World Coal Production By Country

World Coal Production By Country
World Coal Production By Country Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_companies_of_Pakistan
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Columbian coal may have been cheap when you considered the project, but assuming World coal output peaks in 2028 to 2030, one would expect the price of coal will rise, as a Coal to liquids project depends on coal as an input, a rising price of coal will increase the cost of the CTL barrels produced to something higher than $120/b.(More…)
  • World cumulative coal production up to 2017 was 375 billion metric tons.(More…)
  • Some of the country’s largest mines, including those owned by Arch Coal Inc., Cloud Peak Energy Inc. and Blackjewel LLC, reported declines in production in that period.(More…)
  • Low natural gas prices, warmer-than-normal temperatures during the 2015-16 winter that reduced electricity demand, the retirements of some coal-fired generators, and lower international coal demand have contributed to declining U.S. coal production.(More…)
  • In 2012, the level of production in the country reached 354.8 million tons, 80% of which accounted for energy coal, and the rest – for coking one.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Energy demand in China continues to increase, with electric demand roughly doubled to 2013, 5 The demand for coal in China had increased so fast, demand had exceed production due to factors such as a government crackdown on mines that are unsafe, polluting, or wasteful.(More…)
  • The average price of U.S. coal imports during secondquarter 2018 was $82.95 per short ton.(More…)
  • A large portion of Norway’s gas output is also produced as a byproduct from oil production, which suggests that the benign scenario will almost certainly depend on oil prices remaining sufficiently elevated ($80 +?)(More…)
  • North American energy demand already peaked in 2014, and U.S. energy companies will increasingly rely on exports to ship out its oil and gas production.(More…)
  • Overall, 92.1% of its gas output and 83.8% of its oil production comes from its home country, which makes it a crucial supplier of China’s energy needs. That’s worth noting, since the country is currently the second-largest oil consumer and third-largest gas market.(More…)

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KEY TOPICS

Columbian coal may have been cheap when you considered the project, but assuming World coal output peaks in 2028 to 2030, one would expect the price of coal will rise, as a Coal to liquids project depends on coal as an input, a rising price of coal will increase the cost of the CTL barrels produced to something higher than $120/b. [1] By comparison, the world coal reserves at the end of 2017 were 1.04 trillion metric tons (BP 2018). [1] In 2017, rest of the world produced 1,180 million metric tons of coal, accounting for 15 percent of the world coal production (in term of metric tons). [1] World coal production is projected to peak in 2028 at 8,417 million metric tons and decline to 6,101 million metric tons by 2050. [1]

This will be equivalent to 18 percent of the world coal production in 2017. [1]

Situation B: Should the average sales price for German hard coal be higher than the average sales price for imported hard coal, then only the difference between the production costs and the average sales price for German hard coal may be compensated by BAFA. The price calculated by BAFA for hard coal imported from third countries reflects the world market price for hard coal. [2] EURACOAL page 12 of 31 17 August 2018 Figure 8 – World steam coal demand projections, Mtce Source: IEA, Coal 2017 Analysis and forecasts to 2022 The expected growth in demand for coal should be met by an increase in production in such countries as China, India, Colombia and the Russian Federation. [2]

The United Kingdom was ranked as the 24th coal producing country in the world in 2010, with a total production of 18.2 million tonnes. [3]

At current production levels, proven coal reserves are estimated to last 147 years. 13 However, production levels are by no means level, and are in fact increasing and some estimates are that peak coal could arrive in many countries such as China and America by around 2030. [3] The graph sourced from a BP Statistical Review of World Energy shows peak coal in 2013, with production dropping year by year from there. [3] Figure 7 – World coal supply and demand Source: IHS McCloskey 2.2.World coal supply and demand projections High oil and gas prices over the last three years have created confidence in the continuing growth of coal demand around the world. [2]

World cumulative coal production up to 2017 was 375 billion metric tons. [1] The U.S. Energy Information Administration projects that the U.S. coal production will stabilize in the coming years and production will be around 670 million metric tons by 2050 (EIA 2018, Reference Case, Table A1). [1] Applying Hubbert linearization to the annual production to cumulative production ratios implied by the projected U.S. coal production from 2041 to 2050, the U.S. ultimately recoverable coal resources are estimated to be 189.5 billion metric tons and the remaining recoverable coal resources are estimated to be 113.1 billion metric tons. [1] The U.S. cumulative coal production up to 2017 was 76.4 billion metric tons (cumulative production up to 1980 is from Rutledge 2011, extended to 2017 using annual production data from BP 2018). [1]

Indonesia?s cumulative coal production from 1981 to 2017 was 5.3 billion tons of oil equivalent (Indonesia?s cumulative coal production before 1981 is assumed to be zero). [1] South Africa?s cumulative coal production up to 2017 was 10.3 billion metric tons. [1] Sources: Africa?s cumulative coal production up to 1980 is from Rutledge (2011), which is assumed to be South Africa?s cumulative coal production up to 1980 and extended to other years using South Africa?s annual production data from BP (2018). [1]

They have desirable features in distributing the gains from improved of terms of trade that accrue to fossil fuel producing countries: countries that implement coal taxes keep the revenue from their own taxes, thus creating an incentive to levy the tax rather than an incentive to cheat on agreements for OPEC-style production quotas. [3] The country?s thirst for coal is reflected by the level of production, as 44.6% of the global production share. [3] Russia ranked as the fifth largest coal producing country in 2010, with a total production of 316.9 Mt. [3]

All over the world, countries which import coal, whether they produce coal domestically or not, need to respond to international prices. [2] Coal importing countries all over the world are moving towards more dynamic pricing, and even very conservative societies such as Japan are reducing their dependence on long-term contracts and buying more coal at spot prices. [2] South Africa is one of the ten largest coal producing countries 53 54 and the fourth largest coal exporting country 55 in the world. [3] In June, Carbon Brief noted the number of coal units in the world could already have peaked, as countries including China phase out older, smaller units. [3]

Coal reserves are available in almost every country worldwide, with recoverable reserves in around 70 countries. [3] The United States was ranked as the second highest coal producing country in the world in 2010, and possesses the largest coal reserves in the world. [3]

The American share of world coal production remained steady at about 20 percent from 1980 to 2005, at about 1 billion short tons per year. [3] Figure 4 – Steam coal production, net imports and supply in Ukraine, 1990 to 2016 Source: IEA World Coal Supply database, OECD International Energy Agency, Paris, accessed 9 August 2018. [2] An overview of world coal production (supply) and consumption (demand) in Section 2 aims to show the Ukrainian coal industry in the broader context of an enormous, global coal industry that is set to grow even bigger. [2] Most coal seams are too deep underground for opencast mining and require underground mining, a method that currently accounts for about 60 percent of world coal production. 5 In deep mining, the room and pillar or bord and pillar method progresses along the seam, while pillars and timber are left standing to support the mine roof. [3] World coal production increased by 105 million tonnes of oil equivalent or 3.2%, the fastest rate of growth since 2011. [3]

South Africa?s coal production peaked in 2014 at 262 million metric tons and is projected to decline to 110 million metric tons by 2050. [1] In 1988, Russia?s coal production reached the Soviet-era peak of 440 million metric tons. [1] Rest of the world?s coal production peaked in 1987 at 1,945 million metric tons. [1] By 2050, China?s coal production will fall to 1,968 million metric tons. [1] India?s coal production is projected to rise to 1,426 million metric tons by 2050. [1] Australia?s coal production is projected to peak in 2032 at 589 million metric tons. [1] Australia?s cumulative coal production up to 2017 was 14.2 billion metric tons. [1] China?s cumulative coal production up to 2017 was 82.1 billion metric tons (cumulative production up to 1980 is from Rutledge 2011, extended to 2017 using annual production data from BP 2018). [1]

Sources: Rest of the world?s cumulative coal production up to 1980 is calculated using data from Rutledge (2011); cumulative production ending in other years is calculated using annual production data reported by BP (2018). [1] To project Indonesia?s coal production, I used a logistic curve assuming the ultimately recoverable resources are the sum of cumulative production and official reserves. [1] Russia?s annual coal production to cumulative coal production ratios have been rising in recent years, making it impossible to apply Hubbert linearization. [1] Sources: India?s historical coal production from 1950 to 1980 is from Rutledge (2011); historical production from 1981 to 2017 and historical consumption from 1965 to 2017 is from BP (2018). [1] Sources: Africa?s historical coal production from 1950 to 1980 is from Rutledge (2011), which is assumed to be South Africa?s coal production from 1950 to 1980; South Africa?s annual coal production from 1981 to 2017 is from BP (2017). [1] Sources: Russia?s annual coal production from 1950 to 1984 is assumed to be 68.7 percent of the annual coal production by Rutledge?s “Russia” (Rutledge 2011); Russian?s annual coal production from 1985 to 2017 is from BP (2018). [1] The U.S. coal production fell by 38 percent from 2008 to 2016. [1] With the energy sector to be dominated by renewable energy in the future, coal production of thermal coal might fall much faster. [1] I use cumulative coal production by Rutledge?s “Russia” up to 1950 as Russian Federation?s cumulative coal production up to 1950. [1] Figure 10 projects South Africa?s annual production to cumulative production ratios against the historical cumulative coal production. [1] The parameters from the Hubbert linear trend are used to project South Africa?s future coal production. [1] Figure 4 compares India?s historical and projected coal production and consumption. [1] Figure 5 shows the historical U.S. coal production and the future production projected by EIA. [1] Projected U.S. coal production from 2018 to 2050 is from EIA (2018, Reference Case, Table A1), adjusted to make the projected coal production level in 2017 matching the production level reported by BP (2018). [1] Figure 11 shows South Africa?s historical and projected coal production. [1] From 1950 to 1984, I assume Russia Federation?s annual coal production to be 68.7 percent of the annual coal production of Rutledge?s “Russia”. [1] David Rutledge (2011) defined the coal production region of “Russia” as the former Soviet Union excluding Ukraine but plus Mongolia and North Korea. [1] Sources: Indonesia?s historical coal production from 1980 to 2017 is from BP (2018). [1] In 2011 the Chinese coal production was equivalent to 3,576Mt 0.522 toe /t 11.630MWh/toe 21,709TWh. [4] The parameters from the Hubbert linear trend are used to project the rest of the world?s future coal production. [1] Although China?s coal production may have peaked in 2013, it remains premature to apply Hubbert linearization to China?s coal production as the annual production to cumulative production ratios have not yet settled on a relatively stable downward trend. [1] Figure 12 projects the rest of the world?s annual production to cumulative production ratios against the historical cumulative coal production. [1] Unofficial estimates often estimate death tolls at twice the official number reported by the government. 56 Since 1949 over 250,000 coal mining deaths have been recorded when? 57 However, since 2002, the death toll is gradually declining while the coal production is rapidly rising, doubling over this same period when? [4]

According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, world coal consumption was 3,732 million tons of oil equivalent in 2017. [1] In 2017, the U.S. consumed 332 million tons of oil equivalent, accounting for 8.8 percent of the world coal consumption. [1]

If Rutledge’s estimate of World Coal Resources is correct, then at the end of 2017 we were at 375/78448% of the Ultimate, current consumption is about 7.7 Gt per year, so if consumption were flat we would reach 50% of the Rutledge estimate in 2020. [1] Total world coal consumption last year grew about 1%, which is the average growth for all years since 2006. [1] Between 2007 and 2017, world coal consumption grew at an average annual rate of 0.8 percent. [1] In 2017, world coal consumption grew by 0.7 percent, a rate that is 1.9 percentage points below what is implied by the historical trend. [1] Sources: World coal consumption from 1990 to 2017 is from BP (2018). [1]

World coal supply and demand projections.11 2.3. [2] Spain was ranked as the 30th coal producing country in the world in 2010. [3] World coal supply and trade This section examines the global steam coal market from a supply and demand perspective, and how coal trade leads to price formation in a liquid market. 2.1.Overview of world coal supply and demand The vast majority of the seven billion tonnes of the coal produced globally each year is consumed in the country in which it was produced. [3]

The import parity price therefore provides an appropriate and correct indication of the price of alternative coal to Ukraine. ? Many countries with domestic coal production and a net import position use support mechanisms for local producers through subsidies, taxes and price regulation. [2] Countries whose domestic coal production is in managed decline have used European benchmark prices as the best indicator of the relevant price for the equivalent commodity. [2] The six largest countries by coal production in 2015 as determined by the U.S. Energy Information Agency. [3]

EURACOAL page 13 of 31 17 August 2018 Figure 9 – World steam coal production projections, Mtce Source: IEA, Coal 2017 Analysis and forecasts to 2022 2.3.World coal trade and prices Seaborne coal trade is based around two major basins: the Pacific and the Atlantic. [2] Coal mining in the United Kingdom probably dates to Roman times ; coal production increased significantly during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and peaked during World War I. In terms of proportion of production exported, Australia is the world’s second largest coal exporter, as it exports roughly 73% of its coal production. [3]

Most coal production is used in the country of origin, with around 16 percent of hard coal production being exported. [3] That’s about a 10 percent increase in China’s coal production capacity, which is a stark contrast to the country’s talk about closing coal mines to reduce excess capacity and fight air pollution, according to Bloomberg. [5]

Coal production in the U.S. is at its lowest level since 1978, falling 18 percent from 2015 to 739 million short tons (MMst) in 2016, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). [6] Based on U.S. coal production in 2016 of about 0.73 billion short tons, the recoverable coal reserves would last about 348 years, and recoverable reserves at producing mines would last about 23 years. [3] According to figures from the International Energy Agency, global coal production rose 3% on the year to 7.55 billion tons in 2017. [7]

Some of the country’s largest mines, including those owned by Arch Coal Inc., Cloud Peak Energy Inc. and Blackjewel LLC, reported declines in production in that period. [8] The choice of Katowice was made to showcase the successful modernization of this old coal region, but it will also highlight the difficulties shared by coal-dependent countries around the world, writes Anna Mikulska of the Kleinmann Center for Energy Policy. [9]

Low natural gas prices, warmer-than-normal temperatures during the 2015-16 winter that reduced electricity demand, the retirements of some coal-fired generators, and lower international coal demand have contributed to declining U.S. coal production. [6] It calculates global steam coal production, trade, and prices as well as CO2 emissions from coal consumption. [3] Utilize our interactive maps to get a bird’s eye view of global coal imports and exports, or explore the interconnections between U.S. coal production, consumption, generation and transportation. [3]

As a result of the ongoing conflict in the East of the country, coal mines have been lost and production has fallen such that imports are now required to balance demand, as shown in Figure 4. [2] The coal industry in European countries is expected to gradually decline, thus reducing production volumes. [2]

Box 1 – Selling price of subsidised coal in Germany German hard coal production is structurally uncompetitive, with high production costs reflecting the great depth (up to 1 500 metres) from which coal has been recovered by the country?s only hard coal mining company, RAG AG. In 2011, the European Commission agreed the German government?s plan to close all the remaining hard coal mines by 31 December 2018. [2] LONDON (Reuters) Half of Poland?s electricity generation will come from coal by 2040 though coal production should remain at current levels as energy demand is expected to increase, a senior government official said on Tuesday. [10] The International Energy Agency places China on the first rank for coal production. [3] To fuel the highly ambitious goal of the nation, of achieving a coal production level of 1,500,000 tons by 2020, a hike in the domestic coal production is necessitated. [3] Coal production is a major contributor to global warming : burning coal generates large quantities of carbon dioxide and mining operations can release methane, a known greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. [3] Output of the mine in 2004 was 24.9 million tons (compared to total global hard coal production of 4,600 million tons). [3] Coal production and coal-fired electricity generation are closely tied since nearly all coal produced in the U.S. used to generate electricity. [6] Brian: Do the coal production figures you quote thermal only or do they include metallurgical coal and other coal products that are not used for power production. [3] Shortwall mining, a method currently accounting for less than 1 percent of deep coal production, involves the use of a continuous mining machine with movable roof supports, similar to longwall. [3] That helped to increase U.S. coal production by 6 percent in 2017. [11] U.S. coal production in 2016 totaled 743 MMst, 17 percent lower than in 2015, and the lowest level since 1978, according to the EIA. Falling production in 2016 continued an eight-year decline from peak production in 2008. [6]

There is a two-page outline of the overall project here written back in 2016 which recognised that holding the increase in global temperature to well below 2C and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5C would require the early phase-out of both coal production and consumption. [3] The global share of the coal giant China, has also led to a surge in the global coal production levels. [3] In August it raised the national coal production target for this year by 100 million tons to 585 million tons. [7] On page 38 is a table for coal production, country-by-country, region-by-region, and globally, for years 2007 through to 2017 inclusive. [3] It is mostly used to generate electricity, and 75% of annual coal production is exported, mostly to eastern Asia. [3] Global coal production reached an overall peak in 2013 (3978.9 Mtoe), declined in 2014 (3966.4 Mtoe) and substantially further in 2015 (3862.1 Mtoe), and has grown in 2016 (3663.5 Mtoe) and 2017 (3768.6 Mtoe), but still below the peak in 2013. [3]

According to the World Coal Association, the global network for the coal industry, coal remains a key commodity across the planet, despite the demand for cleaner energy sources. [3] During the 1st Plan period, the need for increasing coal production efficiently by systematic and scientific development of the coal industry was being felt. [3] Given the massive drop in the value of the Ukrainian currency, the hryvnia (UAH), as a result of the conflict, the dollar cost of most privately owned Ukrainian coal production is internationally competitive (Figure 5). [2]

In 2012, the level of production in the country reached 354.8 million tons, 80% of which accounted for energy coal, and the rest – for coking one. [12]

Introduction This report offers an analysis of world coal markets and best practice for coal producers and importers to remain competitive. [2] Ten countries presented in our article are the biggest coal producers in the world. [12] The country ranks sixth among the largest exporters of coal in the world. [12]

Running 12-month coal production totals for the period ending in the second quarter were lower in three of the four largest coal-producing regions in the country. [8] The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. coal production, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, quality, stocks, and refined coal. [13] U.S. coal production during secondquarter 2018 totaled 180.8 million short tons, which was 3.7% lower than the previous quarter and 3.4% lower than secondquarter 2017. [13]

