Blockchain & Global Health

Blockchain & Global Health
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  • In 2014, per capita health spending in low-income countries (LIC) was $120 as compared with $5221 in high-income countries (HIC). 8 In the current financial paradigm, per capita health spending in LICs is projected to rise to only $195 by 2040. 9 Workforce creation and sustainability are dependent on capital flows; without more equitable access to capital and healthcare investments in LMICs there can be no substantial movement towards UHC and health equity.(More…)



In 2014, per capita health spending in low-income countries (LIC) was $120 as compared with $5221 in high-income countries (HIC). 8 In the current financial paradigm, per capita health spending in LICs is projected to rise to only $195 by 2040. 9 Workforce creation and sustainability are dependent on capital flows; without more equitable access to capital and healthcare investments in LMICs there can be no substantial movement towards UHC and health equity. [1]

Blockchain can undergird a health data network, encompassing electronic medical records, information collected via wearable devices, prescription records and more. [2] As health information moves towards an interoperable health blockchain, or ‘Electronic Health Chain’, an increasing number of currently siloed data sets will be linked, making fraudulent activity more challenging and the ability to detect it and other unusual activity less challenging. [1] The quantity and size of health data files present another obstacle to the migration of health records to a blockchain. [2] The very size of health data pools—particularly imaging files—limits the feasibility of entire health records living on a blockchain. [1]

“Firstly, blockchain will be the underlying technology for all financial transactions between Doctor Smart users, including patients, health and wellness specialists, clinics, and insurance providers,” Roytberg said. [3] With blockchain, the creation of a comparably open and transparent health data network is possible; and the creation of such a market offers the potential for both individuals and health systems to monetise the data they accrue ( figure 3 ). [1] Initiatives are already underway to streamline this process in the USA. HashedHealth, a blockchain health innovation company, recently partnered with the Illinois Blockchain Initiative to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the state?s medical credentialling system, with the long term goal of simplifying interstate and multistate licensing on a national scale. [4]

Healthcare leaders around the world have been concerned about “public health crisis”. [5] The report also profiles 16 companies including several key players, such as IBM, Patientory, FarmaTrust, MedicalChain, SimplyVital Health, iSolve, Microso f t, Change Healthcare, and Chronicled, among others. [6]

VentureBeat meta name”description” content”Blockchain technology is changing the way health care is provided to patients around the world, as the transparency of a distributed ledger is a good fit for the industry [3] Crisis management in a city must be coordinated outside between the municipal and national or state authorities and inside between the services that provide health care and those that provide emergency response, as well as with public amenities such as transport services, airport and port authorities, tourism, industry, education, commerce, and the media. [5] An ecosystem for digital health care and wellness services called Doctor Smart is building a health care solution for the masses through its blockchain-powered platform. [3] In many countries, Doctor Smart is positioned as a digital environment where health care providers and consumers meet. [3] “Governments all over the world are looking for ways to embrace digital technologies in health care,” Doctor Smart cofounder Pavel Roytberg told me. [3]

For LMIC governments, this type of data ownership, control and marketisation of health information could incentivise or promote investments in health system strengthening in exchange for access to national data. [1] Efficacy of competing treatment algorithms for patients with cancer, and their likelihood of success based on factors not currently woven into treatment plans; implications of partial medication compliance on long-term health outcomes; and the optimised management of chronic diseases across wildly different populations, all stand to be elucidated by such data. [1] Security of user data is also important for any health care startup. [3] Moving health data from its current, protected status onto open, anonymised public ledgers will require a reorientation of thought and law in many countries. [1] Health data: The ledger system is not limited to transactions. [2]

As per Nasr?–?”Public Health and blockchain really do belong together. [5] More importantly, smart contract blockchains for healthcare will create new funding and capital streams and potentially bring new funders into global health delivery. [1] The academics write that improving access to and quality of health care across the globe relies on increased capital. [2] Today, health systems in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) remain severely underfunded and suffer from limited access to capital markets. [1] Health spending in low-income countries stands at a fraction of that in high-income countries $120 per person compared to $5,221, according to World Bank data from 2014. [2] Such health data, combining data from medical records, wearable devices, pharmacies and, increasingly, genetic and genomic data, stand to tell us more about human health than any major trial or series could. [1] The 2014 Ebola emergency demonstrated the insufficiencies of the framework when a few contaminated people were permitted back in the U.S. in light of the fact that the government did not get data about their health status on time. [5]

