3D Printing & Supply Chain Disruption

3D Printing & Supply Chain Disruption
3D Printing & Supply Chain Disruption Image link: http://science.dodlive.mil/2016/11/30/3-d-printing-evolving-for-tomorrow-today-through-additive-manufacturing/
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Transportation planners are on the frontlines of the latest supply chain disruption -- and they're making significant progress in more ways than one.(More...)
  • Technology and mitigating supply chain disruptions are top of mind for many procurement professionals.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • For him there's no real distinction between the supply chain and production: You produce parts close to where you need them, and it?s the design and manufacturing data that you need to transport there.(More...)
  • This study has opened a dialogue window for the changes forecasted in the era of 3DP. Evidently, the current fashion supply chain as a whole is still undergoing a shift and an acceptance for ongoing technologies, such as the programs that enable 2D digital pattern drafting towards 3D simulation in fit evaluation.(More...)
  • Within blockchain's use as a digital ledger is the potential for a new supply chain model entirely.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS

Transportation planners are on the frontlines of the latest supply chain disruption -- and they're making significant progress in more ways than one. [1] Generate short and long-term plans: develop long-term plans to evaluate potential impacts to products and business models and be prepared in the short term to respond to unexpected events such as rapid disruptions. [2] Clearly, there is some potential for disruption not only on the basis of cost (assuming quality is comparable to traditionally made products), but also in the underlying acquisition process. [3] Although it's easy for a supply chain manager to become accustomed to the nuances of the current supply chain, it's wise not to get comfortable -- there are plenty of major disruptions ahead. [1] Look no further for the type of disruption digital brings than to the transformation of transportation where Uber eclipsed Fortune 500 companies in valuation in less than two years by harnessing the power of digital technology. [4] The good news is that logistics companies might be ideally placed to ride this wave of change, if they are willing to embrace the disruption as an opportunity to develop market-leading B2B services. [5]

They must know before any business disruption strikes what their mission-critical processes are and the associated resources needed to perform those processes. [6]

According to Wilson, a good business case incorporates three components ; a cost model, performance factors and supply chain disruption. [7] Supply chain disruption refers to innovative strategies for overcoming existing "pain points" within your business. [7]

Highly agile supply chains offer companies the capabilities they need to quickly capitalize on new opportunities and break down old barriers, helping them drive disruption, innovation, and profit. [8] To establish the type of bimodal supply chain envisioned by Gartner, a company first must recognize that industry disruption is imminent, says Tata?s Lekstutis. [9] Supply Chain management professionals are worried about the technological disruptions and its impacts. [10]

That orientation has been triggered in large part by all the supply disruptions in recent years, including tsunamis, hurricanes, and West Coast port strikes, Van den Bossche explains. [9] While Gartner has presented bimodal capability as a golden fleece of sorts, the need to stay on target regarding current goals while also getting ready to withstand -- or trigger -- industry disruption is a significant quandary for some companies. [9] A novel technology often leads to some forms of disruptions that are a result of the average consumer applying new tools in their everyday lives (Lipson and Kurman 2013 ). [11] Digital disruption is about interrupting business models or entire economic sectors. [12]

Technology and mitigating supply chain disruptions are top of mind for many procurement professionals. [13] Japanese supply analysts emphasize how supply chain disruptions can be minimized through both "lean" or "just in time" production, combined with post-event planning on shifting production to other plants not impacted. [14]

Warehousing will change considerably, says Weber, whose company is working with SAP and Deloitte to analyze supply chains for constructive disruption: "It truly feels like we are standing at the front lines of the next industrial revolution as these programs are starting to get some legs on them." [15] At this event, academics and industry practitioners gathered to discuss and debate the key disruptions which will alter global first and last mile logistics in the near future. [16] When this happens, they predict a realignment of global economic power as on-demand production is decentralized, i.e., supply-chain disruption. [17]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

For him there's no real distinction between the supply chain and production: You produce parts close to where you need them, and it?s the design and manufacturing data that you need to transport there. [18] Most supply chains involve an extensive design process upfront. [19]

That?s something that?s come to the fore in the last five years or so, particularly with the use of sintered titanium in the aircraft industry, where additive manufacturing allows the creation of stronger pieces with less material and less waste, according to Sabrina Berbain, associate professor of supply chain at ISG International Business School, speaking at the Add Fab additive manufacturing conference in Paris recently. [18] There will always be naysayers and those who are scared to abandon their traditional methods, but the onset of the digital supply chain might leave you with no other choice. [19]