In the year 2017, the global coking coal market was growing due to increase in steel production, rapid urbanization all over the world and increase in the GDP of economies. [14] Coal production in Australia, particularly coking coal, is dominated by global mining companies which include BHP Billiton, Anglo American and Rio Tinto. [14] The company expects China, Australia and Indonesia to gradually lose their global market share of coking coal production to Russia, India and Mongolia. [15] Poland?s coal production has fallen significantly in recent years (Figure 1). [9] Total U.S. coal production fell for the third quarter in a row, according to an analysis of the most recent federal data. [8] The extensive demand and production of steel gave an upswing to coking coal production. [14]

American coal production dropped 27 percent between 2011 and 2016, with the combined value of the country’s four biggest coal companies falling from $33 billion to $150 million. [16] In this country, the coal production has been a key activity almost thirty years. [12]

Coal production declined following World War I, but underground (deep) mining remained the primary mining method in Indiana until the 1940s. [17] For 2012-2013, the level of its production amounted to 922 million tons, equal to 13% of the world’s coal production. [12] European settlers began to use coal in the late 1740s and as immigration to the U.S. grew and energy demand increased, coal production quickly climbed from 9.3 million tons in 1850 to 750 million in 1918. [17] Coal and natural gas exports are up for the first half of the year, even as both coal production and consumption have fallen, the Energy Department said Monday. [18] The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts that while coal production will fall one percent in 2018, exports will surge 10 percent above 2017. [18] U.S. coal production dropped 37% in the last 10 years, from over 1.2 billion to about 800 million tons in 2017, cutting the number of coal mines. [17] In 2013, the level of coal production reached about 3.7 billion tons, which is 47% of the global volume of coal mining. [12] One of the High Tech Mines of India, which uses “Surface Miner? for coal production thus eliminating drilling and blasting. [19] In Indonesia, coal production accounts for 44% of electricity. [12] Jharkhand holds first position in coal production as well as coal reserves in India. [19]

The country also ranks third in terms of coal consumption in the world. [12] Through Coal Country movie, Phylis Geller and the production crews could deliver the perfect balance of the economic and environmental points. [20]

Coal India Limited (CIL) is the largest coal producer in the world, and dominates coal production in India. [21] Mining in Limpopo represents about 13% of South Africa?s total mining sales, with South Africa?s overall coal production totalling 252 million tonnes produced in 2017, with total coal sales of R130 billion. [22] It produces about 15 per cent of the total coal production of India. [23]

During Bekri’s NEA tenure, China built up strategic petroleum reserves as its crude output tumbled amid the crash in prices, assembled the world’s largest array of renewable energy generation, started cutting outdated coal production capacity and pushed homes and factories to switch to natural gas. [24] It was predicted to end anywhere from 25 to 50 percent of Wyoming coal production. [25]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Energy demand in China continues to increase, with electric demand roughly doubled to 2013, 5 The demand for coal in China had increased so fast, demand had exceed production due to factors such as a government crackdown on mines that are unsafe, polluting, or wasteful. [4] The consumption of coal is largely in power production, aside from this, there is a lot of industry and manufacturing use along with a comparatively very small amount of domestic use. [4] Under the projections, India?s net coal imports (consumption less production) will rise from 316 million metric tons in 2017, to 391 million tons in 2020, 665 million tons in 2030, 1,010 million tons in 2040, and 1,396 million tons in 2050. [1] It is rich in low-sulfur steam coal. 17 Mines in Inner Mongolia are rapidly expanding production, with 637 million tons produced in 2009. [4]

“China’s Jizhong Energy mines 31 million mt of coal, up 10% on year”. [4] On the renewable energy front, the latest statistics from the web site, China Energy Portal, 2018 Q2 Electricity and energy statistics, show year on year growth for the quarter in question at 28.6% for wind and 24.5% for solar versus 8% for coal. [1] In 2012, industrial conglomerate China Wanxiang Holdings signed a $1.25 billion deal with American company GreatPoint Energy to build a large-scale plant using GreatPoint’s catalytic hydromethanation process of coal gasification. [4]

What price for coal is assumed for that $120/b oil scenario? When coal peaks its price will rise, if it’s being used to produce oil, it is likely to drive up consumption and peak sooner. [1] Globally, PPAs are being entered into for electricity from solar in a diverse set of jurisdictions at prices lower than those at which any coal powered plant can compete. [1] The U.S. has a lot of older coal plants near their operational life that will probably not be updated due to environmental law, natural gas competition and impending renewable energy competition. [1]

It is believed that a continued increase in coal power in China may undermine international initiatives to decrease carbon emissions such as the Kyoto Protocol, which called for a decrease of 483million tons by 2012. [4] China became a net importer of coal in 2008. 29 In 2006, its exports exceeded imports by 25.1million tons, but only by 2million tons in 2007. [4] As of the end of 2014, China had 62 billion tons of anthracite and 52 billion tons of lignite quality coal. [4] Given these projections, India?s coal demand will rise to about 1.2 billion tons of oil equivalent by 2050. [1] I think the likelihood of India?s coal demand rising to about 1.2 billion tons of oil equivalent by 2050 is highly unlikely just based on those factors alone. [1]

The unrelenting rise in demand for electricity has meant the continued construction of new coal fired power plants despite the rapid fall of coal in the energy mix. [4]

In 2003, the death rate per million tons of coal mined in China was 130 times higher than in the United States, 250 times higher than in Australia (open cast mines) and 10 times higher than the Russian Federation (underground mines). [4] For instance, the country built new ultra- supercritical coal plants (~44%efficiency) before the United States. 62 Chinas coal fleet has currently (2017) an average efficiency of 38.6% compared to the USA with 37.4%. 63. [4] The report says that at present China has 993 gigawatts of coal power capacity, but the approved new plants would increase this by 25%.” [1] American Electric Power (AEP) will retire its 680 MW Oklaunion coal plant in 2020 because it cannot compete with cheaper power from gas and renewables, the utility announced Thursday. [1]

Because of the remoteness of the southwestern Virginia coal fields from the industrial markets of the northeast, full-scale development did not begin there until 1882 (Hibbard, 1990), much later than the first production of Pennsylvania anthracite (fig 4). [1] By comparison, the U.S. coal reserves at the end of 2017 were reported to be 250.9 billion metric tons (BP 2018). [1] Make no mistake- we would need hundreds of billions of PV units to replace current coal and oil consumption. [1] Well, I surely hope you are correct, and that the many (hundreds of) billions of PV units that will be needed to offset depleting coal, oil and nat gas over the next 50 yrs won’t be placed on fertile spots where once green things did flourish. [1]

Other commentators have pointed out that China has been taking a role as a leader in making use of coal as an electricity source more clean and responsible. [4] China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and is the largest user of coal-derived electricity. [4] Coal for electricity generation is facing serious headwinds in all four of the world’s largest producers. [1]

“The mass of coal being mined wouldn?t be as high, but if you get more value per ton of coal, then it can still work out.?? [1] Fees from the power plant and the nearby mine that supplies its coal make up roughly a third of the Nation?s operating budget each year, Begaye said. [1] Since coal capacity is usually between 55% and 75% of nameplate capacity then China’s coal power alone is greater than the total power to run the U.S. That was the point of the comparison. [1] China’s first coal-fired power station employing the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), which is a coal gasification process that turns coal into a gas before burning it, is planned to begin operations in 2009 at Tianjin near Beijing. [4] Coal power is distributed by the State Power Grid Corporation. [4]

Area energy density of coal is about 0.015 w/m2 since it distributed across the globe and uses the whole globe as a toilet. [1] Even though the anthracite resource remaining in the ground is substantial, the complex geologic structure, steep terrain, and early mining of the thicker and more accessible blocks of coal preclude the use of modern mechanized equipment underground. [1]

I looked at it for a couple of places, and its possible to build a heavy oil residue plus pulverized coal plant with a natural gas supply for hydrogenating products. [1] On July 6, 2008 in central and northern China, 2.5% of the nation’s coal plants (58units or 14,020MW of capacity) had to shut down due to coal shortages. [4]

One case i can comment on is the Colombian coal delivered to Santa Marta for loading on barges (i cant remember the price). [1] Asia’s coal demand is likely to continue in the coming years. [1] Make no mistake- we would need hundreds of billions of PV units to replace current coal and oil consumption.” [1] If in-situ coal gasification were to become viable, the energy contribution would be huge. [1] AGL Energy, Australia?s biggest coal generation company, said on Wednesday there would be no change in strategic direction following the abrupt, and still unexplained departure of CEO Andy Vesey, and said its announced coal closures were not about ideology, but an operational decision. [1] Assuming the same caloric value for the imported coal the net coal energy available would be evaluated as 22,784 TWh. [4]

Part II: China’s Coal Future, “To prevent massive pollution and slow its growing contribution to global warming, China will need to make advanced coal technology work on an unprecedented scale.” [4] In addition to environmental and health costs at home, China’s dependence on coal is cause for concern on a global scale. [4]

On the other side is Peabody Coal, which supplies the plant with its fuel; the Department of Interior, which owns a 25% share of NGS; and the Navajo Nation, which derives a significant portion of its budgets from plant lease payments and relies on the plant for employment. [1] In 2007 the use of coal and biomass (collectively referred to as solid fuels) for domestic purposes was nearly ubiquitous in rural households but declining in urban homes. [4] For coal and other fossil fuel resources I expect lower estimates are probably more accurate especially as solar, wind, hydro and nuclear resources are ramped up as fossil fuels peak and become more costly. [1]

He turned to a man he saw as a natural ally, newly inaugurated President Trump, who campaigned on promises to bring back coal and return power to people outside Washington. [1] In the U.S., coal for electricity is being walloped by natural gas and increasingly by wind and solar with storage to complement wind and solar growing strongly. [1] Coal powered capacity is correctly stated in TW but, “total consumption” is usually stated in TWh. [1] One of the most coal addicted countries on Earth is Australia. [1] Assuming imported coal equal to domestic one, available coal (IEA) was about 17,000 TWh in 2008 and 22,800 TWh in 2011, with increase of 5,800 TWh in three years. [4] The United States is the world?s third largest coal producer. [1] Rest of the world is defined as the world total excluding the seven largest coal producers. [1]

Denis, in one case we assumed we would mine the coal as part of a huge proyect. [1] I was looking at an option to ship Venezuela crude, blend a bit of Rubiales and Castilla, get the still bottoms mixed with coal and run that mess through a syncrude plant. [1] This happened because of a decentralisation programme that shifted authority over coal plant construction approvals to local authorities. [1] While not directly attributable, many more deaths are resultant from dangerous emissions from coal plants. [4]

These were the three U.S. projects cited in the Wikipedia Coal Gasification piece. [1] The coal powered capacity of the U.S. would make for a better comparison. [1]

Virginia has three historical mining districts of significance: the Richmond basin of Early Mesozoic age, the Valley coal fields of Mississippian age, and the southwestern coal fields of Pennsylvanian age. [1] Another report saying coal is on its way out and China is looking to the future. [1] They all chime in on bashing Trump for coal, China and sometimes India. [1] There was a surge in new coal projects approved at provincial level in China between 2014 and 2016. [1]

Whats better for a country like Malaysia or the Philippines- burn coal or replace farmland or forest with PV lots? Note- these places do not have big areas of wasteland/desert for lower impact PV lots like the Gobi. [1] China’s installed coal-based electrical capacity was 907 GW, or 77% of the total electrical capacity, in 2014. 22 23 The dominant technology in the country is coal pulverization in lieu of the more advanced and preferred coal gasification. [4]

Same period from 2005 to 2008 annual coal use increased 3,341 TWh. [4] Coal for domestic use (honeycomb briquettes) being transported by use of a tricycle, 1997. [4] For the case of coal, this is likely to include losses, own use, gains, or liquefaction. [4]

While Mitsubishi doesn?t disclose its proprietary process, Eddings is trying to replicate the results using Utah coal in hopes of driving down costs, which so far have prevented many manufacturers from using the material. [1] Only the latter, which is an extension of the great Pennsylvanian coal fields of the Appalachian Plateaus into the southwestern corner of Virginia, is of any current economic significance to the State. [1] However the safety figures in the major state owned coal enterprises were significantly better. [4]

The Russian Federation is the world?s sixth largest coal producer. [1] Perhaps the greatest potential for coal now is in carbon fiber already widely used in aircraft and high-cost luxury items, said Eric Eddings, a scientist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. [1] In rural areas coal is still permitted to be used by Chinese households, commonly burned raw in unvented stoves. [4]

For mature regions the coal URR has a median value that is about 21% of the early reported reserves and at t90 output was about 50% of peak output. [1] New coal power plants have a set date of the beginning of 2012 and for old power plants by mid-2014. [4] The technology converts coal into natural gas and enables the recovery of contaminants in coal, petroleum coke and biomass as useful byproducts. [4]

While U.S. coal demand has been declining since 2013, U.S. coal exports increased 61 percent in 2017 to almost 97 million short tons, after having a poor year in 2016, according to the Energy Information Administration. [11] Earlier this year, Poland said it planned to lower the share of coal in its energy production to 60 percent in 2030 and around 50 percent in 2050. [10] The People’s Republic of China is by far the largest producer of coal in the world, producing over 2.8 billion tons of coal in 2007, or approximately 39.8 percent of all coal produced in the world during that year. 9 For comparison, the second largest producer, the United States, produced more than 1.1 billion tons in 2007. [3]

EROI for oil, gas and coal are steadily declining as resource depletion has greater effect, which results in higher extraction costs (and thus higher fuel prices). [3] It features a detailed representation of domestic and international steam coal supply until 2050 and includes endogenous investment decisions in production, land transport, and export capacity, as well as an endogenous mechanism assessing production cost increase due to resource depletion. [3] With the very gradual introduction of a competitive pricing environment in the Japanese electricity sector, buyers started to reduce their dependence on Australian coal, and buy from the abundant production being exported from Indonesia, as well as from the growing export volumes from eastern Russian ports. [2] Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. [3] Production in all major coal regions fell by at least 15 percent. [6]

Coal has come under continued price pressure from natural gas and renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a rapid decline of coal in the U.S. and several notable bankruptcies including Peabody Energy. [3] The successful growth in some countries of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, the widespread availability of natural gas following the successful exploitation of shale gas in the USA and new fields in the North Sea, and the introduction of punitive measures to penalise electricity generation that creates high CO2 emissions, i.e. generation from fossil fuels, has caused a shift in the relative importance of European coal importers. [2] Global experience with coal-pricing systems Different countries have had different mechanisms for purchasing imported coal over the years, depending on a variety of features including the availability of alternatives (such as domestic coal) and the structure of their domestic energy markets. [2] Some countries planning to expand coal generation are hoping the Trump administration will take a pro-coal approach to the 2016 Electrify Africa Act, which set aside funds for energy projects on the continent without specifying a preference for how power is generated. [11] Today, EURACOAL represents twenty-six members from fifteen countries. 1.2.EURACOAL on markets and subsidies In the preamble to the EURACOAL statutes, the European coal and lignite industry states that it wishes “to continue to participate actively in the development of Europe?s energy market by joining forces with other central organisations within the energy sector and with the institutions of the European Union”. [2]

The price of low-volatile coal can be similar to that of steam coal for power generation, depending on demand from the steel industry where low-volatile coal commands a higher price. [2] Electricity demand for coal in Europe is expected to decline due to a lower growth of energy consumption, in general, and extensive gas-trading infrastructure, both for pipeline gas and LNG, which allows coal to be easily substituted. [2] Wind and solar, rather, have become the fossils of the energy industry; oil, gas and coal remain the fuels of the future. [10] Adopted in 2016, this methodology provides owners of thermal power plants with a regulated electricity rate that should enable fair fuel costs (coal, oil and gas) to be passed through to electricity consumers. [2]

For that reason the traditional practice of buying coal at a fixed price under long-term contracts was no longer suitable for power generators trying to sell electricity into a dynamic, competitive market. [2] Power generators using domestic coal are also paid a subsidy directly from the Turkish government in order to support the local industry. 4.8.Summary review of coal pricing systems Seaborne coal has become a very openly traded commodity with almost full price transparency around the globe. [2] Coal exports from Indonesia will be restrained this year, which could frustrate a plan by the government to ease a burgeoning trade deficit while keeping prices elevated, according to an industry group. [10] EURACOAL page 26 of 31 17 August 2018 API 2 reflects the price of coals from many sources delivered to ARA ports (Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Antwerp), so a freight adjustment is required to reflect the delivered cost in Ukraine. [2]

That would be ridiculous! Coal is shipped from producer countries such as Colombia, the USA or South Africa directly to Ukraine, but at a higher transport cost than the more popular routes to northwest Europe. 5.6.Sulphur content of coal API 2 is based on the following quality: steam coal with 6 000 kcal/kg NAR (net as received), sulphur <1% as received. [2] A lack of sufficient gas trading infrastructure and accessible coal reserves in such large, energy- consuming countries as India, China and ASEAN countries, support the expected increase of coal demand in the future. [2] Countries in which coal plays a residual role in the energy mix (or in which shale gas has emerged) are already moving to phase out coal, either by policy choice or with the help of market forces. [26] This analysis of past transitions of mining areas and energy systems in Germany might, however, provide other countries and regions with valuable lessons of how to structure their upcoming coal phase-out period and therefore provides a useful addition to the existing literature. [26] Coal is currently mined in over 50 countries and worldwide the industry directly employs some seven million people. [3] Countries across Asia and Africa are expected to increase their use of coal for expanding power generation through 2040. [11] Coal is likely to remain the most affordable fuel for power generation in many developing and industrialised countries. [3]

If coal is sold at above the market price, then the subsidy is reduced as the power generators effectively then subsidise the coal producer. [2] Later that year, the government facilitated annual term contract negotiations between the largest coal producers and generators with a benchmark price below the prevailing price of imported coal. [2] South African (and to some extent Russian) producers are able to balance their exports between these two markets to realise the best prices for their coal sales. [2] Traditionally, coal was priced annually with the Australian producers in New South Wales (NSW) at what was known as the “reference price” or “benchmark price”. [2] API 8 is the price index for lower grade coal (5 500 kcal/kg NAR) CFR South China assessed by IHS McCloskey, Argus Media and Xinhua Infolink, whilst globalCOAL NEWC is the recognised price index for a standard coal (6 000 kcal/kg NAR) loaded FOB Newcastle, NSW in Australia. [2]

With an expected price increase in gas prices in 2017 and 2018, coal is expected to recover some of the lost share of electricity generation mix. [6] There are no price controls on coal in Japan, but the structure of the electricity supply industry is of interest. [2] SYSTEM RESULT ? during the coal shortage the regulated price was lower than the import price, which led to discrepancies in electricity prices. [2]

