The Energy Conservation Act 2001

The Energy Conservation Act 2001
The Energy Conservation Act 2001 Image link: https://www.af.mil/News/Features/Display/Article/143741/ospreys-eagles-share-airspace-at-langley/
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • The mission of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency is to assist in developing policies and strategies with a thrust on self-regulation and market principles, within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 with the primary objective of reducing energy intensity of the Indian economy.(More…)
  • In the legislative branch, Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-WA) and Sen. Patty Murray (D-WA) introduced the Roadless Area Conservation Act of 2018 ( S. 3333 ), which makes 2001 roadless rule into permanent law.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • L. 95-91; 42 U.S.C. 7101 ), DOE must comply with section 32 of the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974, as amended by the Federal Energy Administration Authorization Act of 1977. ( 15 U.S.C. 788 ; FEAA) Section 32 essentially provides in relevant part that, where a proposed rule authorizes or requires use of commercial standards, the notice of proposed rulemaking must inform the public of the use and background of such standards.(More…)

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KEY TOPICS

The mission of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency is to assist in developing policies and strategies with a thrust on self-regulation and market principles, within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 with the primary objective of reducing energy intensity of the Indian economy. [1] The Government of India set up Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). on 1st March 2002 under the provisions of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001. [1]

The Energy Conservation Act provides for regulatory and promotional functions. [1]

WASHINGTON – U.S. Sen. Dean Heller (R-NV) today applauded the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee’s approval of his Pershing County Economic Development and Conservation Act, legislation that he introduced to facilitate new opportunities for economic development throughout the county while promoting conservation efforts. [2] Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 ( 42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq.; “EPCA” or “the Act”), among other things, authorizes DOE to regulate the energy efficiency of a number of consumer products and industrial equipment. [3] Relevant provisions of the Act include definitions ( 42 U.S.C. 6291 ), energy conservation standards ( 42 U.S.C. 6295 ), test procedures ( 42 U.S.C. 6293 ), labeling provisions ( 42 U.S.C. 6294 ), and the authority to require information and reports from manufacturers ( 42 U.S.C. 6296 ). [3] Energy conservation measures counted toward the new Act 129 requirements would also specifically include up to one-third of the energy savings resulting from adopting energy efficiency building codes a utility was directly involved in helping to adopt. [4] Sen. Thomas McGarrigle (R-Delaware) Monday introduced bipartisan legislation– Senate Bill 1236 — updating the Act 129 Energy Conservation Program requirements for electric utilities. [4]

Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. 10 11 12 Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act (RCA) of 1959, in the 86th Congress. [5] On February 1 st, 2017, the Pershing County Commission passed a resolution urging the Nevada Congressional Delegation to re-introduce and advance the Pershing County Economic Development and Conservation Act. [2]

The testing requirements consist of test procedures that manufacturers of covered products must use as the basis for (1) certifying to DOE that their products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards adopted under EPCA ( 42 U.S.C. 6295 (s)), and (2) making representations about the energy use or efficiency of those products ( 42 U.S.C. 6293 (c)). [3] Under EPCA, the energy conservation program consists essentially of four parts: (1) Testing, (2) labeling, (3) Federal energy conservation standards, and (4) certification and enforcement procedures. [3] EPCA governs and prescribes Federal preemption of State regulations as to energy conservation for the products that are the subject of this final rule. [3] This policy-stimulus combination represents the largest federal commitment in U.S. history for renewable energy, advanced transportation, and energy conservation initiatives. [6] The Ministry of Power has launched the National Awareness Campaign in order to promote energy conservation in the country. [7] For winners of both the Groups of National Competition, cash prizes worth Rs. 10.35 lakhs will be awarded by the Ministry of Power on 14th December, 2018 which is also celebrated as National Energy Conservation day in the presence of eminent dignitaries holding very high positions in the Government. [7]

Title III, Part B  of EPCA established the Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles, which sets forth a variety of provisions designed to improve energy efficiency. [3] When asked which of these should be the higher priority, the public chooses energy conservation by a very wide 68 percent-to-21 percent margin. 155 The public also predominantly believes that the need to cut down on energy consumption and protect the environment means increased energy efficiency should be mandated for certain products. [6] The bill also specifically authorizes utilities to adopt financial incentives mechanisms for energy conservation based on the achievement of energy savings and peak demand reduction goals established by the Public Utility Commission. [4] Energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, subsidies and incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques. [6] Manufacturers of LED lamps must certify to DOE that their products comply with any applicable energy conservation standards. [3]

In the legislative branch, Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-WA) and Sen. Patty Murray (D-WA) introduced the Roadless Area Conservation Act of 2018 ( S. 3333 ), which makes 2001 roadless rule into permanent law. [8] The legislation would inject new life and fresh funding into such critical programs as the North American Wetlands Conservation Act, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and the National Fish Habitat Conservation Act. [9]

 (d) A permit applicant may utilize one of the following prescriptive methods to demonstrate compliance with the energy conservation requirements of the Uniform Construction Code. [10] As required by state law, Illinois must adopt amendments to the Illinois Energy Code based on the latest version of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), a model code that is updated on a three-year cycle. [11] In 2001, a special task force on energy policy convened by Vice President Dick Cheney recommended that Congress exempt hydraulic fracturing from the Safe Drinking Water Act. [12]

The organization recognized Carper for leading efforts aimed at acting on climate change, pushing for clear water through the Delaware River Basin Conservation Act and bringing cleaner air to millions of Americans by reducing cross-state air pollution as well as speeding up the incorporation of clean energy and electric vehicles, among other things. [13] The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (“EPCA” or “the Act”), 1 Public Law 94-163 (42 U.S.C. 6291-6317, as codified), among other things, authorizes DOE to regulate the energy efficiency of a number of consumer products and industrial equipment. [14] Relevant provisions of the Act include definitions (42 U.S.C. 6291; 42 U.S.C. 6311), energy conservation standards (42 U.S.C. 6295; 42 U.S.C. 6317), test procedures (42 U.S.C. 6293; 42 U.S.C. 6314), labeling provisions (42 U.S.C. 6294; 42 U.S.C. 6315), and the authority to require information and reports from manufacturers (42 U.S.C. 6296; 42 U.S.C. 6316). [14]

