clean energy power supply will require smart grid management at scale. [12] Large-scale independent power producers? enthusiasm for gaining more market share is causing competitive clean energy prices to fall at an unsustainable rate. [12]

An unprecedented drop in the cost of producing clean energy has occurred in the last couple of years. [12] Clean energy installations continued to grow, albeit slowly, until a dramatic leap a few years ago. [12]

Public-private partnerships should be encouraged, enabling the development of clean energy to complement progress in society. [12] When clean energy first made headway in the global scenario, questions were raised about how stable and scalable it was. [12] And, you know, I would just mention that China?s clean energy ambitions really are going to continue, I think despite what?s happening politically in Washington, and really is driving what?s happening globally. [14]

The current structure of financing in the developing countries for energy just does not fit this new paradigm that?s been formed. [14] A broad variety of projects will be welcomed, and examples include electricity generation by both renewable and non-renewable means; electricity transmission, storage, and distribution; energy efficiency for buildings, manufacturing and commerce, and personal use; and all aspects of transportation, including the production and distribution of both renewable and non-renewable fuels, electrification, and transportation energy efficiency. [17] The solutions in the current paper address these criticisms by suggesting several different solutions for stabilizing energy produced with 100 percent clean, renewable sources, including solutions with no added hydropower turbines and no storage in water, ice, or rocks. [19] A 2017 Department of Energy report confirmed this, citing real-world experience and multiple scientific studies to confirm that the United States can safely and reliably operate the electric grid with high levels of renewables. [20] Energy planners often consider narrow cost parameters, and miss the big-picture, long-term opportunities that renewables offer. [20]

Unlike the previous 139-country study, which matched energy supply with annual-average demand, the present study matches supply and demand in 30-second increments for 5 years (2050-2054) to account for the variability in wind and solar power as well as the variability in demand over hours and seasons. [19] For decades, the fossil fuel industry has used its influence to spread false or misleading information about climate change--a strong motivation for choosing low-carbon energy sources like wind or solar (in addition to the economic reasons). [20] If costs over the lifespan of energy projects are taken into account, wind and utility-scale solar can be the least expensive energy generating sources, according to asset management company Lazard. [20] As of 2017, the cost (before tax credits that would further drop the costs) of wind power was $30-60 per megawatt-hour (a measure of energy), and large-scale solar cost $43-53/MWh. [20] With the production of new types of energy, including solar, geothermal, hydro-electric, biofuel, and wind power. [5] With the amount of solar energy that hits the world in one hour there is enough energy to power the world for one year. [5]

"Most life cycle analysis results for perennial and ligno-cellulosic crops conclude that biofuels can supplement anthropogenic energy demands and mitigate green house gas emissions to the atmosphere". 27 citation needed Using oil to fuel transportation is a major source of green house gases, any one of these developments could replace the energy we derive from oil. [5] The modern world relies on a vast energy supply to fuel everything from transportation to communication, to security and health delivery systems. [5] "The OSCE is the worlds largest regional security organization, with many of the worlds largest energy producer, consumer and transit countries among its participating States and the advantage of already well established field operations in Central Asia." [16] A U.S. Navy F/A-18 Super Hornet displaying an "Energy Security" logo. [5] In 2017, my fellow New American, Emily Gallagher, joined me on an energy and climate security study trip to Japan, at the invitation of Sasakawa USA. I'll return to Japan next month, again with the support of Sasakawa USA, to look at Japan's brand of "Phase Zero" national security planning, along with my former colleague, Tarak Shah, who will be looking at changes in Japan's utility sector. [15]

" Effects of changes in residential end-uses and behavior on aggregate carbon intensity: comparison of 10 OECD countries for the period 1970 through 1993," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 153-178, March. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:12:p:1942-:d:120151 is not listed on IDEAS Feng, Zhen-Hua & Zou, Le-Le & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2011 [4] " Efficiency assessment of hydroelectric power plants in Canada: A multi criteria decision making approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 112-121. [4] " Structural decomposition analysis applied to energy and emissions: Some methodological developments," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 177-188. [4] " Vulnerability of hydropower generation to climate change in China: Results based on Grey forecasting model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 701-707. [4] " Using LMDI method to analyze the change of China's industrial CO2 emissions from final fuel use: An empirical analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5892-5900, November. [4] " The LMDI approach to decomposition analysis: a practical guide," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 867-871, May. [4] " Decomposition analysis for policymaking in energy:: which is the preferred method?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1131-1139, June. [4] " Technological innovations and energy intensity of machine tool SMEs in Bangalore: do process innovations contribute to energy efficiency?," International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 7(5/6), pages 519-536. [4] Designing a global energy policy model, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, Vol. 170, Issue 1, February, 2017, pp. 2-11. https://doi.org/10.1680/jener.16.00005. [5]