U.S. exports of coal more than doubled in 2017 and are set to grow this year, according to the Energy Information Administration. [10] Myanmar?s energy currently comes from hydroelectric (62 per cent), gas (35 per cent) and coal (3 per cent), according to Andrew Lee, Myanmar country leader for GE. That reflects an over-reliance on hydro and and under-reliance on coal, he said. [3] Coal, GE experts say, should be strongly considered to be an integral part of the country?s energy mix because of its reliability, safety, abundance and relatively low cost. [3]

IRENA, Renewable power generation costs in 2017 (for biomass, geothermal and hydro); Lazard, ” Summary findings of Lazard?s 2017 levelized cost of energy analysis ” (for coal and nuclear); CSIS, BNEF?s new energy outlook 2018 ; and GTM, The transformation of solar and the future of energy. [3] The nations have collectively agreed to phase out the existing traditional coal power stations, through climate financing and adopting practical methods in the transition towards the use of clean energy. [3] This captures the world?s expenditure for Primary Energy ($6.4 trillion) $1.60 per kg on average (coal is less as shown, however, liquid fuel, for transport use, by airlines and autos, is more expensive to compete at the level of other transport fuels). [3] While the global share of electricity from natural gas and from renewable energy each has grown since 1998, their generation has substituted for nuclear and petroleum generation in the world market, rather than for coal generation. [11] The collection and reporting of the underlying price data is trusted by market participants around the world and the methodology used is fully specified and properly scrutinised.1 The cost of shipping coal to Ukrainian ports is higher than to the ARA ports. [2] According to the German BAFA price system, aid may only be granted up to a maximum made out of the difference between revenues and costs for steam coal (Verstohmungskohle) and coking coal (Kokskohle), plus closure costs. [2] Figure 21 illustrates the relative prices of steam coal delivered to northwest Europe and loaded on a vessel in South Africa. [2] In mid-2016, the NEURC methodology was implemented to determine the price of coal delivered to power stations based on a marker price for imported coal. [2] The mining region of Silesia is inland, close to the Czech border, meaning the growth of imports has been most noticeable at Poland?s more northern power stations, in some cases owned by foreign companies such as EdF. Power stations closer to the Silesian mines have continued to burn local coal. [2] EURACOAL page 6 of 31 17 August 2018 Figure 1 – German hard coal subsidies are capped so that coal does not appear on the market at prices below (or above) the import parity price The only producer of hard coal in Germany is RAG AG. The company would make a loss if it dumped coal on the market because the subsidy payment is linked to the import parity price. [2] This report explores the options for setting an import parity price and offers a critique of the method chosen by the NEURC. Box 2 – Description of NEURC formula for establishing an import parity price for coal in Ukraine An English translation of the Ukraine government Decree No. 289 of 3 March 2016 that establishes a methodology for calculating the import parity price of coal can be found at Annex 1. [2] There is no regulatory framework to set a discount to the price of coal with a lower sulphur content. ? Ultimately, the largest proportion of coal imports to Ukraine do have a low sulphur content. [2] Arguments against: ? Freight cost to Ukraine is only artificially transparent owing to a lack of coal freight on this route, therefore freight price estimates are applied. [2]

At the same time the coal sector is already facing challenges due to global commodity price reductions, low demand growth domestically, and decreasing competitiveness. [26] Understand the market value of coal in regional and global markets as well as how supply and demand fundamentals are impacting price. [3] Prices are based on real market activity and actual transactions from the global coal derivative market. [3]

Subsidies in the form of operating aid have gradually been phased out and will cease when production of German hard coal ends. [2]

This report uses Hubbert linearization to evaluate a region?s ultimately recoverable coal resources where a Hubbert linear trend can be meaningfully established, that is, where a clear downward trend of the annual production to cumulative production ratios can be identified and has been established for at least several years. [1]

I have suggested that higher oil prices will not necessarily result in a predictable increase in investment and production because these do not operate in isolation. [1] The Philippines plan to convert another 8 million hectares to palm oil production. [1]

Solar cost has also been said to fall by 20% every time cumulative production doubles, but has been falling more quickly in recent years. [1] This report assumes that Russia?s ultimately recoverable coal resources are the sum of historical cumulative production and the official reserves. [1] The historical production curve for anthracite is used herein to illustrate the use of both production decline rates and reserve decline rates to forecast future production (figs. 3A, 3B). [1] In an attempt to measure the extent to which humanity satisfies this requirement, we use existing data to translate human demand on the environment into the area required for the production of food and other goods, together with the absorption of wastes. [1]

You (generic) don’t think modeling future energy production is worth the effort, but you can get all excited about Sebas projections. [1] The next issue I observed was his support for legacy fossil fuel industries, while lashing the Chinese for not respecting intellectual property, subsidising industry and “dumping” subsidised production on world markets. [1]

Air pollution in China kills 750,000 people every year, according to a study by the World Bank. 33 Issued in response to record-high levels of air pollution in 2012 and 2013, the State Council?s September 2013 Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution reiterated the need to reduce coal?s share in China?s energy mix to 65% by 2017. 34 Amidst growing public concern, social unrest incidents are growing around the country. [4] The National Development and Reform Commission, which determines the energy policy of China, aims to keep China’s coal consumption below 3.8 billion metric tonnes per annum. [4] Encouraging but far from being enough! Still, it is little incremental changes such as this that give me hope that countries such as China and India will fall far short of future coal consumption projections by the energy experts. [1] China’s energy consumption is mostly driven by the industry sector, the majority of which comes from coal consumption. 26 One of the principal users is the steel industry in China. [4]

The U.S. per capita coal consumption peaked at 1.92 tons of oil equivalent in 2000. [1] South Korea?s per capita coal consumption surged from 569 kilograms of oil equivalent in 1990 to 1.67 tons of oil equivalent in 2011. [1] China?s per capita coal consumption peaked at 1.45 tons of oil equivalent in 2013. [1] Russia?s per capita coal consumption declined sharply from 1.23 tons of oil equivalent in 1990 to 685 kilograms of oil equivalent in 1998. [1]

Please note that given the assumptions (India’s future population, future per capita GDP, and future relationship between coal consumption and GDP), India’s per capita coal consumption by 2050 would still be substantially below the current per capita consumption levels in China, Japan, and U.S. and roughly comparable to South Korea’s per capita consumption levels in the 1990s. [1]

This plant has been struggling to compete with NG fueled generators and more recently has had to contend with competition from PPAs for electricity from solar that feature the lowest prices for solar in the U.S. and are among the lowest in the world. [1] China, the world’s biggest energy consumer, is stepping up its push into clean power with a revised renewable energy target. [1] In 2014 the carbon emissions from China made up about 28.8% of the world total, 10.4 billion tons. [4]

Per Capita energy consumption is quite a bit lower than in developed countries, so local renewable energy will be a boost compared to what some have now. [1] According to this, the Philippines ranked 140 among countries in terms of electricity consumption per capita. [1]

It is my sincere hope that the team in charge of the video production puts a video together and then leaks it, showing the reactions of the delegates of each country as Trump rails into them, without showing Trump at all. [1] The cartel will not make any immediate additional increase but some of the spokespersons say “they needed to focus on reaching 100 percent compliance with production cuts agreed in June” (i.e. increase output). [1] Hubbert linearization is applied to the annual production to cumulative production ratios from 1990 to 2017. [1] On the natural gas front, a comment from TechGuy in the OPEC August Production Data thread stated that “The Russia-China NatGas pipeline goes operation in Dec 2019”. [1]

It is estimated that coal mine fires in China burn about 200 million kg of coal each year. [4] In 2007 China produced one third of the world’s coal but had four fifths of coal fatalities. 48 It is also important to mention that China’s coal mining industry resorts to forced labor according to a 2014 U.S. Department of Labor report on child labor and forced labor around the world, 49 and that these workers are all the more exposed to the dangers of such activities. [4]

In 2013, Australia was the world’s fifth-largest coal producer, after China, the United States, India, and Indonesia. [3] Long-term contracts of up to 20 years known as the Jahrhundervertrag (century contract) between coal producers and power generators were common, and the generators sold their power under long-term contracts. [2]

Oil, natural gas and coal had high EROI values in the 1980s and earlier that’s why they were cheap sources of primary energy. [3] The state-of-the-art energy producing centres are known as ultra-supercritical power plants, using technology developed by GE. Ultra-supercritical technology improves on previous supercritical and subcritical technologies, bettering the efficiency of coal burning that is converted to steam, which in turn powers turbines that produce electricity. [3] As forecasted by the International Energy Agency (IEA), by 2040 coal would provide 27% of the global electricity mix. [3] For this reason, coal is still a very significant source of electricity globally; in fact, it?s the largest single source of electricity on the planet, despite the growth of renewables and other energy sources,” comments Sporton. [3] Coal is valued for its energy content, and, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. [3] This includes the potential avoidance of carbon lock-in for the electricity sector (where can infrastructure still be avoided?), impacts on employment, skills, and retraining (as coal plants are phased out, where are the impacts felt, what is the magnitude on the labour force, and what options exist to cushion these impacts?) as well as macroeconomic implications of coal demand and use. [26] Although the Asian market was much slower to adopt the principles of market liberalisation, as described below in the section on Japan, European buyers quickly began to reject the notion of fixed price coal contracts that could hinder their competitiveness in the electricity market. [2] Some 40% of the electricity generated comes from coal and over 7,200 million metric tons is produced globally. [3] Globally coal and residual fuel oil (RFO) are a major source of fuel for electricity generation. [3] Coal is clinging to the top spot in power generation, accounting for as much of the world?s electricity as it did two decades ago, despite heightened concerns about climate change and a slowdown in financing for projects involving the dirtiest of fossil fuels. [10] Activities, effects and impacts of the coal fuel cycle for a 1,000-MWe electric power generating plant. [3] The main driver behind this decision is to prevent blackouts in a context in which intermittent renewable energies (namely wind and solar) are being integrated into the network while other power generation technologies such as coal and nuclear are slowly disappearing from the energy mix. [27] Coal represents only 3 per cent of Myanmar?s current energy portfolio, a number that should be higher because of its reliability, relative low cost and cleanliness due to recent technological advances, GE?s experts said. [3] The transport cost add-on in the so-called Rotterdam+ price formula is an approximation and may not reflect the actual cost of delivering coal to Ukrainian ports. [2] In South Africa, the API 4 is the price for a standard coal (6 000 kcal/kg NAR) loaded FOB at Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT). [2] One such country is South Africa, which currently relies on coal for more than 90% of its power, though climate targets and a national water crisis have given rise to calls for a change. [10] Global sales from coal exports by country totaled US$110.7 billion in 2017. [3] At the end of August, Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak unveiled an ambitious target of doubling the country’s coal exports to Asia by 2025 from around 100 million tons in 2018. [7] The issues are more complex in these countries, given the combination of economic, social, fiscal and energy security concerns linked to the coal sector. [26] While many developed nations are looking to phase out their coal-fired power plants, many countries in Asia and Africa are looking to coal to provide a reliable source of power for their country. [11] In the earlier post I mentioned that last November 20 countries signed up to phase out coal power by 2030 in the Powering Past Coal Alliance. [3] Worldwide, the value of coal exports declined by an average -3.7% for all exporting countries since 2013 when coal shipments were valued at $115 billion with a 50% uptick from 2016 to 2017. [3] The listed 15 countries shipped 98.7% of global coal exports during 2017. [3] Utah has signed a memorandum of understanding with officials from Mexico to possibly use their port in Ensenada to export coal to Pacific Rim countries. [11] For the same reason many countries are using existing coal plants less. [3] “We therefore need to support countries to deploy low emission coal technologies, whether that is through sharing technology or developing more constructive approaches to financing for new coal plants,” comments Sporton. [3] In the U.S., the Trump administration has proposed to reverse U.S. rules on coal emissions, and countries including India and Vietnam are planning major coal projects. [10] EURACOAL page 16 of 31 17 August 2018 cycle gas turbines) led to an oversupply of generation capacity in some countries and, for the first time, coal buyers started to put economic competitiveness ahead of security of supply when considering their coal-purchasing strategies. [2] For countries such as South Africa that supply coal to international markets, it is important to ensure that a pathway to zero emissions is in the pipeline Sporton highlights. [3] For countries that are net exporters of coal, this is also true, but without the cost of international shipping. [2] SUEK, Russia’s largest coal producer, intends to boost sales to Thailand, Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries. (Courtesy of SUEK). [7]

Japan is an island, and its high degree of dependence on reliable supplies of consistent quality coal means that the prices the JPUs reach with the NSW exporters have to be sufficiently high to ensure those producers can continue in business. [2] Specifically, API 2 reflects the price of steam coal imported into northwest Europe at three major ports: Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Antwerp (ARA). [2] It implies negative freight rates on the once important Richards Bay to ARA route! Also shown in Figure 21 is the loaded price of low-volatile steam coal in Australia. [2] Key findings Coal is a widely and openly traded commodity with transparent prices for the main market hubs; therefore, assessing the current price of steam coal is a fairly simple task. [2] From the foregoing, it is clear that, as a net coal importer, the “correct” market price from an economic perspective is an import parity price. [2] Recently, the Turkish government introduced an import tax which comes into effect if the ARA price (effectively API 2, but on ICE) falls below US$70/mt, in order to support local coal miners. [2] API 2 was already a familiar concept to Polish coal companies engaged in export, as their coals had to compete with other coals delivered into northwest Europe at that price level. [2] China only became a net importer in the last twenty years as a result of domestic coal shortages and the government?s decision to increase export tariffs in the early 2000s. [2] China could add as much as 400 million tons of coal capacity over the next two years, according to analysts at the consulting firm Woods Mackenzie. [5] In Europe, coal waste totals 100 million tons per year by some estimates. [3] The demand for which is increasing due to more CCGT units coming on line to counter-balance the renewable stupid electricity and closure and non-replacement of coal units started 9 years by Obama-era regulations. [3] A bulldozer and backhoe on a mountain of coal that will be burned for electricity at the Manjung power plant in Manjung, Malaysia.? Of strong divestment in coal power plants starting ten years ahead of policy implementation. [3] The long-term winner in this case should be natural gas and natural gas-fired electricity plants since they are by and large the most economical and environmentally friendly source of electricity when compared to coal and nuclear. [3] The use of coal as a source of energy has come a long way, they said. [3] With the growing population there is an ever-increasing pressure on coal reserves, and the need to switch to other energy sources is apparent. [3] It?s also the Peace River coal field?s only miner, following a 2014 downturn that closed the last of the district?s metallurgical fuel operations run by Walter Energy, Anglo American and Teck Resources. [10] Coal reserves are usually stated as either (1) “Resources” (“measured” + “indicated” + “inferred” “resources”, and then, a smaller number, often only 10-20% of “resources,” (2) “Run of Mine” (ROM) reserves, and finally (3) “marketable reserves”, which may be only 60% of ROM reserves. clarification needed The standards for reserves are set by stock exchanges, in consultation with industry associations. [3] Operating in a “room and pillar” (also known as “bord and pillar”) systemwhere the mine is divided into a series of 20-to-30-foot (5-10 m) “rooms” or work areas cut into the coalbedit can mine as much as 14 tons of coal a minute, more than a non-mechanised mine of the 1920s would produce in an entire day. [3] Of the total volume of coal produced an average of 5.5 billion tons (4.5 Btce) is made up of thermal coal and lignite. [3] The coal facilities at the port are capable of loading 4,800 tons per hour onto vessels of up to 175,000 tons of dead weight. [3] There are two 120-car unit trains, each carrying 12,000 tons of coal per trip. [3] SMBC?s updated policy also refers to ultra-supercritical technology, defined as power plants which “require less coal per megawatt-hour, leading to lower emissions (including carbon dioxide and mercury), higher efficiency and lower fuel costs per megawatt”. [3] Fossil fuels, like the coal piled at the Century Mine in Beallsville, Ohio, in November 2017, still generate much of the world?s electricity. [3] Globally, coal provides 37% of the world?s electricity today, only 3% less than it did 20 years ago. [3] Coal remains the world?s dominant source of power, with a share of 38.1% in 2017, almost as much as natural gas (23.2%) and hydroelectricity (15.9%) combined, which sit in second and third positions. [3] The Center for Global Sustainability has authored a report that analyzes what impact existing and future coal power has on the world meeting the national and global goals of the Paris Agreement. [3] The SDG -7, aims at ensuring affordable- sustainable energy for all and shifting the reliance from the non-renewable resources like COAL. The extraction of coal is largely done to meet the energy requirements around the world. [3] Energy experts from GE, who sponsored an educational trip for about two dozen reporters to visit a state-of-the-art coal-fired power plant in Malaysia earlier this month, said the latest cleaner coal technology can result in much lower emissions and meet or exceed the strictest environmental regulations in the world. [3]

The Coal segment mines metallurgical coal and thermal (energy) coal. [3] “Top U.S. coal company Peabody Energy files for bankruptcy”. [3] The Australian Energy Market Operator has confirmed suspicions that the construction of proposed Snowy 2.0 pumped hydro project would likely result in more coal being burned for electricity, and will crowd out large scale solar and other storage projects. [3] The coal that is burned in a boiler is more efficient, and the resulting emissions are cleaner, and should be a significant part of Myanmar?s energy solutions, experts told journalists recently during a trip sponsored by GE, which has pioneered the latest technologies for converting coal to electricity. [3]

In all but 15 states, coal, natural gas, or petroleum liquids were the most-used electricity generation fuel in 2017. [3] Since 2007, the number of states where coal was the most prevalent electricity generation fuel has fallen as natural gas, nuclear, and hydroelectricity have gained market share. [3]

Coal is the major fuel used for generating electricity worldwide. [3] The coal supply model is used to analyse the future supply of coal for electricity in South Africa. [26] In Canada (BC), Australia and South Africa, open cast mining is used for both thermal and metallurgical coals. [3] In mid-2014, the South Korean government imposed a tax on coal imports of about US$16.20/t for coal with less than 5 000 kcal/kg NAR and US$18.10/t for coal with a higher CV. These taxes have been steadily increased in subsequent years. [2]