"Looking to 3D as a disruptive technology for manufacturing, it really gives us an opportunity to become part of the supply chain, or to take another part of the supply chain and put it inside our portfolio. [20] We can apply our current processes - just making small changes to adapt them to 3D. We put 3D right inside the core of PostNord?s logistics network in Stockholm, which gives us the benefit of having a whole supply chain inside a logistics terminal with a fully developed logistics network." [20] Jabil?s engineering, manufacturing and intelligent supply chain solutions help you capitalize on accelerated change and achieve digital business advantage. [4] Additive manufacturing, combined with the intelligent digital supply chain, is helping virtual teams across the globe collaborate on new designs, compare actual physical representations of a product, save time from concept to prototype to pilot to production, and even move production closer to consumers. [4] "As additive manufacturing creates myriad new options for how, when and where products and parts are fabricated, what network of supply chain assets and what mix of old and new processes will be optimal?" he asks. [4]

Although the initial excitement of cryptocurrency has waned a bit, supply chain managers are beginning to realize the value in blockchain technology within the modern supply chain. [1] These implications spell out a major shift in the economics of manufacturing, open up new design opportunities, and improve supply chain and aftermarket dynamics. [21] The ATC center helps manufacturing engineers master the machines, but it also trains materials specialists to reshape supply chains. [22]

We here at PostNord will try to be the leaders of this development moving on further because we believe very strongly that this can create a opportunities for a lot of companies, and we want to be the ones to make 3D accessible to businesses and consumers. [20] More companies will start to realise what you can do with 3D, because it?s not only an additive manufacturing luxury, it?s actually a way for you to develop your ideas, to make them a reality. [20] "Other logistics companies are working on 3D as well," he says. [20]

This study has opened a dialogue window for the changes forecasted in the era of 3DP. Evidently, the current fashion supply chain as a whole is still undergoing a shift and an acceptance for ongoing technologies, such as the programs that enable 2D digital pattern drafting towards 3D simulation in fit evaluation. [11] Blockchain and other distributed ledger technologies "could significantly change the way retailers and consumer packaged goods (CPG) manufacturers operate their supply chains to sell goods and services,? predicts Peter Loop, principal technology architect at Infosys." [12] A 3DP integrated supply chain will also result in a huge impact on the way products are distributed, promoted in a retail environment, and interacted with consumers through personalization services. [11] Aside from the above mentioned four areas of impact, design and product development, sourcing and manufacturing, retail, distribution and consumer, and sustainability optimization in a 3DP integrated fashion industry, there are also challenges between the major components in ultimately achieving an efficient fashion supply chain. [11] In consideration of supporting industry talents in a 3DP integrated supply chain, fashion education would be expected to reconsider existing curricula to include new knowledge and skills in domestic sourcing, 3DP integrated supply chain management, smart or DDM manufacturing, as well as collaborative approaches with the design and product development sector. [11]

One of the biggest obstacles in integrating DDM in the current supply chain, particularly using technology like 3DP, is embedded in the design and product development sector. [11] Through providing low-volume and tailor-made products on-site, technology like 3DP would also help reduce material-supply risks, supply chain network complexity and inventory costs (Laplume et al. 2016 ). [11] "If technology exists that may make a company?s role within a supply chain obsolete, then that company needs to look at the collective "cradle-to-grave? activities that go into the procurement, development, and final sale of any particular product or service," says supply chain consultant Alex Calderone. [9] The technology of 3DP is recognized for its potential to disrupt the traditional supply chain, in which offshore sourcing for manufacturing from developing countries will evolve into more domestic or local production (Winnan 2013 ). [11] The three following potential impacts help explain the technology saturation and ability to complement the current supply chains. [11] Currently, the core focus and feature of 3DP technology are embedded in its potential to interrupt the current supply chain and enhance the concept of product mass customization. [11] To recognize and organize such integration, the nature of DDM was first examined in contrast to the traditional manufacturing approach or the current supply chain in fashion product manufacturing. [11] Many companies that make products and assets are moving toward an as-a-service model, enabled by software, connectivity, and intelligent supply chain capabilities. [8] Considering various new business models that support 3DP based product customization, consumers in such a supply chain may carry a bigger role in product design and production. [11] It?s clear that the era of new technologies and business models disrupting supply chains is only beginning. [9] Companies are using various digital technologies that, among other effects, eliminate certain supply chain activities and players. [9] Various 3PL logistics players are focusing on integrated supply chain benefits by catering to the overall health of the product along with the health of the fleet. [10] By investing in next-generation digital logistics, retailers are gaining greater end-to-end control over their supply chains, empowering them to meet increasing consumer demand for fast and accurate delivery. [8] Different supply chains - fast and slow, short and long - respond to different needs: from bringing resources to the factories near consumer markets, to moving parts through global value chains, to connecting the different players within industrial clusters. [23] Experts have noted that 3DP technology has the potential to reshape the global fashion supply chain by altering its geographic span and density (Laplume et al. 2016 ). [11] The coming era of 3DP will lead to a fundamental and revolutionary change in the global fashion supply chain. [11] This trend will drive major change in global supply chains. [23] These factors not only determine the design of global supply chains, but also the speed and magnitude at which technology-driven nearshoring can advance. [23] Often, design processes in a DDM integrated supply chain require lots of interdisciplinary efforts, and a designer in the future would be challenged to work with those talents who are unconventional partners to the traditional process. [11] Since the supply chain is viewed as a club with pre-existing, pre-approved members, chain managers have a hard time grasping why they would submit their transaction-sharing processes to a fully decentralized network and a permissionless blockchain such as bitcoin or ethereum. [24] When we hear about supply chain managers giving thought to blockchain solutions to their problems, it's worth remembering where they are coming from: they represent large buyer companies and tend to view their supply chain proprietarily. [24] This suggests that supply chain managers should not only be looking at blockchains but also striving for the most open, permissionless model they can handle. [24] A connected supply chain is not just affecting the operating models of manufacturers; it is also impacting different firms like logistics provider. [10] As supply chains start to function more like the demand chain of this scenario, trust dilemmas like this may force manufacturers to look to blockchain solutions. [24] Unsurprisingly, companies like Adidas and Nike want to turbocharge their supply chain s. [23]

Shay Scott, executive director of the GSCI, notes, "There?s no meaningful way for any company to try to adopt every technology currently relevant to supply chain. [12] Oversea industry suppliers may be concerned over ways to achieve a new competitive edge and sustain their power in the global supply chain. [11] The overall focus of this connected digital transformation is to bridge the supply chain gaps, focus on accountability, innovate revenue streams and improve the whole customer experience across the industry. [10] Surviving - and thriving - in the digital economy requires nimble and intelligent digital supply chains that predict and respond to changes in the ecosystem. [8] De Bernardini points to a number of emerging technologies he believes are disruptive enough to change how supply chains work. [12] What De Bernardini doesn't note is that cognitive technologies with embedded analytics are going to be essential to analyze available data in support of all organizational processes not just those associated with the supply chain. [12] David Lengacher, Head of Data Science at MonarchFx, predicts data science as a whole will have a disruptive impact on supply chains. [12] How will this transform the supply chain management process across the firms? How will digitalization of supply chain impact the firms and customers? If we start looking for the answers, the wishful impacts of "connected supply chain" look bold yet believable. [10]

Since the notion of supply chain management emerged in the 1800s, the focus has been on transporting parts, materials, and finished goods from point to point at the lowest cost. [9] The cost of having a single company verify the trustworthiness of an ever-widening array of potential business partners will be too high for any supply chain to remain competitive. [24] Shedding an obsession with costs, supply chains embrace new operating models and high-quality service. [9]

He explains, "Although supply chain management has been slow to the game, advances in data science are now quickly changing the way supply chains are managed. [12] It should come as no surprise, then, that mobile technologies are finding their way into the supply chain. [12]

Postponement pushes the finalisation of a product down to the end of the chain - for example, the colour and certain parts come last. [23]

Commonly, 3D computer-aided design (CAD) programs are applied with 3D scanning technology to model and render the virtual representation of real products. [11] Designers today will be mostly challenged in developing digital design skills, such as applying 3D modeling CAD programs, and translating traditional training knowledge into the virtual design environments to develop various unique yet efficient and sustainable design and product development processes. [11] Traditional training for fashion designers commonly does not include the 3D modeling and rendering techniques using digital fabrication methods, such as 3DP. Previous studies focusing on design cognition in 3D modeling of wearable products has suggested that a designer usually faces a challenge in accurately perceiving haptic and visuo-spatial experience in the virtual prototyping process (Sun and Parsons 2014 ). [11] The tacit knowledge from traditional training will need to be converted to information applicable in the virtual design world, hence the 3D CAD process where new digital tools will apply. [11] Traditional designers need to develop the skills in applying efficient 3D CAD processes for transforming abstract design ideas into real prototypes or outcomes. [11] The boundary of knowledge needed for design and product development processes will become blurred, as a designer will be often required to not only adapt to 3D CAD processes but also learn new materials, relevant 3DP technology and applications. [11] It is thus critical that fashion designers not only be able to design using 3D CAD modeling techniques but also apply the material knowledge in strategizing the overall design and product development process, especially considering the limitations in the existing 3DP processes, such as building volume. [11]