The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub.L. 110-234, H.R. 2419, 122 Stat. 923, enacted May 22, 2008, also known as the 2008 U.S. Farm Bill) was a $288 billion, five-year agricultural policy bill that was passed into law by the United States Congress. [15] The VWA presented their findings to U.S. Congressman Sam Farr, thereby providing a basis for the Big Sur Wilderness and Conservation Act, signed into law in December, 2002. [16]

Federal energy efficiency requirements for covered products established under EPCA generally supersede State laws and regulations concerning energy conservation testing, labeling, and standards. (42 U.S.C. 6297; 42 U.S.C. 6316) DOE may, however, grant waivers of Federal preemption for particular State laws or regulations, in accordance with the procedures and other provisions of EPCA. (42 U.S.C. 6297(d); 42 U.S.C. 6316(b)). [14] Under EPCA, DOE’s energy conservation program consists essentially of four parts: (1) Testing, (2) labeling, (3) Federal energy conservation standards, and (4) certification and enforcement procedures. [14]

Title III, Part B 2 of EPCA established the Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles, which sets forth a variety of provisions designed to improve energy efficiency. [14] Costanzo M, Archer D, Aronson E, Pettigrew T (1986) Energy conservation behavior: the difficult path from information to action. [17] Brown MA (1984) Change mechanisms in the diffusion of residential energy conservation practices: an empirical study. [17]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

L. 95-91; 42 U.S.C. 7101 ), DOE must comply with section 32 of the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974, as amended by the Federal Energy Administration Authorization Act of 1977. ( 15 U.S.C. 788 ; FEAA) Section 32 essentially provides in relevant part that, where a proposed rule authorizes or requires use of commercial standards, the notice of proposed rulemaking must inform the public of the use and background of such standards. [3] Executive Order 13211, “Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use,” 66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001), requires Federal agencies to prepare and submit to OMB, a Statement of Energy Effects for any significant energy action. [3] A “significant energy action” is defined as any action by an agency that promulgated or is expected to lead to promulgation of a final rule, and that (1) is a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, or any successor order; and (2) is likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy; or (3) is designated by the Administrator of OIRA as a significant energy action. [3]

State programs for low-income energy customers combined with Act 129 bring the biggest impact and relief for neighbors whose energy costs represent a significant burden. [4] The “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007” includes funding to increase the popularity of ZEBs, photovoltaics, and even a new solar air conditioning program. [6] Among other changes to the Act 129 program, Senate Bill 1236 would eliminate the 2 percent cap entirely, allow an electric distribution company to recover decreased revenues due to reduced energy consumpt ion and limit upward rate adjustments to not greater than 2 percent. [4] President Barack Obama’s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 included more than $70 billion in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated transportation programs. [6] A National Maximum Speed Limit of 55mph (88km/h) was imposed to help reduce consumption, and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (aka CAFE) standards were enacted to downsize automobile categories. 37 Year-round Daylight Saving Time was imposed, the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created and the National Energy Act of 1978 was introduced. [6] In 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory assessed the technical potential for renewable electricity for each of the 50 states, and concluded that each state has technical potential for renewable electricity, mostly from solar power and wind power, greater than its current electricity consumption. [6] A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) is a mandate that requires electricity providers to supply to their customers a minimum amount of power from renewable sources, usually as a percentage of total energy use. [6]

On July 1, 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a final rule adopting a test procedure for integrated light-emitting diode (LED) lamps (hereafter referred to as “LED lamps”) to support the implementation of labeling provisions by the Federal Trade Commission, as well as the general service lamps rulemaking, which includes LED lamps. [3] When President Carter created the U.S. Department of Energy in 1977, one of their first successful projects was the Weatherization Assistance Program. 58 During the last 30 years, this program has provided services to more than 5.5 million low-income families. [6] The current head of the U.S. Department of Energy under the Trump administration is Rick Perry, who succeeded Dr. Ernest Moniz in March 2017. [6] Administrator Lee Thomas assembled a cross-agency team, including personal from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Energy to monitor the situation. [5] The Office of Science in the Department of Energy would receive $2.0 billion for basic energy sciences to discover new ways to produce, store and use energy. [6] It will not have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy, nor has it been designated as a significant energy action by the Administrator of OIRA. Therefore, it is not a significant energy action, and, accordingly, DOE has not prepared a Statement of Energy Effects. [3] For any significant energy action, the agency must give a detailed statement of any adverse effects on energy supply, distribution, or use if the regulation is implemented, and of reasonable alternatives to the action and their expected benefits on energy supply, distribution, and use. [3]

On or after March 20, 2019, any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of integrated light-emitting diode lamps must be made in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix. [3] U.S. energy use (in Quad BTU. (1 Quad/s1 trillion MW; 1 Quad/year 33.5 Gigawatts). [6] The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) groups the five largest consumers of energy in the United States, by sector. [6] The trend of net energy imports into the United States (U.S. Energy Information Administration). [6]

The United States receives approximately 84% of its energy from fossil fuels. 26 This energy is used for transport, industry, and domestic use. [6] A similar situation exists in gas transport, where compressor stations along pipelines use energy to keep the gas moving, or where gas liquefaction/cooling/regasification in the liquiefied natural gas supply chain uses a substantial amount of energy, even though the scale of the loss is not as pronounced as it is in electricity. [6] Long distance electric power transmission results in energy loss, through electrical resistance, heat generation, electromagnetic induction and less-than-perfect electrical insulation. 144 In 1995, these losses were estimated at 7.2%. 145 Energy generation and distribution can be more efficient the closer it is to the point of use, if conducted in a high-efficiency generator, such as a CHP. [6] In 2014, the largest source of the country’s energy came from petroleum (35%), followed by natural gas (28%), coal (18%), renewable sources (10%) and nuclear power (8%). 62 Amory Lovins says that the sharp and steady cost reductions in solar power has been a “stunning market success”. [6] The Production Tax Credit (PTC) reduces the federal income taxes of qualified tax-paying owners of renewable energy projects based on the electrical output (measured in kWh) of grid-connected renewable energy facilities. [6] The Investment Tax Credit (ITC) reduces federal income taxes for qualified tax-paying owners based on dollars of capital investment in renewable energy projects. [6]