Bangladesh plans to use coal to generate 50 percent of the country?s power by 2030, up from 2 percent today. [11] Many coal fired power stations have a dedicated mine feeding them. (Ex: All brown coal mines.) [3] As many as 65,000 direct and indirect German jobs are dependent on coal power generation and lignite mining. [11] Growing concerns surrounding global temperature rise and climate instability has created a sense of urgency among the international community, national and subnational leaders, companies, and citizen groups to dramatically reduce carbon emissions, and one of the largest opportunities to do so is through a reduction in coal power usage. [3] “India and South East Asia among others are all growing economies looking to securing greater power generation and consider coal integral to this. [3] Some of the world’s largest coal reserves are located in South America, and an opencast mine at Cerrej in Colombia is one of the world’s largest open pit mines. [3] In Asia, where the world?s largest coal reserves are located, China and India account for most of the growth in coal use while Vietnam plans a fivefold increase in its coal capacity through 2035. [11] Across the European Union, China, and India, operators have retrofitted conventional combined heat and power plants to produce heat without electricity, and coal and CCGT plants to provide additional flexibility and stability. [3] Table 3 – Ecological taxes on air pollutants from thermal power plants in Ukraine, UAH/tonne 2015 2016 2017 2018 SO2 1 165 1 969 2 205 2 452 NOx 1 165 1 969 2 205 2 452 The tax on SO2 in 2018 was equivalent to a coal tax of 49 UAH/tonne (c.US$1.80/tonne) per 1% sulphur. [2] Possible alternative: ? The API 2 could be used in conjunction with a fixed element to represent the additional freight and handling costs. ? The fixed element would need to be reviewed periodically. ? It would still reflect movement in the international market, but would also recognise the fact that Ukraine is not located in NW Europe. 5.4.Market for low-volatile coal Some Ukrainian power plants require low-volatile coal, such as anthracite. [2] Given the higher cost of low-volatile coal, Ukrainian power plant owners have been retrofitting burners to allow less expensive steam coal to be used. [2] The loss of these anthracite resources drove power producers to re-equip power plants with steam coal burners. [2] EURACOAL page 18 of 31 17 August 2018 In the United Kingdom, the privatisation and reorganisation of the energy sector became a major spur for the need to find market indicators for steam coal. [2] Coal with the newest fluidized-bed boilers is like the latest nuclear a reliable, safe & proven energy source, but banned for purely political reasons. [3] It is prepared in response to a request dated 18 July 2018 from the National Energy and Utilities Regulatory Commission of Ukraine to give our opinion on a coal pricing methodology introduced in 2016. [2] Expert opinion obtained by EURACOAL agrees that shipping costs to Ukraine are higher depending on the origin of a particular shipment and vessel size – perhaps US$9/t in the case of U.S. coal. [2] “Top U.S. coal boss Robert Murray: Trump ‘can’t bring mining jobs back ‘ “. [3]

Number two, it’s price is very unstable, especially without coal to help stabilize it. [3] The additional output is exempt from regulations requiring coal miners to sell 25% of their output in the domestic market at a fixed price. [7] The international market for such coal is shallow, with few marker prices. [2] The administrative pricing system is inappropriate for such circumstances as it fails to take due account of the international market price of coal. [2] Market price for coal in Ukraine. 10 2. [2] International coal pricing is then explored, with a history of price indices in Section 3 and their growing importance to coal trade. [2] These payments are however limited by the average sales price of imported hard coal, the BAFA reference price. [2] Today, that price would be set by a supplier of imported coal. [2] API stands for All Publications Index, and the API 2 is the average of the daily price assessments by IHS McCloskey Coal and Argus Media for coal of a standard quality (6 000 kcal/kg NAR – net as-recieved) to be delivered in a certain (prompt) timeframe into northwest Europe. [2] Greater efficiency in the international coal trade In 1990, most coal was sold on long-term contracts with annual price negotiations, and only 20% of the market was transacted through spot contracts. [2] In all cases, they have not been able to ignore the price of imported coal. [2] With index-based pricing, buyers and sellers can agree a floating price for their physical coal and simultaneously limit their exposure to uncertainty through hedging on the financial market. [2] A transparent forward curve affords buyers and sellers a degree of certainty about future prices without obliging them to lock their physical coal sales into long-term price deals with individual counterparties, as was the case for most coal purchasing until the late-1990s/early-2000s. [2] Using a FOB index or marker price would be a reflection of the price of coal from one location and would require freight rates from that location. [2]

Cerrej contributed about half of Colombia’s coal exports of 52 million tons that year, with Colombia ranked sixth among major coal exporting nations. [3] The port began commercial operation in 2009 and the port is expected to ship around 20 million tons of coal this year. [7] It looks at scenarios where the life of existing coal plants may be shortened, from 50 years to 40, or even 30. [3] Note that the average age of the past ten coal plant retirements in the NEM was 40 years. [3] Many coals extracted from both surface and underground mines require washing in a coal preparation plant. [3] Last week, China announced it was stopping or postponing work on 151 coal plants that were either under, or earmarked for, construction. [3]

Photo: Mark Angeles A coal-fired power plant shouldn?t invoke images of belching black smoke or polluted waters, coal energy experts said recently. [3] According to RenewEconomy New Japanese bank policies rule out one third of overseas coal plant finance because they now demand that power plants use ultrasupercritical technology. [3] Its brings upon the global coal giants to take responsibility for the sustainable use of this resource. [3] Given that in 2017, prolonged drought and resource mismanagement resulted in Cape Town being only days away from running out of water entirely, it?s clear that every drop counts, and coal power requires more than just a drop. [10] The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the 18th century and later spread to continental Europe and North America, was based on the availability of coal to power steam engines. [3] The conversion of some power stations to burn widely traded steam coal has alleviated this complication. [2] The coal is mostly used for electric power generation, with some also used in steel manufacture. [3] Australia and Indonesia are traditionally the country’s main coal suppliers, but power companies are increasing imports from Russia to reduce their dependence on Australia. [7] Ukraine?s coal import needs are slightly complicated by the requirement for low-volatile coal, such as anthracite, at some Ukrainian power stations. [2] India does not export, but is a major importer of thermal coal for its newly built coal-fired power stations, and of metallurgical coal for steelmaking. [2] From a continental perspective, coal exports from Oceania (mostly Australia with a tiny amount from New Zealand) amounted to $40.6 billion or 36.6% of the global total. [3] In 2016-2017, thermal coal, natural gas, and crude oil were among Australia?s top 10 exports. [27] In 2017, coal generated 38 percent of the world?s electricity–64 percent more than natural gas, which ranked second in electricity generation worldwide. [11] The U.S. produced about 60% of its electricity from coal in 2007 along with the corresponding pollution. [3] The authors say this is the same capacity to produce electricity as the entire U.S. coal fleet. [10]

Upcoming challenges for regions that face a coal phase-out in the future differ depending on various aspects e.g. kind of coal (lignite or hard coal), its usage (domestic or exported; electricity; heat; industry); regional characteristics (rural or urban); as well as political and institutional surrounding (governance; ownership). [26] Investors, government, coal producers and other industry organisations should therefore contribute to accelerating the use of cleaner and more efficient coal technologies, says WCA chief executive, Benjamin Sporton. [3] Of the seaborne trade, whilst some is metallurgical or coking coal used in the steel industry, the largest part is made up of thermal or steam coal. [2] Historically, Ukraine has been able to meet most or all of its own steam coal demand and has even enjoyed short periods when it was a net exporter of steam coal. [2] EURACOAL page 24 of 31 17 August 2018 Ukraine has become a net importer of low-volatile coal and needs to import this fuel. [2] Because most Chinese coal is for domestic consumption, and is burned with little or no air pollution control equipment, it contributes greatly to visible smoke and severe air pollution in industrial areas using coal for fuel. [3]

When the operation reaches a predetermined stripping ratio (tons of overburden/tons of coal), it is not profitable to continue. [3] This is partly due to the fact that carbon dioxide is not only produced by humans burning gas, coal and oil; it can also find its way into the atmosphere as a result of natural environmental processes. [3] There is a gas gathering system that pressurises to 38 bar, gas transmission system, gas storage underground, gas liquefaction system, hydrogen transport ship, gas boiler, gas transmission, use in a coal fired boiler. [3] Surface mining of coal completely eliminates existing vegetation, destroys the genetic soil profile, displaces or destroys wildlife and habitat, degrades air quality, alters current land uses, and to some extent permanently changes the general topography of the area mined. 35 This often results in a scarred landscape with no scenic value. [3] To keep up with technology and to extract coal as efficiently as possible modern mining personnel must be highly skilled and well trained in the use of complex, state-of-the-art instruments and equipment. [3] Blast mining or conventional mining, is an older practice that uses explosives such as dynamite to break up the coal seam, after which the coal is gathered and loaded onto shuttle cars or conveyors for removal to a central loading area. [3] Coal that occurs at depths of 180 to 300ft (55 to 90m) are usually deep mined, but in some cases surface mining techniques can be used. [3] Financial coal trade volumes grew and eventually exceeded even the most optimistic expectations. ? API 2 became the most traded index within a few years of its implementation, leading to attempts to create new indices with similar impact. ? Today API 2 remains dominant, but API 4, globalCOAL NEWC and API 8 are also used. [2] In the 1980s, a serious scientific/engineering project over many years investigated the feasibility and cost of producing petroleum from Latrobe Valley brown coal. [3] The Life After Coal campaign is attempting to highlight the industry?s significant water costs and push the country to a cleaner, renewable future. [10] With the Indonesian rupiah tumbling to a 20-year low recently, the Southeast Asian country is hoping to raise coal exports. [7] To counter balance this huge coal hunger, India is attempting to work towards a low carbon emissions pathway, while endeavoring the developmental challenges the country faces. [3] This was one of six country reports as background data for the Coal Transitions Project which explores how “below-2C”-compatible transitions away from thermal coal could be implemented. [3]

“Carb 2.0, otro cap’tulo de la saga no convencional” Coal 2.0, another chapter of the non-conventional energy saga (in Spanish). [3] The project teams have focused not only on viable alternative energy choices to coal, but also on how to address essential socio-economic and political considerations that could inhibit their transitions. [26] The analysis is hereby divided into the quantitative consideration of the significance of coal for the energy system and the regions, and an evaluation of implemented political instruments accompanying the reductions in the coal sector. [26] He notes that by improving efficiency, the amount of energy that can be extracted from a single unit of coal increases. [3] In February 2018, the European Commission granted its approval for the Polish government to subsidise Polish coal utililty companies through a capacity mechanism, designed to maintain the status quo in the country?s energy system. [2]

Most open cast mines in the United States extract bituminous coal. [3] Similar figures aren’t available for China, but since it is now burning more coal than the United States, the waste generation is significant. [3] Korean Gencos issue tenders and buy coal of both high and lower qualities from Indonesia, Australia, Russia, South Africa, the USA, a little from China and increasingly from Colombia. [2] EURACOAL page 11 of 31 17 August 2018 The world?s largest three producers of coal are China, the USA and India. [2] Despite being the world?s single largest coal producer, China is a net importer, selling only small quantities of coal overseas. [2]

Coal producers also face land restoration costs and other liabilities, such as subsidence damage. [2] Must be much cheaper than digging rocks out of the ground and burning them, aren’t they? Oh, and then I remembered, from my history lessons at school, that a certain bloke called Stevenson invented a coal fired steam engine that could do the job of a windmill in a fraction of the time and the cost, continually. [3] Imports have steadily grown whist exports have fallen, and Poland is now a net importer of steam coal. [2] We find more or less high investments in de-bottlenecking of transport and export capacities and mine mortality replacement in the different scenarios: the stronger the coal phase-out, the lower the total investments. [3] Frank Jotzo, Salim Mazouz and John Wiseman wrote Coal transitions in Australia: Preparing for the looming domestic coal phase-out and falling export demand 2018. [3] Our results show that more stringent climate policies come with lower coal demand, despite assumptions on wide-spread use of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). [3] Longwall systems allow a 60-to-100 percent coal recovery rate when surrounding geology allows their use. [3] Bear this in mind the next time President Donald Trump says coal is “clean” or “beautiful,” and moves to encourage use of the world?s dirtiest fuel. [10] Understanding the implications of meeting 2 degrees for South Africa raises important questions: where and when are assets stranded for a 2 degree-consistent pathway? Whose coal is not burned? And what are the implications for labour in fossil fuel extracting sectors? This study developed a detailed coal supply model for South Africa with the necessary granularity to understand the economic implications of transitioning away from coal. [26] The biggest exporters of coal are: Indonesia, Australia, Russia, United States, Colombia, South Africa and Kazakhstan. [3] Coal is mined in every state of Australia, but mainly in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. [3]

The United States, which produces 672 metric tons of coal, is ranked third amongst the top coal producing nations. [3] In 1995, this was scrapped and replaced by direct subsidies as part of the national budget by way of a compromise between the federal government, the state governments, RAG AG (the largest coal producer) and the trade unions. [2]

Using fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag, the U.S. produced 131 million tons of coal combustion products, using 43 million tons while disposing of nearly 75 million tons. [3] Australia also saw coal exports hit a new high of 19.87 million tons in July. [7]

With this accounted for, coal power generation will actually increase globally by about 9% between now and 2040,” he adds. [3] This equipment can include the following: Draglines which operate by removing the overburden, power shovels, large trucks in which transport overburden and coal, bucket wheel excavators, and conveyors. [3] Coal power still makes a lot of sense, and in fact, makes a lot more sense than so-called “renewables”. [3] The only real risk with coal is political, in that if the Democrats backing the green blob get power, it would be an unfavored investment. [3] The meeting was hosted by Souris-Moose Mountain MP Robert Kitchen, who stated that the purpose of the evening was not for him to speak to the attendees, but to have the attendees speak to him, and to suggest ideas that could be useful in the argument of the importance of coal power in Canada. [10] It is the Australian conclusions that are the most striking, particularly in relation to the renewed political dialogue around the need to protect existing and encourage new investments in what the Coalition government is describing as “fair dinkum” “reliable”, “24-hour baseload” power. i.e. coal. [3] Frank Jotzo told the SMH that 36 governments and 28 major firms had now committed to phasing out coal from the power sector by 2030. [3] John, my narrative is that people are turning away from building new coal power, but they are also using existing capacity less. [3] An article by Mark Diesendorf at RenewEconomy headlined Is coal power “dispatchable”? is one answer to this prickly subject. [3] While significant, the amount of coal power capacity that began operating during the first half of 2018 (20GW) was nearly matched by the amount retired (16GW), for a net increase of just 4GW – the slowest rate of growth on record. [3] In some cases, the power generators only renewed contracts because UK ports and the rail links from the ports could not handle sufficient volume of coal to fully displace domestic suppliers. [2] In the first nine months of 2016, a mere 300 kt of coal was mined in the UK, and in 2017, less than 3 million tonnes were imported. [2] Without enough income to pay for imported coal, electricity generators became “pig-in-the-middle” – without the financial resources to meet their commitments to supply. [2] Globally, coal still generates more electricity than any other source. [11] Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and coal derivatives. [3] “This is especially true for the rapidly urbanising and industrialising economies of Asia where coal is forecast to be an integral fuel source and vital to economic growth.” [3]

That year, the World Bank formalized a near blanket ban on coal. [10] In a carbon constrained world there will be limits to both the extraction and use of coal. [26] The goal of the nation remains clear, which is to help the nation and the world use coal as clean as possible. [3] For this reason, only those indices are typically used in coal contracts around the world. [2]

The pillars can make up to forty percent of the total coal in the seam, however where there was space to leave head and floor coal there is evidence from recent open cast excavations that 18th-century operators used a variety of room and pillar techniques to remove 92 percent of the in situ coal. [3]

In New South Wales open casting for steam coal and anthracite is practiced. [3] Note that steam coal has, at times, been more expensive in South Africa than in Europe. [2]

Demand for coal remained low until the introduction of steam locomotives in 1853. [3] Traditionally, Ukraine has produced enough indigenous coal to satisfy demand. [3] Unfortunately, this measure coincided with an increase in coal demand, so the tightening of domestic supply led to a rapid increase in imports. [2] Turkey has become the largest steam coal importer in the European Atlantic/Mediterranean basin, although quality restrictions have prevented some potential imports. [2] Steam coal in Ukraine is mined in the Donetsk and Lviv-Volyn coal basins. [2] Figure 19 – Steam coal deficit In Ukraine may reach 25-30% 5.3.Analysis of the NEURC formula Box 2 summarises the rationale and methodology behind the NEURC formula. [2] Ukraine buys and burns both high-volatile and low-volatile thermal or steam coals. [2]

Asian countries including India and Vietnam are planning major coal projects. [11] Among the remaining 9 countries, top coal exporters experiencing the most severe declines over the 5-year period were: North Korea (down -71.7%), Czech Republic (down -43.8%), Poland (down -34.1%), Kazakhstan (down -23.1%) and Indonesia (down -21.5%). [3] “Coal provides a direct contribution to economic development at a local level, particularly in developing countries. [3] A review in Section 4 of coal pricing in seven countries offers insights into how governments have sought to balance a desire for more market liberalisation with the need to protect often large, indigenous coal industries. [2]