The group then combined data from the first model with a second model that incorporated energy produced by more stable sources of electricity, like geothermal power plants, tidal and wave devices, and hydroelectric power plants, and of heat, like geothermal reservoirs. [19] Nuclear power reduces carbon emissions. 23 Although a very viable resource, nuclear power can be a controversial solution because of the risks associated with it. 24 Another factor in the debate with nuclear power is that many people or companies simply do not want any nuclear energy plant or radioactive waste near them. [5] For comparison: energy from the most efficient type of natural gas plants cost $42-78/MWh; coal power cost at least $60/MWh. [20] Earlier this year ARPA-E announced a $20 million round of funding for advanced nuclear energy projects and $20 million for natural gas projects. [17] That's what happened to another group of Energy Department projects this year. [17] Large private and public energy projects such as in the past Medgrid and the Mediterra- nean Solar Plan (MSP) or currently the NOUR projects (1 - 4) in Morocco, aim at using the Sahara desert to produce important volumes of solar energy for export to the European mar- kets. [11] CleanTechnica is the #1 cleantech-focused news & analysis website in the U.S. & the world, focusing primarily on electric cars, solar energy, wind energy, & energy storage. [17] To prove their worth, they must demonstrate scale: most investors want large quantities of energy, ideally at times when wind and solar aren?t available. [20] In India, the push into solar has been driven partly by a desire for cleaner energy sources, but also because there is more financing available for solar than for coal. [43] With the two models, the group was able to predict both how much energy could be produced through more variable sources of energy, and how well other sources could balance out the fluctuating energy to meet demands. [19] OPEC, China, the United States, and other countries have used energy and minerals sanctions and other trade manipulation as a coercive tool or weapon of war, as well (and continue to do so). [15] An energy market dependent on fossil fuels relies on securing oil and gas transportation routes to and from fossil fuel-rich countries, which in turn requires extended military protection. [6] Today, Japan imports more than 90% of the energy it consumes, almost all of it fossil fuels, making Japan the world?s third largest net importer of oil, the largest net importer of natural gas, the third largest net importer of coal, and one of the world?s largest emitters of greenhouse gases. [15] The energy efficiency angle covers a lot of territory, so past rounds of OPEN have included a healthy dose of fossil fuel projects. [17] The vast amount of these energy savings come from avoiding the energy needed to mine, transport, and refine fossil fuels, converting from combustion to direct electricity, and using heat pumps instead of conventional heaters and air conditioners. [19]

" The impact of household consumption on energy use and CO2 emissions in China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 656-670. [4] " Residential carbon emission evolutions in urban-rural divided China: An end-use and behavior analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 323-332. [4] " Analysis of rural residential commercial energy consumption in China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 222-229. [4] " Grey forecasting model for CO2 emissions: A Taiwan study," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(11), pages 3816-3820. repec:eee:appene:v:205:y:2017:i:c:p:57-68 is not listed on IDEAS Wang, Bing & Nistor, Ioan & Murty, Tad & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2014 [4] " Analysing residential energy consumption using index decomposition analysis," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 342-351. [4]

To cite just one example, just last week the Energy Department announced a new $12 million round of funding aimed at solar grid integration. [17] Among other key sectors, micro wind turbines and offshore wind farms also got a slice of the Energy Department pie. [17] Many countries hold strategic petroleum reserves as a buffer against the economic and political impacts of an energy crisis. [5] The uneven distribution of energy supplies among countries has led to significant vulnerabilities. [5]

These types of energy sources are variable and don't necessarily produce energy when demand is highest. [19] Natural gas has been a viable source of energy in the world. [5]

Hydro-electric which has been incorporated into many of the dams around the world, produces a lot of energy, and is very easy to produce the energy as the dams control the water that is allowed through seams which power turbines located inside of the dam. [5] China may well have a strategic advantage in geopolitical energy relations; it is the single largest customer for Saudi Arabia, for example, which gives the Chinese strategic leverage with the Gulf?s largest producer. [15] More than 40 participants took part in the workshop, including experts from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as well as from the European Union, the Austrian Institute for Technology, the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, the Energy Community and Wienenergie. [16]

The first leg of this three-legged stool, energy efficiency, has been a success story for Japan, which has almost half the per capita energy consumption of the United States. [15] The second model also included ways of storing energy when there was excess, such as in electricity, heat, cold, and hydrogen storage. [19] The political and economic instability caused by war or other factors such as strike action can also prevent the proper functioning of the energy industry in a supplier country. [5] This has been done to apply pressure during economic negotiations--such as during the 2007 Russia-Belarus energy dispute. [5]

That nuclear leg of Japan's energy stool may remain broken. [15] Japan?s energy import dependence is also a national security concern. [15] Energy Secretary Rick Perry didn't signal any significant shift in focus in the funding solicitation announcement for OPEN. He emphasized the Energy Department's national security mission and invited innovators to "show us the next breakthrough in energy security." [17]

Renewable resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. [5] As the resources that have been so crucial to survival in the world to this day start declining in numbers, countries will begin to realize that the need for renewable fuel sources will be as vital as ever. [5]