Specifically, this final rule amends the existing test procedure for integrated LED lamps without affecting the amount, quality or distribution of energy usage, and, therefore, will not result in any environmental impacts. [3] Buildings and their construction consume more energy than transportation or industrial applications, and because buildings are responsible for the largest portion of greenhouse emissions, they have the largest impact on man-made climate change. [6]

Painting competition for students at the School, State and at National level has been included as one of the activities of the campaign, which would not only make aware the children about the need of conserving energy but at the same time would educate their parents as well in the above cause. [7] Energy service companies support this bill because we want all Pennsylvania’s businesses to flourish,” said Donald Gilligan, President, National Association of Energy Service Companies. [4]

Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 2001 ( 44 U.S.C. 3516 note) provides for agencies to review most disseminations of information to the public under guidelines established by each agency pursuant to general guidelines issued by OMB. OMB’s guidelines were published at 67 FR 8452 (Feb. 22, 2002), and DOE’s guidelines were published at 67 FR 62446 (Oct. 7, 2002). [3] DOE has determined that this rule falls into a class of actions that are categorically excluded from review under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ( 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq. ) and DOE’s implementing regulations at 10 CFR part 1021. [3] Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) requires each Federal agency to assess the effects of Federal regulatory actions on State, local, and Tribal governments and the private sector. [3] The National Environmental Education Act of 1990 requires EPA to provide national leadership to increase environmental literacy. [5] The Regulatory Flexibility Act ( 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq. ) requires preparation of a final regulatory flexibility analysis (FRFA) for any final rule where the agency was first required by law to publish a proposed rule for public comment, unless the agency certifies that the rule, if promulgated, will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. [3] The Department of Energy’s Loan Guarantee Program, established by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and enhanced by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, attempts to pave the way for investor support of clean energy projects by providing a guarantee of financing up to 80% of the project cost. [6] “In the first seven years of implementation of Pennsylvania’s flagship energy efficiency law, Act 129, energy efficiency programs have delivered $6.4 billion in economic benefits to all Pennsylvanians, at a benefit-to-cost ratio of nearly 2-to-1,” said Sen. McGarrigle in announcing the legislation. [4] Most recently the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, each promote various energy efficiency improvements and encourage development of specific energy sources. [6]

The National Environmental Policy Act: an agenda for the future. [5] For more information on the Act 129 program, visit the PUC’s Act 129 webpage. [4] During her 22 months as agency head, she cut the budget of the EPA by 22%, reduced the number of cases filed against polluters, relaxed Clean Air Act regulations, and facilitated the spraying of restricted-use pesticides. [5]

Rather than conduct two separate tests for lifetime–one at ambient temperature per DOE’s test procedure and one at elevated temperature per ENERGY STAR’s test procedure–they can now conduct only one test at elevated temperature and use the test data to satisfy the requirements of both the mandatory Federal regulatory program and the voluntary ENERGY STAR program. [3] This final rule amends the LED lamps test procedure by allowing for time to failure measurements to be taken at elevated temperatures consistent with the ENERGY STAR program requirements. [3]

DOE proposed to amend section 4.4.4 of appendix BB to allow time to failure testing to be conducted at elevated temperatures above the current requirement, which stipulates to maintain ambient operating temperature at 25 °C ± 5 °C. Manufacturers would then have the flexibility to conduct the Elevated Temperature Life Test for ENERGY STAR, while also following the calculation method for DOE’s LED lamps test procedure, and avoid test duplication. [3]

If all of the 6,235 models of integrated LED lamps certified in ENERGY STAR that require testing at elevated temperatures were to conduct only one lifetime test instead of two, DOE estimates that the net present value (NPV) of savings would be up to $754 million at a 3 percent discount rate or up to $311 million at a 7 percent discount rate. [3] The ENERGY STAR specification for lamps requires that models be tested for lifetime at elevated temperatures unless they are labeled (1) “not for use in totally enclosed luminaires” (or equivalent statement), and (2) “not for use in recessed luminaires” (or equivalent statement) on the lamp and lamp packaging. [3] This amendment can reduce burden for manufacturers who also certify models in the ENERGY STAR program in categories that require the testing of lifetime to be at elevated temperatures. [3]

State-specific energy efficiency incentive programs also play a significant role in the overall energy policy of the United States. 9 The United States refused to endorse the Kyoto Protocol, preferring to let the market drive CO 2 reductions to mitigate global warming, which will require CO 2 emission taxation. [6] The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state, and local entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption, such as building codes and gas mileage standards. [6]

An incentive resulting from U.S. energy policy is a factor that provides motive for a specific course of action regarding the use of energy. [6] U.S. Energy policy incentives can serve as a strategic manner to develop certain industries that plan to reduce America’s dependence on foreign petroleum products and create jobs and industries that boost the national economy. [6] “In fact, a 2017 U.S. Department of Energy report found that energy efficiency accounts for over 62,000 Pennsylvania jobs. [4] In 1992 the EPA launched the Energy Star program, a voluntary program that fosters energy efficiency. [5] Many manufacturers also participate in the ENERGY STAR program and certify models of integrated LED lamps as compliant with those voluntary requirements. [3] There are 8,051 distinct models of LED lamps certified through the ENERGY STAR program. [3] DOE has determined that this amendment would not be unduly burdensome for manufacturers to conduct and instead would decrease the test burden for many manufacturers that participate in the ENERGY STAR program. [3]  The ENERGY STAR Elevated Temperature Life Test Method can be found at https://www.energystar.gov/sites/default/files/ENERGY%20STAR%20Elevated%20Temperature%20Life%20Test%20Method.pdf. [3] That means the remaining 6,235 models of LED lamps that are certified in ENERGY STAR must be tested at elevated temperatures. [3]

“Investments into energy efficiency are among the best our state can make,” said KEEA policy director Julian Boggs. [4] Representations of energy use or energy efficiency must be based on testing in accordance with the amended test procedures beginning 180 days after the publication of this final rule. [3]

These measures, such as robust improvements to household furnace motors, could help a number of homeowners significantly reduce their electricity use,” said Jeaneen Zappa, Executive Director, Conservation Consultants, Inc. [4]

