Top Down Vs Bottom Up Processing

Top Down Vs Bottom Up Processing Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottom-up_parsing
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • What do you mean by parsing?(More...)
  • In psychological terms, this kind of learning is strictly a bottom-up process ( bottom refers to sensations, and top refers to knowledge), which is highly inefficient and typically leads to failed attempts at rote memorizing a bunch of disparate facts.(More...)
  • Define the importance of "Bottom-up" processing versus "Top Down" processing.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Treue S, Trujillo JCM. Feature-based attention influences motion processing gain in macaque visual cortex.(More...)
  • Taken together, both studies suggest how cognitive function interacts with sensory processing on a sub-neuronal level; top-down expectations are present in the dendritic tree of superficial layers of V1, and when combined with specific contextual information they can trigger activity in deeper layers and the illusory percept of visual contour filling-in.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS

What do you mean by parsing? Differentiate top down and bottom up parsing giving suitable examples. [1] "DevOps is not just being driven from the bottom up ? it is being driven top down too," said Robert Stroud, chief product officer at deployment automation software provider XebiaLabs, speaking at the June 2018 DevOps Enterprise Summit (DOES) in London. [2] Use the swimming action to stay in the bottom most water block and place signs further down the shaft, then place another water bucket above this last sign (depending on the size, you may have to keep returning to the top to reload your buckets and repeat until you get down to the bottom). [3] We strive to offer the best pricing on designer-like blinds with a variety of features such as top down, bottom up, cordless, blackout, and more. [4]

In psychological terms, this kind of learning is strictly a bottom-up process ( bottom refers to sensations, and top refers to knowledge), which is highly inefficient and typically leads to failed attempts at rote memorizing a bunch of disparate facts. [5] Bottom-up Reentrant TOPs, Acquisition of information from the world is done in the BU direction, from W towards B, and includes local closed-loop dynamics in one or more processing stations. [6]

Consequentially, projects are more easily managed, and risk is decreased significantly due to strategic decisions created from the top management. [7] The field of I/O encourages employers to consistently value their employees and make their contributions to the company a top priority. [7] Thresholds were measured again in two After blocks (max 480 trials), in which observers saw exactly the same stimuli as in the Before blocks. ( d ) The top panel shows the interval structure of a single trial. [8] On success !2 creates a tree poping the top 2 entries off the parse stack and top node stack object building a tree and pushing the tree onto the parse stack and the $ loop continues. [1] BU-TD acquisition processes may interact bi-directionally with the BB channel, where sites of interactions may span a range between the top of the BU hierarchy (more likely for RHT) and earlier BU junctions (more likely for BU/TD segmentation). [6] We categorize theories of perception (TOPs), whether implicit or explicit, in five schematic classes, not necessarily mutually exclusive (Figure 1 ). [6] Hochstein, S. and M. Ahissar, View from the top: hierarchies and reverse hierarchies in the visual system. [6]

A well written bottom up parse is faster and more efficient than a top-down parser, but it is harder to do. [1]

Define the importance of "Bottom-up" processing versus "Top Down" processing. [9] Top, “canonical circuit” of the neocortex (Douglas et al., 1989, adapted with permission); Bottom, balance of excitation and inhibition (Wilson and Cowan, 1972, 1973 ; adapted with permission). (C) A simplified representation of the class of description needed to describe emerging data in terms of the underlying architecture of a layered structure such as the cortex. [10] With this technique, blood oxygenation level-dependent signals (BOLD) can be measured for the top, middle and bottom thirds of the cortex. [10]

With data breaches threatening the bottom line, CISO-board partnership is crucial. [2]

Bottom Line: My final question to the #BIWisdom group was "What still limits BI deployment or use in 2017? Is it cost? Lack of investment?" They responded that the biggest limitations they encounter are (1) the difficulty in governing data, tools and applications and (2) issues around perceived vs. real value. [11] Bottom line: As one of the #BIWisdom group tweeted, "Big data has left an indelible mark on the BI industry. [11] Bottom line: In my mind, all the concerns about AI come down to determining the goal of artificial intelligence in BI products. [11] Bottom line: Looking back at adoption and advancements in business intelligence technologies in 2014, it?s clear that mobile BI became more mature; but it hasn?t yet replaced desktops. [11] Bottom line: KPIs are more than a way of measuring success with business intelligence. [11] Bottom line: Businesses and governments need shared perspectives on insights derived from business intelligence. [11] Bottom line: Overall, the tweetchat discussion suggests that a good deal must change in the area of business intelligence customer success programs. [11]

Bottom line: Just as collaborative tools don?t make organizations collaborative, data storytelling tools don?t make users good storytellers. [11] Bottom line: Organizations need to avoid what I call "data sheep" - creatures with a total reliance on software tools to present analysis and data. [11] Bottom line: Can we enable data diversity while managing inconsistencies and data chaos, or are these two goals contradictory? Its a tough balancing act. [11] Bottom line: The possibilities of the good things that businesses and industries will be able to achieve through IoT data boggle the mind. [11] The bottom line, though, is the aftermath -- what happens after the data is initially presented. [11]

You are now standing in a safe breathing space at the bottom of a working elevator that you can use to return to the top to reload water buckets, get more signs or whatever. [3] If you did it right, you should go straight up to the top. To descend a minecart elevator, just walk over it; you should fall through the minecarts to the bottom, and the ladder or water will break your fall. [3]

Place signs and water sources alternating until you reach the top. You will be bobbing up and down due to the swimming action you needs to use to keep on top of the uppermost water block, but some practice will make it easy to work this way. [3] Reload on water buckets and ride the elevator up as high as you can, place more signs as you bob up and down in the top water block, and then place more sources. [3]

The bottom-most water block will then sit on top of the ladder. [3] Stand on the line between the two blocks that will be the top of your elevator shaft. [3] Once you are at the intended top of your elevator place signs two and four blocks below your feet. [3]

As lead writer he interviewed and profiled more than 100 CIOs, CTOs, and program directors in a 2010-2012 program called "25 Top Information Managers." [11] Top governance feature requirements relate to access control and sign-on, but other controls are also important. 3. [11] The top levels of a mixed ontology would normally be distinguished by formal definitions, but some of the lower branches might be distinguished by prototypes. [12] Sharing, annotating and co-authoring are top collaborative BI requirements. [11] Collaboration is not something you can just lay over the top of a BI tool." " "Generic tools always win. [11] If that were true, Microsoft?s Excel wouldn?t still be at the top of BI tools users like. [11]

Most relevant websites do not come up in the top results because designers and engineers do not cater to the way ranking algorithms work currently. [12]

If possible make a one block hole at the bottom of the waterfall to keep the water from spreading out over the floor. [3] It does not matter if you have two water blocks at the bottom of the shaft as players and mobs will rise through them fast enough that breathing will not be a problem. [3] Starting at the bottom the entrance to the shaft should be in a wall that is at least one block thick. [3] The last sign can most easily be placed from the opening of the elevator at the bottom on the second block up from the floor. [3] At the bottom leave a two block high opening (from the floor) for the entrance. [3]

The door is to keep the bottom two water sources from leaking out the opening. [3] OPTIONAL: Instead of putting a ladder underneath the last minecart, place water at the bottom. [3]

Bottom Line: A tweetchat member commented a year ago that the consequences of the push towards embedded BI are interesting and will keep growing in 2016 and beyond. [11] Bottom line: Despite the many successful BI programs and initiatives that companies are experiencing - and those successes just keep building even greater value over time for those companies - there are still some BI failures. [11]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Treue S, Trujillo JCM. Feature-based attention influences motion processing gain in macaque visual cortex. [8] It has been claimed that this type of processing plays an important role in optimising visual function, in particular under natural viewing conditions where identification of objects within complex and cluttered environments is challenging 24, 25. [8] By manipulating object knowledge we were able to determine its impact on processing of low-level features while keeping sensory stimulation identical. [8] Such pooling of outputs is observed throughout the visual system, generating a selectivity to increasingly complex and larger features along successive stages of processing: for instance, angled junctions in V2 neurons 11, shape outlines in V4 12, 13, and specific object classes in temporal lobe 14, 15. [8] Appropriate interpretation and processing of low-level features belonging to the same object poses a complex problem. [8] We exploit this feature of two-tone images to ask if manipulation of high-level representations of the stimulus could lead to top-down modulation of local-feature processing (while ensuring image-information remained identical). [8] Rather than distributing a limited and constant amount of processing resources across task-relevant and task-irrelevant aspects of the environment, the interaction between high-level object representations and early feature-detectors means that each part of the information-processing system, including early vision, might gain access to a larger amount of information. [8]

Reentrant processing may facilitate data integration and categorization ( Enns and Di Lollo, 2000 ; Edelman and Gally, 2013 ), possibly using algorithms for iterative processing such as recursive Bayesian estimation, Kalman filtering or particle filtering. [6] Using naturalistic images, Neri 34 has shown that important aspects of perceptual organisation – contour and motion integration – are guided by high-level semantic processing. [8] These parser languages are stack, and object, based string processing languages. [1] The BU/TD Segmentation (BUTD) scheme proposes that BU and TD processing streams run in parallel and interact at different brain levels, matching stored knowledge with segmentation constrains ( Borenstein and Ullman, 2008 ). [6] Does feature-based attention provide an explanation of our findings? All forms of attention are typically conceptualised as a means of focussing limited processing resources towards aspects of the environment that are most relevant for the current task 20, 21, 76. [8]

This optimisation determines response characteristics of feature detectors globally and generally, independently of whether they are currently relevant to processing a stimulus. [8]

Efficient learning depends on top-down processing, which is the active use of existing knowledge to guide and select what sensory information to process. [5] Two distinct explanations have been proposed for the finding of many of these neuroimaging studies that overall neuronal activation in earlier visual areas is reduced due to information processing at later stages: first, it has been argued that activity in low-level sensory areas, which is congruent with the high-level representation, is more predictable, and hence redundant. [8] The current results demonstrate that the effects of top-down modulation are not restricted to neural information processing but have measurable influences on human perception. [8] By contrast to this view, and in line with predictive-coding models of perception, here, we provide evidence from human vision that high-level object representations dynamically interact with the earliest stages of cortical visual processing. [8] We suggest that this flexible optimisation of local mechanisms by high-level object representations provides important constraints for visual processing in the complex and cluttered environment that characterises natural viewing situations. [8] Rather they suggest that higher-level visual and memory representations dynamically interact with and shape early visual processing 16, 31, 32. [8]

Classic models of visual processing emphasise a one-directional flow of information from early feature-detectors to higher-level information-processing. [8] While early bottom-up processing was initially thought to be shielded from higher-level modulatory effects, top-down influences of spatial 20, feature- 21, and object-based attention 22 on early visual processing are now well established. [8] Gilbert CD, Li W. Top-down influences on visual processing. [8]

Early stages of visual processing are carried out by neural circuits activated by simple and specific features, such as the orientation of an edge. [8] Models of visual processing based on this idea have been influential in explaining many aspects of human and animal vision 12, 17 – 19. [8] The results therefore provide direct evidence from human visual behaviour to suggest that the response properties of early feature-detectors in the human visual system are shaped by high-level information processing mechanisms. [8] Orientation tuning, another fundamental property of information processing in the early visual system 3, 7 – 9, 55, refers to the specificity, with which a feature-detector responds to different orientations. [8]

It is noteworthy that these two influences on neural information processing are not mutually exclusive and predictive coding models posit that they occur concurrently, albeit in different neuronal sub-populations 31, 32, 35, 36. [8]

It is thus unclear whether illusory contours in, e.g., Kanizsa triangles, emerge due to top-down modulation by object knowledge of triangles or by bottom-up processing induced by a specific stimulus configuration. [8] Evidence for this type of top-down processing is largely, but not exclusively 27, 33, 34, restricted to computational models 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, electrophysiological work in non-human primates 4, 16, 37 – 41, and neuroimaging studies in humans 30, 42 – 50. [8] Even basic perceptual analyses, such as recognizing the duck or rabbit in the ambiguous figure shown above, depends on using top-down processing to select "duck-relevant" features (e.g., focusing on the duck's "bill") or "rabbit-relevant" features (e.g., focusing on the rabbit's "ears"). [5]

This format is made more specific with the assistance of black boxes, which make the backward-looking approach easier to follow as upper management pushes down decisions. [7] Bogging Down of Employees: When all employees participate in larger decisions (that are typically saved for upper management), they can get bogged down by the sheer responsibility. [7]

Good Organization: Tasks are determined and filtered down company lines without any confusion because business goals are set by upper management and will not be affected by outside opinions. [7]

The top-down approach relies on higher authority figures to determine larger goals that will filter down to the tasks of lower level employees. [7] This delegation of tasks is sometimes referred to as reverse engineering or a big picture outlook because of the way larger goals are fragmented into small tasks that are then handed down to lower level employees. [7]

The process of recognising a complete program becomes a matter of looking for progressively smaller entities, right down to the level at which tokens are recognised as individual characters. [1]

Senior project managers create company-wide decisions that trickle down to lower departments. [7]

Taken together, both studies suggest how cognitive function interacts with sensory processing on a sub-neuronal level; top-down expectations are present in the dendritic tree of superficial layers of V1, and when combined with specific contextual information they can trigger activity in deeper layers and the illusory percept of visual contour filling-in. [10] All of these studies give rise to the question of the circuit and systems level mechanisms of top-down, feedback processing. [10]

While these studies provide conceptual advances in human sensory and motor systems, they do not address the laminar influence of feedback vs. feedforward sources, or in functional terms how cognitive processing interacts with sensory processing. [10]

Data from various online transaction processing ( OLTP ) applications and other sources are selectively extracted for business intelligence activities, decision support and to answer user inquiries. [13] Data warehousing emphasizes the capture of data from diverse sources for access and analysis rather than for transaction processing. [13] The Talking Data podcast team discusses some of the MIT startups that are making advances in AI and natural language processing. [13] As you come across more complex data center workflows, you can begin exploring options for accelerated processing, such as GPUs. [2]

Even though the bands of cortical depth level measured with fMRI are still insufficient to separate all six anatomical layers of cortex, there are important gradients that are functionally different in their processing of internal mental states, which we can capture by separating the layers into upper, middle and lower (i.e., by separating feedforward and feedback processing). [10] Benchmarking laminar fMRI: neuronal spiking and synaptic activity during top-down and bottom-up processing in the different layers of cortex. [10] It thinks, "If it has your nerves, it must be part of you!" Your top-down and bottom-up processes battle it out, and in most cases, bottom-up processing wins. [14]

In this transformation process, the cell body specifies neither the location of the processing nor the output of the neuron and could in principle be collapsed to a dimensionless node in any specific layer without substantially changing the input/output function of the neuron. [10] Conjunctive input processing drives feature selectivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons. [10] Unique membrane properties and enhanced signal processing in human neocortical neurons. [10] Nonlinear dendritic processing determines angular tuning of barrel cortex neurons in vivo. [10] We anticipate studies of learning, memory, multisensory processing and consciousness which are surely forthcoming at laminar resolution. [10] Hadoop has become an important extension of data warehouses for many enterprises because the data processing platform can improve components of the data warehouse architecture -- from data ingestion to analytics processing to data archiving. [13]

This can be commonly found in applications of information processing, investing and management. [15]

It is suggested that these six representations can be combined in a coherent supramodal representation, i.e. the "body matrix", through a predictive, multisensory processing activated by central, top-down, attentional processes. [16] Or it will require streaming capability." " "A business may not want to land all the data, just the outliers." " "But there has to be intelligence in the system to winnow out what the outliers are." " "Maybe you land the abnormal patterns for a closer look and better predictive information." " "Reducing it to a subset will help with real-time data." " "Agreed, but you still need processing power to determine what is abnormal. [11] The Data Activity recognizes and works to overcome this diversity to facilitate potentially Web-scale data integration and processing. [12] Importantly, the statistical data best fitted a Bayesian integration model, which provides strong evidence for a predictive processing mechanism. [17] In 2010 initially with Power Pivot and from 2012 in Analysis Services Tabular the new Vertipaq engine was released, that for the first time included columnar data storage and in memory processing. [18]

This would be a feed-forward process where the signals ascend linearly from a low to a high processing level, say, from the skin to the prefrontal cortex. [17] As participants were placed in an fMRI scanner during the experiment, the study also found that activity in the periaqueductal gray, a lower-level area in the brainstem, represented placebo signals, suggesting that the high-level expectations are integrated with the pain stimulus at a very basic processing level. [17]

These ranged from inquiry and problem solving skills, to ones for handling information (locating, evaluating, analyzing, presenting, sorting, using, organizing, processing, finding, retrieving, identifying, and integrating information), through thinking skills (such as creating thinking), and various laboratory skills (such as building models/prototypes, measuring, and troubleshooting). [19] The use of new relational technologies, multi-threading and in-memory deployment guarantees extremely fast processing times. [18]

In the context of this study the term "developing technological literacy" refers to the following dimensions: acquiring technological multidisciplinary knowledge, experiencing synthesis and engineering design processes, becoming familiar with the engineering top- down approach, performing cost/benefit analyses, and becoming familiar with the concept of engineering systems thinking, with some principles of project management. [19] Most folks, when thinking about organizing objects or information, immediately think of a hierarchical, or taxonomic, organization; a top- down structure, where you start with a number of broad categories that get ever more detailed, until you arrive at the object. [12] Someone else commented that committees slow down a process and there should be a single person responsible for the area of data in a department. [11] The #BIWisdom group took off on a discussion of operational BI. Someone questioned whether it will get bogged down in big data hype and whether it can progress on its own. [11]

As one rides up or down the breath meter may flash in and out of view unless you are able to stay perfectly in the middle of the alternating water blocks, but no matter as you will never be more than a few ticks from your next "breath". [3] You won't be able to reach down 6 blocks so now you can start with the water sources. [3]

Make a waterfall by placing a source in a one block gap in a floor, or on a ledge in a box that will keep the flow in a single block space on the way down. [3] This design uses a mechanic that moves slime blocks up and down in a conveyor belt fashion moving a platform that the player stands on. [3]

If one places a water source close to, or at, the edge of a long fall the water stream only needs to be left flowing for a few seconds to be safe to ride all the way down. [3]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(19 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (26) Prior object-knowledge sharpens properties of early visual feature-detectors

2. (22) Dresner Advisory Services - Blog

3. (20) Tutorials/Elevators - Official Minecraft Wiki

4. (12) A Perspective on Cortical Layering and Layer-Spanning Neuronal Elements

5. (8) Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Approach | Smartsheet

6. (6) Schematic framework for theories of perception - Scholarpedia

7. (5) Why is bottom-up parsing more powerful than top-down parsing for programming languages? What is an intuitive explanation? - Quora

8. (4) Ontologies & Taxonomies

9. (4) What is data warehouse? - Definition from WhatIs.com

10. (3) The Bayesian Brain: Placebo Effects Explained - Mindcoolness

11. (3) DevOps done right: Securing grassroots support for a top-down DevOps enterprise push

12. (3) Toward a Whole-Brain Approach to Learning | Psychology Today

13. (2) OLAP Evolution | Business intelligence Planning & Analytics Software Integrated with SQL Server and Power BI

14. (2) JTE v17n1 - Frank, A Systems Approach for Developing Technological Literacy

15. (1) Why Are Our Brains Susceptible to Body Illusions? | Mental Floss

16. (1) Frugal Archives - Wealthy Content

17. (1) The neuroscience of body memory: From the self through the space to the others - ScienceDirect

18. (1) Custom Window Blinds, Shades & Treatments at Factory Direct Prices

19. (1) Gateway/Onsite - CEU Trainings?

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