The fact that no blackouts occurred under three different scenarios suggests that many possible solutions to grid stability with 100 percent wind, water, and solar power are possible, a conclusion that contradicts previous claims that the grid cannot stay stable with such high penetrations of just renewables. [19] Wind and solar farms aren?t all sited near old nuclear or fossil fuel power plants (in fact, some areas with fewer older power plants, such as the Great Plains and Southwest, offer some of the country?s best renewable potential). [20] Tests performed in California, which has some of the highest rates of renewable electricity use in the world, provide real-world validation for the idea that solar and wind can actually enhance grid reliability. [20] Solar, wind, and other renewable resources need to compete with wealthier industries that benefit from existing infrastructure, expertise, and policy. [20] Many utilities, though, still don?t consider the full value of wind, solar, and other renewable sources. [20] The deployment of renewable technologies usually increases the diversity of electricity sources and, through local generation, contributes to the flexibility of the system and its resistance to central shocks. [5] The change takes place in two ways: the first is that other countries could be left behind technologically if they do not partner with China in developing renewable technology. [6] " Will the aggregation approach affect energy efficiency performance assessment?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 4537-4542. [4] We can shift our nation away from dirty fossil fuels and toward cleaner, renewable sources of power--but not without you. [20] Considering the Trump administration's focus on fossil fuel development, it's possible that the 2018 OPEN round could shrink the representation of renewables. [17]

Higher construction costs might make financial institutions more likely to perceive renewables as risky, lending money at higher rates and making it harder for utilities or developers to justify the investment. [20] Renewables face stiff competition from more established, higher-carbon sectors. [20]

Therefore, the young in the Arab region need to enhance their leadership skills and negotiation capacities that would enable them to take part in the debates over the economic and security potentials and limitations of these sectors at the policy and decision making levels. [11] Dislodging fossil fuels from the third largest global economy would not be easy, given the scale of demand, but in Japan's case, any substitution would be a gain in national and economic security. [15] The workshop was a follow-up to the Second Preparatory Meeting of the 25th Economic and Environmental Forum, "Green Economy as Catalyst for Sustainable Development, Security and Stability", which took place in Astana, Kazakhstan, on l5 and 16 June 2017. [16]

Energy is a baseline commodity for all economies, meaning that a consistent, affordable, and sustainable energy supply is necessary for both popular welfare and ultimately for economic competitiveness. [15] Despite widespread scientific consensus, climate action is now a partisan issue in the U.S. congress, complicating efforts to move from fossil fuels to clean energy. [20]

Market entrants such as large industrial energy "prosumers" that are using onsite renewables to meeting energy demands, the growing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles, energy service aggregators and rural energy entrepreneurs -- particularly in countries with limited energy access -- offer new sources of generation, supply and demand management. [21] With a goal of getting 50% of its energy from alternative sources by 2020, the Army already had 17 large-scale renewable projects in development in early 2016. [18] Distributed energy resources, especially renewables, support progress on the environmental sustainability dimension of the Energy Trilemma. [21] Many energy industry professionals agree that resiliency and reliability of renewables is not an issue. [18]

From innovations that protect against cyber and physical attacks on U.S. energy infrastructure to protecting the country's nuclear weapons stockpile, our security demands a consistent strategic focus on new energy technologies. [26] What some may not realize is that investing in advanced energy technologies is a critical component of our nation?s security, and Congress will be making major decisions on these investment levels later this year. [26] Over 40 percent of survey participants anticipate that increased decentralization and the increase in penetration of distributed generation will challenge the reliability and security of energy supply. [21] This diligence is especially important as other nations work aggressively to capture the economic and security advantages of new energy breakthroughs. [26]

Decentralization, marked by the increased use of distributed generation, such as electricity generated at a user?s site via solar panels, and distributed energy resources, such as storage, is having a huge impact on demand and supply dynamics. [21] The average price in power auctions for supplying solar energy in Latin America plummeted by 87 percent from 2009 to 2017, and the price for wind energy dropped by 37 percent from 2008 to 2016. [22] In November, the country finally completed transmission lines connecting its huge solar power plants in the northern desert to the densely populated south, allowing lower prices and more reliable energy supplies. [22] Today, Latin America is dependent on hydropower for about half of all energy generation, and changing rainfall patterns caused by climate change are making hydroelectric power more unreliable in some countries. [22] Distributed generation also enables harnessing of energy that otherwise might be wasted, for example, through a combined heat and power system. [21] Distributed generation provides the opportunity to reduce the inefficiency of the existing large-scale electrical transmission and distribution network (between 7-15 percent of energy can be lost in transmission), increase energy efficiency of grid connected and support enhanced demand management. [21] This represents a significant shift in the generating mix, but large regional variations exist based on countries? current electricity grid structures and the extent to which regulatory systems accommodate the changes in energy supply. [21] In Ohio, the law for investor-owned utilities mandates that by 2025, at least 25 percent of all electricity sold in the state come from alternative energy resources. [8]

While Congress debates shrinking our investment in next-generation nuclear energy technologies, China and Russia are consolidating their nuclear influence by offering the design, construction, financing and operation of nuclear plants in developing nations. [26] Russia supplies much of Iran?s nuclear industry and state-owned Russian companies are fast becoming primary sources for key components in Europe?s nuclear energy supply chain. [26]

Clean Capital works closely with the Expeditionary Energy Office in the Marine Corps, which depends on the development of advanced energy technologies to increase combat effectiveness. [26] Brazil has significant wind energy potential at night while Bolivia, Peru and Chile can produce vast amounts of solar energy during the day. [22] In many countries, regulatory frameworks are trying to catch up with technology options and shifting energy users? demands. [21] The drivers for decentralization vary, but currently, energy leaders noted that increasing energy access is a key driver in many countries. [21] As countries evolve to a hybrid energy system, the role and responsibility of energy incumbents is changing. [21] As the energy buyer at one large manufacturing company noted, "Regulatory structure and utilities are simply not evolving fast enough to meet the needs of the changing power system." [21] Today, approximately 6.4 million Americans work in the energy and energy efficiency sectors. [26] Skills developed while serving the nation translate exceptionally well to the energy sector. [26] The Energy Sector Anticorruption and Fiscal Transparency Initiative in Ukraine (Transparent Energy) combats corruption and improves fiscal transparency in Ukraine?s energy sector by disclosing, analyzing, and publicizing energy sector information commonly obscured from public view. [24] To succeed, all actors in the energy sector must respond to new customers, new competitors and new partnerships across the sector. [21]

U.S. leadership in "hardening" our systems of energy production and transmission is critical to protect U.S. interests in an integrated global energy economy. [26] Energy innovation is also key to increasing the resilience of global energy infrastructure. [26] It should not surprise anyone that Osama Bin Laden built a strategy around attacking energy infrastructure with the goal of disrupting the global economy. [26]

Based on experiences during Superstorm Sandy, New York state has established a $40 million grant to create at least 10 microgrids as business model templates as part of a focus on distributed generation in the future energy system as a means to strengthen resilience. [21] Consumer and technological pressures for increasing distributed generation will require fundamental changes to regulations and who can participate in the energy market. [21] More than 50 percent of energy leaders said they expect a rapid increase in distributed generation -- to a share of 15 percent or higher -- of the installed generation capacity in their country by 2025. [21] The impact of distributed generation is examined in a new report, "World Energy Trilemma 2017 Changing Dynamics-- Using Distributed Energy Resources to Meet the Trilemma Challenge." [21] An Energy Mission Integration Group is also being formed to direct investment to the DON's highest priorities with a focus on maximizing use of third-party resources to secure the most infrastructure upgrades possible with limited appropriated dollars. [23] Better understanding the crucial role of energy technology in our overall national security can help Congress and the administration prioritize these investments, and help keep Americans safe. [26] Energy policymakers and regulators are presented with new questions about how to ensure the right level of investments in necessary infrastructure. [21] Energy innovation investments provided a huge boost to the overall economy. [26]

Ariel Yez is the energy division chief at the Inter-American Development Bank. [22] Kate is the program lead for the development of NREL?s REopt model, used to evaluate cost-optimal selection and sizing of behind-the-meter energy assets for grid-connected and off-grid energy systems. [25]

The United States is less dependent on foreign oil than it used to be, but it's far from being energy independent. [18] Energy leaders worldwide surveyed and interviewed for the report are skeptical as to whether current regulatory frameworks can accommodate the shifting energy supply structure. [21] This is a partnership program between the National Energy and Utilities Regulatory Commission (NEURC) and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC). [24] This is not easy to do, but an integrated energy grid would be good for Latin America and for the planet. [22] As one energy leader noted, "The central grid can be like shooting cannons at birds -- bringing an oversized solution to rural challenges." [21]

From 2012 through 2016, NAVFAC awarded more than $654 million in third-party financed energy projects that will provide facility and utility system upgrades. [23] Responding to these challenges is complicated by the pace of regulatory change that will affect who and how businesses can participate in the energy market. [21] Decentralization not only adds new resources to the system, but also creates new actors in energy markets. [21] The diversification and decentralization of energy resources can make electrical systems more resilient. [21] The Navy runs on nuclear energy, operating 83 reactors on submarines and aircraft carriers. [26] Our military?s reliance on advanced nuclear energy technology is more important than ever. [26]

Looking forward, policymakers must consider how off-grid distribution generation will shape their energy system over the mid- and long term. [21] One implication of the growth in distributed generation is the increasingly complex web of energy system actors. [21] Distributed generation is presenting new and fast-developing opportunities to balance the energy trilemma. [21]

USAID energy programs improve Ukraine?s energy efficiency and reduce the country?s critical dependence on energy imports. [24] Lisa Viscidi is the director of the Energy, Climate Change and Extractive Industries Program at the Inter-American Dialogue. [22]

Diversifying BMU?s power supply with clean, renewable sources is a good investment. [8] In 2007, the Bryan Board of Public Affairs set a goal to derive 20 percent of the city?s power from renewable sources by 2015, and the utility was on target to meet that goal with new hydroelectric projects in construction. [8] If instead the region increases renewables to 80 percent of the matrix and expands cross-border connections, Latin American countries can save billions of dollars in investments, avoid blackouts and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, according to recent findings by the Inter-American Development Bank. [22] At least half of that, or 12.5 percent of electricity sold, must be generated by renewable sources. [8] In 2012, the Board revised its goal to 25 percent renewable resources by 2020. [8]

We can perform reliably with renewable generation; there are just things you have to do with renewables that you don't have to do with (conventional) power generation.'" [18] Not only is renewable power good for the environment, but it is also affordable. [8]

This includes determining the cost of transmission rights and tolls for sending electricity across borders, setting up long-term power purchase agreements on the regional market to provide more security for multicountry investments and unifying national and regional regulations. [22] If Chile would connect those solar projects to Peru?s power grid, and Peru extended it to Brazil, Bolivia and Ecuador, millions of people throughout South America could benefit from this clean energy source. [22] After watching repeated attacks on Iraq?s oil wells and infrastructure, he realized that clean energy would be a safer way to power America?s military. [26]