In 2001, the Nevada State Legislature passed AB 661, which Gov. Kenny Guinn (R) signed, that made multiple changes to the state’s energy policies, including adding a provision that allowed companies with 1 megawatt of average load to file an application to exit from the utility responsible for their service area and procure power from a different source. [18] By contrast, U.S. Department of Energy data shows that electricity prices have risen more steeply in states with energy deregulation programs similar to that proposed by this initiative than in those without. [18] The people of the State of Nevada declare that it is the policy of this State that electricity markets be open and competitive so that all electricity customers are afforded meaningful choices among different providers, and that economic and regulatory burdens be minimized in order to promote competition and choices in the electric energy market. [18]

Energy Department Selects Seven Projects to Develop Combined Heat and Power Technologies that Offer Services to the Electric Grid DOE announced $10 million for seven projects to enable manufacturers to use combined heat and power technologies to support the electric grid. [19] Energy Department Selects 13 Projects for High Performance Computing to Advance Applied Science and Technology in Manufacturing DOE announced nearly $3 million for 13 projects to stimulate the use of high performance supercomputers to advance U.S. manufacturing. [19] Five Organizations Selected to Boost American-Made Solar Prize The U.S. Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory selected 5 organizations to grow the American-Made Solar Prize. [19] Department of Energy Celebrates Manufacturing Day Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joins President Trump and communities across the nation in celebrating Manufacturing Day. [19]  The RAC voted to adopt the IECC of 2015 in its entirety except: Section R102.1.1 (relating to above code programs); Section C104.2.6 (relating to final inspection); Section R403.3.5 (relating to building cavities); Section R403.5.2 (relating to demand recirculation systems); Table R406.4 (relating to maximum energy rating index); and Section C408.2.4 (relating to preliminary commissioning report). [10]

The comments, written by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Energy, Installations and Environment, noted that EPA should not restrict the use of “high-quality studies” where the underlying data are not available. [8] Jon Wellinghoff, chief policy officer at SolarCity and former chair of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, responded to criticism of Question 3, saying, “Fearmongering surrounding the potential for market manipulation should also be put to bed. [18] Allowing energy providers to offer electricity from any source – including renewable sources- without needing the approval of the Commission. [18] In Washington, electors will vote on a Initiative 1631 to enact a fee on carbon emissions from power plants, refineries, and other specified emitters. 3 Voters in Nevada will also consider a ballot initiative, Question 3, to eliminate electricity monopolies and require a competitive energy market. [18] Ministry of Power, Government of India launched an ambitious program to encourage the deployment of Energy Efficient chiller systems in the country here today. [20] Clean Power Plan: The Trump administration released a regulation, called the Affordable Clean Energy (ACE) rule to replace the Obama administration’s Clean Power Plan which was designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. [8] Former U.S. Sen. Harry Reid (D) said, “Nevadans are poised to gut energy monopolies? rigid power grabs and directly participate in the clean energy economy. [18] In Celebration of American Manufacturing The Energy Department is working with U.S. manufacturers to improve energy productivity – the ability to produce more with less energy. [19]

Recent studies show that Nevada consumers enjoyed the second-lowest rates of energy price increase in the country, largely due to the prudent management of the market by public agencies. [18] Keeping Nevada?s renewable energy portfolio standard in place, along with Nevada?s other renewable policies. [18]

That?s right, the U.S. Forest Service recently announced that it has agreed to work with the state of Alaska to develop a state-specific rewrite of the 2001 Roadless Area Conservation Rule, which is designed to conserve undeveloped backcountry public lands that have never been roaded or developed. [9] In order to generate broad buy-in and support, an Alaska roadless rule must be, on balance, as strong as or stronger than the 2001 Roadless Area Conservation Rule. [9]

The WILD Act has a host of provisions, but among the most important for sportsmen is the bill?s inclusion of a reauthorization for the Partners for Fish and Wildlife program, one of our most effective private lands conservation programs. [9] The Public Health Service Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 201) consolidated and revised all existing legislation relating to the Public Health Service, outlined the policy framework for Federal-state cooperation in public health; and established regulatory authorities that transferred with PHS to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) and subsequently to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). [21]  Under section 5.1(c) of the Regulatory Review Act (71 P.S.  745.5a(c)), on August 10, 2018, the Department submitted a copy of this final-omitted rulemaking and a copy of a Regulatory Analysis Form to the Independent Regulatory Review Commission (IRRC) and to the Chairpersons of the Senate Committee on Labor and Industry and the House Labor Relations Committee. [10]   Uniform Construction Code –This part, An International Building Code and the International Residential Code for One- and Two-Family Dwellings, available from the International Code Council, Inc., 4051 W. Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795, (888) 422-7233; and any standards adopted by the Department in this part under sections 301 and 304 of the act (35 P.S.  7210.301 and 7210.304). [10]  The Department is amending paragraph (f) to reflect that code administrators may act in place lumber grading or inspection agency to satisfy the requirements under section 2303.1.1 of the IBC of 2015 or its successor code. [10]  In accordance with section 304 of the Pennsylvania Construction Code Act (act) (35 P.S.  7210.304), the Department of Labor and Industry (Department) amends  401.1, 403.1, 403.21, 403.23, 403.26–403.28, 403.42, 403.42a, 403.44–403.46 and 403.103 to read as set forth in Annex A. [10] Under section 304(a)(1) of the act the Department is required to promulgate final-omitted regulations adopting, ”without change” the provisions of the ICC Codes outlined in the RAC’s July 23, 2018, amended report. 35 P.S.  7210.304(a)(1). [10]  (f) A code administrator may act in place of a lumber grading or inspection agency to satisfy the requirements under section 2303.1.1 of the ”International Building Code of 2015 ” or its successor code. [10]  The purpose of this final-omitted rulemaking is to amend 34 Pa.  Code  401.1, 403.21 and 403.26 (relating to definitions; Uniform Construction Code; and swimming pools) to adopt the revisions specified in the RAC’s July 23, 2018, report, as required by section 304(a)(1) of the act. [10] The ordinance restricting the placement of natural cut trees is not subject to section 503(b)–(k) of the act (35 P.S.  7210.503(b)–(k)) and  403.102(i)–(k) (relating to municipalities electing to enforce the Uniform Construction Code). [10]