The top two panels in Figure 10 illustrate the retirement pathways associated with a fixed 50 year and 40 year retirement age for the remaining coal fleet. [3] The post South Africa’s Eskom has coal shortages at 10 power plants spokesman appeared first on MINING.com. [3] Deploying HELE coal-fired power plants is a key first step along a pathway to near-zero emissions from coal with carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS). [3] Chinese officials made moves to shelve coal projects and increase the use of natural gas for heating though that left many working poor without heat during the frigid winter. [5] Nationwide, as opposed to state by state, coal has been dethroned by natural gas, but could stage a comeback. [3] Coal can be combusted putting into the atmosphere less CO2 than a natural gas power plant. [3] Coals occurring below 300ft (90m) are usually deep mined. 4 However, there are open pit mining operations working on coal seams up to 1,000-1,500 feet (300-460 metres) below ground level, for instance Tagebau Hambach in Germany. [3] Continuous mining utilizes a Continuous Miner Machine with a large rotating steel drum equipped with tungsten carbide picks that scrape coal from the seam. [3] Overburden from subsequent strips are deposited in the void left from mining the coal and overburden from the previous strip. [3] As the longwall mining equipment moves forward, overlying rock that is no longer supported by coal is allowed to fall behind the operation in a controlled manner. [3] The choice of mining method depends primarily on depth, density, overburden and thickness of the coal seam; seams relatively close to the surface, at depths less than approximately 180ft (55m), are usually surface mined. [3] The dangers of coal are familiar to the Appalachian communities beset with air and water pollution from mountaintop-removal mining that carves the tops off of mountains and dumps the remnants into streams. [10] When coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut (also referred to as open cast, open pit, mountaintop removal or strip) mining methods. [3] Strip mining exposes coal by removing earth above each coal seam. [3] Room and pillar mining consists of coal deposits that are mined by cutting a network of rooms into the coal seam. [3] Buffalo Creek disaster 1972: On e of the worst mining disasters in the US- coal waste from mining operations (similar to the coal combustion waste in ponds) was placed into the river, and then dammed. [3] We are wasting our breathe unless and until we start addressing the very real issue of re-employing and redeploying all those whose livelihoods depend on the mining, the transport and the burning of coal. [3] We are still building more coal plants (globally) than we are retiring. [3] Adams’ argument is that technologies to curb air pollution from coal plants exist and are cost-effective, whole carbon capture and storage equipment has not been proven on an economy-wide scale. [5] This block of coal may be drilled and blasted (if hard) or otherwise loaded onto trucks or conveyors for transport to the coal preparation (or wash) plant. [3] A one percentage point improvement in the efficiency of a conventional pulverised coal combustion plant results in a 2-3% reduction in CO 2 emissions. [3] The bottom two panels represent our coal plant closure scenarios, recognising the mounting economic pressure on coal plants, even without climate policy and based on higher levels of renewables penetration and changing load profiles in the NEM. Canavan said on Friday the Paris commitment was a three-page document that allowed Australia flexibility to build new coal plants. [3] Six top coal exporters increased their international sales from 2013 to 2017: Mongolia (up 99.3%), Philippines (up 51.8%), Russia (up 14.5%), Colombia (up 9%), Australia (up 6.1%) and China (up 4.1%). [3] According to this study, there was a surge in new coal projects approved at provincial level in China between 2014 and 2016. [10] There’s a chance the same would have been true globally if it pushed out coal in markets like China. [3]

Some western U.S. coal that occur at depths in excess of 200ft (60m) are mined by the open pit methods, due to thickness of the seam 60-90 feet (20-25 metres). [3] President Donald Trump pledged to bring back coal jobs during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and as president he announced plans to reduce environmental protection. [3] “Retraining investment for U.S. transition from coal to solar photovoltaic employment”. [3]

The article includes a table of dispatchability with four different ranks that the author proposes, with baseload thermal coal, gas and nuclear ranked 4th. [3] The bank will no longer finance projects involving coal, despite the desperate need for basic electricity in Nigeria. [11] While competitive alternatives exist, the transition away from coal and towards these alternatives is limited by techno-institutional lock-in, concerns about economic impacts in existing firms (especially job losses), and the political commitments of the state-owned electricity utility, Eskom. [26]

Thank you, a member of the team will contact you to complete your Platts Global Coal Alert trial request. [3] If the slowdown continues global coal capacity should peak by 2022, if not sooner. [3] In the first six months of 2018 that peak was passed, with 43 units added and 52 retired, meaning the global coal fleet shrank by nine units. [3]

The ten-year difference between the two scenarios makes a dramatic difference for future domestic coal use in Australia, especially in the 2020s. [3] The shipping cost deltas for coal deliverd to Ukrainian ports, rather than ARA ports, ranges from US$6.5/t to US$14.5/t according to the NEURC methodology. [2] These raise the effective cost of investing in alternatives to coal, making it more difficult to achieve environmental and health goals. [3] They then set these scenarios aside and formulated scenarios about what they thought would happen when the cost of new renewables started to prove cheaper that maintaining existing coal. [3] They are part of a worldwide trend rejecting renewables, rejecting climate change alarmism, and embracing coal and other fossil fuels. [10] The 4-digit Harmonized Tariff System code prefix is 2701 for coal including briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal. [3] This paper explores these theoretical and conceptual aspects of fossil fuel supply taxes, for the case of coal. [3] Commercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal, and other commercial solid fuels. [3]

This provides opportunity for South Africa to continue exporting its coal in the near to long-term future,” Sporton concludes. [3] South Africa?s Life After Coal campaign is calling for a closer look at coal?s impact on water. [10]

There is significant growth in Asia and most of the decline in the demand for coal in Europe and North America is offset by the growth and demand in Asia. [3] Additional factors supporting the expected curtailment of coal demand in Europe are the EU?s stringent environmental regulations and the strong growth of subsidised renewables. [2]

In 2017, coal provided the largest generation share in 18 states, down from 28 states in 2007. [3] Coal in its current state does not directly support life, and we know that Carbon Dioxide directly feeds life and is integral to the Carbon Cycle of Life. [3] That should be cut from 17 to 2 States Coal lost 10 but the second place gained 5 which means the previous lead was 17. [3]

Coal combustion is one of the major sources of particulate matter pollution globally, emitting much higher levels of SO2, NOx and dust. [3] Coal pricing in Ukraine – advantages of market indicators.24 5.1. [2] The coal supply situation in Ukraine is examined before explaining the pricing methodology introduced by the Ukrainian government in 2016. [2] Under the current situation, there is a deficit of domestic coal supply in Ukraine. [2]

“Those who keep saying coal is dead get proven wrong time and time again,” said Matt Canavan, Australia’s resources minister. [7] These are inclusive of all the varieties like steam coal, coking coal, lignite and recovered coal. [3] Thomas Savery patented the first practical coal powerd steam pump in 1698. [3] On the Ukrainian market, steam coal is divided in two groups: anthracite grades (? and P grades with the highest calorific values or heating values of all coal grades) and high-volatile steam coal (G and DG grades). [2] EURACOAL page 9 of 31 17 August 2018 This report focuses on steam coal only. [2] At times, the premium for low-volatile coal falls to zero and this product has the same value as steam coal. [2]

Russia supplied 9% of Japan’s coal imports in 2017, up three percentage points from 2012. [7] The coal was used for the British garrison at Annapolis Royal, and in construction of the Fortress of Louisbourg. [3] This is used primarily to produce heat, hence its name, and includes both bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. [2]

To reach that goal, Nigeria will deploy a mix of solar and hydropower as well as coal, using domestic coal reserves. [11] The Middle Coal Measures was the most important with its wide distribution, great number of coal beds and extensive potential reserves. [3] The reserves at Cerrej are low-sulfur, low-ash, bituminous coal. [3]

The government has taken unconventional steps to improve its trade balance and support the rupiah, including policy changes aimed at increasing coal exports. [7] The health risks are familiar to residents in Norfolk, Virginia, who have to contend with coal dust on their homes and gardens from the trains that rumble into the largest coal export terminal in the Northern Hemisphere. [10]

Toshiba Corp. and other partners are building a coal power plant and port on Matarbari Island in Bangladesh. [11] That’s $10,000,000,000 of assets that are not contributing to tax coffers unlike the coal and natural gas that it has replaced, it has been a major dent to local communities. [3]

China’s coal consumption in 2010 was 3.2 billion metric tonnes per annum. [4] In 2011, seven Chinese coal mining companies produced 100 million metric tonnes of coal or more. [4]

The coal industry is hurting nationwide, as coal prices have fallen nearly 60 percent since 2011, said Deng Shun, an analyst at ICIS C1 Energy, a consultancy based in Shanghai. [4] Coal consumption has an “autonomous” tendency to fall by 3.1 percent a year when economic growth rate is zero. [1] South Korea’s coal consumption grew 6% and is now almost 3/4 Japan’s coal consumption, which grew last year 2%. [1]

India?s coal consumption is projected to rise from 1,032 million metric tons (424 million tons of oil equivalent; 1 ton of oil equivalent 2.43 tons of India?s coal) in 2017, to 1,184 million tons in 2020, 1,730 million tons in 2030, 2,314 million tons in 2040, and 2,822 million tons in 2050. [1] Where the downward linear trend meets the horizontal axis indicates that South Africa?s ultimately recoverable coal resources will be 18.5 billion metric tons. [1] The rest of the world?s remaining recoverable coal resources are estimated to be 45.3 billion metric tons. [1]

Charlotte-based Duke Energy reported that a dam containing a lake at one of its power plants in Wilmington had been breached by floodwaters, potentially spilling coal ash from a nearby dump into the Cape Fear River. [1] Rising coal consumption in several major Asian economies such as Japan, South Korea, India, and Indonesia suggests that it is premature to declare that global economic growth has been decoupled from coal consumption. [1] Sources: Per capita coal consumption and per capita GDP are calculated using data for coal consumption, GDP, and population. [1] From 1990 to 2017, India?s per capita coal consumption rose from 126 kilograms of oil equivalent to 317 kilograms of oil equivalent. [1]

The U.S. coal consumption has declined sharply since the Great Recession of 2008-2009. [1] More support for my assertion that increased coal consumption in the U.S. and Australia is unlikely. [1]

Not enough sun to power a modern industrial country much of the year. [1] Later, the crowd audibly stirred when Trump accused OPEC nations of “ripping off” the world by making oil prices too high. [1] For a time, the United States led the world in developing renewable energy. [1] It has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Stewart World Port for 5 million tonnes of shipping capacity per year.” [1] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), linked to exposure to fine particulates, SO 2, and cigarette smoke among other factors, accounted for 26% of all deaths in China in 1988. 51 A report by the World Bank in cooperation with the Chinese government found that about 750,000 people die prematurely in China each year from air pollution. [4] “Malaysia is one of the largest producers of palm oil, and possesses the second largest area of plantations in the world. [1] These projects are often capital intensive and might never pay out if they simply beak even with the World oil price due to rising coal prices. [1]

Small mines (comprising 90% of all mines) are known to have far higher death rates, and the government of China has banned new coal mines with a high gas danger and a capacity below 300,000tons in an effort to reduce deaths a further 20% by 2010. [4] How long before all the contributing factors in China lead to a decline in Chinese coal consumption? The graph up top says circa 2025 but I suspect it may be much sooner. [1] An increase (or decrease) in economic growth rate by one percentage point is associated with an increase (or decrease) in coal consumption by about 1.5 percent. [1]

To replace coal power globally would take about the area of Rhode Island which is less than the area of land directly impacted by coal mining. [1] To project India?s per capita coal consumption, a log-linear relationship is estimated between the per capita coal consumption and per capita GDP for the period 1990-2017. [1] As to coal consumption, he made the simplified assumption that the per capita coal consumption vs per capita GDP relationship would be unchanged in the future. [1] Figure 2 compares the per capita coal consumption in relation to per capita GDP for the world?s six largest national coal consumers and the European Union. [1] Future coal consumption is then calculated using per capita coal consumption multiplied by the projected population. [1]

China to ban small coal mines for improving pit safety record. [4] China Coal Industry Network – Chinese coal industry’s information, policy, science and technology, statistics and other information. [4]

The heavy oil simply allows the mix to be easier to move, and reduces the coal ash problem. [1] In the first nine months of 2009, China’s coal mines had 11 major accidents with 303deaths, with gas explosions the leading cause, according to the central government. [4]

It is in their strategic and economic best interests (not even considering reducing pollution) to do this and I think they appreciate their role in the future more than fossil fuel advocates in other countries. [1] The market for larger vehicles is booming in one country, China. [1] This causes some of the social instability Germany experiences because the country is losing industry while gaining low skilled refugees. [1]

My own decades long evaluations conclude that continued use of fossil fuels and continued degradation of the natural world will mean there will be no safe place on earth in the near future, for anyone. [1] Knoema is the most comprehensive source of global decision-making data in the world. [28] World per capita real GDP growth has been relatively constant from 1970 to 2017 at about 1.4% real GDP per capita Growth over that period, we could assume in the future it is anything from -1.4% to 1.4%, though my guess is that it will be closer to 1% and population growth will coincide with the lower estimates (8.5 billion in 2050 and perhaps 7 billion in 2100). [1]

The average price of U.S. coal imports during secondquarter 2018 was $82.95 per short ton. [13] U.S. coal imports in secondquarter 2018 totaled 1.5 million short tons. [13] Secondquarter 2018 U.S. coal exports (30.9 million short tons) increased 13.4% from firstquarter 2018. [13]

Consumption of coal has also waned, with 2017 marking a 100-year low for the contribution of coal to electricity production. [9] This could make the production and consumption of coal more expensive, though it is unclear to what extend potential costs would prevail over the considerations mentioned above. [9] Over recent decades, Poland has dramatically decreased its production and use of coal. [9]

Over the next year the price gap is expected to narrow as producers of high-quality coal in countries such as Colombia and Russia are attracted to the high prices on offer in Asia. [15] MOSCOW, Nov 28 (Reuters) – Russian coal and steel producer Mechel said on Tuesday higher prices for its products had helped it swing into a net profit in the third quarter after a loss a year earlier. [15]

AAG, the operator of China’s most advanced coal seam gas project called Panzhang, plans to raise total output by 15 percent to 723.3 million cubic meters this year, according to the SCMP story. [29] Steam coal exports totaled 13.9 million short tons (12.8% higher than firstquarter 2018). [13] Secondquarter 2018 coal stocks dropped to 147.9 million short tons from 155 million short tons at the end of firstquarter 2018 (4.6% decrease). [13]

Coal producers reported output of 180.8 million tons in the second quarter of 2018, down 3.7% from 187.6 million tons in the first quarter and 187.1 million tons in the year-ago quarter, an S&P Global Market Intelligence analysis of U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration data shows. [8] Doing so will help China balance out the intermittency of its world-leading renewable energy adoption efforts with a reliable fossil fuel that emits roughly half the CO2 of coal. [29] For over 30 years, coal has accounted for more than two-thirds of China’s energy needs, according to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [29] Coal still makes up approximately 50% of Poland?s energy needs and 80% of its electricity generation. [9]

Fluctuation in the market is expected due to transportation and infrastructure costs and volatile prices of coking coal. [14] The growth in exports of Russian coal is due to the flexible price policy of Russian companies in the international market. [15]

A large portion of Norway’s gas output is also produced as a byproduct from oil production, which suggests that the benign scenario will almost certainly depend on oil prices remaining sufficiently elevated ($80 +?) over the next ten years to encourage continued investment in Norway’s oil and gas industry. [3]

Ethane production in the U.S. is expected to increase from an average of 1.25 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2016 to 1.7 million b/d in 2018, according to the EIA’s latest Short-Term Energy Outlook. [6] Figure 3 – Comparison of steam coal import prices in northwest Europe (NWE), marginal mine production costs at state-owned mines in Ukraine, administrative coal price and NEURC formula Sources: EURACOAL analysis (NWE import price range and NEURC formula-based price); NEURC data (average production costs at state-owned mines for commercial-quality coal and administrative coal price). [2] EURACOAL page 7 of 31 17 August 2018 Figure 2 – Supply and demand curves for international steam coal market: FOB cash costs for global seaborne steam coal trade and a presumed demand curve in 2016 Source: World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2017) using data from CRU Thermal Coal Cost Model and demand curve estimated by EURACOAL 1.4.Coal pricing in Ukraine In Ukraine, a discussion is taking place on the correct price for coal. [2]

Production rose by 56 mtoe in China and 23 mtoe in the U.S. Global coal consumption grew by 25 mtoe, or 1%, the first growth since 2013. [3] A large component of existing (around 30%) natural gas production is derived from legacy conventional gas reservoirs which are in terminal decline, they are no longer, for the most part, competitive with productive shale basins such as the Marcellus and the Haynesville and certainly not in basins such as the Permian which produce large amounts of associated gas (gas that is produced as a byproduct of oil extraction and therefore largely price insensitive). [3] This Procedure is applied by NEURC for the calculation and approval of the forecast wholesale market price of electricity (hereinafter referred to as the forecast wholesale market price) and applies to all business entities engaged in the production and supply of electricity. 1.3. [2]

Currently, around 80 percent of Poland?s power production is provided by coal-fired plant generation. [10] After this, production rose to an annual average of 1 Mt and India produced 6.12 Mt per year by 1900 and 18 Mt per year by 1920, following increased demand in the First World War, but went through a slump in the early thirties. [3] The Saudi Arabian government has announced investments worth US$20bn over the next years to maintain and possibly increase its spare oil production capacity. [27] The country is the only oil producer with significant spare crude oil production capacity to supply the market when requirement, bringing the maximum sustainable capacity up to 12 mb/d. [27] Countries that reduce production use subsidies to support local producers during the transitional period. [2] Other countries in similar situations either use or have used the import price as a starting point for domestic prices so that domestic producers are offered parity with imports. [2] State-owned coal mines were partially reimbursed for their production costs, but no actions were taken to promote the development of coal mining and this led to a crisis in the coal industry. [2] This plan includes the payment of substantial State aid, including aid of almost 6 billion to cover current production costs over the eight-year period 2011-2018 (i.e. almost 100/tonne). [2]

The International Energy Agency estimates that global energy production requires 10% of the world?s total water withdrawals. [10] Developed countries are not expected to increase their production, except Australia. [2] Most countries have moved towards market-based energy price setting, although Europe has generally moved further with this than Asian countries. [2]

Like other countries, such as India and China, Poland is taking steps to reduce coal use, notes Mikulska, but the transition is challenging. [9] Australia and the U.S. remained the major exporters of coking coal, whereas China, Japan, India and South Korea were the major importers in 2017. [14]

As impressive as its achievements have been, Poland is still a long way from eliminating coal or drastically reducing its use in the country?s energy mix. [9] For Poland, coal is the only energy resource that is domestically abundant, relatively cheap and easy to access. [9] Going forward, the government predicts that coal will remain at 50% to 55% of Poland’s total energy mix through to 2030, if not 2050, though it hopes to limit the associated CO 2 emissions via variety of mechanisms ranging from CO 2 sequestration to coal gasification, and carbon capture and storage. [9] Policy considerations with respect to coal go beyond elections to include more substantive issues such as energy security. [9]

The United States shipped 41.7 million tonnes of coal in the first five months of. [15] The United States continued to import coal primarily from Colombia (68.4%), Canada (13.6%), and Indonesia (17.2%). [13]

The government also hopes that future technological advances will repurpose coal, including via gasification and applications in nuclear power generation. [9] All Polish governments, independent of which party is in power, have been, and are likely to continue, treading carefully when it comes to coal. [9]

Familiarity with the technology and the presence of an established specialised workforce is still encouraging investment in the restructuring or replacing of some of Poland?s aging mines and coal power plants. [9] Coal creation in Australia, especially coking coal, is dominated by worldwide mining organizations which incorporate BHP Billiton, Old English American and Rio Tinto. [30] While Poland is making significant strides to diversify its natural gas supplies, through LNG imports and new pipelines and interconnectors, these are focused on backing away from Russian gas, rather than replacing coal. [9] In December, Poland will be hosting the next Climate Change Conference in Katowice, the heart of its coal country. [9] In the opinion of the organisers, Katowice represents a symbol of a region transformed from being coal dependent to becoming a paragon of modern industry, innovation and culture. [9] Even though employment levels in the coal sector have dropped more than fourfold since early 1990s, approximately 100,000 workers still work in the industry. [9]