Bryan?s current clean energy sources prevent 41,221 tons of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, from being emitted into the atmosphere annually. [8]

Most countries are reluctant to rely on their neighbors for energy, deeming self-sufficiency more important than cost, reliability and sustainability. [22] In response to the framework, NAVFAC set clear installation-level performance standards for energy resilience, reliability and efficiency. [23]

With looming threats like a nuclear North Korea, national security is top of mind for many Americans. [26]

The developing countries not only have to increase their commercial energy production in the upcoming years by using renewable sources but also have to reduce the disparities within their own rich and poor to provide easy energy availability and accessibility to all in a sustainable way. [35] The solutions in the current paper address these criticisms by suggesting several different solutions for stabilizing energy produced with 100 percent clean, renewable sources, including solutions with no added hydropower turbines and no storage in water, ice or rocks. [31] DSIRE is the most comprehensive source of information on incentives and policies that support renewables and energy efficiency in the United States. [44] Technological developments, increases in (renewable) energy supply and decreases in energy price could steer our world into unknown futures. [9] Germany did not consult its neighbours on ramping up renewables, even though its grid is linked to many other countries? energy systems. [33] The National Energy Strategy of Jordan targets 10% renewables in the energy mix by 2020. [27] Scholten D, Bosman R (2016) The geopolitics of renewable; exploring the political implications of renwable energy systems. [9] In January European lawmakers proposed increasing the EU?s goals for the share of renewables in the energy mix to 35% by 2030. [33]

Now that America is exporting natural gas, we stand ready, willing, and able to be a reliable and competitive source of energy diversity and security for our trading partners. [30] Energy is not only an economic or technical issue, but increasingly a societal and even cultural issue - above all a security issue. [9] From a national security perspective, energy concerns include dependence on foreign oil, on vulnerabilities of our electricity grids, or even not needing troops to use noisy generators while deployed, and lighten convoys needing to bring fuel for those noisy generators. [34] Gunn visited Northeast Ohio as part of a study group from the Atlantic Council, talking about energy in terms of national security. [34] "To the degree that we can capitalize on human energy, and innovation, and creativity, we need a set of policies that will exploit those characteristics and put them to use in the areas that are most important for national security," Gunn said. [34]

July 17, 2017 - If European countries cooperated better in the field of wind energy, wind power output would fluctuate less. [31] Energy experts say that Lake Erie has the wind energy potential of a nuclear plant, and the state needs to develop those resources sooner rather than later. [34] Angelino says some estimates put the wind energy potential of Lake Erie at 1,500 megawatts, or about the same as a nuclear plant. [34]

That?s not to say the Lake will be developed to that level, but it does show potential in wind energy in Ohio, just as there?s potential to plant a bigger flag in solar. [34] The emergence of solar energy may be understood as a surprise, but it would be more accurate to conceptualize it as a discontinuity, building over time as an outcome of various developments, eventually intertwining with each other. [9] Some of the global challenges are megatrends in themselves (such as sustainable development and convergence of IT) while many of them are key issues (such as energy, clean water, health) the development of which is critical for humankind. [9] The wind energy industry says those setbacks must be reduced in order for more development. [34]

More and cheaper energy with other new technologies means faster and deeper changes and realignment of power. [9] Interestingly, energy markets are also affected by an important volatility, caused in parts by new technologies, but also by lifestyle changes. [9] Multiple new energy technologies and sources could lead to a situation where energy can be harvested everywhere. [9] Energy is scarce in developing and under developing countries and the biggest priority of these countries is to increase energy production from all sources in order to meet their developmental needs and requirements. [35] Spurred by technological breakthroughs unleashed by innovation, deregulation and pro-growth policies, we are now producing energy more abundantly and affordably, using it more cleanly and efficiently, and obtaining it from a wider range of sources than anyone ever thought possible. [30] Gone are the days of America's crippling dependence on foreign energy sources. [30]

Nepco has been running a deficit exacerbated by the high electricity subsidies it finances and the increasing cost of energy supply. [27] In 2015, the cost of consumed energy accounted for 10% of GDP. The large influx of immigrants resulting from the war in Syria has also increased energy demand considerably, putting further pressure on its energy supply. [27] The energy system can be 100% by then, and it can provide energy at lower prices than today, in some cases - such as in household solar PV systems - even with zero marginal costs. [9] Welding becomes pretty important when wind energy needs to be as efficient as possible to keep costs low. [34] Jason is a contributing writer for GTM, focused on global trends in energy storage and wind. [29] Today, global total primary energy demand is approximately 110,000 TWh. 7 By 2050, we may expect global total primary energy demand to be at least 130,000 TWh with significant increases in energy efficiency. [9]

Risks are conceived to be an intricate part of the energy sector because of economic interests, geopolitics and environmental issues such as nuclear waste. [9] International Energy Agency figures show coal accounting for 80 percent of the country's 166 terawatt-hours of electricity generation in 2016. [29] The vast amount of these energy savings come from avoiding the energy needed to mine, transport and refine fossil fuels, converting from combustion to direct electricity, and using heat pumps instead of conventional heaters and air conditioners. [31] The second model also included ways of storing energy when there was excess, such as in electricity, heat, cold and hydrogen storage. [31]