  Manufactured housing –Under section 901(a) of the act (35 P.S.  7210.901(a)), housing which bears a label as required by and referenced in the Manufactured Housing Act (35 P.S.  656.1–1656.9), certifying that it conforms to Federal construction and safety standards adopted under the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C.A.  5401–5426). [10] States sue Interior Department over reinterpretation of Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Federal court blocks Yellowstone-area grizzly bear hunt for two weeks. [8]  The Department finds that this final-omitted rulemaking is authorized by sections 304(a)(1) and (2) of the act. [10]  Under section 5.1(j.2) of the Regulatory Review Act, on September 12, 2018, the final-omitted rulemaking was deemed approved by the House and Senate Committees. [10]  (b) The code adopted under subsection (a)(8) is part of the Uniform Construction Code to the extent that it is referenced in Chapter 35 of the ”International Building Code of 2015 ” under section 302(a)(1) of the act (35 P.S.   7210.302(a)(1)). [10] Act 36 of 2017 directed the RAC to conduct a complete review of the 2015 ICC codes, disregarding the RAC’s previous action on the 2015 Codes. 35 P.S.  7210.108(a)(1)(i). [10] The act requires referenced standards to be reviewed every 3 years following publication of the triennial revisions to the ICC codes. [10] Rep. Todd Rokita (R-IN) introduced the Modifying Unaccountable Standard and Simplifying Endangered Lists Act (MUSSELS) Act ( H.R. 6668 ) to remove all freshwater mussel species from the federal endangered species list. [8] Passed out of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee in the very beginning of this Congress back in 2017, the Help for Wildlife Act is one of the most comprehensive wildlife bills to be assembled by federal lawmakers in recent memory. [9]

The Legislature need not provide for the deregulation of or distribution of electricity in Order to establish a competitive market consistent with this Act. [18]  In 1999, the Legislature established the act and directed the Department to promulgate regulations adopting certain building codes as the Uniform Construction Code (UCC). [10]  In Act 106 of 2008, the General Assembly established the RAC whose members represent industry sectors that participate in the various aspects relating to building construction including building component design, construction, building code enforcement and local government representation. [10]

EERE Success Story–South Carolina Facilitates Energy Efficiency Financing for Public Buildings Reducing Costs to Taxpayers With the help of a DOE State Energy Program competitive award, the South Carolina Energy Office created the Palmetto Energy Efficiency Retrofits. [19] Launching, this key program, Shri A.K. Bhalla, Secretary, Power, emphasised the need to improve energy efficiency in space and process cooling sector, considering the occasion of 24th World Ozone Day and the 31st Anniversary of Montreal Protocol, which will be observed on 16th September 2018. [20]

Both versions of the Farm Bill include provisions that are important to sportsmen, from funding critical conservation projects on working farms and forests to ensuring a bright future for the Conservation Reserve Program and reauthorizing the Voluntary Public Access program–the only private lands access incentive program in the entire federal government. [9] Such a process resembles the current situation of public land management in Alaska, where a carefully crafted conservation plan has been working with success since its establishment seventeen years ago, but the Forest Service must return to the drawing board to create a new plan for managing 14.7 million acres of some of the world?s most productive salmon and Sitka blacktail deer habitat. [9] In 2004, the New York State Public Service Commission approved the state?s first RPS and increased the goal in 2010. 101 In 2015, the RPS expired but was replaced with a clean energy standard, which further increased the goal. 102 As described above, the governor and the commission have led the state?s REV process to encourage further deployment of renewables. [22] Ibid.; New York State Department of Public Service, “Clean Energy Standard,” available at http://www3.dps.ny.gov/W/PSCWeb.nsf/All/56C58A580D2CF2E185257FD4006B90CE?OpenDocument (last accessed September 2018). [22] New York State Department of Public Service, “Reforming the Energy Vision: DPS Staff Report and Proposal” (2014), available at http://energystorage.org/system/files/resources/nypsc_rev_4_24_14.pdf. [22]

State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission, “Energy,” available at http://puc.hawaii.gov/energy/ (last accessed September 2018). [22] California Public Utilities Commission, “Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanism,” available at http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/General.aspx?id4137 (last accessed August 2018). [22]

World Data, “Energy consumption in Puerto Rico,” available at https://www.worlddata.info/america/puerto-rico/energy-consumption.php (last accessed September 2018); U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Frequently Asked Questions: How much electricity does an American home use?” available at https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id97&t3 (last accessed September 2018). [22] U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Hawaii: State Profile and Energy Estimates,” available at https://www.eia.gov/state/?sidHI#tabs-4 (last accessed September 2018). [22] U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Puerto Rico: Territory Profile and Energy Estimates,” available at https://www.eia.gov/state/?sidRQ (last accessed September 2018). [22]

U.S. Department of Energy, “Renewable Energy Standard,” available at https://www.energy.gov/savings/renewable-energy-standard (last accessed August 2018). [22] Electricity: natural gas: rates: net energy metering: California Renewables Portfolio Standard Program, A.B. 327, California Legislature 2013-2014 Session (October 7, 2013), available at https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id201320140AB327. [22] To promote the use of renewable energy sources for electricity, the Act on Special Measures Concerning Procurement of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources by Electricity Utilities (the FIT Act) was enacted in 2011 and became effective in 2012. [23] The Act on Special Measures Concerning Procurement of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources by Electricity Utilities requires electric companies to purchase electricity generated by renewable energy source at a certain price. [23] The FIT Act requires electricity companies to purchase electricity generated by renewable energy sources (solar photovoltaic, wind power, hydraulic power below 30 megawatts, geothermal, and biomass) at a certain price. [23] After the FIT Act was implemented, the Act on Promoting Generation of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources Harmonized with Sound Development of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Renewable Energy Generation in Farmland Act) was enacted in 2013 to prevent harm to farmland and fishery areas by the establishment of renewable energy power generation facilities and to facilitate their orderly establishment. [23]

Under the Act on Rationalizing Energy Use, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) have established standards for the improved fuel efficiency of automobiles taking into consideration the highest level fuel efficiency. [23] Pursuant to the Act on Rationalizing Energy Use, the Ministers of METI and MLIT have established and publicized “standards of judgment” for manufacturers of automobiles with regard to improvements in fuel efficiency. [23]