It enables coal to be produced in Russia at a relatively low cost. [15] When it comes to other potential coal substitutes, renewable generation in Poland is in its infancy and unlikely to expand quickly in a significant way, due to the issues of intermittency and the costs associated with infrastructure build up. [9]

“Making coal great again is actually being paid for by the Ukraine,” said Dan Bilak, chief investment adviser to the nation?s prime minister. [15] Coking coal, also known as metallurgical coal, is used to produce coke. [14]

The IPO has an indicative price of between $4 and $4.80 per share, valuing the company which has coal mines in Queensland and the U.S. between $3.8 billion and $4.4 billion. [10] An illustrative cost curve for the international steam coal market is shown in Figure 2 with a presumed demand curve that intersects at a price close to the average in 2016. [2] This report provides a background to price formation on the international steam coal market, based, as it is, on the balancing of supply and demand at a market price. [2]

Even after the privatisation of the coal industry in 1994, 3-year contracts at fixed prices plus inflation were commonplace with the newly privatised power generators. [2] After six years of deliberation, the U.S. EPA in May will decide on changes to the Clean Water Act that would direct power companies to remove dangerous impurities, including carcinogens, from coal ash wastewater before releasing it into rivers that supply drinking water. [3] Each year, power companies generate approximately 130 million tons of coal ash, enough to fill a million railroad cars. [3]

And, it added 30,000 barrels of production globally last year. [3] In this situation, there is no incentive and no liberty to invest privately, because all investments are state planned; natural resources and the means of production are state owned. [2] Due to higher production efficiency and its extensive use at European power plants, lignite production should continue. [2] Fundamental economics support this logic: there is no discrimination against local producers for uncontrollable quality factors (an element of protectionism), while the government receives long-term benefits through increasing local production and restricting the growth of imports. [2] Petrochemical industry is expected to consume the increase in ethane production both domestically and abroad. [6]

That year, consumption fell among the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development but increased 0.4% in China, the biggest consumer, and 4.4% in India, the second-biggest consumer. [7] The company wants to sell more to Thailand, Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries, where demand is expected to be strong, as well as China, Japan and South Korea, historically the three main importers in Asia. [7]

Coal consumption has fallen sharply in Europe due to environmental concerns, but Asian countries are reluctant to give up on a relatively cheap form of energy. [7] Countries mainly investing in coal are in Asia and Africa–many getting support from the Japanese as well as the Chinese, who are building coal-fired plants in other countries to support their coal industry as electricity growth has slowed. [11] The U.S. coal industry is looking to export coal to these countries and would benefit from a West coast export-handling terminal. [11] Coal companies in the West have wanted to offset declining domestic coal consumption through exports to Pacific Rim countries. [11] “Much of the coal industry in developing countries is export oriented. [3] In some countries, such as the UK, a refusal to accept import parity pricing led to the bankruptcy of the indigenous coal industry. [2]

They have either forced the closure of their indigenous coal-mining industry by reducing state support (e.g. in the UK), making domestic coal producers uncompetitive with imports, or supported coal mining with direct subsidies or cross subsidies (e.g. Poland, Turkey and China). [2] Coronado Coal’s $4.4 billion listing comes as steelmaking coal prices fall sharply month on month on the back of escalating trade tensions between China and the United States, and the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science forecasts prices to fall heavily. [10]

Established in 1998, CURC serves as an industry voice and advocate for technology pathways for the cost-effective use of coal resources in order to meet national energy needs while also achieving environmental and other societal goals. [6] The plan aims: ? To establish an indicative market price for the transitional period. ? To use close-to-market prices that allow coal mine owners to invest and improve performance. [2] Figure 6 – Examples of subsidised state-owned mines, loss-making private mines and profitable private mines in Ukraine The size of subsidy paid to state-owned coal mines reduces as the import parity price increases. [2] With higher market prices, private coal mines earn higher profits and can invest to maintain their competitiveness against imports. [2]

EURACOAL page 8 of 31 17 August 2018 ? To create equal conditions for both domestic producers and importers (previously, the administrative price was lower than the price of imported coal). ? To develop healthy competition in the coal market. ? To improve and develop the coal industry. [2] It shows that Ukraine is a small player in the huge international coal market and is therefore a price taker. [2] The calculated steam coal price is used when setting regulated electricity tariffs in Ukraine on the assumption that owners of thermal power plants will then receive enough income to purchase their coal needs, some of which must be imported. [2] This paper sheds light on this issue by modelling the international steam coal market under a range of scenarios regarding the depth, speed, and drivers of transition in global and regional energy systems. [3] Alignment with other globally traded energy products across the world The coal market has moved to the spot trading model with index-linked contracts, aligning it with other world energy commodity markets such as oil. 3.4.5. [3]

China was once the poster boy of the renewable energy industry — just a few months ago Bloomberg stated, “China?s investment in renewables is leaving the rest of the world in its wake” thanks to its subsidy-driven growth. [10] A total of 449 operating nuclear reactors located in 31 countries around the world differ by age, types and number of reactors, and utilization, and offer a total installed generating capacity of more than 390,000 megawatts, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency. [6] Countries with significant domestic reserves and coal-dominant energy systems are still a fair way from giving up their dependence. [26]

Figure 20 – API 2 best alternative for Ukraine market indicator Table 1 – Assessment of NEURC formula based on API 2 Arguments in favour: ? The API 2 is transparent since it is openly traded and reported. ? It puts Ukraine in line with other countries. ? It provides a degree of certainty with a forward curve and availability of data. ? It encourages productivity improvements at poorly performing mines. [2] In Ukraine, price setting is regulated by the government using the NEURC methodology and relies on the NW European coal hub marker price – API 2 index This is appropriate in the current European market as there are few, if any examples of European countries whose coal price is NOT assessed against API 2. [2] European countries use international coal market indicators in pricing policy decisions. [2] Compared to other South American countries Chile has limited coal resources. [3]

In May 2016, China introduced measures to improve productivity at coal mines, imposing a limit of 276 working days per year (previously 330 days). [2] Maybe coal miners could find work if industries based on the use of renewable power to generate electro fuels were set up on poor agricultural land near existing coal mining towns. [3] The existence of these subsidies reflected the interdependence of the German coal mining industry and the power producers. [2] Increasingly, however, the low international coal prices of the late 1990s and early 2000s, alongside SO2 emission limits placed on power generators, led to a growth in imports which showed domestic coal to be uncompetitive. [2]

That?s a problem for environmentalists, because hundreds of old, decrepit coal ash ponds are attached to coal plants that are no longer producing power. [3] Today, there are 194 landfills and 161 ponds containing coal ash from 500 power plants in 47 states nationwide according to 2005 data from the Department of Energy, the latest available. [3] Power producers? coal ash disposal ponds like the one that leaked toxic sludge into a North Carolina river in February may soon become a thing of the past. [3]

Any residual domestic coal mining has virtually been killed off by the imposition of the carbon floor price mechanism of 2013 and subsequent changes to it. [2] If the domestic coal mining sector is not then protected from coal importers offering market prices, it may become uncompetitive and fail. [2]

Whatever your role in the coal industry, we provide real-time data and news, benchmark prices and insightful market reports to help you make business critical decisions with conviction. [3] Platts Coal Alert is an online platform providing real-time news, bids, offers and trades as well as end-of-day prices for today’s coal markets. [3] It is worth noting a few examples and observing how these have evolved over the years and will continue to evolve as the coal market becomes more integrated and competition takes hold in the electricity markets. [2] Coal mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines. [3] Two years ago Conuma Coal Resources re-opened its newly acquired Brule mine in northeastern British Columbia, then re-started two more open pits in the same region. [10]

The slow rampup in supply will probably keep coal prices buttressed at about $100 a metric ton through the end of next year, he said. [10] Global coal prices began recovering last year and are now near six-year highs. [7] Assess S&P Global Platts OTC benchmark prices, U.S. thermal coal export assessments, weekly physical U.S. coal prices, U.S. petcoke prices, and weekly North American stockpile numbers and forecasts that are available three months ahead of the EIA’s. [3]

British oil company BP estimates in its latest forecast that global coal consumption in 2040 will remain almost unchanged compared with 2016. [7] Sporton notes that coal prices have historically been lower but more stable than oil and gas prices. [3] Previously, any increase in input costs such as a rise in coal prices could often be recovered through an increase in the electricity tariff, as it remained in any country?s national interest to ensure that its electricity supply chain continued to function. [2]

Today, petroleum, natural gas, and coal provide 87% of U.S. energy, and coal is used mostly for electricity generation, steel and liquid fuels production, and cement manufacturing. [17] Based on current production rates, Indiana’s 17 billion tons of available coal could last more than 500 years. [17] Surface mining continues to be the primary method of coal removal in Indiana, with nearly 70 percent of the current production coming from surface mines. [17] I am not sure if Gevra mines is the largest mine in terms of production but in terms of coal capacity Maand in Raigarh area of Chhattisgarh is the biggest. [19]

A CFL lasts longer and consumes far less power than a conventional bulb, cutting energy costs, reducing greenhouse emissions, and saving nearly a quarter ton of coal over its lifetime. [31] The Wall Street Journal reports a surge in the international demand for coal to produce electricity, especially in underdeveloped countries that are still trying to bring cheap, reliable power to millions of people. [18] Arances said that in the Philippines, one of the first countries in Southeast Asia to enact a law promoting Renewable Energy (RE) in 2008, the policy to cut coal dependence by 20% in ten years has been severely undermined by the continued reliance on coal-fired powerplants to supply the country?s energy demand. [32]

U.S. coal exports are expected to surge 10 percent in the next year, according to new forecasts by the Energy Department?s statistics arm. [18]

For example, hard coal mining in Germany has received generous subsidies over the years to mitigate the social consequences of the long-term decline of a large industry. [2] In another defeat for President Trump?s pro-fossil fuels agenda, the D.C. Circuit on Tuesday found the EPA has failed for years to issue and enforce adequate rules for the storage of toxic coal ash. [3] After decades of inaction, the federal government will release its second major rule affecting coal ash from power plants in less than a year. [3] As the Environmental Protection Agency prepares to regulate coal ash, the waste product of coal-burning power plants, it confirmed that ash is polluting local waters at 18 sites across the U.S. The Environmental Integrity Project (EIP) announced the EPA?s findings in a report that maintains there are at least 20 other locations where coal ash is contaminating local groundwater. [3]

In 2013, President Obama ordered the Treasury Department to use its representation on the World Bank, where the U.S. is the largest funder, and other multilateral development banks to veto funding for coal-fired power stations. [10] Besides, the country is also the world’s second largest or rare-earth elements after China (used to make hybrid vehicles, wind turbines, fuel cells and batteries). [27] The country has had to rely on imported steam coal, following the loss of coal mines due to the ongoing conflict in eastern Ukraine. [2] The developing country of India is placed second on its coal consumptions. [3]

A public discussion was held in the town of Bienfait on Thursday regarding the future of coal-fired power in Saskatchewan, and the rest of the country. [10]

A SUEK official in charge of Asia-bound exports said that many importing countries in the region will be able to cut procurement costs by buying from the Russian company, citing shorter shipping routes compared with Australia. [7] This statistic illustrates the lignite consumption in major countries in 2014 and 2015. [33] Many countries in the world are still not fully electrified and providing electricity to their residents will improve their quality of life and make economic development possible. [11] The World Bank approved a $350 million loan for solar mini-grids and other equipment to provide electricity in Nigeria. [11] Figure 10 – World seaborne steam coal trade in 2016 Source: IEA, Coal 2017 Analysis and forecasts to 2022 The global coal market consists of two main consumer markets: northwest Europe and the pan- Asian market. [2] We investigate the effect of regional or global coal phase-out policies by using a holistic model of the world steam coal market, COALMOD-World. [3]

An Australian coal miner is carrying out the world’s largest mining listing since the height of the mining boom, going against the tide of shrinking coal markets. [10]

It was this that led to the successful adoption and acceptance of the various coal price indices that several organisations had been trying to bring to the coal market for several years. 3.3.Indices and financial coal trading The most significant change to take place in the last twenty years has been the successful introduction of financial coal trading. [2] If it wishes to support its domestic mining at the same time, it needs to recognise the impact of coal imports and set the domestic coal price at least on a par with import prices (import parity price). 5. [2] Adding a transport cost delta to the agreed, indexed coal price to arrive at an import parity price means that future variations in coal and transport costs can be captured. 1 Thermal Coal and Petcoke Marker Price Methodology and Specifications, IHS Markit Ltd., July 2018 and Methodology and Specifications Guide, ARGUS Coal Daily International, Argus Media Group, August 2018. [2] EURACOAL page 10 of 31 17 August 2018 1.6.Market price for coal in Ukraine If we assume that market participants (buyers and sellers) act rationally, then coal prices in Ukraine would be set by the marginal cost of the last supplier. [2] Shipping cost deltas (US$6.5/t to US$14.5/t) and port-handling charges (US$6.75/t to US$7.85/t) are as published in “Industrial Cargoes”, Metal-Courier, Metal-Expert LLC (www.promgruz.com). 1.5.Coal industry structure in Ukraine The EURACOAL publication Coal industry across Europe (6th edition and previous editions) offers an overview of the coal industry in Ukraine which comprises a mix of private and state-owned coal mines. [2] “The prospects are better than any time since 1970,” says Joe Angleton, who has viewed the declining coal industry as a member and officer of the United Mine Workers of America and, most recently, as director of the office of mines and minerals in the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. [10] The coal industry was supposed to have improved air quality in the mines enough to prevent miners from inhaling the coal dust that inflames, stiffens and blackens their lungs. [10]

“Why I?m here is that I, with a couple of my colleagues from Alberta that have coal mining in their ridings, as well as coal energy in their ridings, we obviously have some big concerns, for you, for the communities and the big impact that this will have on this part of Saskatchewan as well as Alberta,” said Kitchen. [10] Surface coal mining reclamation: 10 years of progress, 1977-1987. [3] Hard to only run a coal mine for a few months a year. (This is why the SA coal fired and the Leigh Ck dedicated coal mine shut down.) [3] A study has found that among surface coal mine operations, dragline equipment produced the loudest sound at a range of 88-112 dBA. 30 Within longwall sections, stageloaders used to transport coal from the mining face and shearers used for extraction represent some of the highest noise exposures. [3] In the United States, “colliery” has been used to describe a coal mine operation but nowadays the word is not commonly used. [3] Source: European Commission Decision C(2011) 8882 of 07.12.2011 on State aids SA.24642 (N 708/2007) for the closure of hard coal mines in Germany and SA.33766 (11/N) notification of aid to coal for 2011 published on 20.09.2012 (OJ 2012/C 284/02 pp.6-10). [2]

For the United States as a whole, natural gas provided 32% of total electricity generation in 2017, slightly higher than coal’s 30% share. [3] The amount of coal ash has ballooned in part because of increased demand for electricity, but more because air pollution controls have improved. [3] The EPA issued its first ever regulations on coal ash, a toxic byproduct of burning coal for power. [3] Industry representatives estimate 43% of coal ash now gets recycled in such items as concrete or wallboard — two “beneficial uses” that use one type of coal ash. [3] In The uses of coal ash. 1996 approximately 22% of the fly ash produced was used for construction purposes such as making cement and concrete products, structural fills and embankments, as a mineral filler in asphalt pavement, golf courses etc. [3]

Coal pricing in Ukraine – advantages of market indicators 5.1.Summary Until mid-2016, Ukraine used an administrative system to determine coal prices. [2] The implementation of the coal price setting mechanism in Ukraine does not penalise local producers for the inherent sulphur content of Ukrainian coal. [2]

The Statista Global Consumer Survey offers a global perspective on consumption and media usage, covering the offline and online world of the consumer. [33]

The Paris accord aims to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century, but allows countries to set their own emissions targets. [5] Like many countries in the region, it is funding its expansion with loans and technological help from China and Japan. [11] Approximately one billion tonnes is exported, either by rail to neighbouring countries, or by sea. [2] Various countries have limited their nuclear generation since the tsunami hit Japan?s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear units in 2011, forcing nuclear decommissioning, and petroleum has been on the decline for a long time as a generating fuel. [11] Countries with domestic producers have had to respond to this market transparency. [2] In lesser developed countries and some developing countries, many miners continue to die annually, either through direct accidents in coal mines or through adverse health consequences from working under poor conditions. [3] This crisis became even more severe as coal mines where lost due to the conflict in the East and the consequent need to import coal to meet demand. [2]

He mentions that looking at the global coal market; South Africa is a good supplier to the coal market. [3] As a result of increased competition in the European coal market. notably from Russia via Baltic ports and Colombia, there has been a marked shift in South African exports to the Indian sub- continent, in direct competition with Indonesia. [2] Traditionally, South African coal is exported to Europe which is a declining coal market. [3]

Since there is little depth in the low-volatile steam coal market, and few international producers, there is no reliable index for coal of this quality. [2] EURACOAL page 19 of 31 17 August 2018 Figure 17 – Other steam coal price indices or “marker prices” Source: IHS McCloskey Coal Report 3.4.Advantages of index-based pricing 3.4.1. [2] To establish a transparent benchmark price for imported steam coal, NEURC chose the API 2 coal price index, this being a combination of the prices reported independently by two commercial providers of coal-market information in the Argus/McCloskey Coal Price Index Report. [2] Some basic economic terms are introduced to explain the formation of steam coal prices on the international market. [2]

It provides illustrative magnitudes for coal taxes, their revenues, terms-of-trade improvements resulting from supply-side taxes, and impacts on global coal consumption. [3] Anyway, how about a bit of Creative Entitlement for highly-paid workers to induce them to leave the coal industry for good and not return to it through a back door? Something like a ninety-percent cut in their income tax liability for their next six years in another industry? Would that do for the hors d’oeuvres, with even more attractive goodies served up for the following courses? Unfair? Of course. [3] A three-judge panel reviewed coal ash rules established by the Obama administration in 2015, and changes the Trump administration made to those rules earlier this year. [3] December 2013: Study says coal ash kills 900,000 fish a year in North Carolina. [3]