We are making vehicles more efficient and cheaper to produce through lightweight materials while improving the design and energy storage capacity of next-generation batteries and lowering the cost of hydrogen fuel cells. [32] Apr. 17, 2014 - One strategy for addressing the world's energy crisis is to stop wasting so much energy when producing and using it, such as in coal-fired power plants or transportation. [31] As we continue to share more of our energy with the world, the expansion at Cove Point and further natural gas development and production are prime examples of the success of President Donald Trump's American energy dominance agenda. [30] This has led to disruptions in its energy supply, particularly natural gas from Egypt, and increased the country?s energy expenditure substantially. [27] The opposite may also destabilize societies: an increase in energy supply. [9] If increased energy supply allows for "more parts" (human and technological actors) and variation in organisation and behaviour, it should then also increase complexity, and with it, volatility, uncertainty and ambiguity. [9]

Korotayev A, Bilyuga S, Belalov I, Goldstone J (2017) Oil prices, socio-political destabilization risks, and future energy technologies. [9] If this indeed is the case, it has partly to do with energy as well as new energy technologies. [9] New energy systems themselves, with other new technologies, nudge the world into unknown, discontinuous directions. [9] Emerging economies - including in Africa - could prosper in unprecedented ways, with new energy technologies, harvesting energy everywhere. [9] When new energy systems provide more energy than their predecessors, additional energy can enable the use of new technologies, to create even more complex societies. [9] Krupa J, Jones C (2013) Black swan theory: applications to energy market histories and technologies. [9]

To do this, they grouped 139 countries -- for which they created energy roadmaps in a previous study -- into 20 regions based on geographic proximity and some geopolitical concerns. [31] Not only has energy been narrowly defined, the way it has been analysed has left little room for imagining alternative development pathways. [9] The dilemma of non-linear thinking has ignored multiple developments that, when put together jointly, may over time pose radical shifts in the energy landscape. [9] The abundant land in the central part of the country - cheaper, sparsely populated and with little current use - is suitable for utility-scale projects but is far away from the north, where most of the energy consumption takes place. [27] Gazprom, the Russian energy giant, backed by five energy multinationals, has launched a project to lay a new pipeline to Germany, Nord Stream 2, under the Baltic Sea. [33]

Multi-disciplinary teams at PNNL are leading the way in driving energy savings, enhancing whole-building performance, enabling grid-interactive buildings, and we are helping the federal sector become more energy efficient. [32] A study is urging Ohio leaders and policymakers to support clean and alternative energy before it?s too late. [34] A growing body of literature examines energy transitions to understand energy landscape changes. [9] Energy plays a central role in enabling change and increasing its pace and complexity. [9] Changes in energy prices alone are enough to shock entire nations. [9]

Sometimes the commission must wish for the sort of control over energy policy that China?s mandarins enjoy. [33] The solutions reduce energy requirements, health damage and climate damage. [31] The Trump Administration has put Washington squarely on the side of growth and opportunity, by removing unnecessary and burdensome federal regulations that unfairly target fossil energy. [30] The difference in philosophies between the U.S. and Russia right now on energy. [34] Energy Secretary Perry says the U.S. is producing more energy due to innovation, deregulation and pro-growth policies. [30]

Energy wastage should also be minimized so that the economic situation of the people can be bettered and agricultural and non-agricultural productivity can be augmented. [35] Without energy there is no life, neither biological nor economic. [9]

Attaining lower energy intensity could be one of the objectives along with Decarbonizing of the national and regional economies. [35] In February, Polish energy official Piotr Naimski said a move to snub Russia with a gas import link to Norway was "a question of security." [29] Today?s energy systems are still 80% reliant on fossil fuels. [9] Germany reckons that its experience of launching an Energiewende (energy transition) in 2000 qualifies it to help lead the world away from fossil fuels. [33]

By all accounts, the United States is in the midst of truly spectacular progress in the vital realm of energy. [30] Doing so will allow the United States to better distribute product from the fields of Appalachia's Marcellus and Utica Shale Basins, and meet our growing energy needs at home. [30]

To mitigate climate change, it is evident that the structure of energy production must change. [9]

They cover solar energy sources, biomass energy, wind power, hydroelectric power, energy storage, geothermal energy, ocean energy, nuclear fusion and hydrogen fuel from renewable resources. [36] This common definition for a zero energy building states that a Zero Energy Building is "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." [10] The purpose of this book is to assess the prospects of producing significant amounts of the world's energy needs from renewable resources - alternatives to fossil fuels. [36] Aims at sustaining the nation's health and environment, and increasing energy conservation, efficiency, domestic energy supplies, and renewable and alternative energy. [36] A complete guide to the business of renewable, alternative and hydrogen energy. [36] Provides a short glossary of terms used in the renewable, alternative and hydrogen energy industries. [36]

With a focus on expanding cleaner energy access for the 2.4 billion people who rely on traditional biomass and expensive fuels, DAI supports governments at the national and regional levels in their design of energy, trade, and tax policies to build an environment to attract investment for wind, solar, geothermal, hydro, biomass, and efficient fossil-based energy for both grid and off-grid distributed electricity. [28] Covers fuel cells, wind power, solar power, co-generation, power storage devices, hydrogen, hydroelectric, biomass energy, alternative technologies and profiles the leading firms. [36] Some programs focus on photovoltaic, wind, solar thermal, geothermal, bio-power, and hydroelectric energy technologies. [36] It covers solar, biomass, wind, ocean, fusion, geothermal and hydrogen energy sources. [36] Conventional energy sources (oil, coal and natural gas) have been the most economically efficient way of providing power for our homes, industries and transportation. [36] Technological innovations such as fuel cells, which, although not an energy source per se, can be used to generate power, are thought to be a viable substitute for the internal combustion engine of transportation vehicles. [36] Deals with electric utilities; fuel ethanol; domestic oil and gas producers; energy independence; advanced vehicle technologies; and nuclear energy policy. [36] Department of Energy Announces Technology Commercialization Fund Projects Over $20 million to 10 National Labs and 71 private sector partners for development and commercial deployment of promising energy technologies. [40] Department of Energy Announces $8 Million for Particle Accelerators for Science & Society Projects to benefit medicine, industrial applications, and security. [40] ENR operates at the critical intersection between energy and U.S. national security, and ensures U.S. leadership on global energy issues. [37]

U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry to Participate in 2018 World Gas Conference For the first time in over 30 years, the World Gas Conference will be hosted in the United States. [40] World Gas Conference Week Day Two: U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry Delivers Opening Keynote Address and Participates in APEC Discussions U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry will kick off the official World Gas Conference Opening Ceremonies with a Keynote Address. [40]

The Preparation of Second Energy Efficiency Action Plan and Development of Energy Indicators project will assist the Serbian Ministry of Energy, Development, and Environment support sustainable development by creating an action plan and building capacities to advance energy saving and energy-efficiency measures that will contribute to reduction of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. [28] Covers government involvement in the development of alternative fuels for use in transportation vehicles, and the Department of Energy initiatives with private industry to explore the use of hybrid vehicles in current markets. [36] It is important to reassess the potential for successful development and deployment of new and improved energy technologies and the benefits that could result. [36]

Top 10 Things You Didnt Know About Wind Power Get the details on a few of the lesser known wind energy facts. [40]

The fact that no blackouts occurred under three different scenarios suggests that many possible solutions to grid stability with 100 percent wind, water and solar power are possible, a conclusion that contradicts previous claims that the grid cannot stay stable with such high penetrations of just renewables. [31] Renewable Power: The Columbia River is the nation?s most important hydropower resource, producing 40 percent of the nation?s hydroelectric generation. [32] The scene is now set for growth in renewables across Poland, with biomass, solar and offshore wind likely taking most new generation capacity. [29]

This will require the development of renewable energies as well as deployment of new technologies such as sequestration of carbon in cleaner fossil fuel systems, the commercialization of bio fuels and development of new forests and afforestation at a larger level. [35] Andrius Terskovas, head of business development at Sun Investment Group, said public opinion favors increasing renewables penetration. [29] The limitation of the grid is one of the major factors holding back renewable investment growth in Jordan. [27]

Policy & regulation are aligning with renewables cost declines to make projects more profitable and portfolios more sustainable. [29] The installed capacity of renewables at the end of 2016 was 626MW, a steep rise from 2015?s 199MW, with most of the new capacity coming from solar. [27] The support for renewables is largely driven by Jordan?s high dependency on fossil fuel imports and the pressure this has put on the economy in recent years. [27] Under pressure from other EU countries, Poland is supporting renewables once again. [29] This provides us with the theoretical framework of radical change: exploration of transformational possible futures, built on discontinuities towards the preferred future of renewables. [9] The direct proposal submission scheme which hands out licenses through competitive bidding has been the predominant way of attracting investment in renewables in Jordan. [27] Notwithstanding Nord Stream 2, renewables are part of a strategy to reduce the country?s dependence on fossil-fuel imports (most of its coal and oil also come from Russia). [33] Renewables made up 14 percent of the mix, compared to an average of 30 percent across the E.U. [29] Peplin says Northeast Ohio is definitely still positioned well to manufacture and compete in the renewable space, because it has a number of qualities going for it. [34]

A desire to improve security of supply also likely weighed heavily in the decision. [29] In: Auffermann B, Kaskinen J (eds) Security in futures - security in change. [9] "We believe that America?s economic strength is essential for America?s overall security. [34]

Jordan was ranked number one globally on Clean Energy Investment and Climate Financing Parameter II, up from 10th last year. [27] Established in 1995, DSIRE is operated by the N.C. Clean Energy Technology Center at N.C. State University and is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. [44]

The U.S. Department of Energy in collaboration with the National Institute of Building Sciences recently released a common definition for a "zero energy" building, also referred to as a "net zero energy" or "zero net energy" building. [10] To address these challenges, ENR works with leaders at the highest levels of government, business, and civil society, playing a crucial role in achieving U.S. foreign policy objectives in the energy arena. [37] Poland is one of the most energy-intensive economies in Europe and the Polish government identified increased energy efficiency as one of its top priorities when developing the country?s long-term energy policy. [28] Deals with energy issues such as: energy storage, transportation, fuel cells, and energy efficiency in buildings, lighting and appliances. [36] They will produce energy in the form of electricity and heat, as long as they are supplied with fuel. [36] Buildings use 36% of America's overall annual energy consumption, and 65% of the electricity demand. [10]

Top 10 Things You Didn?t Know About Offshore Wind Energy Learn more about efforts to develop Americas vast offshore wind resources. [40] It?s a Breeze to Teach Wind Energy with these STEM Resources In celebration of American Wind Week, here?s a look at resources the Energy Department has on offer to learn about wind energy and careers. [40]

Chris Rose is a Senior Development Specialist with DAI Europe?s Energy, Environment, and Climate Change practice. [28] Employ centralized remote meter reading and management to provide accurate analysis of energy use and monitor power quality. [10] We are creating a perpetual market for investments in efficient energy by Poland?s local businesses by training financial institutions on how to appraise and finance sensible energy projects; detailing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) the competitive advantages of investing in energy-efficient materials and equipment; and training local experts to assist SMEs in identifying and preparing technically feasible, bankable projects. [28] These stories from clients and projects will make you think "I don?t believe this!" These will be the craziest, funniest, and most outrageous situations in the energy field. [45] These traditional sources of energy are confronting growing challenges regarding environmental and human health concerns. [36] There is an uneven distribution of conventional energy sources around the globe. [38] This volume gathers disparate and scattered information about alternative energy sources into one place. [36] Contains a chapter of statistical tables regarding production and consumption of these energy sources. [36]

In taking a whole-building approach, deep energy retrofits address many systems at once by combining energy efficient measures such as energy-efficient equipment, air sealing, moisture management, controlled ventilation, insulation, and solar control. [10] With its intense desert sun and nearly year-round sunshine, Egypt?s solar energy potential is huge. [41]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(45 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (68) The Future of Renewable Energy | Council on Foreign Relations

2. (51) Surprise as the new normal - implications for energy security | SpringerLink

3. (39) BERA: Issue 5/6 The Oil & Gas Industry: Alternative Energy Sources (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress)

4. (36) What 'Energy Security' Looks Like in the 21st Century

5. (29) How to solve the energy 'trilemma' | GreenBiz

6. (29) Role of renewable energy in China?s energy security and climate change mitigation: An index decomposition analysis

7. (27) Energy security - Wikipedia

8. (22) Barriers to Renewable Energy Technologies

9. (21) Opinion | The Energy Solution Latin America Needs - The New York Times

10. (20) Energy innovation critical to national security, too | TheHill

11. (18) Jordan -- Climatescope 2017

12. (16) The key trends that will shape renewable energy in 2018 and beyond | World Economic Forum

13. (16) Pakistan should turn to renewables for energy security IRENA pv magazine International

14. (15) Could Ohios Renewable Energy Be A Matter Of National Security? | WOSU Radio

15. (15) The East Is Green: China?s Global Leadership in Renewable Energy | Center for Strategic and International Studies

16. (13) Optimize Energy Use | WBDG Whole Building Design Guide

17. (13) Coal-Heavy Poland Moves to Renewables, Finally | Greentech Media

18. (12) A $100 Million Shot At Glory For US Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency | CleanTechnica

19. (12) 3 plans to avoid blackouts using 100% renewable energy - Futurity

20. (12) Renewable Energy BMU

21. (11) Energy Insecurity in Japan

22. (11) Keeping Our Sights on Target: A Strategic Vision for Energy Security | Navy Live

23. (11) Rick Perry: "True energy independence is finally within our grasp?

24. (11) Avoiding blackouts with 100% renewable energy -- ScienceDaily

25. (9) How Reliable Is Renewable Energy | CleanChoice Energy

26. (9) Energy DAI: International Development

27. (9) Europe tries to lead the way on clean energy - Power struggle

28. (9) Department of Energy

29. (8) Achieving Energy Security in Central Asia: Role of Renewable Energy | Asian Development Bank

30. (7) Best practices in renewable energy and energy efficiency in Central Asia focus of OSCE expert workshop in Vienna | OSCE

31. (7) Energy Availability and Accessibility : The Energy Security Debate (Part 3 ) | The Environmental Blog

32. (7) Bureau of Energy Resources

33. (6) Energy and Energy Security | Ukraine | U.S. Agency for International Development

34. (6) PNNL: Energy and Environment, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

35. (5) Energy Security: The Role of Renewable Energy Sources - Arava Institute for Environmental StudiesArava Institute for Environmental Studies

36. (5) Kate Anderson | NREL

37. (3) Call for application - REMENA Youth Academy on Renewable Energy and E?

38. (3) Do renewable energies improve energy security in the long run? - ScienceDirect

39. (3) System Dynamics of Polysilicon for Solar Photovoltaics: A Framework for Investigating the Energy Security of Renewable Energy Supply Chains | What's New | Lexidyne

40. (2) Renewable energy/The energy challenge - Wikiversity

41. (2) Egypt?s Roadmap to Energy Security - Egyptfwd.org

42. (2) DSIRE

43. (1) Energy Security - Renewable Fuels Association

44. (1) Energy Security

45. (1) Conference Program | All Tracks | World Energy Engineering Congress

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