It?s no secret the State Corporation Commission didn?t like this year?s big energy bill, the Grid Transformation and Security Act. [24] The amended Act also requires owners of renewable energy facilities to enter into an interconnection agreement with the relevant utility before certification. [23] Renewable Energy Generation in Farmland Act art. 4; ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????, MAFF, METI and MOE Notification No. 2 (May 16, 2014), amended by MAFF, METI and MOE Notification No. 3 (May 27, 2016), http://www.maff. go.jp/j/shokusan/renewable/energy/pdf/hoshin.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/SUF3-QSQ7. [23] In 2005, a national energy bill included the exemption of hydraulic fracturing from the Safe Drinking Water Act. [12] Low-income households spend on average three times more on their energy bills, as a share of income, than do high-income households. 115 There are multiple tools states can use to ensure affordable electricity, including through regulatory commission rate cases, utility incentives, time-of-use pricing, and direct aid to low-income households. [22] Aside from controlling electricity costs through regulatory commission ratemaking and incentivizing utilities to keep costs down, some states find it necessary or desirable to more directly provide assistance to low-income residents facing a high energy burden. [22] A handful of policies–in particular, maintaining an independent and empowered regulatory commission, investing in low-cost clean energy sources, structuring utility incentives to be in line with policy goals, and creating and enforcing reliability standards–have the potential to transform Puerto Rico?s electricity grid to a best-in-class 21st-century system. [22] NERC standards are enforceable in the continental United States, as well as in parts of Canada and Mexico. 138 It is responsible for developing reliability standards and submitting them to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for approval. [22] Recall that the only reason Dominion Energy and its partners got permission from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to build the pipeline was the fact that the companies showed they had contracts for almost all the pipeline capacity. [24] The State Corporation Commission (SCC) has approved Dominion Energy Virginia?s so-called Community Solar pilot program, under which the utility will offer its residential and commercial customers the output of solar farms to be built by independent solar developers here in Virginia. [24] In that world, Dominion Energy Virginia, the state?s largest utility, has just filed a plan with the State Corporation Commission (SCC) to spend almost $1 billion of its customers? money for the first phase of what it says will be three phases of grid modernization, amounting to $3.5 billion. [24] California?s first legislation that directly dealt with greenhouse gas emissions was passed in 1988. 79 It required the California Energy Commission to create an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and study the effects of those emissions on the state. [22] While these pieces of legislation set aggressive goals, they rely on the capability of the California Public Utilities Commission, the California Air Resources Board, the California Energy Commission, and other agencies to execute it effectively. [22] The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, “Investigation by the Department of Public Utilities on its own Motion into Modernization of the Electric Grid” (2014), D.P.U. 12-76-B, available at https://eeaonline.eea.state.ma.us/DPU/Fileroom. [22] Historical website content available at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Climate Impacts on Energy,” available at https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-impacts/climate-impacts-energy_.html (last accessed September 2018). [22] U.S. Department of Energy, Final Progress Report: Hawaii?s Clean Energy Transformation and Grid Connection (2015), available at https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2016/04/f30/Hawaii%27s%20Clean%20Energy%20Transformation%20and%20Grid%20Connection_Hawaii%20Department%20of%20Business%205354.pdf. [22]

Renewable energy: California Renewables Portfolio Standard Program, S.B. 1078, Ch. 516 (September 12, 2002), available at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/01-02/bill/sen/sb_1051-1100/sb_1078_bill_20020912_chaptered.pdf. [22] Their legislatures, executive branches, and even voters have been looking ahead by recognizing both the need to reduce the carbon emissions that drive climate change and the economic and public health benefits of incorporating more renewable energy into their electricity portfolios. [22] A person who intends to generate electricity by a power generation facility using a renewable energy source must obtain certification from the Minister of METI in order to provide the power to an electricity utility. [23] In both Hawaii and Puerto Rico, the cost of electricity is largely driven by imported fossil energy used to fuel their power plants. 133 As described above, Hawaii has a goal of getting to 100 percent renewable electricity generation by 2045, which would drastically reduce its need to import fossil fuels. [22] S.B. 100, passed in August 2018, requires renewable energy and zero-carbon energy to supply 100 percent of California?s retail electricity sales by 2045. [22]

DMME calculates that ESPCs have provided $860 million in energy savings in Virginia since 2001. [24] Municipal governments establish basic plans of renewable energy generation management based on the national basic policy. [23] Colorado Energy Office, “Renewable Energy Standard,” available at https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/energyoffice/renewable-energy-standard (last accessed August 2018). [22] Energy Minnesota, “Renewable Energy In Minnesota,” available at http://energyminnesota.org/faqs/renewable-energy-in-minnesota#n-33 (last accessed August 2018). [22]

Electric Choice, “Map of Deregulated Energy States & Markets (Updated 2018),” available at https://www.electricchoice.com/map-deregulated-energy-markets/ (last accessed September 2018). [22] New York State, “Reforming the Energy Vision,” available at https://rev.ny.gov/ (last accessed September 2018). [22] Hawaii State Energy Office, “Grid Modernization,” available at http://energy.hawaii.gov/renewable-energy/grid-modernization (last accessed September 2018). [22] Energy Outreach Colorado, “Colorado?s Affordable Residential Energy Program (CARE),” available at https://www.energyoutreach.org/programs-for-individuals/care-program/ (last accessed September 2018). [22] Hawaii Energy, “Energy Efficiency Auction Fact Sheet,” available at https://hawaiienergy.com/images/Auction/documents/HawaiiEnergyAuctionFactSheet.pdf (last accessed September 2018). [22] Energy Deregulation New York, “Electricity Deregulation,” available at http://www.energyderegulationnewyork.com/energy-deregulation/electricity-deregulation-ny/ (last accessed September 2018). [22] California Energy Commission, “Electric Load-Serving Entities (LSEs) in California,” available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/almanac/electricity_data/utilities.html (last accessed September 2018). [22] California Energy Commission, “Total System Electric Generation,” available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/almanac/electricity_data/total_system_power.html (last accessed September 2018). [22]

Gesis Ibarra, “Strong opposition to consolidation of Puerto Rico Energy Commission,” Caribbean Business, February 6, 2018, available at https://caribbeanbusiness.com/strong-opposition-to-consolidation-of-puerto-rico-energy-commission/ ; Javier Balmaceda, “Puerto Rico’s PREPA Privatization: A Sale Too Private,” Forbes, April 3, 2018, available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/debtwire/2018/04/03/puerto-ricos-prepa-privatization-a-sale-too-private/#2644716f7490. [22] There have also been efforts to substantially change the role of the Puerto Rico Energy Commission (PREC), Puerto Rico?s independent electricity regulator. [22] As Puerto Rico rebuilds its electricity grid and considers the future of PREPA, policymakers should take the opportunity to enact changes to its regulatory system that will better enable the island?s utility to serve residents and businesses while building a cleaner, more affordable, and more reliable energy system. [22]