The report from Environment America raises concerns beyond groundwater contamination, warning that 14 coal plants with onsite coal ash storage ponds are located within FEMA?s 100-year flood zones, meaning that the area is reasonably expected to flood at least once a century. [3] “Why are the coal industry and its advocates always going on about ultra-supercritical coal plants and not about emissions regulation?” asked Lauri Myllyvirta of Greenpeace East Asia in an article for reneweconomy,com. [3] In order for the domestic coal industry to remain competitive with imported coal, a subsidy known at the Kohlepfennig (coal penny) was introduced as part of the electricity tariff in 1975. [2] In order to determine the amount of State aid a coal undertaking is entitled to, Germany has issued a special implementing legislation, the so-called “coal guidelines” (Coal guidelines of the Ministry for Economy and Labour of 8 April 1998 (Bundesanzeiger of 7.5.1998, p.6509) modified on 2 August 1999 (Bundesanzeiger of 2.9.1999, p.15265)), which define how State aid for the German coal industry is calculated. [2]

There is a museum dedicated to coal mining in the region of Catalonia, called Cercs Mine Museum. [3] Coal mining costs might also be low because a particular coal resource is easily accessible. [2] “For all its talk about cutting coal mining capacity, China actually plans to add more.” the news outlet reported on Monday. [5] “Coal deposits of South Africa – the future of coal mining in South Africa” (PDF). [3] In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, and the above-ground structures the pit head. [3] An open-pit coal mine in the Rhineland lignite mining area ( Germany ). [3] Their costs are low because they are more productive, reflecting a significant capital investment in coal mine projects (e.g. deposit exploration, acquisition of mineral rights, acquisition of land or access rights, mine development, automated machinery, transport infrastructure and facilities for workers). [2] All FOB prices are provided by fewer sellers than delivered CFR (cost and freight) prices and reflect the reported coal prices from only one region or even one location. [2] Report by EURACOAL on the formation of coal prices in market-based ec? Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [2] Uses of coal ash The American Coal Ash Association emphasize the commercial value of what they term as “coal combustion products” – or CCPs. [3] Disposal sites for coal ash are more likely to be located in and around low-income and minority communities, a fact that?s prompting a U.S. commission to look into whether coal ash is a civil rights problem, too. [3] A new Duke University-led study has revealed the presence of radioactive contaminants in coal ash from all three major U.S. coal-producing basins. [3]

August 2013: EPA confirms coal ash contaminates water across country. [3] There is no meaningful federal regulation of coal ash on the books; indeed, oversight of ash disposal much of it stunningly casual is largely left to the states (Truthout link missing.) [3] More than a dozen ponds containing coal ash are located in flood zones throughout the United States, putting them at risk of flooding during storms or high water. [3]

“The current business environment allows Russia to expand its exposure to the global coal market, to strengthen its position and raise its market share,” Putin said in late August. [7] In order to be consistent with international coal prices, the NEURC formula requires a reliable, transparent index for thermal coal at a location as close to Ukraine as possible. [2] In Section 5, the report turns to the situation in Ukraine where administrative coal pricing led ultimately to a crisis in the coal industry. [2] In addition to the June 2017 withdrawal from the Paris agreement, Trump?s Environmental Protection Agency has fought tenaciously to lend support to a coal industry in retreat because of competition from cheaper wind, solar and natural gas. [3]

By 1912, surface mining was conducted with steam shovels designed for coal mining. [3] Producers in the world?s largest shipper face an order backlog of 18 months as they aren?t able to get hold of additional mining equipment, Pandu Sjahrir, chairman of the Indonesian Coal Mining Association, said in an interview in Jakarta. [10] As a consequence, RAG Aktiengesellschaft, the owner of the two remaining coal mines in Germany, announced it would close all mines by 2018, thus ending coal mining in Germany. [3] The problem with keeping cola fired as an occasional reserve is that coal stockpiles can spontaneously combust and there aren’t always going to be coal mines that would be willing to divert product from steady customers. [3]

The coal reserves in the country are estimated at 5.5 billion tons. [12] Steam coal shipments destined for Asia grew to 1.86mn short tons (1.69mn metric tonnes) from 1.39mn st in July 2017, according to figures released today from the U.S. Census Bureau. [18] The port’s terminals handled 4.29mn short tons (3.89mn metric tonnes) of coal last month, up from 2.89mn st a year earlier, according to the Virginia Maritime Association. [18]

They joined countries including Britain, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Italy, France, the Marshall Islands and some other countries as well as states in the U.S. in ending the reliance in coal power. [32] Reducing global consumption of coal should be vital and urgent priority for all countries and states. [32] At least 46 countries, states, provinces and cities have now joined an international alliance to phase out coal from power generation by 2030 and to cease further investment into coal power. [32] A number of developing countries in Asia, including the Philippines, India, Vietnam and Bangladesh, are still looking to build new coal plants to bring electricity. [32] Gerry Arances, executive director of the Center for Energy, Ecology and Development (CEED) and one of the co-coordinators of the International Coal Network, reiterated the need for countries such as the Philippines to phase out coal before their 2030 target, saying that that 100% renewable energy should already be in place in developed countries by 2030 and developing countries before 2050. [32]

The Global Climate Action Summit (GCAS) this week in San Francisco witnessed the much-needed climate leadership with the increasing number of members to the Powering Past Coal Alliance that aims to advance the transition from coal power generation to clean energy. [32] Even after the rollback of the Clean Power Plan, the White House expects the percentage of energy generated by coal to decline by 20 percent between now and 2030. [16] Now the mines are being turned into lakes, and power that once came from coal is made in a furnace 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) away. [31]

Demand for coal has plummeted over the past decade amid a flood of cheap natural gas from the U.S. fracking boom and advances in wind and solar energy. [16] Eventually coal replaced wood as the primary energy source, and by the 1940s it provided up to 75 of U.S. energy. [17] The widespread use of renewable energy sources had almost no effect on the world’s coal output. [12] In today’s world, despite the spread of alternative energy, coal remains a key fuel. [12] In terms of consumption of this type of fuel, Kazakhstan ranks twelfth in the world, while coal accounts for 85% of all power plants capacity. [12] Coal dominates the world energy arena thanks to an abundance of resources and wide availability. [12]

The coal reserves in the Green Continent are estimated at 76.4 billion tons. [12] Indiana has approximately 57 billion tons of unmined coal, of which nearly 17 billion tons is recoverable using current technology. [17]

Last year, Ukraine produced 34.916 million tonnes of coal, which is 14.5% less than in 2016. [12] Over the last six years, more than half of all U.S. coal plants have closed or made plans to. [32] The decline of coal has been precipitous: In 2010, the U.S. had 580 coal-fired power plants providing 45 percent of the nation’s electricity generation. [16] Coal-fired power plants produce almost 40 per cent of global electricity today, making carbon pollution from coal a leading contributor to climate change. [32]

Denmark’s total installed wind power is now more than 3,000 megawatts–about 20 percent of the nation’s electrical needs. All over Europe generous incentives designed to reduce carbon emissions and wean economies from oil and coal have led to a wind boom. [31] Today, there are fewer than 350 coal plants responsible for about 30 percent of the country’s electricity. [16] South Africa delivers coal to the countries of Europe, China and India. [12] With this big push to end coal use, many countries are not willing to commit to a total phase-out just yet. [32]

Both coal and natural gas exports are key to President Trump’s “energy dominance” agenda. [18] “Judging from this, it is clear that renewable energy alternatives cannot be seriously pursued while coal continues to be the go-to fuel of developing economies like the Philippines,” Arances told the Philippine EnviroNews. [32]

The members of the Powering Past Coal Alliance believe that phasing-out unabated coal power is one of the most important steps governments can take to tackle climate change and meet commitment to keep global temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius, and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. [32] RE increased by only 1,732 MW in a span of 11 years since 2007, or 3% annually, while installed capacities of coal plants jumped by 85% from 2005 to 2016. [32] Japan, which lacks its own oil, gas, and coal, continues to encourage a fission program. [31] Coal provided close to 60% of U.S. electricity in the mid-1980s, and only about 30% in 2017. [17] The owner of this mine is South Eastern Coal Fields Limited, which is a subsidiary of Coal India Limited. [19] For most of the 20th century, the Democrats’ alignment with labor unions such as the United Mine Workers helped them reliably win in the coal country of Appalachia. [16]

“If we don’t have a proactive energy policy,” he says, “we’ll just wind up using coal, then shale, then tar sands, and it will be a continually diminishing return, and eventually our civilization will collapse. [31] There are efforts underway to retrain coal workers for jobs in renewable energy or other industries. [16] Consumers are, and new technology is delivering exactly what they want and that is energy that is cheaper and cleaner than coal,” Bloomberg said. [32]

During 1999-2000, it produced over 18 million tonnes of coal and removed 12 million m3 of overburden. [19] Recent analysis has found that more than 800,000 people die each year around the world from the pollution generated by burning coal. [32] Australia exports about 90% of its coal occupying one of the first places in the world. [12]

Montana has joined a lawsuit over Washington state coal export terminals. [18]

The American Lung Association believes that the effects of coal pollution kill about 7,500 Americans every year. [16] It holds the record of producing 100000 tonnes of coal in single day in year 2007. [19]

Coal has been one of most valuable natural resources since the 1300s when the Hopi Indians used it for the first time. [17] SECL reported that on 18 March 2007, Gevra Open Cast Mine produced 100,000 tonnes of coal, the highest quantity of coal ever produced by any mine or coalfield in India on a single day. [19] We won’t run out of coal anytime soon, or the largely untapped deposits of tar sands and oil shale. [31] You can’t have a private coal plant, but you can have your own windmill, with batteries for calm days. [31] It has reportedly proposed lifting a requirement that coal plants install equipment reducing toxic mercury emissions. [16]

Asia remained the top destination for U.S. thermal coal for a ninth straight month in July. [18] President Trump made revitalizing the industry a centerpiece of his 2016 campaign, blaming Obama administration environmental regulations for killing coal jobs. [16] Only about 1,300 new coal jobs have been created during Trump’s presidency so far, and Trump’s efforts haven’t reversed the long-term problems facing the industry. [16]

According to the declaration of the alliance, the health effects of air pollution from burning coal, including respiratory diseases and premature deaths, impose massive costs in both human and economic terms. [32] It’s clear that the carbon dioxide spewed by coal and other fossil fuels is warming the planet, as this magazine reported last September. [31] About 28 businesses also stands ready to partner with governments to embrace the shift away from coal and other fossil fuels. [32]

Montana and five other states have filed an Amicus Brief against Washington state concerning a permit to expand a port facility in the city of Longview for the purpose of exporting coal and coal products, primarily to Asia. [18] The promise of coal jobs remains potent in states like West Virginia, which has been devastated by the coal bust. [16] The party’s embrace of environmentalism — as well as its deepening culture divide with white, rural Americans — has put coal states such as West Virginia and Pennsylvania in play. [16] “We have ended the war on beautiful, clean coal,” Trump declared during his first State of the Union Address, in 2018. [16]

The fifth place in this list went to Indonesia with a coal output of 386 million tons. [12] Coal is the country’s leading source of carbon emissions that contribute to climate change. [16] Coal exports out of Hampton Roads, Virginia, set a new four-year high in August after slumping the previous three months. [18] Nearby are gaping pits where coal was mined for generations to feed power plants and factories. [31]

China dominated the global coking coal market through increased production of coking coal from new mines in the region. [14] Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. [13] Reserves, production, prices, employment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. [13]

Data on U.S. coke production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports are also provided. [13] What impact will China shale have on the market? Lynn-Yuqian Lin from Wood Mackenzie writes that, considering the impact of shale gas production on domestic demand, the 2020 13-bcm gap will have to be filled by imports, in particular LNG. Therefore it is unlikely to ease tightness in the market. [29]

Lignite production fared better, but still recorded a 13-million-tonne loss in 2016 from the record 73 million tonnes a year produced in the mid-1980s. [9] The drop has been most visible in hard-coal production, which amounted to 70 million tonnes in 2016, a far cry from the 150 million tonnes that the sector contributed in 1990 or the record 200 million tonnes it produced in 1970. [9]

According to the report, shale has grown significantly in China to nearly 600 wells and 9 bcm of production. [29] In its latest analysis published on April 17, Wood Mackenzie projects Chinese shale gas production to almost double, to 17 bcm in 2020. [29]

The country has a self-imposed target of increasing the share of gas in its energy mix from approximately 7 percent today to 10 percent by 2020, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). [29] This dramatic shift in fuel dependence from the world’s most populated country has, according to Reuters, skyrocketed the price of domestic liquefied natural gas (LNG) to a three-year high and resulted in major industrial players scrambling to compete for supplies against domestic demand. [29] In its World Energy Outlook 2017, the International Energy Agency (IEA) states that China’s natural gas demand will rise to over 600 billion cubic meters by 2040, which is more or less double its usage today. [29] Poland?s choice of Katowice is also likely to underscore the difficulties shared by coal-dependent countries around the world, including top energy consumers like China and India. [9]

U.S. coal consumption totaled 156.9 million short tons in second-quarter 2018, which was 6.4% lower than the 167.7 million short tons reported in firstquarter 2018 and 6% lower than the 166.9 million short tons reported in secondquarter 2017. [13] The electric power sector accounted for about 92.1% of the total U.S. coal consumption in secondquarter 2018. [13]

Lastly, we will also identify any pricing issues, price ranges, and explanation of price variations of products in Lignite Coal industry and help in decoding. [15] LAUNCESTON, Australia (Reuters) – Coal prices in Asia are being driven to multi-year highs. allowing countries such as the United States and Russia to plug the gap. [15] Higher thermal coal prices in May could have encouraged producers to increase exports. [15]

In a nod to the EU?s policy of decarbonisation, Poland points to a set of strategies it has that will potentially limit CO 2 emissions and other pollutants associated with coal mining, coal power and heat generation. [9]

As such, in 2017 China saw its LNG imports rise by almost 50 percent, and overtook South Korea as the world’s second-largest importer, according to data from Reuters. [29] Complete report on Global Coking Coal Market Report: 2018 Edition Report Available at http://www.marketreportsonline.com/774156.html. [30]

North American energy demand already peaked in 2014, and U.S. energy companies will increasingly rely on exports to ship out its oil and gas production. [34] U.S. crude oil production is expected to rise by 840,000 bpd to 11.5 million bpd next year, lower than a previous expectation to increase 1.02 million bpd to 11.7 million. [35] OPEC also said that total global oil supply increased by 490,000 bpd in August, to average 98.88 million bpd, a result of OPEC production growth and rising output in industrialized, oil-consuming nations like the U.S. However, U.S. oil production growth in 2019 is projected to grow at a slower rate than previously forecasted, according to EIA estimates. [35] Russia, for its part, who for all intent and purposes rescued a Saudi-led OPEC in early 2016 by agreeing to cut production to drive up global oil prices that had driven the kingdom into the red, forcing it to secure funds by issuing international bonds and by unpopular austerity measures, is also warning that oil markets remain “fragile” due to geopolitics and production declines in key regions. [35] A slowdown in U.S. production growth next year comes at a delicate time for oil markets, especially with Iran production being curtailed while uncertainties remain in Venezuela, Libya and Nigeria, all three are OPEC producers. [35] U.S. production this year is expected to grow 1.31 million bpd to 10.66 million bpd, unchanged from EIA’s previous forecast. [35]

Organized development of Indiana?s coal resources began in the 1830s and by 1918, production exceeded 30 million short tons. [17] Actual production was raised from 18 million tonnes to 26 million tonnes annually in 3 years. [19] The annual production capacity of this mine is 41 million tonnes. [19]

Following World War II, the advent of large-scale excavation equipment made surface mining more cost efficient and by 1965, surface mining accounted for more than 80 percent of the state?s annual production. [17] The EIA expects that U.S. crude oil production, most of it light sweet crude, will continue to exceed Russian and Saudi Arabian crude oil production for the remaining months of 2018 and through 2019. [35] “Washington is not in charge of America?s energy production. [32]

Coal generates around 40% of global electricity production. [36] Lignite or brown coal is also often used for electricity production but its calorific value is usually much lower than that of thermal coal. [36] Jharkhand has the first rank in coal reserves and its production. [23]

Coal is the main source of energy in India as it fulfils almost 67 per cent of the total commercial energy consumed in the country. [23] Odisha has the second largest coal reserves in the country and it carries more than 24 per cent of the total coal reserves. [23] About 8 per cent of the coal reserves of the country are found in Madhya Pradesh. [23]

It lies south of Dhanbad and stores the best of metallurgical coal (bituminous) in the country. [23]

The downside is limited, however, as current prices provide only the slimmest of profit margins for coal producers around the world. [36] Coal fuels energy-intensive cement plants, making these plants the top industrial source (up to 18 percent ) of the nation?s CO 2 emissions. [37] Coal was generated in the Carboniferous Period starting around 360 million to 290 million years ago through the build up of silt and other sediments. [36] About 77% of South Africa?s primary energy needs are provided by coal. [22] We look at key coal trading hubs in Europe, South Africa and Australia in addition to major areas of supply and demand including China and Europe. [36]

We offer the following regional Coal analysis and news coverage to keep you informed of factors and developments affecting prices in the Coal marketplace. [36] Over 25 years of reporting on key chemicals markets, including Coal, has brought global recognition of our methodology as being unbiased, authoritative and rigorous in preserving our editorial integrity. [36] The type of coal used for electricity generation is usually referred to as steam or thermal coal, while coal used for steel manufacturing is metallurgical coal or coking coal. [36] Godavari valley holds the coal of the state and Singareni coalfield (185 km to the east of Hyderabad) is the main mining area. [23] Raniganj coalfield is the most important coal reserve and mining coalfield of West Bengal. [23] Gondwana coal: Around 98 per cent of India’s total coal reserves are from Gondwana times. [23] India’s 7 per cent of the coal reserves are found in Andhra Pradesh. [23] Chattisgarh has the third largest coal reserve in India and carries about 17 per cent of the total coal reserves. [23]

Over the course of six out of the past eight years – including all of the past five – the Rotterdam coal front year has gained more (or lost less) than the year+2 contract. [36] Palana and Khari mines of Bikaner district in Rajasthan carry Lignite deposits (inferior quality of coal). [23] The coal produced is mainly used in the thermal power plants and railways. [23] Singrauli is the largest coalfield of MP. It supplies coal to the thermal power plants at Singrauli and Obra. [23] It is known for good quality coal with about 50 to 65 per cent carbon content. [23] Anthracite is the best quality of coal which carries 80 to 95 per cent carbon content. [23] The coal found in Gujarat is of poor quality and contains only about 35 per cent of carbon. [23] The coal deposits of Tamil Nadu (lignite coal) are found in Neyveli in the South Arcot district. [23] A rich coal seam runs from Zimbabwe to South Africa through the area. [22]

Gevra Opencast Mine in Korba Coalfield of Chhattisgarh under South Eastern Coalfields Ltd is the largest coal mine (on production basis) in India as well in Asia. [19] It accounts for about 40% of global electricity production. [12] The production of this type of fuel is estimated at 413 million tons here. [12] In 2013, the level of production of this fuel reached 85.5 million tons here. [12]

The cartel’s oil production increased last month by 278,000 bpd over the previous month, OPEC said yesterday. [35] The EIA left 2018 production and demand growth forecasts unchanged. [35]

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) said on Tuesday that the U.S. likely surpassed Saudi Arabia and Russia earlier this year to become the world’s top crude oil producer. [35] Global oil demand will peak sooner than expected in 2023 as renewable energy expands and the adoption of electric vehicles grows more quickly, and yet the world will still fall short of the temperature goals adopted in the recent Paris climate agreement, according to a new report released Monday. [34] From the OPEC crunch of the 1970s to the skyrocketing cost of oil and gasoline today, the world’s concern over energy has haunted presidential speeches, congressional campaigns, disaster books, and my own sense of well-being with the same kind of gnawing unease that characterized the Cold War. [31]

The reserves of this type of fuel in the country reach 33.6 billion tons. [12] Worldwide, about 440 plants now generate 16 percent of the planet’s electric power, and some countries have gone heavily nuclear. [31] Reprocessing plants in other countries also turn spent fuel into MOX. But those plants originally made plutonium for nuclear weapons, so the Japanese like to say that theirs, due to start up in 2007, is the first such plant built entirely for peaceful use. [31]

Novak also said that sanctions on Iran brings “huge uncertainty on the market – how the countries, which buy almost 2 million bpd of Iranian oil will act.” [35] All around the world, peoples from different countries are waking up to the need for decarbonization and transitioning to Renewable Energy,” he said. [32] Nuclear fission appeared to lead the race as an energy alternative decades ago, as countries began building reactors. [31]

Coal consumption declined due to the increased supply of cheaper and cleaner natural gas, growth of renewable energy sources, and rigorous environmental regulations. [17] True to his word, President Trump has tried to use federal power to revive the coal industry. [16]

The world uses some 320 billion kilowatt-hours of energy a day. [31] In China, more than 50% of the world consumption level is used. [12] With solar now providing less than one percent of the world’s energy, that would take “a massive (but not insurmountable) scale-up,” NYU’s Hoffert and his colleagues said in an article in Science. [31]

The country’s oil Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak sounded the caution note on Wednesday at an economic conference in the Russian city of Vladivostok. [35] According to the National Agency of Mining Industry, the country recorded an increase in mineral extraction by 18%. [12] In 2012, the country exported 134 million tons of this type of fuel. [12] At present levels of efficiency, it would take about 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) of solar panels–an area bigger than Vermont–to satisfy all of the United States’ electricity needs. But the land requirement sounds more daunting than it is: Open country wouldn’t have to be covered. [31]

The leading position among the coal-mining countries is occupied by China. [12] The second place among the coal-mining countries of the world is taken by the United States. [12] Arances said that when the alliance was formed in November 2017, the Philippines was among the countries which enthusiastically welcomed the formation of such a network geared towards decarbonization on a global scale. [32]

Foreign markets are lining up to purchase American coal by widening amounts as U.S. coal consumption reaches its lowest level in more than three decades. [18] By the 1970s, the development of cheaper surface mining proved a viable alternative for the coal industry. [17] Rising coal prices could get another boost as Hurricane Florence shuts down exports from the Virginia coast, halting supplies to elsewhere in the world. [18] The United States is the second largest consumer of this type of fuel in the world. [12] The continent leads the world in wind power, with almost 35,000 megawatts, equivalent to 35 large coal-fired power plants. [31]

Almost 37% of the country’s electricity is generated in coal-fired power plants. [12]

In December 2012, the volume of coal mining amounted to 116.6 million tons here. [12] The White House has also eased restrictions on the dumping of toxic coal ash in streams and waterways, lifted a moratorium on new coal leases on federal land, and killed a federal study on the health impacts of mountaintop-removal coal mining. [16]

The main coal deposits of the state lie in Singrauli, Muhpani, Satpura, Pench Kanhan and Sohagpur. [23] Most of the coal fields in the state of Jharkhand are located in a narrow belt running in the east-west direction almost along 24 degrees north latitude from the Gondwana period. [23] Most of the coal deposits of the state are found in Sambalpur, Dhenkanal, and Sundargarh districts. [23] Kamptee coalfields (in Nagpur district) and Wardha valley (stretched over Nagpur and Yavatmal districts) carry most of the coal deposits in the state. [23] Coal in the state of Jammu and Kashmir is of inferior quality and is found at Shaliganga, Handwara, Baramulla, Riasi, and Udhampur districts along with the Karewas of Badgam and Srinagar. [23]

The main difference between the two is in the calorific value, with typical calorific value of steam coal at 6,000kCal/kg. [36]

USA will probably lead in the production and use of polluting fossil fuels (coal, oil & NG) but China will continue to lead in the production and use of affordable REs, new NPPs, EV batteries and EVs of all sizes. [38] This method is called as the effective agen bola terpercaya method since it can raise the production process and mining can produce more coals compared to the other mining method. [20] Aside from its lower production cost compared to the traditional process, the MTR allows the workers to dig more coals, as the mountain is torn from the surface. [20]

As oil resources diminish, coal use as a source of liquid fuels and chemicals is expected to increase. [39] Coal is still used as the source of power, and most of the countries still use coals for the power plant. [20] Coal is our country?s dirtiest energy source, from mining to burning to disposing of coal waste. [40] We would only finance coal plants under rare circumstances, such as when there are no feasible alternatives to meet basic energy needs. [41]

DUESSELDORF, Germany, Oct 5- German utility RWE on Friday said a court ruling which delays its ability to mine brown coal in Hambach, Germany will result in a more than 100 million euro fall in operating profit for its Lignite& Nuclear division in 2019. Germany aims to raise wind and solar power’s share of. [42] Carbon Capture has lost its appeal for many in the U.S. who now favor regulations that stopper emissions from coal power. [25] The U.S. EPA signed constitution in 2001 that basically allowed coal companies to dump the waste to any valley near the mine. [20]

The Coal Country movie could somehow balance these two factors and rises up as one of the most appealing movie in the year. [20] Why? Coal Country is a documentary; as such, it contains facts and not fictitious accounts regarding the industry. [20] When the Coal Country shows the environmental threats coming from the use of MTR, this movie is different. [20] For the country itself, coal is still needed for power plant, although these brings bad impacts in many aspects. [20] Few documentaries have been feared by certain parties and Coal Country is one of those. [20] The biggest concern the sbobet companies have toward Coal Country is the possibility of them to shut down all operations altogether. [20] The winning documentary Coal Country movie has one term that is often mentioned during the film. [20] The classic Coal Country movie is presented in a different way. [20] Instead of being blown away with the visual effects, the audience is expected to think of the possible solutions, like in Coal Country movie. [20] This movie tries to bring this awareness for people who watch Coal Country. [20] This movie is released on 1987 and this brings the same context as the Coal Country. [20] Those are things that is tried to deliver by the Coal Country. [20] Our campaign is uniting grassroots activists across the country to move America Beyond Coal. [40]

Mine workers have constantly protested against the company even way before Coal Country’s release. [20]

Donald Trump formally nominated his initial coal bailout architect, Bernard McNamee, to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) today in order to fill the seat of resigning commissioner Robert Powelson. [40] The movie wanted to focus on the use of MTR as the method in mining the coals. [20] The movie focuses on the aspect of MTR as the method used in mining the coals. [20]

This week FirstEnergy Solutions dropped a bombshell of an announcement — it filed notice with the grid operator to retire four fossil fuel plants, including the two largest coal plants ever. [40] Former coal lobbyist and acting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Andrew Wheeler is holding the nations only hearing for public comment in Chicago on the Trump Administrations plan to repeal the historic Clean Power Plan (CPP) and move forward with its Dirty Power Plan. [40] It will take hundred years of reclamation if the coal company diligently does the reclamation project in the mountain area. [20] Coal: we didn’t get out of the mine ( Prot l’environment: une impuissance collective. [43] Both the coal companies and mine workers became all too worked up due the existence of the movie itself. [20]

While the coals provide pollution, its mining method also provides pollution. [20] The method is to devastate the ground, so miners and the mining devices can easily take the coals. [20]

This week I?m joining leaders from around the world at the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco, where I?ll deliver this message from the Beyond Coal Campaign: Despite Trump, you can still. [40] The MTR method includes the use of heavy truck to bring the coal from the top. Imagine how wide the land that should be cleared and trimmed for this purpose. [20] Instead of digging for coal, the judi bola company applies a method called mountain top removal or MTR. The procedure could be done within hours and the cost is far less than the traditional course. [20] This is one of the coal supplier for many cities in the States. [20] The International Pittsburgh Coal Conference Program Committee reserves the right to accept, place on a waiting list, or reject any paper. [39] The raw coal material needs longer process before it could be sent to the power plant. [20] Today the Illinois Pollution Control Board (IPCB) modified the widely criticized proposal by Governor Bruce Rauners administration to bail out Dynegy-Vistra coal power plants in Illinois. [40]

Overall, 92.1% of its gas output and 83.8% of its oil production comes from its home country, which makes it a crucial supplier of China’s energy needs. That’s worth noting, since the country is currently the second-largest oil consumer and third-largest gas market. [44] The company operates three major West-East Gas Pipelines that move gas from production fields in the country to demand centers as well as several other pipeline systems. [44]

While it paved the way for Chinese growth, it came at a dangerous cost: 1.6 million Chinese citizens die each year from respiratory illnesses linked to small particulate matter emissions, of which 27 percent come from cement production. [37] In 2017, South Africa’s natural industrial diamond production was flat, coming to 2 million carats, the same as the previous year. [45] BP’s acquisition of shale gas assets in the U.S. and its deal with Rosneft position the company to increase gas as a percentage of its production in the coming years, which is one of the company’s strategic pillars. [44] Elsewhere, the IEA predicted an eventual rebound for Brazil, although the country’s production is falling well short of expectations, and is now expected to rise by just 30,000 b/d this year, to 2.77 million b/d. [46] Offsetting the worries over OPEC, the IEA said Iraqi production had jumped by 90,000 b/d in August, and with Iraqi exports running at nearly 4 million b/d it had shipped more crude than Iran had produced, this despite an upsurge of public unrest in the southern oil hub of Basra. [46] BP gets 1.3 BCF/D of its gas production from its 19.75% stake in Rosneft, which is a state-owned oil and gas company in Russia, where it’s one of the largest gas producers. [44] Royal Dutch Shell became the world’s second-largest gas producer in 2016 after spending $70 billion to buy BG Group, which boosted Shell’s natural gas production rate by 25% while also adding a large-scale LNG business and vast gas reserves. [44] According to Australian Mines Atlas, it?s no surprise that the country is a major producer of natural industrial diamonds — Australia’s diamond production is heavily weighted toward lower-quality diamonds that are well suited to industrial applications. [45]

China pours 60 percent of the world?s cement ; the country?s production in 2011-2013 surpassed U.S. production for the entire 20th century. [37] In February, U.S. crude oil production exceeded that of Saudi Arabia for the first time in more than two decades. [47] In June and August, the U.S. surpassed Russia in crude oil production for the first time since February 1999. [47]

That’s an increase of 4% from the prior year — almost double the 10-year average growth rate — thanks to a big uptick in production from Russia, which contributed about a third of global growth. [44]

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW Market Overview Current & Future Analysis Emerging Countries Offer Strong Growth Prospects China Remains a Major Force in the Copper Industry Pricing Scenario Table 1: Copper Price Trends (in US$/tonne): 2011-2 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Improvement in PMI Signals Growth Table 2: Global Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) for the Years 2013 through 2018 (1Q) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 3. [48] “Non-OECD demand has so far been resilient in the face of significant currency depreciations in some countries that amplify the effect of higher dollar oil prices and deterioration in the economic environment. [46] London — The International Energy Agency warned Thursday that the oil market is entering a “very crucial period” due to uncertainties over Libya and Venezuela and Iranian sanctions, and said demand in non-OECD countries was proving mostly resilient to currency depreciations. [46]

Countries like China and the U.S. are replacing coal-fired power plants with cleaner-burning gas plants. [44]

China and the world cannot afford the environmental and climate costs of cement production. [37] Cement production exploded in the 1970s to fuel the country?s urbanization, and continued to expand even as urban construction started to slow in the past few years. [37] Put simply, much of the DRC?s diamond production comes from rebel-owned mines that do not adhere to global standards for labor or human rights. [45] Russia?s natural industrial diamond production remained flat in 2017 at 18 million carats. [45] Botswana saw its production of natural industrial diamonds remain steady in 2017 at 6 million carats. [45] It estimated Iran’s crude production had fallen by 150,000 b/d to a 25-month low of 3.63 million b/d in August. [46] OPEC crude output rose to a nine-month high of 32.63 million b/d in August, helped by a rebound in Libyan production, which however remains unpredictable in the light of Monday’s events in Tripoli, where the head of NOC, Mustafa Sanalla, at one point had to be evacuated from the headquarters building due to a rebel attack. [46]

“A rebound is in sight. with Petrobras and its international partners starting up seven new production systems this year followed by another two during 2019,” the IEA said. [46] Miners in Australia and South Africa have already started to cut production to boost prices, however, this is yet to have a lasting effect on coal prices, which continue to hover around historic lows. [36] That production base will get a near-term boost, because the company is acquiring the bulk of BHP Billiton’s U.S. onshore assets, including its position in the gas-rich Haynesville shale as well as land in the oilier Permian Basin and Eagle Ford Shale. [44] The Chuanyu gas region supplies 19.7% of its gas, while all others, including its overseas investments, contribute 22.7% of its production. [44] That project would allow the company and other producers to increase production from the Montney and Duvernay shale plays in Western Canada. [44]

It takes 200 kg of coal to make 1 metric ton of cement –and in 2010, China produced nearly 1,868 million metric tons of cement, representing a whopping 10 percent of the nation?s total coal consumption. [37] Some of the highlights include its stake in Chevron’s Gorgon facility in Australia, a joint venture with Qatar Petroleum to develop the North Field — which is the largest gas field in the world — and the PNG LNG Project in Papua New Guinea, which produced 8.3 million metric tons of LNG last year. [44] Natural gas companies produced a record 3.68 trillion cubic meters (~130 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas last year, according to BP’s ( NYSE:BP ) Statistical Review of World Energy. [44] That puts gas right up there with renewable energy and increased energy efficiency as one of the three main factors that will help the world meet its energy needs over the next two decades. [44]

To date, DOE has approved 21.35 Bcf/d of long-term exports of natural gas to any country in the world not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. [47] Aside from being the top producer of these stones, the country also holds the second-largest reserves at 150 million carats. [45] The Changqing Oil and Gas Region in the north central part of the country is the company’s largest gas producer at 33.3% of the total in 2017. [44] The Tarim Oil and Gas Region, which is in the northwest part of the country, is the second-largest gas producer at 24.3%. [44]

In 2012, it paid CA$2.2 billion ($1.7 billion) for a 49.9% stake in Encana’s Duvernay gas field and also bought a 20% stake in Royal Dutch Shell’s shale-gas assets in the country. [44]

“Ever since the 2008 global financial crisis, the Chinese government has used investment in infrastructure, real estate, and industrial capacity as a way to stimulate the economy,” Greenpeace?s Lauri Myllyvirta states in an interview, “That?s what is behind the mind-blowing amount of cement the country uses.” [37] Rio Tinto?s (ASX: RIO,LSE:RIO,NYSE:RIO) Argyle mine is a major source of both gem -quality and industrial natural diamonds in the country. [45] In 1871, the De Beers mine and the Kimberly mine were discovered in the country. [45]

Out of all the natural industrial diamond-producing countries, Russia has the largest amount of reserves, coming in at 650 million carats. [45] “The situation in Venezuela could deteriorate even faster, strife could return to Libya and the 53 days to 4 November will reveal more decisions taken by countries and companies with respect to Iranian oil purchases. [46] Below are the five top natural industrial diamond-producing countries of 2017, using statistics from the U.S. Geological Survey report mentioned above. [45] Of all the synthetic industrial diamond-producing countries, China produces the most. [45] Shell produces natural gas from several countries, with its largest supplies coming from Norway, Malaysia, Australia, the U.S., and Canada. [44]

The company is the country’s biggest natural gas producer — with a 70% market share — and second-largest oil producer. [44] While most investors think of Exxon as an oil giant, it’s also one of the largest natural gas producers in the world. [44] That also made it the world’s top gas producer, with the company contributing 12% of the global supply in 2017. [44] In addition to being the largest current gas producer, Gazprom also holds the world’s largest natural gas reserves — which are known gas supplies in the ground — at 17% of the total. [44]

Demand for these diamonds is rising in the U.S. and around the world, largely due to infrastructure projects where slicing through asphalt and other hard surfaces is required. [45]

Uninterrupted supply and lacklustre global demand are weighing on international coal prices, with little relief in sight. [36] ICIS provides expert coverage of global coal markets, bringing you pricing information, in-depth analysis, commentary and news. [36]

The main coal mining centres of the state are Auranga, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Jharia, Giridh, Karanpur, Ramgarh and Hutar. [23]

The bulk of the company’s gas comes from the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area of Russia, which is in the north central part of the country near the Arctic. [44] While the bulk of Rosneft’s gas output is from its home country, the company also produces gas in Canada, Egypt, Venezuela, and Vietnam. [44]

The DRC?s incredible mineral wealth comes at a cost — the country is also home to widespread corruption and political turmoil, issues that gave birth to the term “conflict minerals.” [45] PetroChina produces natural gas from several fields in the northern part of its home country as well as others in the southwest. [44] PetroChina is also China’s largest natural gas transportation company, operating nearly 32,000 miles of gas pipelines in the country, which represent the bulk of its pipeline network. [44]

Gazprom is Russia’s largest natural gas producer at 68% of the country’s total. [44]

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