It is urgent that fashion designers acquire knowledge in new material and technology and gain skill sets in developing 3D CAD based objects independently. [11] The current 3D CAD modeling and rendering programs are based on x-y-z coordinate system, including Solidworks, 3D Studio Max, Google Sketchup, and Rhino were not developed with the traditional fashion designer in mind. [11] For 3DP based wearable product design, scholars (Sun and Parsons 2014 ) have found that traditional fashion designers would need to efficiently apply their spatial visualization ability (Kozhevnikov et al. 2010 ) and their tacit knowledge in order to effectively translate or convert the conventional hand-on based tools, procedures, and workflow into the 3D CAD processes. [11] Traditional prototyping and production processes for fashion designer, such as 2D flat patternmaking and 3D draping, often involve using muslin to develop a sample garment to fit the preselected mannequin. [11]

These processes require the designer to understand real material properties and dimensions of the body form and develop their abilities in dimensional crossing from 2D to 3D, or their spatial visualization ability, in various problem-solving stages (Gitimu et al. 2005 ; Orzada and Kallal 2001 ; Workman and Ahn 2011 ). [11] The machine, most often guided by digital 3D models, either melts metal or powdered solids or ejects liquid or semiliquid materials. [25] The skill of translating 2D ideas to 3D models or prototypes will become more critical in developing the spatial visualization skill needed for such CAD processes. [11] 3D scanning procedures may be utilized in a reverse engineering approach, in which various object iterations or modifications can be made quickly based on scan data without having to develop the base model from the start. [11]

3DP technology requires future talents to use a xyz coordinate system based 3D CAD modeling, rendering, and simulation programs, such as Rhinoceros and 3D Studio Max, in creating virtual product prototypes using real world measurements and references. [11] The 3D CAD modeling or rendering processes are often supported by the use of 3D scanning technology, which is capable of producing real world measurement data for a variety of objects from small jewelry pieces to large building structures. [11] 3DP pioneers today have also been advancing 3DP based wearable design through 3D CAD simulation technology. [11] A designer would be expected to adapt to the logic of common 3D CAD programs and effectively visualize design, solve problems, and strategize ways of applying various 3D modeling tools (Vanderploeg et al. 2016 ). [11] The new paradigm will inevitably lead to the ultimate adoption of DDM that is stimulated through new design thinking, efficient 3D CAD processes, adequate 3DP capability, available open source, and flexible and dynamic 3DP support services. [11]

The designer?s foremost challenges in this transition may be largely embedded in transferring traditional knowledge into the 3D CAD environment and converting traditional techniques and approaches terminologies into available digital 3D CAD tools. [11] A human avatar is often utilized in the 3D CAD process as a "virtual dress form" for wearable product design (Sun and Parsons 2014 ). [11] Product design using complex structures would require the use of 3D computational design, which may involve tools such as the Grasshopper plug-in for Rhinoceros in visual programming. [11]

Within blockchain's use as a digital ledger is the potential for a new supply chain model entirely. [26] The session will also cover how SAP is leveraging blockchain as a global track and trace ledger, and in conjunction with IoT and integration with Ariba Network (B2B procumbent marketplace with over 2.5M buyers and sellers) to further accelerate the digital transformation and merging of manufacturing and supply chain. [27] The Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain, when used together, let enterprises track/trace goods across supply chains, detect fraud and conduct activity audits, potentially preempting product recalls. [28] Equipment and products, all in a way that is faster and more cost-effective than how the current supply chain operates. [29] The only way to achieve this can be with hightened coordination amongst the stakeholders of the manufacturing process and unlike traditional manufacturing, the stakeholders in an Additively Manufactured Product's supply chain can be competitors who need to work together because of the overlapping features or needs of this new technology. [27] Solidscape?s President and CEO Fabio Esposito explores how producing parts where you need them and when you need them will disrupt global supply chains while creating more agile organizations and customer value chains. [30] We won?t need a lot of stock anymore, the supply chain will be completely simplified, and the cost will significantly go down as well." [15] Who knows where IoT analytics will affect manufacturing processes and supply chains, taking out areas of inefficiency and reducing costs. [17] While IoT and blockchain are powerful technologies in their own right, they offer greater business benefit when used together and dovetailed with existing supply chain and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. [28] Though commercial adoption of blockchain for supply chain is still in its infancy, many are running proof-of-concepts and working to resolve the potential legal issues connected to managing these transactions. [26]

There's plenty of buzz around new technology that will supposedly forever change the world of supply chain leaders. [26] Taught by supply chain pioneers and thought leaders, this program focuses on the innovative ways in which organizations can leverage the supply chain to create and capture value. [16] The entire study of Supply Chain and Value Chain Co-ordination is based on the goal of achieving Mass Customization. [27] Supply chain leaders can use blockchain's ability to protect data to build visibility and efficiency. [26] A continuation of the themes explored in The Rise of the Internet of Things in Global Value Chains (Israel, December 2016), this conference gathered over 100 people to discuss the current and future applications of the Internet of Things in value chains. [16] More than 120 industry leaders and academics gathered at Stanford to discuss the growing role of artificial intelligence in global value chains. [16] Faculty, students, agribusiness entrepreneurs, civil society leaders, impact investors and other executives gathered to discuss value chain strategies to build social, environmental and economic value in global agriculture value chains. [16]

Various value chain studies focus on how postponement, VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory) etc can help companies achieve these goals. [27] Discussions centered around how new technologies and changing consumer behaviors are creating opportunities in the e-commerce value chain. [16]

Results: The 3D models allowed us to plan soft tissue needs for reconstruction, the planes of bone separation, and to anticipate blood flow various organs (colon, bladder, internal female genitalia) and allocate shared organs. [27] The early adopters and forward-thinking groups are utilizing companies like Forecast 3D to manage on-demand needs and quick-turn lots quite well." [15]

Methods: CT scan data was translated into a 3D digital environment which allowed for extensive pre-operative study of shared anatomy to understand how to best separate the infants and then reorient vital organs, skin, bones, muscle and tissue to ensure each girl?s survival following the operation. [27]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(30 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (38) Envisioning the era of 3D printing: a conceptual model for the fashion industry | Fashion and Textiles | Full Text

2. (8) Supply Chain Disruption and Digitization

3. (8) Supply Chains Break Out

4. (6) Value Chain Innovation Initiative | Stanford Graduate School of Business

5. (6) Agenda | Inside 3D Printing

6. (5) Connected Supply Chain: Digital disruption for simplifying customer experience - Wipro

7. (5) Logistics: Moving Into 3D Printing - Disruption Hub

8. (5) 3D-printing might not kill global trade after all. Here's why | World Economic Forum

9. (5) How Blockchains Will Turn Supply Chains Into Demand Chains - CoinDesk

10. (4) Harnessing New Supply Chain Technology Without Falling for the Hype | 2018-07-20 | SupplyChainBrain

11. (4) Additive Manufacturing Will Disrupt Your Business | Jabil

12. (4) SAP BrandVoice: How The Digital Economy Is Blurring Industry Boundaries

13. (3) 5 Technologies Disrupting the Supply Chain

14. (3) 3-D Printing Brings Efficiency to Aviation MRO

15. (2) Will the collaboration of IoT, 3D printing, and blockchain change the world? - Make Parts Fast

16. (2) How 3D printing can affect your supply chain | CIO

17. (2) How Is 3D Printing disrupting the supply chain? | MT Blog

18. (2) Paid Program: Blockchain and IoT: New Ways to Fight Supply Chain Risks

19. (2) Making a Business Case for Additive Manufacturing > ENGINEERING.com

20. (1) Deep Dive | Supply Chain Dive

21. (1) Weather-related supply chain risks shouldn?t be ignored | Articles | Zurich Insurance

22. (1) The impact of 3D printing on innovation and supply chain logistics at Medtronic Technology and Operations Management

23. (1) How distributed and agile manufacturing power new business models | ZDNet

24. (1) How 3D Printing Will Change Manufacturing - GE Reports

25. (1) Will 3D Printing Remodel the Construction Industry?

26. (1) For Ophthalmology, 3D Printing Eliminates Human Donors and Costly Middlemen

27. (1) Examination of 3D Printing - Business Model in Medical Devices

28. (1) We Are 3D | Solidscape

29. (1) 3D Printing Is Already Starting To Threaten The Traditional Spare Parts Supply Chain

30. (1) Resilience Enabled by 3D Printing - Pete Basiliere

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