Bonnie Krenz served as a senior policy adviser for energy and climate change policy at the U.S. Domestic Policy Council during the Obama administration. [22] Justin Moss, Energy Coordinator for the Fairfax County Public Schools, said his department considers ESPCs “a very viable option to help replace aging equipment when we lack bond funding for that.” [24] Massachusetts? first energy regulator opened its doors in 1885. 44 Today, the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (DPU) has three commissioners, appointed by the governor and confirmed by the commonwealth Senate, serving four-year terms. [22] The 2018 federal budget calls for a 31 percent cut in the EPA budget, a 12 percent cut in the Department of the Interior, and a 6 percent cut in the Department of Energy. [25]

Third-party contractors, called energy service companies (ESCOs), take on the investment risk, and state law requires the contractors to guarantee the energy savings for localities. [24] It deregulated its electricity market in 1996, becoming the first state to do so. 19 However, after the California energy crisis of 2000–when Enron and other companies intentionally took generation offline to artificially inflate electricity prices, causing rolling blackouts throughout the state 20 –California halted its deregulation process. [22] Below are two examples of states that have pursued broad electricity grid reform and modernization primarily through their executive branches: New York?s Reforming the Energy Vision 52 and Massachusetts? grid modernization plan. 53 These two cases highlight some of the opportunities and drawbacks of pursuing broad sector reforms through regulation as opposed to through legislation. [22] It has three investor-owned utilities, all of which are distribution-only; two of them–Eversource Energy and National Grid–cover most of the state. 40 There are also 41 municipal utilities, 41 which are vertically integrated and operate their own municipal light plants. 42 Many state regulations that apply to the investor-owned utilities do not apply to the municipal utilities. [22] Next, it looks specifically at how these states have incentivized their electric utilities to simultaneously pursue goals for emissions reduction and for renewable energy deployment, affordability, and reliability. [22] The renewable energy power generation facility must be able to generate power steadily and efficiently over the Procurement Period and conform to other standards provided for by the METI Ordinance. [23] The 2015 Long-Term Energy Supply and Demand Outlook by METI aims to have power sourced by renewable energy at 22-24% of total power generation in Japan by 2030. [23] The government is currently trying to increase the amount of power sourced by renewable energy. [23] The government also supports development of large-scale energy storage systems for power generated by renewable sources. [23] The RECs represent the legal proof that the energy comes from solar, an important factor for commercial customers that wish to represent they use renewable energy in their business. [24] The effects of these pieces of legislation are clear: Since 2006, California has significantly reduced its use of coal for electricity; 85 greenhouse gas emissions have been declining since 2007, even while the state?s gross domestic product has increased significantly; 86 and in 2017, 41 percent of the state?s electricity generation came from solar, hydro, wind, and geothermal energy. 87 In recent years, California has continued to set forward-looking targets. [22] These renovations suggest an important point: reducing energy use doesn?t require us to tear down our homes and start over. [24]

California also has a history of clean energy standards driven by the California Legislature; in fact, the state recently passed one of the most aggressive clean energy standards in the country. [22] This post discusses some of the specific changes to the IECC?s commercial building provisions that are likely to impact the Illinois Energy Code. [11] The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) also has some jurisdiction over environmental issues, such as agricultural greenhouse gases and renewable energy from biomass. [23] Costs incurred by the utility in purchasing renewable energy-sourced electricity must be transferred to all electricity customers, who pay the surcharge for renewable energy in proportion to their electricity usage. [23] When energy can be stored, the excess electricity produced from renewable resources during ideal energy generation conditions can be stored and used during cloudy (in the case of solar energy) or calm (in the case of wind energy) weather conditions. [23] The goals of changing the way utilities are compensated in order to better align compensation with desired outcomes and changing the electricity marketplace so as to encourage more distributed energy resources put New York at the forefront of rethinking the role of electric utilities: how they operate, how they are regulated, and how policymakers can ensure they are best serving customers? interests. [22] Rather than utilities having a monopoly on generating and supplying electricity to their customers, there is a competitive electricity supply market; utilities are required to allow customers to shop for electricity from energy service companies. [22] Because solar photovoltaic and wind power generation is affected by weather, energy storage is important for managing volatility in electricity production. [23]

Plans are made to dedicate more federal land to energy development, utilizing untapped shale, oil, natural gas, and coal reserves found within the national parks. [25] The primary findings and recommendations include maintaining PREC as a strong, independent, and technocratic regulatory commission that is empowered to ensure PREPA meets its energy goals; increasing efforts and investment to integrate low-cost clean energy sources into the island?s electric grid; and transitioning to a performance-based regulation system that will increase accountability at PREPA to prioritize affordability, reliability, and emissions reductions. [22] Colorado Energy Office, “Colorado C-PACE,” available at https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/energyoffice/colorado-c-pace (last accessed August 2018). [22] Energy Outreach Colorado, “Bill Payment Assistance,” available at https://www.energyoutreach.org/programs-for-individuals/bill-payment-assistance/ (last accessed September 2018). [22]

The National Environmental Policy Act is created “to assure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that significantly affects the environment.” [25] Despite the widespread use of the practice, and the risks hydraulic fracturing poses to human health and safe drinking water supplies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) does not regulate the injection of fracturing fluids under the Safe Drinking Water Act. [12] The Air Quality Control Act states that the Minister must set standards for gasoline in compliance with the MOE standards. [23] Based on the Act, the government has established the Basic Environment Plan, and has also established environmental quality standards with regard to air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, and noise. [23] Emission standards for automobiles have been established by the relevant ministries under the Air Pollution Control Act and the Road Transport Vehicle Act. [23]

The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) becomes the primary law governing marine fisheries management in U.S. federal waters. [25] Japan’s Basic Environment Act articulates the country’s basic policies regarding environmental conservation. [23]