Plans should be ready to mobilize medical staff from other places to provide health care in appointed facilities at a time of crisis. [5] Smart contracts: The authors look to Ethereum?s system of smart contracts, in which the release of funding is pegged to the achievement of specific goals, for applications in health care. [2] Crowley DM. The role of social impact bonds in pediatric health care. [1] Then there is the matter of inefficiency, which often results from the weaknesses of health care systems rather than from malfeasance. [7]

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention, some portion of the U.S. Division of Health and Human Services, is wagering on a blockchain-based answer for enhancing information accumulation, examination and sharing at a government level. [5] In the USA, for instance, the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act poses a significant hurdle. [1]

Today electronic prescriptions are directed to specific institutions, making it impossible to reconcile all records of pharmacies and electronic health records across institutions. [1] Universal Health Coverage, Sustainbale Development Goal #3. (accessed 16 Sep 2017). [1] Healthcare data exchange, health insurance, and clinical trials are expected to witness large disruption in the coming years [6] There are many reasons why potential funders have historically shied away from investment in low and middle-income health systems. [1] That last feature opens up Doctor Smart to various health regulations across the globe. [3] We think it is important to decentralize the power that controls important health initiatives like finding a cure for cancer, developing vaccines for emerging infectious diseases or fighting superbugs. [8] These new mechanisms represent only a few ways in which smart contracts on blockchain cryptocurrencies could develop new accountable funding streams and transform global health financing. [1] Scholars at the Robert Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont and Harvard Medical School elaborate upon this potential application of blockchain in a 2017 analysis published in BMJ Global Health. [2] Blockchain, the technological innovation behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, has wide applications beyond finance, such as in global health. [2] For blockchain to reach its full potential and help move the world towards health equity, the global health community and the global financial community must work together to help guide—not force, stifle or oppress—this process. [1] This is among the most promising potential contributions of blockchain to global health education. [4]

Blockchain as a helping hand during the global public health crisis. [5] Another utilization of blockchain is in worldwide general public health, for the efficient, immediate, directed conveyance of help like aid funds stores for provisions on account of emergencies like Ebola and different infectious malady breakouts. [5]

Public Health foundations need to ensure that they get precise and finish information while patients need to guarantee that their data is utilized with their assent. [5] This new technology represents the far end of the spectrum in decentralized “cloud? computing and will require the trust of care providers, educational institutions, patients and governments for blockchain technology to successfully transform global health education. [4] Industry could expand beyond their limited ‘corporate social responsibility’ budgets for LMIC investments and make real market-based decisions with the knowledge that smart contracts and predetermined data flows would correspond to their capital investments in specific health sectors or even more global health system investments at a national scale. [1] We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. [1] Cryptocurrencies could enable universal access to financing mechanisms by removing third-party financial intermediaries and offering transparent, secure and accountable means for global health financing. [1] This represents a significant paradigm shift towards creating global health and financial equity through universal access to financing. [1] UHC and global health equity will not be achieved without first establishing more equitable access to capital markets and financing at all levels, from nation-state to patient-consumer. [1] Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. [1] Blockchain technology could usher in a new era of multilateral financing mechanisms, for example, through the use of smart contracts for health system development. [1] A blockchain-based financing system could reduce fraud and corruption in global health development while accelerating necessary transactions through secure, immutable ledgers. [1] A new startup called Nano Vision, wants to usher in a new era of outcomes in global health by removing borders to make important data accessible to all. [8] As hopeful and potentially transformational as blockchain technology is for global health education, there are still a number of challenges that must be recognised with the underlying technology itself. [4] Development impact bonds, which are used already as an investment strategy for global health initiatives, face challenges with respect to tracking return on investment. [2] Dieleman JL, Campbell M, Chapin A, et al. Future and potential spending on health 2015-40: development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries. [1] For the global health community, this potential is massive. [4] Opening cryptocurrency accounts, verifying your identity, experiencing its security and transferring assets into these cryptocurrencies are all prerequisite steps towards participating in cryptocurrency capital markets and joining this next technological, financial and global health revolution. [1]

Although a portion of this abuse occurs in rich states, a large share takes place in developing countries, where lost money can have major costs for public health. [7] World health organization (WHO) organized an international technical consultation on “Cities and Public Health crises” in Lyon, France, on 29-30 October 2008. [5] Distributed ledgers could help public health workers respond faster to the health crisis. [5]

Results-Based Financing for Health. 2013. (accessed 17 Sep 2017). [1]

One of the key features of eHealth First is the mobile applications. eHealth First wants to revolutionize global healthcare, not just health care for a rich elite. [9] Yury Krestinsky, director of Skolkovo Health Economics and Healthcare Center, and one of Robomed?s first investors, had this to say about the product: “Robomed Network has integrated internationally-recognized medical standards and information management system into the clinics? platforms, which allows them to compare treatments assigned by a particular doctor with internationally-accepted medical standards and best practices”, points out Krestinsky. [10] Blockchain in health: How distributed ledgers can improve provider data management and support interoperability. [11] Fraudulent Medicare billing, for instance, costs the health care system more than $60 billion per year. 19 Establishing an immutable blockchain in which patients are informed of all changes to their health care records and bills would eliminate the possibility of such abuse. [11] Using smartphones to access health records and information not only allows for unprecedented ease of access (courtesy of the blockchain) in both the developed and developing world. [9] Winners announced! Papers suggest new uses for blockchain to protect and exchange electronic health information. [11] Halamka J. The potential for blockchain to transform electronic health records. [11] Due to the nature of blockchain the time, date, and location of updates to the record will naturally be included as well allowing a doctor to build a timeline of your health history. [9] To that end, Gem is working with clients to prototype a global, blockchain-based patient identifier that could be linked to hospital records as well as data from other sources like employee wellness programs and wearable health monitors. [12] Personalized medicine: At the patient care level, common clinical data integration would allow providers to seamlessly use the entirety of a patient?s health data to provide individualized care quickly and easily. [11] Health care providers would need encrypted keys to request information from patients, and patients could, in turn, select who has access to their medical records and when. [11] In its entirety, data gathered across a range of personal health and wellness activity, diagnostic and therapeutic services, procedures, laboratory testing, radiology, smart devices, and genetic testing services could all be securely incorporated into a patient?s unique EHC, accessible to both patients and health care institutions. [11] Digital Health expert and CEO of Izzy Care, Kenneth Colon tells CCN that one of the biggest promises of blockchain technology is enabling patients to monetize their health data, if they so choose, allowing them personally to benefit financially from their data, and not the corporations who traditionally maintain control of this data. [13]

For a health care blockchain, a similar incentive will be necessary to promote a distributed network and realize the true security and speed of blockchain applications. [11] Significant challenges and limitations to implementing health care blockchains remain. [11] Such development is expected to enable patients across the globe to bring down the cost of their medical care and benefit financially from achieving their personal health goals. [13] The company emerged as an electronic health records (EHR) ecosystem app on the Russian market last year, and since then has evolved into a healthcare ecosystem providing innovative medical smart contracts that has the capability to transform the global healthcare industry. [10] The system must facilitate the exchange of complex health information between patients and providers, for example, as well as exchanges between providers, and between providers and payers–all while remaining secure from malicious attacks and complying with privacy regulations. [12] Walker J, Pan E, Johnston D, Adler-Milstein J, Bates DW, Middleton B. The value of health care information exchange and interoperability. [11] Connecting health and care for the nation: A shared nationwide interoperability roadmap. [11] Whether cosmetic surgery, dental implants, a joint replacement or other medical services services, this trend signals a new normal in the globalization of health care. [14] Security: Blockchain technology also stands to improve the security of health care delivery. [11] McFarlane C. Patientory: A health care peer-to-peer EMR storage network v1.0. [11] Martin G, Martin P, Hankin C, Darzi A, Kinross J. Cybersecurity and health care: How safe are we? BMJ. 2017;358:j3179. [11]

Establishing a comprehensive, common ledger would mandate that the totality of every individual?s health data be stored on each node of the network, an impossible feat with existing processing power. [11] According to World Bank and World Health Organization, half of the world lacks access to essential health services and 100 million people are pushed into extreme poverty because of health expenses. [15] This means treating patients as individuals, instead of a one-size-fits-all approach, and taking into account not only their physical health, but their mental health and access to proper nutrition. [13] You cannot expect someone, a patient, to thrive if you?re not caring for them holistically, taking into account their general medical needs, mental health, nutrition, etc. [13] Token rewards can be issued, in a trustless fashion with smart contracts to patients for following their prescribed treatment regimen and making progress towards their personal health and wellness goals. [13]

The world is living longer and longer and that means that health records are getting longer, too. [9] Colon elaborates that blockchain technology can further be used to tokenize a patient’s health and wellness. [13] With the current industry conditions, a lack of transparency, tracking capability, and unification across multiple nodes in the supply-chain is causing inefficiencies, corruption, and ultimately health risks throughout the entire system. [16] We want both scientist and citizen scientists, as we like to call them, to get involved and work together to find the cure for cancer or to eradicate superbugs, and to help create solutions to the health issues that the world faces now and will face in the future. [17]

Data and process management, security and information confidentiality, public health surveillance among other purposes are also being enhanced using blockchain. [13] One of these oft-overlooked areas of potential blockchain disruption involves global humanitarian and public health efforts. [16]

Peters A. Can blockchain disrupt health education, licensing, and credentialing? The Lancet Global Health Blog. [11] Blockchain tech can be tremendously beneficial to global health and humanitarian crises. [16] “There may be specific rules we want to bake into the protocol to make it better for health care,” she says. [12]

Today, the Chairman and CEO of Nano Vision, which focuses on delivery of nanotechnology-powered innovations, is working with his team on developing a company that uses blockchain technology to solve global health issues. [17] All of these things provide much needed developments in the realm of public health and humanitarian services. [16]

“Data is at the center of our business and blockchain offers healthcare an interesting opportunity to innovate around data at new levels that may add exponential value and efficiencies to healthcare,” said Peter Nelson, vice president, Product Management at GHX. “Our product and development team is excited to be working with Hashed Health as we continue to explore these opportunities to drive innovation, and help reduce costs in healthcare.” [18] LOUISVILLE, Colo. and NASHVILLE, Tenn. – May 1, 2018 – Global Healthcare Exchange, LLC (GHX), a healthcare business and data automation company, announced today that it is partnering with Hashed Health, a leader in blockchain innovation for healthcare. [18] SimplyVital Health ( @SimplyVitalHQ ) and Shivom ( @ProjectShivom ) have announced a partnership to advance the formation of a Global Healthcare Blockchain Alliance. [19] Some of the key players in blockchain in the healthcare market are Hashed Health, iSolve, Patientory, Medical chain, Chronicled, FarmaTrust, SimplyVital Health, The Link Lab, IBM Corporation, Change Healthcare, Microsoft, and Optum. [20] Hashed Health is a healthcare innovation company leading the design, development and productive use of blockchain and distributed ledger technologies. [18] GHX and Hashed Health share an interest in using blockchain technologies to solve unmet needs across healthcare. [18]

Exchange of health information is essential for controlling rising healthcare costs. and in promoting quality care. [20] is a community network site dedicated to educating healthcare providers and other stakeholders on the advancement of health information exchange, Interoperability and Federal Initiatives to adopt HIT Standards. [19] A letter signed by more than 50 organizations, representing plans, providers, patient groups, ACOs (accountable care organizations) and health IT companies, has called on CMS to take more aggressive action to promote interoperability and advance health information exchange. [21] For a few years now–from the latter part of the Obama administration through the first 18 months of Trump’s presidency–federal health officials have been adamant about moving from an era of EHR (electronic health record) adoption to one in which these technology systems will make it easier for providers and patients to share health data across the care continuum. [21]

He is a management executive with experience in health information technology, blockchain use case analysis and development. [19] Renowned leaders in U.S. and North American healthcare gather throughout the year to present important information and share insights at the Healthcare Informatics Health IT Summits. [21] Regulators, health systems and innovators are working to bring such an app ecosystem to healthcare, making the open API movement one of Healthcare Informatics’ Top Tech Trends to watch in 2018. [21]

Several other organizations in both the public and private space have launched similar initiatives, including Learning Machine, as well as a recent partnership between Hashed Health and the Illinois Blockchain Initiative that aims to reduce licensing friction across state lines. [22] The market for blockchain in health insurance is expected to witness the fastest growth rate across applications, with a CAGR of 70.2%. [20] Kelly Hoover Thompson, CEO of SHIEC (the Strategic Health Information Exchange Collaborative), a national collaborative that represents health information exchanges (HIEs) and their partners, believes that imposing regulatory requirements is not the best solution to the interoperability problem. [21]

These remain just possible models, and blockchain-based electronic health records that integrate expansive information, such as large radiology images, are, at best, still in development. [22] Several organizations have proposed blockchain-based electronic health records, but regulatory concerns likely will slow implementation. [22] They have started to link reimbursement and EHR (electronic health record) certification to API use. [21] Already, blockchain-focused tech companies have proposed solutions to reshape patient health records, supply-chain management, licensing and credentialing, and payments. [22] This problem stems in part from poor supply chain management, which prevents local health clinics from knowing the provenance of the medical supplies they use. [23] With this tradeoff in mind, the paper considers two use cases, digital ID and health supply chain management. [23]

Recording health supply chain data on a shared ledger could also unlock new capabilities not possible under the current model in which data remains siloed in individual companies. [23] Just as the previous administration changed incentives to encourage EHR adoption, the current one will have to find ways to inspire the next stage of interoperability: the efficient movement of health data. [21] A writeup of a December 2017 meeting on population health APIs found that the most interest among EHR vendors, payers and providers involved instances where population-level data are already being aggregated, transferred and extracted, but doing so is difficult, inefficient and costly. [21] To this end, in recent proposed regulations, federal health leaders have clamped down, perhaps harder than ever before, in their ongoing effort to guide stakeholders to a world in which seamless health data exchange is the norm, rather than a rarity. [21]

Dave Levin, M.D., chief medical officer at Sansoro Health and former chief medical information officer at Cleveland Clinic, describes himself as an “API evangelist.” [21] The World Health Organization estimates that one in ten medical products used in low- and middle-income countries is either substandard or falsified (SF), with most reported cases (42 percent) coming from Africa. [23] As one health IT expert, Jeff Smith, vice president of public policy at the Bethesda, Md. -based AMIA (the American Medical Informatics Association), points out, it could be some time before there are actual interoperability mandates. [21] Blockchain technology is increasingly being touted as the panacea for the interoperability and security issues that plague the antiquated health systems. [20] From the Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons, by Alexander W. Peters, MD, Brian M. Till, John G. Meara, MD, DMD, MBA, FACS and Salim Afshar, MD, DMD, FACS, Blockchain technology in health care: A primer for surgeons. [19]

Electronic health records are a pain point across the healthcare industry. [22] Without legal identification, it can be difficult to access health and education services, open a bank account, get a loan, and vote. [23] Some developers have complained that although the large health IT players have committed to the FHIR standard, they still make it difficult for the startups to access their FHIR APIs or only implement some portions of the specifications. [21]

Health insurance which has been subject to growing number of frauds, especially those conducted by the providers, is also expected to witness up to $10 billion reduction in costs annually. [20] Hashed Health partners with public and private sector clients to collaboratively develop solutions and networks that solve health delivery challenges. [18] Health IT trade groups were keen to give their feedback on the RFI in their public comments. [21]

Interest in improving health supply chains is not limited to developing countries. [23] He says, a developer might create a terrific third-party application and want to integrate that into a health system’s EHR, where the clinical workflow occurs. [21]

He says that ONC (Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have recognized that interoperability is the central challenge of healthcare IT today. [21] Another piece of the puzzle is an information blocking rule from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC), which was originally expected in April, but now has been delayed until September. [21]

For instance, he contends, “data availability–when it comes to matters of life and death are issues of public health. [21] In the global health realm, where organizations like USAID, the Red Cross or the Global Fund aim to track the distribution of donated supplies and medications across regions or developing health systems, a blockchain-enabled supply chain might better enable these organizations to manage inventory and supplies. [22]

While healthcare is in the early phases of experimenting with blockchain, trailing behind other industries such as the financial services sector, health systems are beginning to explore the technology despite slower adoption because of regulations, security concerns and a lack of data standardization. [24] “We?re very early in the blockchain hype cycle and there are a lot of promises being made about how it will save healthcare,” says Noah Zimmerman, assistant professor of genetics and genomic sciences and director of the Health Data and Design Innovation Center. [24] Blockchain Smart Contracts are then used to cover the healthcare expenses of individuals using UhX. Health service providers are paid at a Negotiated Cash Price built into these digital agreements. [25] Today, the lack of data sharing between disparate health IT systems and vulnerability to security risk, has limited healthcare providers to effectively communicate and provide the highest quality of care. [26] Blockchain is already showing big potential for helping health systems manage pharma and medical device supply chain, patient recruitment for clinical trials, security and interoperability of IoT and medical device data and privacy protections for precision medicine, he said. [27] This session will cover the advancement of blockchain adoption within the healthcare system, progress on certain applications (health record, medical interoperability), and rapidly emerging areas of need (i.e. data breaches, medical device vulnerability). [28] Whether it’s AI and machine learning, clinical trial recruitment, empowering patients to manage their own health records, IoT and assorted other clinical applications, IEEE is already deeply entrenched in advancing a wide array of uses for blockchain, said Palombini. [27] “We think it?s unrealistic to use the blockchain as a way to transport protected health information,” he contends. [24] “FHIRChain?s design applies a smart contract to maintain health users? identifiability without exposing personal information on the blockchain,” states the paper. [24] 91 percent of health executives who were surveyed indicated that blockchain and smart contracts will be critical for their organizations over the next three years, according to Accenture?s Digital Health Technology Vision 2018 report. [24] Andrea is a healthcare expert, having worked nationally and internationally with organizations like the CDC, the World Health Organization and the UN Programme for HIV/AIDS. She became passionate about health tech and wellness after dealing with her own healthcare crises, as a patient and caregiver. [29] Members who have used health services send their bills into the organization which then pays the healthcare providers. [25] Care delivery is validated as Health Care Events (HCE) and converted into Blockchain tokens, in real-time to pay health service providers. [25] Asked when they expect blockchain will be integrated into their organization?s systems, 32 percent of providers and 48 percent of health plans said in one to two years, according to a survey by consulting and professional services firm Accenture. [24]

By allowing donors to track money, goods, and treatment in real time, blockchain could transform how organizations fund and execute health programs, curbing waste, saving money, and bringing better care to billions. [30] Personalized Health Experience explores the next big challenge in healthcare — how to integrate health technologies into personal care delivery, wellness and daily living. [28] In some emerging economies, employers and governments lack the resources to fund health services, so much of the healthcare is funded by international charities instead. [25] “We expect that some early use cases could emerge from areas where existing systems and approaches fall short,” adds Joel Dudley, executive vice president of precision health at Mount Sinai and director of the Institute for Next Generation Healthcare. [24] Ideas are finalized for the use of blockchain and a utility token to create an open market, health cost-sharing model with scalability. [25] Robert Barkovich, CEO of Health Linkages, explained it this way: “Blockchain lets us agree on history, even if we don’t all agree or trust each other. [27] While others have written about the power of blockchain to revolutionize health IT and payment models, more ambitious experts including Brian Till, Alexander Peters, Salim Afshar, and John Meara believe the benefits are limitless. [26]

As a patient, it often feels like the bottom line is more important than my health and recent data breaches have made me resistant to sharing my information. [29] Although Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and health IT solutions have successfully consolidated and organized patient information, rapid and widespread implementation resulted in unprecedented flaws. [26] The HIMSS Global Conference & Exhibition brings together 40,000+ health information and technology professionals, clinicians, executives and market suppliers from around the world. [28] Health Data Management delivers insightful analysis of the technology trends, tools and strategies that are shaping healthcare’s future. [24] All Health Data Management content is archived after seven days. [24]

If someone contributes data that is used by an institution to develop a critical health solution, they will get credit and can get compensation for their contribution, just like a musician would receive royalty compensation for the use of his music. [31] Our vision is to be a global decentralized health cost-sharing platform which is customized for each geopolitical use case. [25] UhX?s innovative Cognitive Crypto Collaborative Care Platform (C4P) approach to health delivery and payment is integrated in order to break down the silo systems. [25] We will deliver the very best health care anywhere in the world at the absolute lowest price. [25]

“Some of the core principles of blockchain apply to healthcare,” added Tim Mackey, director of the Global Health Policy Institute at UC San Diego. [27] “the emergence of blockchain has created a new era in global finance in which a global-currency-for-all can promote universal access to financing and in turn, represents a significant paradigm shift towards creating global health and financial equity through access to financing” (Till, Peters, Afshar, Meara 2). [26]

Jaikaran notes that providers must maintain the electronic health record “in a manner that is consistent with federal and state laws” including HIPAA and the HITECH Act. [24] The benefits of an Electronic Health Record (EHR) are clear. [29]

Our health system have become so complex, siloed, and inefficient that it is impacting providers and payers who are losing focus on the patients proactive health. [25] UhX believes, globally, a health delivery system involving the motivations of both health service providers and individual consumers must be created for healthy, sustainable communities. [25] Doctor updates the UhX block with the health status of the member and service notes from the visit. [25]

In a general clinical setting, these digital health identities–private keys–would be hard to manage for patients. [24] Some governments and companies provide “universal” health coverage, but the definition of universal is generally quite limited. [25] An individual joins UhX and pays their monthly contribution which is converted into Universal Health Coin. [25] Experts from IEEE, UC San Diego and Health Linkages say the key is to make sure its the “right solution for the right problem.” [27] This is not insurance, but rather a decentralized financial system with no owner, no manager, and no entity taking risk on the liability of payment of the health cost other than the individuals themselves. [25]

Institutions like the IMF, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development and Department for International Development can adopt blockchain tech and revolutionize traditional grants and funding opportunities for global health. [26] In November 2017, a landmark article in Foreign Affairs set the stage for blockchain’s entrance in the global health arena, explaining clearly blockchain’s potential to reduce waste and fraud in development finance and commodities. [30] She is intrinsically motivated to impact population health through non-communicable disease prevention and treatment and has consulted in the public sector in context of international development and global health. [32]

We want to usher in a new era of results in global health by removing borders to make important data accessible to all. [31] In their text, From Blockchain Technology to Health Equity: can Cryptocurrencies Finance Universal Health Coverage, the authors outline the capacity for blockchain technology to revolutionize global health. [26] UhX offers an open-sourced, interoperable, and collaborative platform where people, providers, and payers come together on a global scale to solve global health issues. [25] Dramatically accelerating the development of cures for global health threats. [31]

As the industry learns more about the applications and impact of this technology and its potential role in furthering interoperability and health information exchange, HIMSS will provide you with thought leadership and resources in the Blockchain in Healthcare Toolkit. [33] Blockchain in Healthcare Today is an open access online, peer review journal where thought leaders and innovators converge to find solutions in a new health technology sector. [33]

“A blockchain environment can eliminate a large portion of this fraud when providers and patients must enter their information and data to be verified, recorded and stored and health insurance companies must have access to that data,” Liu said. [34] Personal healthcare information, along with all of the other data therein (birthdates, social security numbers, payment data, etc.) should be some of the most highly protected information on the planet, according to Jack Liu, CEO of ALLIVE, an intelligent healthcare ecosystem based on blockchain technology that provides encrypted health profile, personal AI doctor and comprehensive healthcare services. [34] We’re a healthcare company leveraging the blockchain to provide an innovative approach to health and wellness. [35] AI is set to revolutionise healthcare and deep learning technology is enhancing all aspects of the industry such as diagnostics, patient care, surgery, health and wellbeing, and pharmaceuticals. [36] Patients are taking more control over their health care needs, and the industry has responded by setting up database systems ( EHR/EMR ) that hold individual healthcare records. [34]

A blockchain system for electronic health records (EHRs), framed as a protocol through which to access and maintain health data, guarantees security and privacy through empowering the user with control of their own data. [37] There?s Olife–one of the three components of ALLIVE–which gives people back control of their personal health data by encrypting and storing them on the blockchain. [34]

In-vitro Diagnostics (IVD) products provide critical information on patient?s health condition, based on which the healthcare provider develops and administers treatment plan. [36] Change Healthcare Chief Executive Officer Neil de Crescenzo made the announcement during his keynote address at the Distributed: Health 2017 conference today in Nashville, Tenn. Mr. de Crescenzo said the company is collaborating with customers and organizations such as The Linux Foundation’s Hyperledger project to make the benefits of blockchain technology broadly available and develop additional, advanced use cases. [38]

We’ve been working on a health and wellness blockchain platform called Clinicoin. [35] It is a common platform that brings toge ther different segments of the health and medical industry to learn about new opportunities, showcase the latest technologies, services and facilities, and leverage potential for trade and investment. [36] Despite this potential, these advancements depend on patients? ability to own their health data and the establishment of a structure for identity verification. [37]

Oman Health Exhibition & Conference is a “UFI-Approved International Event” granted by UFI-The Global Association of the Exhibition Industry. [36] The World Health Organization projects that by 2020, chronic diseases (noncommunicable diseases) will account for 75% of global deaths. [35]

Medical cost sharing, risk management, and self-insured contracts in support of payor-to-smart health funding, payment aggregation, split pay, event-driven payments, etc. [39] It will be a wonderful opportunity for all the delegates as it provides an international networking opportunity to collaborate with the world-class Mental Health and Medical Associations. [36] Oman Health Exhibition & Conference is an annual international trade event that highlights the rapid and continuous advancements of the health and medical sector in Oman. [36]

Money, music, health records, car titles, certificates, company ownership, deeds, & digital identities are just a few options. [40] If we imagine the health worker in the rural facility in Nigeria, this time with blockchain technology implemented to deliver the vaccines on time, the health worker has good news for the waiting mothers: their babies can be safely inoculated with vaccines that were stored at the right temperature and delivered on time, right when they were needed. [41] Supply chain management is indeed one of the most complex of the building blocks of any health system. [41] The Conference is aligned with the government’s Health Vision 2050 and aimed at addressing the challenges as well as discussing initiatives to improve the sector. [36] Microbiology is the branch which deals with study of microbial germs and their clinical applications for improvement of health. [36] In this way we’re encouraging collaboration as a key component to health and wellness. [35] Validators can be developers running third party health tracking apps, or activity leaders like someone who leads a running club, giving everyone credit for participating in their run that morning. [35] Outdated vaccine supply and distribution systems are delaying and limiting the impact that vaccines have on people?s health. [41]

Token Daily – Clinicoin – Global Health and Wellness Blockchain Platform You are using an outdated browser. [35] We’re looking to help improve global health and wellness by connecting people to each other, digital tools, and organizations that can help them. [35]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(41 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (28) From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

2. (17) Global Survey: Nearly Half of Physicians are Not Aware of Blockchain Technology | Healthcare Informatics Magazine | Health IT | Information Technology

3. (16) Blockchain technology in health care: A primer for surgeons | The Bulletin

4. (15)

5. (11) Heavy lifting ahead as healthcare works to achieve blockchain’s potential | Health Data Management

6. (11) Global Public Health: Blockchain for Contagious Disease Relief

7. (9) Blockchain: A new technology for global health development? – Journalists Resource

8. (8) Global Blockchain in Healthcare Market Future Outlook, application, Challenges and Opportunities 2018-2025 | Medgadget

9. (7) Op-ed: Blockchain Technology Can Revolutionize Healthcare

10. (7) Doctor Smart uses blockchain technology to provide instant global health care | VentureBeat

11. (7) Token Daily – Clinicoin – Global Health and Wellness Blockchain Platform

12. (6) Blockchain Technology Holds Supply Chain Potential for Healthcare

13. (6) Reassessing Expectations for Blockchain and Development | Center For Global Development

14. (6) Blockchain Technology: Healthcare?s Next Revolution – Meta Healthcare IT Solutions

15. (5) GHX and Hashed Health Partner on Blockchain Solutions for the Healthcare Supply Chain | Hashed Health

16. (5) Global Blockchain in Healthcare Market – Report, size, Trend & Forecast

17. (5) Blockchain is proving itself for real-world healthcare applications | Healthcare IT News

18. (5) Can blockchain disrupt health education, licensing, and credentialling? | The Lancet Global Health Blog

19. (4) 6 Ways Blockchain Can Improve Humanitarian and Public Health Efforts – TokenDesk

20. (4) What?s Going On with Blockchain in Healthcare? – Health Data Answers

21. (4) Is Blockchain The Answer To A Better Healthcare Industry?

22. (4) eHealth Reshapes International Healthcare with Blockchain, AI and NLP | NewsBTC

23. (3) Who Will Build the Health-Care Blockchain? – MIT Technology Review

24. (3) Is Blockchain Right for Good Health? | HIMSS19

25. (3) Why Healthcare Needs Blockchain | Thrive Global

26. (3) Nano Vision | Turn the Tide Against Global Health Threats

27. (3) How blockchain technology delivers vaccines, saves lives | Investing in Health

28. (2) Standardizing Best Practices on the Blockchain Will Revolutionize the Global Healthcare Industry | HuffPost

29. (2) How a Former White House Senior Advisor Hopes to Use Blockchain to Help Solve Global Health Issues |

30. (2) Blockchain for Vaccines — Denominator

31. (2) Blockchain in Healthcare | HIMSS

32. (2) The Social Benefits of Blockchain for Health Data: Securing Patient Privacy and Control | Wilson Center

33. (2) Global Blockchain in Healthcare Market to Reach $5.61 Billion by 2025, Reports BIS Research

34. (2) How Blockchain Could Cut Waste and Reduce Fraud in the Global Health Sector | Foreign Affairs

35. (2) Using blockchain to improve global health: Interview (Includes interview)

36. (1) The Blockchain And Global Health – | Blockchain Believers

37. (1) WELL, Global Healthcare Blockchain Platform, Launches Crowdsale –

38. (1) Heather Flannery | 2018 IEEE Global Blockchain Summit

39. (1) Change Healthcare Introduces Enterprise Blockchain for Healthcare Industry

40. (1) HCX PAY Healthcare Blockchain – Healthcombix

41. (1) October 19th and 20th | Denver Metro | Colorado