What Materials Are Used in 3D Printing?

What Materials Are Used in 3D Printing?
What Materials are Used in 3D Printing? Image link: http://coastguard.dodlive.mil/2017/08/research-development-test-evaluation-spotlight-3-d-printing/
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Find everything you should know about additive manufacturing and the technologies used to build 3D objects using layers of material.(More...)
  • Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D micro-fabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerisation.(More...)
  • These technologies have emerged as a valuable tool for surgeons in reproducing anatomical objects as 3D physical models and are being used in the reconstruction of PSI. (More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Use the tags below to quickly sort the materials based on their characteristics, or view our extensive Filament Properties Table for a detailed side-by-side comparison.(More...)
  • Laser sintering techniques include selective laser sintering, with both metals and polymers, and direct metal laser sintering. 48 Selective laser melting does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layer-wise method that has mechanical properties similar to those of conventional manufactured metals.(More...)

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KEY TOPICS

Find everything you should know about additive manufacturing and the technologies used to build 3D objects using layers of material. [1] For the second analysis, the Geomagic software was used to determine the surface deviation between the CAD models generated from 3D scans and the original digital model. [2]

Since the material used to build the model cannot be deposited in the air (e.g. for overhanging parts), the support material prevents it from falling down. [3] What?s the difference between this and Laser Sintering? Because a liquid material is used (and not powder), we need to add support material for overhanging parts and parts that stick out. [3]

HIPS is a lightweight material most commonly used as a dissolvable support structure for ABS models. [4]

Using this technology, non-biocompatible materials, such as ABS or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), are used for creating medical models for perioperative surgical planning and simulations. [5] Since the two share similar properties, HIPS works best when used in conjunction with ABS. But, as the name High-Impact Polystyrene instantly gives away, HIPS is also an extremely durable material that is suitable for shipping containers or other applications that require high impact resistance. [6] How well does this material hold up to UV light and varying temperatures? Not having these properties is holding back many of these new materials from being used in more complex applications. [7] This stunning material can be used to create touch sensors in applications that require human interface devices like gaming pads, and MIDI machines. [6] This material is mostly used in medical applications and the components for the aerospace industry, like turbines or jet engines. [6]

Many SLA resins were designed to simulate the different properties of "traditional" materials mentioned above: You can find a material that is comparable to wax and is used to create wax molds in investment casting. [6] Combinations of materials, such as PCL/chitosan or PCL/β-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) are also used in the FDM process to enhance the bioactive properties of the scaffolds. [5] The materials used in both processes are metals that come in a granular form. [8]

With a little practice, you'll be able to produce parts that are smooth, rough, or anywhere between the two. 3D sandstone material is a brick filament offered by various suppliers under different product names. [9] High Impact Polystyrene, HIPS for short, is a bright, white colored 3D biodegradable material. [9] It's a special type of 3D material that includes a conductive carbon particulate. [9] At the end of each 3D material we'll list its pros and cons. [9] Today, PolyEthylene Terephthalate (PET) is a popular 3D material. [9] A UV laser beam sweeps the surface of a resin tank and selectively hardens the material corresponding to a cross-section of the object, building the 3D part from bottom to top. [10] If you need to fabricate stretchable 3D parts that can endure more punishment than any regular ABS or PLA, this is your material. [9]

Jonathan Benainous is sharing some of the pro tips he used to build his awesome "Desert Rocks" Substance Material! Check this in this new user story and Substance Academy tutorial. [10] For every material, we will specify the technology in which it can be used. [6] Rigid material was used to create molds for nephrology sectioning. [5] Materials with different rigidity were used to mimic native tissue’s mechanical properties. [5]

It is a very economical material and with it is possible ti create parts that can be used for a wide variety of applications. [11] This comprehensive guide compares the 25 most common materials used in CNC machining and helps you choose the right one for your application. [12] If you have used a soluble material such as PVA or HIPS, use the appropriate solution to dissolve your material. [13]

If you are not sure which material to use, look at this filament comparison guide provided by MakeShaper or this one provided by 3D Hubs. [13]

Ultra-small features can be made with the 3D micro-fabrication technique used in multiphoton photopolymerisation. [14] Because nylon is a durable, multipurpose material, and because the entire volume of the heated powder bed can be used to build parts, SLS is a favorite of many designers for production of end-use mechanical components and commercial products in low-volume quantities. [15] Using medical image data, 3D Systems services use different additive manufacturing processes and materials to produce physical anatomical models, with the option to sterilize for reference during surgery. [16] The machine, most often guided by digital 3D models, either melts metal or powdered solids or ejects liquid or semiliquid materials. [17] Access the material and expert resources of a full manufacturing floor anywhere on the globe. 3D Systems On Demand Services provide high quality production solutions in any geometry, finish or volume. [16] Find information on the different materials that can be used with GE Additive's additive manufacturing machines. [1] The UV light used to cure the resin is programmable, allowing users to tune material properties on the fly. [15]

These technologies have emerged as a valuable tool for surgeons in reproducing anatomical objects as 3D physical models and are being used in the reconstruction of PSI. [18] Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, which is why some companies offer a choice of powder and polymer for the material used to build the object. 43 Others sometimes use standard, off-the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype. [14] The main differences between processes are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used. [14]

As the various additive processes matured, it became clear that soon metal removal would no longer be the only metalworking process done through a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer. [14]

It is a common material that is used to make plastic bottles. [19]

For the most part, the gypsum-type materials from the powder binding are used in Medical applications due to the color ability. [20] Materials used in formulating or constructing medical products are evaluated within the context of FDA's evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the medical product for its intended use. [21] Class VI SLA and Materials jetting are used for use for models to be taken to the OR, and surgical guides. [20] A device material cleared for specific intended use as a "tooth shade resin material" is not automatically FDA-cleared to be used for any other purpose, such as for an "Endosseous dental implant abutment." [21] Major materials types include metals, plastics, and ceramics that are used in aircraft components, orthopedic implants, and other industry components. [22] Various alloplastic materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites, are fabricated by AM technologies and are used in reconstructive and orthopedic surgeries. [18]

There is very little regulation on making and owning a 3D gun, which, in turn, creates challenges in identifying parts and materials during an investigation. [23] This eliminates the need for support material and opens the possibility to create complex structures of truly 3D shapes with spatially defined bacteria type and concentration. [24] Despite these remarkable features, the use of the programmable biochemical machinery of bacteria to create "living materials" with controlled three-dimensional (3D) shape, microstructure, and dynamic metabolic response remains largely unexplored. [24] This is due to the lack of manufacturing tools that enable the immobilization of bacteria in a biocompatible medium that can be further processed into functional materials with well-defined 3D geometry and site-specific cellular and chemical composition. [24] Despite recent advances to control the spatial composition and dynamic functionalities of bacteria embedded in materials, bacterial localization into complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries remains a major challenge. [24]

These materials, commonly used in heavy-duty industrial parts, can now be manufactured faster and cheaper than ever before. [25]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Use the tags below to quickly sort the materials based on their characteristics, or view our extensive Filament Properties Table for a detailed side-by-side comparison. [4] Wood filaments combine a PLA base material with cork, wood dust, or other derivatives, giving the models a real wooden look and feel. [4] Carbon fiber filaments contain short fibers that are infused into a PLA or ABS base material to help increase strength and stiffness. [4] Alternately referred to as "LEGO plastic," the material consists of pasta-like filaments that give ABS its firmness and flexibility. [26] Metal filled filaments are made by mixing a fine metal powder into a base material, providing a unique metallic finish and added weight. [4] In powder form, materials like steel, copper and other types of metal are easier to transport and mold into desired shapes. [26] Why is this such a great technology? No supporting structure is needed! The un-sintered powder is the supporting material. [3] This also means that materials that use the same technology such as Gold, Silver, Bronze, and Brass (Lost-Wax Casting) are more likely to share similar design requirements. [3] The nozzle moves to place the material in the correct location to build your model up layer by layer. [3] ABS is very useful for functional applications because it matches 80% of the properties of real injected production material. [3] ABS is available in various colors that make the material suitable for products like stickers and toys. [26]

The material is ideal for device parts that need to be flexible, such as touchscreens. [26] Other materials such as Stainless Steel, and High-Detail Stainless Steel also rely on powder, but are not laser sintered. [3] Compared to other 3D-applicable materials, resin offers limited flexibility and strength. [26]

High-detail resins: Generally used for small models that require intricate detail. [26] Each layer is cured by UV light immediately after being jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately. [3]

Powderized metal has even been used to make medical devices. [26]

Lactic acid-based polymers, including PLA and PCL, are well known for their biocompatible and biodegradable properties, and hence, are extensively used for medical and pharmaceutical applications. [5] A wide range of powdered substances, including polymers and composites, are used for medical and tissue engineering applications. [5] Both SLM and DMLS are used in industrial applications to create end-use engineering products. [8] Topology optimization algorithms are also used not only to maximize the mechanical performance and create lightweight parts but also to minimize the need of support structure and the likelihood of warping. [8]

Common applications include mechanical parts and other objects that need a material that is of excellent strength, highly flexible, and durable. [9] Additive manufacturing (AM) has rapidly emerged as a disruptive technology to build mechanical parts, enabling increased design complexity, low-cost customization and an ever-increasing range of materials. [2] Now it is a common practice for the aerospace industry to produce complex designs in a singular part that use less material, are lightweight, and as a consequence, use less fuel when compared to traditionally manufactured parts. [6] A filament made of plastic or a metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to produce a part. [10] Products created using additive manufacturing techniques can be created with a variety of materials, from plastics to metals to ceramics. [10] We need materials that can break this vicious circle and provide different models of manufacture using materials nature can understand and assimilate on its own. [27] Layers of adhesive coated material are successively glued together and cut in required shapes using a laser. [5] The materials came first, this new process was just a new way of using it. [7] The differences between SLM and DMLS come down to the fundamentals of the particle bonding process (and also patents): SLM uses metal powders with a single melting temperature and fully melts the particles, while in DMLS the powder is composed of materials with variable melting points that fuse on a molecular level at elevated temperatures. [8] The FDM process builds objects by extruding strings of melted material, which harden immediately, to form layers. [10] A liquid binding material is selectively dropped into the powder bed in alternative layers of powder–binding liquid–powder, until the final object is formed. [5] This process is similar to SLS; instead of fusing the powder bed with laser or electron beam, binding liquid is selectively dropped on to the powdered bed to bind the materials in a layer-by-layer fashion as shown in Figure 4. [5] A high-power laser beam fuses the powdered materials in layer-by-layer pattern to form an object. [5] A thermoplastic material is melted and laid on to the build platform in layer-by-layer fashion, until the object is formed. [5] In additive manufacturing, material is laid in layer-by-layer fashion in the required shape, until the object is formed. [5] Competing Interests: Carnegie Mellon University has filed a patent application on the additive manufacturing of embedded materials technology described herein (Application number: PCT/US2014/048643), and Adam W. Feinberg is an inventor on the patent. [2] Other applications for this material include parts and prototypes for the aerospace, automotive, and tooling industries. [6] These materials cover the needs of most industrial application, from aerospace to medical. [8] It's a specialist material that few will have a need for, but those who do work with it find PLA iron filament invaluable. [9] This unique filament is PLA material infused with a powdered iron. [9] This is a PLA material that includes a fine chalk powder to produce a stone-like color and texture. [9] The materials consist of PLA combined with a higher percentage of fine metallic powders. [9] The challenge here, along with maintaining the materials aesthetic properties, is to make sure that none of the precious powder is lost. [6] In terms of durability and physical properties, this material is very similar to nylon. [6] Unfortunately, materials made from oomycetes are not well characterized in terms of mechanical properties at larger scales due to the difficulty of making large-scale parts. [27] Their structures combine cellulose with the second-most abundant polymer on the planet: chitin.Inspired by this newly studied species of oomycetes, the SUTD team mixed small amounts of chitin with cellulose to create an organic, biodegradable composite they call fungal-like additive material (FLAM). [27] With these materials, we want to give designers and artists the opportunity to create new tactile experiences using these "process-driven" textures. [10] The genesis of FLAM began about six years ago when Fernandez was at Harvard, where he began pursuing the use of biological materials in engineering. [27] The main materials are thermoplastic, and there are also other materials like nylon, metal, wood and others. [28] Material with low thermal conductivity but that looks like metal could increase insulation on windows. [7] Like PVA, HIPS also works as great secondary (support) material. [9] This will increase the amount of required support, the build time, the material waste and (ultimately) the total cost. [8] Allowances for the materials weakness should be made already during the design process. [6] Design induced limitations cause material discontinuity, due to poor transformation of complex CAD design into machine instructions. [5] Materials: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), poly-lactic acid (PLA), nylon. [5] A very efficient material is PLA (poly-lactic acid) a versatile polymer built with renewable resources. [28]

Comparatively, PCL has lower mechanical strength than PLA, and thus, used for non-load bearing applications. [5] For instance, biomaterial used for orthopedic or dental applications should have high mechanical stiffness and prolonged biodegradation rates. [5] By contrast, for dermal or other visceral organ applications, the biomaterial used should be flexible and have faster degradation rates. [5] Table 4 shows the types of biomaterials used in FDM technique for clinical applications. [5] Wang et al., have used phosphoric acid and PVA as binding liquids to bind HA/β-TCP powders for bone tissue regeneration applications. [5] Table 7 shows some of the photopolymers used in medical applications. [5] In medicine, FDM is used for fabricating customized patient-specific medical devices, such as implants, prostheses, anatomical models, and surgical guides. [5] Due to these capabilities, polyjet is widely used in the medical field to fabricate anatomical models for surgical planning and pre-operative simulations. [5] Others are used for high-resolution parts that are a perfect fit for visual prototypes, models, props etc. [6] Originally dedicated to internal prototyping as a means of visualizing models in pre-production, additive manufacturing has evolved and is used to produce end-use products in almost all industries. [10] There are other additive manufacturing processes that can be used to produce dense metal parts, such as Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM). [8] As they are used to produce molds with stunning high resolution (0.025mm) for the lost wax casting technique of metal components. [6]

In a first step, the best fit alignment feature was used to overlay the two CAD models using the high precision fitting option (sample size: 300). [2] To use cellulose in the same way plastics might be used, it is usually combined with polluting derivatives or plastics. [27] ABS is the most common thermoplastic polymer used for FDM process. [5] Ferrofluids are used in electronic devices to form liquid seals around the spinning drive shafts in hard disks or more commonly in Mechanical engineering or even for artistic experiments combined with inks to create colorful patterns. [10] Similar approaches have been used to combine molecules to support stem cells in culture. [2] Apart from some exceptions, copper and bronze are mostly used for lost wax casting processes and less often in powder bed fusion processes. [6] It is used both in powder bed fusion and binder jetting processes. [6]

Compulsory post-processing steps include the removal of the loose powder and the support structures, while heat treatment (thermal annealing) is commonly used to relieve the residual stresses and improve the mechanical properties of the part. [8] For biomedical applications, polymer ceramic composite resins, made up of hydroxyapatite based calcium phosphate salts, are commonly used. [5] Since this process does not involve any heating procedures, it is most commonly used for fabricating tissue engineering constructs with cells and growth hormones laden. [5]

In this process, a digital 3D object is designed using computer aided design (CAD) software. [5] In fused deposition modeling, a 3D digital computer-aided design (CAD) model is converted into a physical object through layer-by-layer deposition of thermoplastic by melting of a solid filament. [2]

The toe CAD model was developed from a scan of a life-size ceramic toe cast of an actual toe using the NextEngine Desktop 3D scanner (NextEngine, Inc., Santa Monica, CA). [2] The first involved computing the surface area of the CAD models using the Geomagic Wrap 3D imaging software (3D Systems, Inc., Rock Hill, SC). [2] The expert then re-initiated the EGO strategy for the cube using another CAD slicing program, specifically Simplify 3D (S3D). [2] The cylinder runs were sliced using the Replicator G (Skeinforge) CAD slicing software while the cube was sliced using the Simplify 3D slicer. [2]

In the second step, a 3D color coded mapping of the differences between the original digital model and the CADs from 3D scans was generated through the deviation analysis in millimeters. [2]

The creative use of 3D sandstone filaments has few limits, though it's fair to say that it has a pretty niche usage. [9] When not in use, a good way to store your 3D filament is to use vacuum bags that have a double zipper line for better, airtight sealing. [9]

The filament PLA (lactic polyacid) is considered as a total success of 3D impressions. [28] If none of the above applies to you and your 3D projects, then PLA should be your filament of choice. [9]

Wang Y., Wang K., Li X., Wei Q., Chai W., Wang S., Che Y., Lu T., Zhang B. 3D fabrication and characterization of phosphoric acid scaffold with a HA/β-TCP weight ratio of 60:40 for bone tissue engineering applications. [5] Langelaar M. Topology optimization of 3D self-supporting structures for additive manufacturing. [2]

Compared to ABS, PLA produces 3D parts which are more aesthetically pleasing. [9]

Skin and cores are processed using different laser power and scan speed, resulting in different material properties. [8]

Additive manufacturing uses a combination of materials science, architecture and design, computation and robotics. [29] The true novelty of additive manufacturing lies in its ability to combine new, highly efficient and sustainable materials with architectural design software and robotic technology, to automate and improve processes that have already been proven manually. [29]

Users can control how much filament they actually use instead of having to purchase material by the kilogram. [30] Although attractive options, these materials are not recommended for use as they fall under the recycling code of "7", a category of plastics that cannot be recycled. [30] That means the machines apply layer after layer of a specific material -- plastic, for example -- in a specific shape until a three-dimensional object slowly arises. [31] From strong plastics to polished metals, Shapeways' materials bring your ideas to life. [32] Other materials include PETG, PLA/PHA, HIPS, Nylon, Flexible TPU, Semi-Flexible TPU, PVA, as well as hybrid PLA infused with Carbon Fiber, Wood or various Metals. [13] This material will produce sturdy, shatter-resistant parts and functional prototypes, such as enclosure with snap-fit joints, or rugged prototypes. [12] Tough resin was developed for applications requiring materials that can withstand high stress and strain. [12] Durable resin is a wear-resistant and flexible material with mechanical properties similar to Polypropylene (PP). [12] Durable resin has the highest impact strength and elongation at break compared to the other SLA materials. [12] Comparative chart for elongation at break and impact strength for common SLA engineering and standard materials. [12]

As a hygroscopic material, PETG will need to be kept dry or dried before use. [30]

The next step for the team is to use high-performance computing to predict the performance of future stainless steel and create models that can be used to modifying underlying infrastructures with the potential of exploring other metal alloys. [33] PLA is used for household utensils, toys, educational projects, exhibition objects, prototypes, architectural models. [11] Created from the processing of various plant products, including corn, potatoes or sugar beets, PLA plastic is considered an 'ecological' plastic and is mainly used in packaging for food and containers. [11] Optimal filament extrusion temperature is around 200C heat should be used with caution as it can cause PLA to crystallize and clog. [30]

Durable resin can be used for parts that require high flexibility (high elongation at break), low friction and a smooth surface finish. [12] Class I biocompatible resins can be used to make custom medical equipment, such as surgical guides. [12]

The long chains of polymers that plastic is comprised of will still exist and will not be able to be used by the organisms that consume them, and may even cause build up in these organisms that attract toxic residues, propagating harmful effects on the environment. [30] They can be digested so that the carbon atoms in the polymer chains are broken apart and used by the organisms themselves, returning the plastics to the carbon cycle of the Earth. [30]

Different grades of feedstock need to be formulated and developed, so that this technology can be used to build a range of different structural elements, such as load-bearing and large-scale building blocks. [29] There are several different components of additive manufacturing, each of which must be developed and refined before the process can be successfully used in large-scale construction. [29]

Just like with 3D models, there are a myriad of possible CAD software that you can use to design your own object such as Blender, Autodesk 123D, SketchUp and TinkerCAD. [13] There are an abundance of repositories for 3D models if you do not have the ability to create your own, such as thingiverse, pinshape and sketchfab. [13]

Engineering resins simulate a range of injection-molded plastics to provide engineers with a wide choice of material properties for prototyping, testing, and manufacturing. [12] Image courtesy Formlabs Comparative chart of the material properties of the different engineering resins. [12] Different combinations of the monomers, oligomers, photoinitiators, and various other additives that comprise a resin result in different material properties. [12]

This allows for unique shapes and features to be manufactured that are impossible to achieve through traditional manufacturing processes, including performance optimized parts that use less material. [16] In such processes, build material flow rates are optimized through the use of closely packed, spherical metal particles of similar size. [1] Designers can also optimize the use of valuable build materials to simultaneously reduce weight, retain structural strength and cut costs. [1] SLS produces very accurate parts with fine features and no need for build supports, but is limited to nylon-like materials and TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane). [15] After each layer is complete, a roller spreads fresh material across the top of the bed and the process continues until the part (or multi-part assembly) is complete. [15] Individually shaped objects can be created in layers from various materials, for example plastic, metal and ceramics. [34] PBF systems either utilize a laser, multiple lasers or a beam of electrons to selectively melt thin layers of build material about 20 to 100 microns thick. [1] Known as selective state change or binder jetting, this technique involves applying a laser or a liquid (adhesive or solvent) to a bed of sand mix, powdered metal, or other granulate feedstock, thereby fusing the material and creating a firm solid such as sandstone or steel. [17] Another possibility is a razor-and-blades business model, in which equipment suppliers make most of their profits by selling feedstock and other materials that the equipment uses. [17] By being able to use more than one material at a time, they will be able to better control properties like heat conduction, corrosion protection, as well as environmental adaptation in their materials. [35] "We still have a lot to learn about how to best process these materials and what kinds of additives will improve their properties," Zander says. [36] MJF is more accurate (except on very small part features), is significantly faster, and has more consistent isotropic (Z-axis) strength, yet offers fewer material options (for now, just unfilled Nylon 12). [15] In the near term, then, the tendency will likely be toward integrated solutions: bolder companies might undertake the engineering (and even the design), supply the equipment and software (and even the materials), and carry out the actual construction--in other words, they might deliver entire turnkey projects using in-house resources. [17] We also produce items in order to make sure the material solution qualifies for demanding industrial applications. [34] It was developed for construction by such pioneers as Behrokh Khoshnevis, the founder of Contour Crafting, and is valued by many companies for its versatility in materials (concrete or mortar, gypsum, ceramics, polymers) and applications. [17] Undeterred, the team sought to strengthen PP by mixing it with cardboard, wood fibers and other cellulose waste materials found on military bases to create new composite filaments. [36]

It is used to create a wide variety of industrial parts, including those used in condenser tubing, heat exchangers, jet engines, airframes and marine chemical applications. [1] The resulting parts can be used for production applications ranging from springs and gaskets to dental implants and manufacturing jigs. [15] Hot-work stainless steels are high-load metals ideal for use in the production of parts used in high-volume injection molding. [1] A variety of stainless steel metal powders are used in AM processes like DMLM, including 316L (low-carbon), 17-4PH, hot-work and maraging steel. [1] One key advantage of aluminum alloy powders is that they typically offer better build rates than other metal powders used in PDF processes. [1] This includes ensuring that the EBM and LaserCUSING parameter settings (process themes) are optimized to work well with the metal powder used. [1] The advanced metal alloy is also used in extremely demanding cryogenic and aerospace applications. [1] AlSi10Mg is appropriate for use in numerous aerospace and automotive applications, while AlSi12 is used in medical, aerospace and automotive applications. [1] Plus, it took many years for the metals used with DMLS to pass muster for use in aircraft and human bodies. [15] The use of CoCr in AM processes is often more cost-effective than when it is used in traditional investment casting. [1]

Titanium alloys are also used to produce high-performance race engine parts like gearboxes and connecting rods. [1] It is magnetic, heat-treatable and harder than 316L. Stainless steel 17-4PH is used to fabricate functional prototypes, automotive parts and industrial parts. [1]

Inconel 718 is used to produce metal parts used in gas turbines, jet engines, cryogenic storage tanks and petrochemical applications. [1] Inconel 625 is frequently used in metal parts used in marine applications. [1]

Durable AISi7Mg0,6 is a low-weight aluminum alloy with good mechanical properties used in a variety of ways, including in high-voltage applications. [1]

Ti6Al4V ELI is commonly used in offshore oil and gas extraction applications, where the metal alloy?s extreme resistance to stress corrosion cracking in salt water is an advantage. [1] Although less commonly used, plasma atomization is used with reactive metals that have very high melting points, like titanium alloys. [1]

Minimizing assembly processes delivers stronger, better performing parts faster. 3D Systems? solutions enable the design and manufacturing of consolidated parts for increased productivity and improved product lifespans. [16] Produce optimized jigs and fixtures at lower costs. 3D Systems' solutions offer flexible, fast turnaround manufacturing to speed up processes while improving quality. [16]

Metal additive manufacturing produces high quality, complex metal parts from 3D CAD data. [16] Geomagic Design X is the industry's most comprehensive reverse engineering software, combines history-based CAD with 3D scan data processing so you can create feature-based, editable solid models compatible with your existing CAD software. [16] From reverse engineering and design services to 3D inspection routines, our team guarantees fast, high quality results every time. [16]

Whether mastering 3D digitization and design or critical aspects of manufacturing, surgery and more, students equipped with real world skills are real world ready. [16]

Bring physical objects directly into CAD, supercharge your product development process, and automate precise 3D inspection with Geomagic Capture - the powerful, integrated, industrial-grade 3D scanner and software system. [16] Reduce reliance on inventory while answering short-run production needs. 3D Systems' solutions enable end-use parts to be manufactured on demand, allowing overhead to shrink and productivity to soar. [16] To help you understand how metal additive manufacturing can help you design and manufacture lighter weight parts, 3D Systems is offering a new recorded webinar: "How Metal Additive Manufacturing Delivers New Efficiencies in Lightweight Parts." [16]

Laser sintering techniques include selective laser sintering, with both metals and polymers, and direct metal laser sintering. 48 Selective laser melting does not use sintering for the fusion of powder granules but will completely melt the powder using a high-energy laser to create fully dense materials in a layer-wise method that has mechanical properties similar to those of conventional manufactured metals. [14] Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts. [14] When you buy filaments from Innofil, you can be sure that the products have been manufactured with excellent materials using the best machines. [19] There are plenty of stores that offer recycled PET filaments for those who want to use a material that is specifically recycled. [19] E-Model is a tough material, suitable for high quality prototypes of items in categories such as automotive and consumer goods as well as stable enough for production-quality end use parts. [37] In Fused filament fabrication, also known as Fused deposition modeling (FDM), the model or part is produced by extruding small beads or streams of material which harden immediately to form layers. [14] Some methods melt or soften the material to produce the layers. [14] Advances in RP technology have introduced materials that are appropriate for final manufacture, which has in turn introduced the possibility of directly manufacturing finished components. [38] The term subtractive manufacturing appeared as a retronym for the large family of machining processes with material removal as their common theme. [14] Are you bending it? Hanging something from it? Does it need to withstand impact or heat? Different materials support different combinations of toughness and tensile strength. [39] Sacrificial structures or additional support materials are not needed. [38]

General Electric uses the high-end model to build parts for turbines. 57 Many of these systems are used for rapid prototyping, before mass production methods are employed. [14] These are generally larger machines that use proprietary powdered metals, casting media (e.g. sand), plastics, paper or cartridges, and are used for rapid prototyping by universities and commercial companies. [38] The object rises slowly enough to allow resin to flow under and maintain contact with the bottom of the object. 54 In powder-fed directed-energy deposition, a high-power laser is used to melt metal powder supplied to the focus of the laser beam. [14] Little was used for practical household applications, for example, ornamental objects. [38]

Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography to produce a solid part from a liquid. [14] Titanium is often used with EBM to synthesize medical implants, as well as aircraft parts. [40]

Each photopolymer layer is cured with UV light after it is jetted, producing fully cured models that can be handled and used immediately, without post-curing. [14] Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has been used to create microstructures with a three-dimensional internal geometry. [38]

Retrieved 23 February 2017 via Taylor and Francis+NEJM. ^ "3D Microporous Scaffolds Manufactured via Combination of Fused Filament Fabrication and Direct Laser Writing Ablation". [38] Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and typically are produced using digital model data from a 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File (AMF) file (usually in sequential layers). [14] The use of 3D scanning technologies allows the replication of real objects without the use of moulding techniques that in many cases can be more expensive, more difficult, or too invasive to be performed, particularly for precious artwork or delicate cultural heritage artifacts 123 where direct contact with the moulding substances could harm the original object's surface. [38]

Three weeks later in 1984, Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corporation 12 filed his own patent for a stereolithography fabrication system, in which layers are added by curing photopolymers with ultraviolet light lasers. [14]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(40 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (27) Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

2. (20) Metals Used in Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) | GE Additive

3. (16) 16 Types of 3D Printer Filaments: Comparison & List of 3D Materials

4. (15) 3D printing - Wikipedia

5. (14) 2018 3D Printing Materials Guide | All3DP

6. (12) Lightweighting with Metal 3D Printing: Understanding the What, Why and How of Part Optimization | 3D Systems

7. (12) Expert-guided optimization for 3D printing of soft and liquid materials

8. (11) SLA 3D Printing materials compared | 3D Hubs

9. (9) Introduction to Metal 3D printing | 3D Hubs

10. (8) 3D Printed Materials Beamed Into Substance Source | allegorithmic

11. (8) The Most Important 3D Printing Technologies and Materials | 3D Printing Blog | i.materialise

12. (7) 3D Printing for End-Use Production | White Paper

13. (7) What Materials Are Used for 3D Printing? | Sharretts Plating Company

14. (7) Applications of 3D printing - Wikipedia

15. (6) Closing the Loop On 3D Printing | UCSF Library

16. (5) What is 3D Printing? How does 3D Printing Work? - MakeShaper

17. (5) Will 3D Printing Remodel the Construction Industry?

18. (5) The Significance of Completely Biodegradable 3D-Printed Plastic > ENGINEERING.com

19. (5) 3D Printing Materials Guide - Comparing the 13 Best Filaments

20. (4) 3D printing of bacteria into functional complex materials | Science Advances

21. (4) How to print a building: the science behind 3D printing in construction

22. (3) PLA filament for 3D printing: learning about plastic materials - Felfil

23. (3) PET Filament: Waterproof and Food-Safe Material Plastic for 3D Printing

24. (3) What is 3D printer and what materials can be used for 3D printing? | GearBest Blog

25. (3) The Quest for 3D Printing Material Data | Machine Design

26. (2) Patient-Specific Surgical Implants Made of 3D Printed PEEK: Material, Technology, and Scope of Surgical Application

27. (2) What materials are used in 3D bioprinting? - Quora

28. (2) Process of 3D Printing Medical Devices

29. (2) 3D-Printing / Additive Manufacturing

30. (2) Water bottles and other recycled 3D printing materials | 3D Printing Progress

31. (1) 5 Key Trends in 3D Printing Materials

32. (1) The Next Generation of Crime Tools and Challenges: 3D Printing

33. (1) Engineers Have Found a Way to 3D Print Super Strong Aluminum

34. (1) 3D guns: How 3D printed gun parts are made, and how they're legal

35. (1) 3D Printing Materials: Plastic, Metal, and More - Shapeways

36. (1) 3D printing makes stainless steel three times stronger | ZDNet

37. (1) One-step, 3D printing for multimaterial projects -- ScienceDaily

38. (1) Dental 3D Printing Materials | Clinically-Approved | Industry-Leading

39. (1) 3D Printed Material Strength

40. (1) 3D Printing: What You Need to Know | PCMag.com

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