Under the Act, the national government establishes a basic policy to harmonize promotion of power generation from renewable sources and the sound development of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. [23] Under the Act on Rational Use and Proper Management of Fluorocarbons (Fluorocarbons Management Act), the government takes measures for the “rational use” of fluorocarbons and the “proper management” of fluorocarbons used in specified products in order to control fluorocarbon emissions into the atmosphere. [23] The use, management, and disposal of fluorocarbons are strictly regulated by the Fluorocarbons Management Act, the Home Appliances Recycling Law, and the Automobile Recycling Law. [23] The Fracking Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act (FRAC Act), would close the Halliburton loophole and require oil and gas companies to disclose the chemicals they use during the fracking process. [12] The Act establishes measures for controlling the manufacture of, reducing emissions from, and rationalizing the use of specified substances that deplete the ozone layer. [23] The Ozone Layer Protection Act obligates persons who use specified substances to endeavor to reduce their emissions and rationalize the use of specified substances. [23]

Under the Air Pollution Control Act, the Minister of Environment may prescribe maximum permissible limits for the properties of automobile fuel, or maximum permissible limits for the quantity of substances contained in automobile fuel, in order to keep emissions from automobiles below the permissible limits. [23] Air pollution: greenhouse gases: California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, A.B. 32, Ch. 488 (September 27, 2006), available at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/05-06/bill/asm/ab_0001-0050/ab_32_bill_20060927_chaptered.pdf. [22]

Gaylord Nelson Jr., a senator of Wisconsin, initiates the Outdoor Recreation Act Program (ORAP), which includes a one-cent tax on cigarettes that generates $50 million for acquiring one million acres of state land for recreation and preservation. [25] In the year since the Sierra Club first petitioned the SCC to take action under the Affiliates Act, the case for regulatory scrutiny has only grown stronger. [24] The Supreme Court had the opportunity to hold Dominion accountable courtesy of Section 56-77(A) of the Virginia Code, known as the Affiliates Act. [24] In 1997, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit (Atlanta) ordered the EPA to regulate hydraulic fracturing under the Safe Drinking Water Act. [12] Just as the Trump administration’s rollback of protections at Bears Ears and Grand Staircase-Escalante weakened the monument standard set out under the Antiquities Act, making exceptions to the Roadless Rule is a slippery slope. [26] Learn about different jurisdictional building permit requirements, and stay up-to-date on the Americans with Disabilities Act and local accessibility standards. [11] ?????????????????????????, Act No. 64 of 2001, amended by Act No. 39 of 2013, art. 1, http://www.japaneselawtranslation. go.jp/law/detail_main?re02&ia03&ph&vm02&id2848, archived at https://perma.cc/2E96-52VL. [23] Known as the Ratepayer Protection Act, or S.B. 2939, it directs Hawaii?s Public Utilities Commission to establish financial incentives and penalties for utilities based on meeting certain targets–that is, tying utility revenues to performance. [22]

The measure–full name: the 2001 Roadless Area Conservation Rule –established that some parts of the National Forest System should not allow road construction, timber harvesting and other development. [26] Alaska Sen. Lisa Murkowski?s has introduced riders to the 2018 Senate Interior Appropriations bill would exempt Alaska?s two national forests, the Tongass National Forest and Chugach National Forest, from the 2001 Roadless Area Conservation Rule. [26]

A historic set of agreements are signed: the Convention on Climate Change, which targets industrial and other emissions of greenhouse gases; and the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first global agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. [25] The Ministry of the Environment (MOE) plays a central role in the government’s environmental conservation policy. [23] Environmental Conservation Policy of the Government and the Task of the Ministry of the Environment, MOE (Feb. 2006), http://www.env.go.jp/en/aboutus/pamph/html/00pan040.html, archived at https://perma.cc/7J3T-AWTN. [23]

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has jurisdiction over energy efficiency, renewable energy (especially solar photovoltaic power), and global warming. [23] Columbia Center on Global Energy Policy, “Carlos Torres – Restoring Power in Puerto Rico,” Columbia Energy Exchange, September 10, 2018, available at http://energypolicy.columbia.edu/carlos-torres-restoring-power-puerto-rico. [22]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(26 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (52) Building a Better Energy Future in Puerto Rico – Center for American Progress

2. (32) Regulation of Air Pollution

3. (31) Federal Register :: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps

4. (27) Energy policy of the United States – Wikipedia

5. (18) PA Bulletin, Doc. No. 18-1524>

6. (11) Power for the People VA | Virginia energy policy made interesting

7. (11) PA Environment Digest Blog: Sen. McGarrigle Introduces Update To Act 129 Energy Conservation Plan Program For Electric Utilities

8. (10) Nevada Question 3, Legislature to Minimize Regulations on the Energy Market and Eliminate Legal Energy Monopolies Amendment (2018) – Ballotpedia

9. (7) Act Now For Alaskas Roadless Areas | Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Partnership

10. (6) Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy | Department of Energy

11. (6) Endangered Species – Timeline: Conservation Milestones – The Whatcom Museum

12. (6) United States Environmental Protection Agency – Wikipedia

13. (5) The Halliburton Loophole – Earthworks

14. (5) Secretary of the Board.

15. (5) Policy News: September 7, 2018 | EcoTone: news and views on ecological science

16. (3) Product Testing Services – BEE Certification Services Service Provider from New Delhi

17. (3) Building Permits & Code Compliance Blog | Burnham Nationwide | Chicago

18. (3) Do you think a road belongs in this forest? | Wilderness.org

19. (3) Bureau of Energy Efficiency BEE Painting Competition 2018 for School Children [Prizes worth upto Rs 50 Lakhs]: Submit by Oct 26 – NoticeBard

20. (2) Towards a smart and sustainable residential energy culture: assessing participant feedback from a long-term smart grid pilot project | SpringerLink

21. (2) Key Senate Panel Passes Heller?s Pershing County Lands Bill – Press Releases – News – United States Senator Dean Heller

22. (2) Power Ministry launches ambitious program on energy efficiency in Chillers – EQ Intl Magazine

23. (1) Carper wins Democratic primary in Del. U.S. Senate race

24. (1) Ben Nelson, former Senator for Nebraska – GovTrack.us

25. (1) Upcoming On Tour Events – Wild & Scenic Film Festival

26. (1) The U.S. Government Engagement in Global Health: A Primer 2018 – Appendices – 8408-04 | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation