Drinking Water Is A Scarce Resource

Drinking Water Is A Scarce Resource
Drinking Water Is A Scarce Resource Image link: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2016/05/04/president-obama-flint-its-not-enough-just-fix-water-we-have-fix-mindset
C O N T E N T S:


  • Whether used for drinking, cleaning, food production or industrial output, access to sufficient water resources is a basic human need.(More...)
  • Without access to water sanitation suffers, as communities can't spare this scarce resource on waste.(More...)
  • Freshwater — whilst a basic human need — is also a finite, and in some regions, scarce resource.(More...)
  • The Colorado River largely supplements irrigation water, drinking water, and water for other city and community use to millions of people including the populations of Phoenix, Tucson, Las Vegas, San Bernardino, Los Angeles, and San Diego.(More...)
  • "The lack of ability to treat the water means that the raw sewage and floodwaters can contaminate the drinking source," says Erik Olson, a lawyer at the Natural Resources Defense Council.(More...)
  • The per capita numbers quoted are thus not relevant for drinking water supply; after all, who needs or wants to drink more than 1 million liters per year?!(More...)
  • Fish need water, and so, having to figure out how to allocate a scarce resource like water has been an issue that I?ve been involved in from a lot of different angles - from the litigation angle at the Justice Department, Department of the Interior and then at again for anadramous fish like salmon.(More...)
  • Communities work with the Regional SWP Coordinator and other partners in the Iowa Source Water Ag Collaborative, which can provide Iowans information and resources to protect their drinking water sources.(More...)


  • It can include water from primary renewable and secondary freshwater resources, as well as water from over-abstraction of renewable groundwater or withdrawal from fossil groundwater, direct use of agricultural drainage water, direct use of (treated) wastewater, and desalinated water.(More...)
  • Clean water is an essential element for human health, wellbeing and prosperity.(More...)
  • According to The Guardian, more than 2.5 billion people across every continent don?t have access to basic levels of fresh water for at least one month each year - a situation growing ever more critical as urban populations expand rapidly.(More...)
  • The demand for water is rising year after year, and need increases parallel to population growth.(More...)



Whether used for drinking, cleaning, food production or industrial output, access to sufficient water resources is a basic human need. [1] Over these 25 years the average increase of the number of people with access to improved drinking water was 107 million every year. [1] In 1990, 1.26 billion people across the world did not have access to an improved drinking water source. [1] Note that access to drinking water from an improved source does not ensure that the water is safe or adequate, as these characteristics are not tested at the time of survey. [1]

In the last year for which we have data (2014 to 2015) the speed was close to the 25-year average: 296,831 gained access to drinking water on average every day in this period. [1] The World Health Organization highlights the contribution of poor water and sanitation access to health, mortality and reduced poverty alleviation. 1 2 Contaminated drinking water, poor sanitation facilities and open defecation contribute to the transmission of infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid, and polio, and can also have severe impacts on malnutrition. [1] Improved water sources : "An improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection). [1] Improved drinking water technologies are more likely than those characterized as unimproved to provide safe drinking water and to prevent contact with human excreta. [1]

Without access to water sanitation suffers, as communities can't spare this scarce resource on waste. [2] Water is becoming more and more a scarce and valuable resource as population and consumption rise. [3]

Freshwater — whilst a basic human need — is also a finite, and in some regions, scarce resource. [1]

Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2015 update and MDG assessment. [1] The United Nations Water Conference (1977), the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990), the International Conference on Water and the Environment (1992) and the Earth Summit (1992) -- all focused on this vital resource. [4]

Lastly, there may be conflict over water as a scarce resource and an increase in unrest, violence and injuries. [5] The lack of a functioning sanitation network and wastewater treatment system causes already scarce water resources to become contaminated and unsuitable for multipurpose use. [6]

The Colorado River largely supplements irrigation water, drinking water, and water for other city and community use to millions of people including the populations of Phoenix, Tucson, Las Vegas, San Bernardino, Los Angeles, and San Diego. [3] If that isn't scary enough, a glance at the World Bank's latest statistics reveals the magnitude of the problem: 163 million Indians lack access to safe drinking water; 210 m have no access to improved sanitation; 21 percent of communicable diseases are linked to unsafe water and 500 children under age five die from diarrhoea each day in India. [7] The "Water for Life? International Decade for Action 2005-2015 helped around 1.3 billion people in developing countries gain access to safe drinking water and drove progress on sanitation as part of the effort to meet the Millennium Development Goals. [4]

Because the area is surrounded by saline water, scarcity of drinking water is a major problem. [8] In February 2016, reports indicated that Saudi planes bombed and destroyed a reservoir that served as a source of drinking water for thirty thousand people. [9] In Australia, for example, grey water use would reportedly save more than 1 trillion liters of fresh drinking water annually. [8] For instance, beef is one of the more popular food choices, especially in the United States, and it is also the type of animal product that requires the most amount of water to produce per pound (based on growing the animal's food, drinking water, and preparing it). [3]

"The lack of ability to treat the water means that the raw sewage and floodwaters can contaminate the drinking source," says Erik Olson, a lawyer at the Natural Resources Defense Council. [10] Today, 40 percent of world?s population is concerned by water scarcity; North African and Middle Eastern countries are especially affected, as water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, due to dry weather conditions and demographic growth. [11] By sharing strategies for survival in a water scarce world, WSC casts new light on how urban areas in scarcity contexts can thrive in a finite resource world. [12] I completely agree the real issue is efficient and effective management of the resources and water of course is getting scarce but you have given right sense of direction and blown up the myths its scarcity,hope experts and policy makers follow the lead. [13] The WSC is a work in progress and aims to continue strengthening cooperation between cities and utilities to improve management of scarce water resources. [12]

Structural scarcity is when more powerful segments of water users confiscate a larger part of the scarce resources, resulting in the ecological and economic marginalization of the less powerful. [14] To address aging infrastructure and scarce resources, many Iowa communities are developing source water protection plans that when implemented will reduce treatment costs for their drinking water. [15]

An estimated 1.8 billion people use an unimproved source of drinking water with no protection against contamination from human feces. [16] WaterAid, the NGO that ranked India among the worst country for household drinking water access, has also ranked it one of the most-improved nations in terms of the numbers of people able to access clean water as a result of initiatives made since 2000. [17] The country has become a pioneer in wastewater management, easing water shortages and providing a secure supply of drinking water for more than 300,000 citizens in the capital city of Windhoek. [18] By summer, four million people in the city of Cape Town--one of Africa's most affluent metropolises --may have to stand in line surrounded by armed guards to collect rations of the region's most precious commodity: drinking water. [19] Competition for water is increasing, as population growth drives demand for drinking water and agriculture and as countries become more affluent. [19] Eleven states allow "indirect potable reuse" -- the process that the Orange County Water District uses, in which treated wastewater is stored in aquifers before being distributed as drinking water. [20] By 2023, Orange County, California's wastewater treatment system will generate 130 million gallons of drinking water a day. [20] By the time the district completes its next planned expansion in 2023, the system will generate 130 million gallons of drinking water a day, enough to serve about 1 million of its 2.5 million customers and more than four times the production of the world?s second-largest sewage-to-drinking-water facility, in Singapore. [20] Sub-Saharan African women spend 16 million hours a day collecting drinking water. [21]

The remaining 10% goes to domestic use - the proportion used for drinking water is much less than 1%. [16] Water traveling down a river may be diverted and transformed dozens of times, at different times serving as agricultural water or drinking water or undergoing treatment before it reaches the river?s mouth. [20] Earlier this year Bangalore, home to the country's information technology sector, made it to a list of world cities most likely to run out of drinking water. [17] Brazil--the country with the world's greatest fresh water reserves--hosts an international conference next week on growing fears over the fragility of drinking water supplies in a heating planet. [22] When California?s Orange County Water District began distributing drinking water derived from sewage in the mid-1970s, it acted out of simple need. [20] The Namibian capital of Windhoek has been turning its wastewater into drinking water since 1968. [20]

By and large, access to drinking water is not largely driven by scarcity resource constraints. [13] In many areas of the world, potable water is a scarce resource and every minute of every day, a newborn baby dies somewhere in the world because of an infection caused by a lack of clean water and an unclean environment. [23]

Disputes over scarce water resources during periods of droughts have resulted in deaths and destruction of water system infrastructure. [14]

The per capita numbers quoted are thus not relevant for drinking water supply; after all, who needs or wants to drink more than 1 million liters per year?! Around 93% of water use is for irrigation, and hence the scarcity issues mainly relate to food security and economic production (especially food and fiber exports) and to a lesser extend energy security. [13] About 1.5 million people --44 percent of the island--are without clean drinking water and are relying on water bottles or unsafe water sources for cleaning, drinking, and cooking. [10] In line with the SDGs, Pakistan's vision 2025 addresses the issues of water security and aims for increasing water storage capacity, improving agricultural efficiency by 20 percent, and ensuring the availability of clean drinking water to all Pakistanis. [24]

In 2015, 69% of South Africans had access to safely managed drinking water sources, just above the global average and the highest percentage in sub-Saharan Africa. [25] I would argue that drinking water access is largely driven by utility (or, in the case of rural areas, water point) service delivery levels and household economic wherewithal to pay for the service. [13] Measuring drinking water access using basin level per-capita 'back of the envelope' calculations is almost useless. [13] The World Health Organization links a lack of safe drinking water to certain diseases and recommends better access and hygiene to make people safer. [25] In 2015, 99.5 percent of Puerto Ricans got their water from systems that had violated the Safe Drinking Water Act, the federal law that regulates toxic chemicals in the U.S. water supply; nearly 70 percent, or 2.4. million Puerto Ricans drank water from systems that had SDWA health violations. [10] In some cases at local sale of course, a lack of infrastructure can mean local scarcity impacts on drinking water supply. [13] I agree that scarcity is not the main concern overall for drinking water supply. [13] By next summer, even drinking water may be in short supply in some areas, he warned. [26] According to L?Economiste, the establishment of a governmental emergency program that aims to provide drinking water for areas that are mainly reliant on vulnerable water sources and ensure the irrigation of fruit trees. [11] If the taps run dry, each citizen will be allocated 25 liters (approximately 7 gallons) of drinking water per day at demarcated collection points throughout the city. [27] Inadequate urban water tariffs have affected drinking water quality and there is a need to revise urban utilities to promote conservation and efficient water use. [24] In some cases, a lack of distribution infrastructure means drinking water is mostly from groundwater, and groundwater depletion is a growing concern as use greatly exceesd replenishment. [13] Drinking water access is measured reasonably (although, admittedly, not perfectly) well through MDG figures. [13] Those jobs could even be folded into a federal-jobs guarantee, providing families with income while ensuring them access to safe drinking water and wastewater systems. [28] In the townships, access to safe drinking water is basically non-existent. [25] In 2010, the United Nations "recognized the human right to water and sanitation and acknowledged that clean drinking water and sanitation are essential to the realisation of all human rights." [25] As populations grow so will the demands for drinking water and agriculture. [23] Holmes estimates that three aquifers -- Cape Flats, Atlantis, and Table Mountain -- could provide up to 150 million liters, or a fifth of Cape Town's drinking water. [27] From Appalachian Kentucky to the Texas borderlands, millions of rural Americans are subject to unhealthy and sometimes illegal levels of contaminants in their drinking water, whether from agriculture, or coal, or plain old bad pipes. [28] According to the Rural Community Assistance Partnership, approximately 30 percent of residents in colonias didn?t have safe drinking water in 2015. [28] In 2015, 99.5 percent of Puerto Ricans got their water from systems that had violated the Safe Drinking Water Act. [10] These areas tend to be rural, and are some of the same ones facing drinking water crises. [28] For many communities, clean drinking water won't be available until the electricity returns. [10] Hunt, a former coal miner who lives in Martin County, Kentucky, said he has had reliability and safety issues with his drinking water for about 25 years--including water permeated by excessive amounts of disinfectant chemicals. [28] Drinking water unfit for consumption may not only harm your health in the short run -- drinking unclean water may cause life-long health problems. [12]

Fish need water, and so, having to figure out how to allocate a scarce resource like water has been an issue that I?ve been involved in from a lot of different angles - from the litigation angle at the Justice Department, Department of the Interior and then at again for anadramous fish like salmon. [29] The 1992 Dublin Principles declared water an "economic good" for the first time and stated that trading water as a commodity is the most efficient means of managing scarce water resources. [30]

Communities work with the Regional SWP Coordinator and other partners in the Iowa Source Water Ag Collaborative, which can provide Iowans information and resources to protect their drinking water sources. [15] In all, 70% percent of the country?s population does not have access to safe drinking water, and three out of four people lack adequate sanitary facilities. [31] A total of four days of revenue from Karachi will be sufficient to provide clean drinking water in abundance plus disposal of waste in a sustainable manner and generate 100 per cent clean electricity for the whole city and Sindh province. [32]

We tend to think of desert environments located far from any water sources, but the case of Al-Zawrah, in the Emirate of Ajman, brings us to the Persian Gulf, a marine environment with a high population density and scarce drinking water resources where Cadagua built a plant which produces 45,560 m 3 of drinking water every day. [33] Iowa communities are creating SWP plans, which help guard the water source -- whether an aquifer, lake or river -- that they draw their drinking water from. [15] May 6-12, 2018 is Iowa Source Water Protection (SWP) Week, which coincides with National Drinking Water Week, a national observance of the value of drinking water. [15] The Iowa Source Water Ag Collaborative would like to highlight successful drinking water protection efforts in Iowa and support locally-led, collaborative work to protect sources of Iowans? drinking water. [15] By planting cover crops, the risk of nitrate entering Griswold?s drinking water source decreases, soil erosion reduces, and overall soil quality improves. [15] Being connected to a municipal supply doesn?t always ensure clean drinking water. [34] It?s a town where residents report that clean drinking water is hard to come by, even when the taps are running, and they quickly took to the streets in protest. [34] In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly voted to recognize "the right to safe and clean drinking water as a human right." [14] It is the responsibility of the public sector to provide access to safe drinking water (SDG 6), but also the responsibility of the public to support such efforts. [35] Cities should not.pass on its liability to nearby villages and agriculture area for extracting drinking water. [36] Where it takes traditional drinking water treatment plants under 1 kilowatt-hour (1,000 watts per hour) to make approximately 250 gallons of water, it takes desalination plants three to 10 times as much. [37] Disappearing Andean glaciers, increasingly rare rainfalls in the wet season, and a protracted drought dried up most of capital city La Paz?s drinking water in 2017. [34] Residents haven?t had clean drinking water since gravel mining contamination in the 1950s. [34] Safe drinking water and sanitation in schools may serve as a way to keep students in school, increasing economic opportunities and increasing the health of the children. [14]

Now that we are technically capable of taking drinking water to any environment near a water source, such as aquifers, rivers, seas or even oceans, and with the reduction in the amount of energy and resources required for such infrastructures thanks to technological advances, we are for the first time capable not only of eradicating world thirst, but also of repairing last century?s desertification. [33] Earlier this year, the Natural Resources Defense Council published a report that found that Puerto Rico had the highest rate of drinking water violations of any state or territory in the United States. [38] These issues frequently arise in the developing world, where water resources and sanitation often are inadequate--but are now arising increasingly in U.S. cities, when drinking water gets contaminated or residents can?t pay their water bills. [30] Taking water to where it is needed is a task for the developed world, which has the resources required for the desalination of seawater to provide the entire planet with drinking water. [33]

The countries supporting the resolution argued that water was essential for life and noted that large portions of the population lack access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation. [30] Access to safe drinking water has been a grave problem for India, especially in rural areas where lack of usable water has resulted in decades old sanitation and health problems. [39] Data collected from the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation states that 45,053 villages had access to piped water and handpumps by the end of 2016-17, accounting for 64.19 per cent of India. [39]

According to a 2015 report by the WHO and UNICEF, "91% of the global population uses an improved drinking water source.? [33] Groundwater provides drinking water for a large portion of the nation's population, supplies business and industries, and is used extensively for irrigation. [40] We are working to promote locally owned and managed drinking water security plans which are simple and can be used, monitored and managed by people and local governments, said Avinash Kumar, Director Program and Policy, Water Aid. [39] How many millions of people without drinking water would be able. [33] In 2010, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution affirming the human right to clean drinking water and sanitation. [30] By 2013, that had increased to 30%, but the majority of rural India continues to live without proper access to safe drinking water. [39] While drinking water, people usually check if the water is clear. [39] "There?s a question as to whether or not the population was receiving safe drinking water before the storm," says Adrianna Quintero, NRDC?s director of partner engagement. [38] The situation is dire on the supply side too: 21 out of the world?s 37 biggest aquifers are already moving past their tipping points, according to NASA, in part due to over-extraction for drinking water and mining. [41] Safe drinking water, a basic amenity has become a luxury in many Indian households, especially in semi-urban and rural areas. [39] Flint?s mismanaged water system left residents with dangerously high lead levels in their bodies and various health problems--which they argue violated the Safe Drinking Water Act and their right to bodily integrity. [30]


It can include water from primary renewable and secondary freshwater resources, as well as water from over-abstraction of renewable groundwater or withdrawal from fossil groundwater, direct use of agricultural drainage water, direct use of (treated) wastewater, and desalinated water. [1] As described in detail in our  Data Quality & Definitions  section, water withdrawal is defined as the quantity of freshwater taken from groundwater or surface water sources (such as lakes or rivers) for use in agricultural, industrial or domestic purposes. [1] Water withdrawal:  Water withdrawals, ( also sometimes known as 'water abstractions'), are defined as freshwater taken from ground or surface water sources (such as rivers or lakes), either permanently or temporarily, and used for agricultural, industrial or municipal (domestic) uses. [1]

If water withdrawals exceed available resources (i.e. greater than 100 percent) then a country is either extracting beyond the rate at which aquifers can be replenished, or has very high levels of desalinisation water generation (the conversion of seawater to freshwater using osmosis processes). [1] To maintain sustainable levels of water resources, rates of water withdrawals must be below rates of freshwater replenishment. [1] Water stress is defined based on the ratio of freshwater withdrawals to renewable freshwater resources. [1] Water stress is defined in its simplest terms as occurring when water demand or withdrawal substantiates a large share of renewable water resources. [1] Water scarcity  is more extreme than water stress, and occurs when water demand exceeds internal water resources. [1] This is even more applicable for particular regions with lower water resources and/or larger population pressures. [1] Water stress does not insinuate that a country has water shortages, but does give an indication of how close it maybe be to exceeding a water basin's renewable resources. [1]

There are a number of countries across South Asia, Africa and Latin America which use more than 90 percent of water withdrawals for agriculture. [1] Countries in the global north tend to use a much lower share of water for agriculture; Germany and the Netherlands use less than one percent. [1] The average agricultural water use for low-income countries is 90 percent; 79 percent for middle income and only 41 percent at high incomes. [1] Domestic uses of water withdrawals can also dominate in some countries across Europe with high rainfall, such as the United Kingdom and Ireland where agricultural production is often largely rainfed and industrial output is low. [1] In contrast to the global distribution for agricultural water withdrawals, industrial water tends to dominate in high-income countries (with an average of 44 percent), and is small in low-income countries on average 3 percent). [1] Many, such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Syria, Pakistan, Libya have withdrawal rates well in excess of 100 percent — this means they are either extracting unsustainably from existing aquifer sources, or produce a large share of water from desalinisation. [1] Municipal water withdrawal : "Annual quantity of water withdrawn primarily for the direct use by the population. [1] The visualisation below provides an overview of industrial water withdrawals measured as the share of total water withdrawals (which is the sum of agricultural, industrial and domestic uses). [1] The share of municipal water in some countries across Sub-Saharan Africa can be high as a result of very low demands for agricultural and industrial withdrawals. [1]

In addition to the large inequalities in water access between countries, there are can also be large differences within country. [1] Sub-Saharan Africa was host to 22 percent of those without water access in 1990; by 2015 this had increased to nearly half of the global total. [1]

This is typically the most 'visible' form of water: the water we use for drinking, cleaning, washing, and cooking. [1] Industrial water withdrawal : "Annual quantity of self-supplied water withdrawn for industrial uses. [1] Municipal uses as a share of total water withdrawals across the world is shown in the chart below. [1] Globally, just under 20 percent (18-19 percent) of total water withdrawals are used for industrial purposes. [1]

The United States, despite having a much lower population, is the second largest user as a result of higher per capita water demands. [1] With the largest population, China's domestic water demands are highest at over 70 billion m³ per year. [1] India's agricultural water consumption has been growing rapidly  — almost doubling between 1975 and 2010 — as its population and total food demand continues to increase. [1] Open defecation : "People practicing open defecation refers to the percentage of the population defecating in the open, such as in fields, forest, bushes, open bodies of water, on beaches, in other open spaces or disposed of with solid waste." [1]

Water is an essential input to global agriculture, whether in the form of rainfed sources or pumped irrigation. [1] The visualisation below shows the average level of water withdrawal per capita per year. [1] As shown, several countries across the Middle East, North Africa & South Asia have extremely high levels of water stress. [1] Most countries across South Asia are experiencing high water stress; medium-to-high across East Asia, the United States and much of Southern and Eastern Europe. [1] Irrigation — the deliberate provision or controlled flooding of agricultural land with water — has been an important input factor in the observed increase of crop yields across many countries in recent decades. [1] Data on agricultural water consumption is typically not reported on an annual basis, and often gathered over several year increments. [1] In 2010 India was the world's largest agricultural water consumer at nearly 700 billion m 3 per year. [1] The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) AQUASTAT Database defines  total water withdrawal as: "Annual quantity of water withdrawn for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. [1] Agricultural water withdrawal : "Annual quantity of self-supplied water withdrawn for irrigation, livestock and aquaculture purposes. [1]

The visualisation below shows the total annual water withdrawals which are used for industrial purposes. [1] Industrial water is also used as cooling water for energy generation in fossil fuel and nuclear power plants (hydropower generation is not included in this category), or as wastewater from certain industrial processes. [1] This value also includes the quantity of wastewater or water which is polluted as a result of agricultural production. [1]

Data on renewable resources should be treated with caution; since this data is gathered intermittently, it fails to capture seasonal and annual variance in water resources which can be significant in some nations. [1] Municipal water is defined as the water we use for domestic, household purposes or public services. [1] Renewable internal flows are therefore an important indicator of water security or scarcity. [1] Data at a national level also fails to capture variability at more local levels, which can be important when analysing the sustainability of particular groundwater aquifers or surface water basins. [1] The visualisation below provides a measure of levels of water stress across the world. [1] The ratio between the net consumption and the water withdrawn can vary from 5 to 15% in urban areas and from 10 to 50% in rural areas." [1] Water withdrawn by industries that are connected to the public supply network is generally included in municipal water withdrawal." [1] Even in high-income countries treated water may not always be safe to drink. [1] Globally, the United States is the largest user of industrial water, withdrawing over 300 billion m³ per year. [1] It has also been a strong driver in the quantity of water used for agriculture. [1] Water is used for a range of industrial applications, including dilution, steam generation, washing, and cooling of manufacturing equipment. [1] Water for the dairy and meat industries and industrial processing of harvested agricultural products is included under industrial water withdrawal." [1]

Access to improved water sources is increasing across the world, rising from 76 percent of the global population in 1990 to 91 percent in 2015. [1] The share of rural households with improved water sources was lower than the total population in 2015, with 85 percent access. [1] In the chart below we have plotted the share of the urban population with access to improved water sources versus the share in rural areas. [1] Since nearly all points lie above this line, with very few exceptions — notably Palestine — access to improved water sources is greater in urban areas relative to rural populations. [1] Similarly to our analysis of the share with improved water sources, we have shown the parity line whereby a country lying along this line has the same level of access in urban and rural areas. [1] In 2000 as part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) the world pledged to half to share of people without access to an improved water source by 2015 from 1990 levels. [1] The number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa without access to an improved water source has increased from 271 million to 326 million in 2015. [1] The chart below shows the total number of people with and without access to an improved water source from 1990 onwards. [1] While information on access to an improved water source is widely used, it is extremely subjective, and such terms as safe, improved, adequate, and reasonable may have different meanings in different countries despite official WHO definitions. [1] The visualisation below shows the share of urban population with access to improved water sources. [1] Gaining access to improved water sources can often require infrastructural investment and connection to municipal water networks; this is can be more challenging in rural areas hence we may expect access to be lower. [1] The visualisation below shows the relationship between access to improved water sources versus gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. [1] In 1990, 4 billion people had access to an improved water source; by 2015 this had increased to 6.7 billion. [1] Globally, 2.6 billion people gained access over this period — more than a third of the world's population have gained access to improved water since 1990. 4 The progress over this 25-year period is shown by region in the chart below, as the share of the population who have gained access since 1990. [1] There are some notable exceptions: for example, more than half of Equatorial Guinea's population lacks access to improved water despite having an GDP per capita above $27,000. [1]

As global population grows (increasing agricultural, industrial and domestic demands for water), and water demand increases, water stress and the risk of water scarcity is now a common concern. [1] The global distribution of improved water sources in rural populations is shown in the chart below. [1] The typical 'threshold' for reaching 90-100 percent sanitation provision is notably higher than that of improved water sources. [1] In 2015, most nations had improved water access in greater than 90 percent of households. [1] In this entry we present data on progress on improved water access, access to sanitation facilities, and the incidence of open defecation. [1] Similarly to improved water access, the provision of sanitation facilities tends to increase with income. [1]

Typically most countries with greater than 90 percent of households with improved water have an average GDP per capita of more than $10,000-15,000. [1]

If renewable resources decline — as can happen frequently in countries with large annual variability in rainfall, such as monsoon seasons — then per capita renewable withdrawals will also fall. [1] 'Renewable internal freshwater flows' refer to to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. [1] Renewable internal freshwater resources refers to the quantity of internal freshwater from inflowing river basins and recharging groundwater aquifers. [1]

The chart below shows the level of renewable internal freshwater resources per capita. [1] The chart below shows the average per capita renewable freshwater resources, measured in cubic metres per person per year. [1]

If rates of freshwater withdrawal begin to exceed the renewable flows, resources begin to decline. [1] This is measured based on freshwater withdrawals as a share of internal (renewable) resources. [1]

Per capita renewable resources depend on two factors: the total quantity of renewable flows, and the size of the population. [1] The chart below shows the total internal renewable freshwater resources by region. [1]

As the global population grows, there is an increasing need to balance all of the competing commercial demands on water resources so that communities have enough for their needs. In particular, women and girls must have access to clean, private sanitation facilities to manage menstruation and maternity in dignity and safety. [4] The United Nations has long been addressing the global crisis caused by insufficient water supply to satisfy basic human needs and growing demands on the world?s water resources to meet human, commercial and agricultural needs. [4]

The Assembly recognized the right of every human being to have access to sufficient water for personal and domestic uses (between 50 and 100 litres of water per person per day), which must be safe, acceptable and affordable;(water costs should not exceed 3 per cent of household income), and physically accessible (the water source has to be within 1,000 metres of the home and collection time should not exceed 30 minutes). [4] Currently, 844 million people - about one in nine of the planet?s population - lack access to clean, affordable water within half an hour of their homes, and every year nearly 300,000 children under five die of diarrhoea, linked to dirty water and poor sanitation. [42] In the UK, the Environment Agency has warned of water shortages across the south-east of the country within a few years, if the 3bn litres a day wasted through leaks - enough for the needs of 20 million people - continues. [42] With finite limits to local water, the critical challenge becomes how we can manage those resources to safely deliver the water needed to fuel growth, as well as for meeting the needs of people and the environment. [8] The conflicts in Syria and Yemen demonstrate the need for intervention and pressure from the international community to help both countries safeguard their current water supplies and prepare for the future through careful planning and resource management. [9] According to data from India's Ministry of Water Resources, though the country hosts 18 percent of the world's population, its share of total usable water resources is only 4 percent. [7] It may be hard to fathom just how cities could be at risk of a water scarcity crisis when approximately 70 percent of the world is made up of the resource. [43] Acute drought conditions and dwindling natural water resources are focusing more attention on what continues to be a worldwide problem: a lack of access to fresh, potable water. [8] "We have been solving the problem of getting access to water resources since civilisation began. [42]

Water stress occurs when demand for the resource exceeds the available supply. [43]

Roughly 20% of the world's population now lives in physical water scarcity, which The World's Water: Volume 8 defines as areas in which water withdrawals exceed 75% of river flows. [8] Economic water scarcity exists when a population does not have the necessary monetary means to utilize an adequate source of water. [8] Many human factors influence the availability of water, including dams or other engineering, population, and consumerism - or our water use on an individual, business, and government levels. [3] All of these dams provide opportunities for use (primarily irrigation), and leave considerably less water for people and wildlife downstream relying on the habitat the river provides under natural circumstances. [3] For instance, he notes, in many remote parts of sub-Saharan Africa, "there may be sufficient supplies of groundwater but there has not been enough investment in service delivery and service management to ensure that people can access this water". [42] NEW DELHI, Mar 16 2018 (IPS) - As Cape Town inches towards "Zero Hour? set for July 15, 2018, the real threat of water scarcity is finally hitting millions of people worldwide. [7] An estimated 1.6 billion people around the world live in areas of economic water scarcity, with 780 million people living in areas with no basic water services. [8] Yemen : According to UPI, Yemen?s capital, Sanaa, is expected to be the first major city in the world to experience full water scarcity, a direct result of the many turmoils and local military brews of the area. [44] Untreated water has combined with all the flooding from storm surges to fill the cities and surrounding areas, posing health risks for people trying to return to normalcy.In Florida, city pipelines are able to withstand about twice the amount of water than they?re built to filter. [45] Sharing access to water equitably requires good governance, tight regulation, investment and enforcement, all qualities in short supply in some of the world?s poorest and most water-scarce areas. [42] Access to basic sanitation and clean affordable water, can save over 17 thousands folks a week. [44] The links between lack of water and sanitation access and the development goals are clear, and the solutions to the problem are known and cost-effective. [4] By the year 2018, some 1.1 billion people worldwide will lack access to any sort of water, and a total of 2.7 billion will find water scarce for at least one month of the year. [44] As the amount of water withdrawn from wells reached unsustainable levels, water became more scarce and prices rose; it became unaffordable for most of the poverty-stricken population. [9]

Yemen?s population growth rapidly increased from around eight million in 1980 to currently twenty-seven million people, straining its already fragile water reserves. [9] There are millions of people risking their lives and spending hours just for a clean gallon of water. [44] We're going to really have to face drastic measures in order to make sure the people have access to water. [8] Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water, or not having access to safe water supplies. [8] For information about effective, custom water and wastewater treatment solutions designed to address your specific water scarcity issues, please contact Fluence to determine the water, wastewater, and water reuse solution that best meets your needs. [8] One on the prime symptoms of economic water scarcity is a region?s capacity, both technological as well as human, to satisfy the area?s demand for drinkable water. [44] Over 1.2 billion are basically living in areas of physical water scarcity. [8] Cape Town's recent water shortage crisis has raised global concern about the threat of water scarcity. [43] There is another equally challenging source of water scarcity: economic factors. [8] Many view this as a manipulation of nature, and impressive or not, decisions will have to made as to exactly how many people the water sources can handle and for how long. [3] Many governments and privatised water companies concentrate their provision on wealthy districts, and prioritise agriculture and industry over poorer people, while turning a blind eye to polluters and those who over-extract water from underground sources. [42]

For years the city was using more water than it could sustainably supply, and attempts to curb wastage and distribute water supplies more equitably to rich and poor had fallen short of what was needed. [42] Some of the latest water use data available is actually 20 or more years old. [8] This is a per-capita water use reduction of roughly 51 liters, or a change from 150 L/d in 1997 to 99 L/d in 2012, despite a 12% population increase. [8] Typical uses for recycled water include surface irrigation for orchards and vineyards, golf courses, landscaped areas, and food crops. [8] In the event, day zero was narrowly averted, in part by public exhortations to use water more efficiently, rationing, changes in practices such as irrigating by night and reusing "grey" water from washing machines or showers, and eventually a new desalination plant. [42] Every year, there are two UN international observances on water and sanitation: World Water Day, 22 March and World Toilet Day, 19 November. [4] To put that in perspective, the world's largest river, the Amazon, discharges almost that much every day or about 1,300 cubic miles of water every year, and the Mississippi River puts out about 133 cubic miles of water every year. [3] The theme for World Water Day this year is 'Nature for Water' Exploring nature-based solutions to the water challenges we face in the 21st century. [7] It would cost just over 21bn a year to 2030, or 0.1% of global GDP, to provide water and hygiene to all those who need it, but the World Bank estimates that the economic benefits would be $60bn a year. [42] We need water for drinking, for cooking, for washing, for food, for industry, for energy, for transport, for rituals, for fun, for life. [3] Although some consumers are skeptical about drinking recycled water, vocal advocates including Microsoft founder turned philanthropist Bill Gates continue to demonstrate there is nothing to fear from drinking properly treated water. [8] Everything we do requires water, for drinking, washing, growing food, and for industry, construction and manufacturing. [42] Fertilisers leaching nitrates into the supplies can also make water unsuitable for drinking or irrigation. [42]

For on that day, the South African city's 3.78 million citizens rich and poor, young and old, men and women will be forced to queue up with their jerry cans at public outlets for their quota of 25 litres of water per day. [7] Cape Town has watched its largest reservoir slowly dry up with "Day Zero," the day the city will simply run out of water, approaching in 2019. [2] In 2015, Sao Paulo had less than three weeks of water left before having to turn off access for the entire city. [2] For decades water access has been a slow-growing crisis as many parts of the world struggle to secure clean, reliable supplies. [2] They are already making sure they have access to more than enough water than they need while the not-so-rich and poor are looking at shortages or no water at all. [7] Inequality in access to water is also quickly becoming a problem. [43] The problem is that most of the Earth?s water resources are as inaccessible as if they were on Mars, and those that are accessible are unevenly distributed across the planet. [42] Companies and industries are also adopting water management best practices to help them thrive and become better resource stewards. [8] It addresses the effects of natural events and human intervention such as damming or dredging on natural water resources, and also addresses the long-term, cumulative effects of water policy decisions on the economy, institutions, and environment. [8] Water can be found it simply requires more resources to do it. [8] A ground-breaking new study based on data from the Nasa Grace - Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment - satellites over a 14-year period discovered 19 hotspots around the world where water resources are being rapidly depleted, with potentially disastrous results. [42] A severe drought, which took hold across the Levant region in 2006, divides resource conflict experts, some of whom do not identify the water crisis as the sole or a major cause of Syria?s war. [9] Some of the most effective ways of managing water resources are also the simplest. [42] In many cases, water, not oil, is the most precious commodity for these disenfranchised citizens, with warlords and local mafias using the resource as a means of power and political pressure. [44] Control over limited water resources is consistently a strategic tactic employed by both sides throughout the current conflict. [9]

That scarcity is spreading as water is needed to grow and process food, create energy, and serve industry for a continually growing population. [8] Experts say India?s gargantuan population increases the country's vulnerability to water shortage and scarcity. [7] In most of these districts, water treatment plants and "soluble" wells and aquifers are nothing more than open holes in dry river beds. In Tanzania, this last practice led to devastating epidemic that slashed their population by 75% in the late 2013. [44] Water in these wells are not treated leading to an increased risk of common water borne diseases like typhoid and cholera spreading to more of the population. [9] Texas water treatment centers haven?t fared too well either; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) says that at least 40 of the 1,219 wastewater treatment centers in the area surrounding Houston are temporarily out of commission in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey. [45] Such technologies can improve their overall cost of operations as well as make them resilient in periods of water scarcity. [8] All countries suffer from water scarcity in one way or another. [44] Water scarcity may not be the most apparent driver of conflict, yet in Syria and Yemen, the water crisis is an important factor that continues to impact both countries. [9] Mitigating water scarcity has proven to be a tricky political subject because, in many countries, environmental or climate solutions tend to have a hard time gathering enough political support to become a reality. [43] In order to understand the water crisis, we need to understand the concept of economic water scarcity. [44] There are several available solutions able to effectively address water scarcity, including water reuse, storage, management, conservation, and numerous water treatment technologies such as desalination. [8] Although water management is commonly viewed as a task for national or regional governments, it is increasingly practiced at the state, provincial, or local level. [8]

Everything that we use, from food and clothing to transportation and energy, requires an astounding amount of water. (If you want to find out more, and learn about what they suggest for less water use, visit National Geographic's Freshwater Initiative site.) [3] Many water systems, like lakes, rivers and aquifers are drying up an alarming rate or, due to our meddling, becoming far too polluted to use. [44] Roughly 67% of all water withdrawn is destined for agricultural use, 22% is allocated for domestic use, and 11% goes for industrial use. [8] Educating the public about where their water goes, and how their consumer choices affect the overall water situation may play a part in reducing the use and waste of water. [3] These include water recycling and reuse, and the use of zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) systems, which use, treat, and reuse water in a closed-loop system without release or discharge. [8] The food and beverage industry also uses water reuse and zero-discharge technologies. [8] The snack food manufacturing plant, which processes potatoes and corn, has a 2,460-m 3 /d process water recovery treatment system that has helped Frito-Lay reduce its annual water use by 378,541 m 3. [8] The technology needed to help us use water efficiently and equitably exists, but often is not implemented. [42]

Groundwater withdrawals have tripled in the past 50 years, according to 2012 United Nations estimates cited in The World's Water: Volume 8. [8] Originally projected for this year, the impending crisis has been delayed in part by severe measures -- the city instituted restrictions that amount to less than one sixth of an average American's water consumption. [43]

In Africa, women spend half of their day walking and hauling up water from a clear source. [44] Modern sanitation policies are being drafted that both conserve and prudently utilize water sources. [7] Its only source of water is the Dead Sea and the Jordan River. [44] Many nations are increasing their investment in desalination to develop reliable water sources in the face of growing demand. [8] Physical water scarcity occurs when there isn't enough water to meet demand. [8] For people who can ill-afford more uncertainty and disruption to an already-fragile standard of living, getting water can demand hours of time that they simply can't spare. [2] "Water, not unlike religion and ideology, has the power to move millions of people. [3] Since the very birth of human civilization, people have moved to settle close to water. [3] It is not only we humans who need it; all life is dependent upon water for its very survival." [3] Providing water to those who need it is not only vital to human safety and security, but has huge social and economic benefits too. [42] Water meters for domestic users in developed countries have been controversial, because they can penalise large families which have greater needs. But they provide a readily recognisable gauge to give households more information on their usage, and encourage them not to waste water, particularly as there are readily available technical fixes, from short flush toilets to spray taps and shower heads. [42] Girls in developing countries are worst off, as they frequently stop going to school at puberty because of a lack of sanitation, and girls and women travelling miles to fetch water or forced to defecate in the open are vulnerable to violence. [42] Contaminated water and a lack of basic sanitation are undermining efforts to end extreme poverty and disease in the world?s poorest countries. [4] Childhood diarrhoea is closely associated with insufficient water supply, inadequate sanitation, water contaminated with communicable disease agents, and poor hygiene practices. [4] The city?s government warned of an imminent day zero, when the water supply would simply run out. [42] The Colorado River is small compared to most rivers that act as a region's main water supply. [3] Already a scarce commodity, the impacts of climate change and perpetual war are depleting the water supply in Yemen at an accelerated pace. [9] Compounding the lack of infrastructure investment are political and ethnic conflicts, which continue to increase and intensify worldwide as water becomes more and more scarce, writes Brian Richter in the book Chasing Water: A Guide for Moving from Scarcity to Sustainability. [8]

The process also faces enough major setbacks, like producing enough energy to run plants, depositing the waste product (salt/brine), and developing each type of process more, that the option for it to be a serious possible contender to help solve the issue of water scarcity is not practical. [3] The issue of water scarcity was first raised in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. [7] The Millennium Development Goals (8 fundamental objectives established by a committee of different nations within the United Nation) established the necessity of making water scarcity a key problem to eradicate. [44] In this post, we?re going to help you understand the how, what, and why of the water scarcity problem. [44] Most families waste a great deal of their productive hours dealing with the problems that arise from water scarcity. [44] While we may not have solved the problem of water scarcity, we?re certainly making an effort to minimize the problem in as many ways as possible. [44] Everyone must work hand in hand to solve the water scarcity problems around the world. [44] Although water scarcity is a very real and pervasive problem, experts said most cities are not immediately at risk of running out of water. [43] In times of drought or water scarcity, little water is available naturally to recharge existing groundwater supplies, which can become depleted by overuse. [8] In some areas, including Australia and California, groundwater or aquifer recharging is being explored to help bolster water supplies. [8] The Western States, among them California, are having to cut back on water delivery to certain areas. [44] To address these issues in some areas, water utility privatization has been advocated. [8] That could become a point of geopolitical tension between countries dealing with transboundary water issues, Keller said. [43] The troubles faced by Cape Town should serve as a "wake-up call" for other countries about the realities of increasing water stress, Otto said. [43] Different countries and different water basins face unique problems, sometimes even within the same region. [8] Flint, Michigan achieved notoriety for the leaded tap water that poisoned a city, but rural communities have dealt with similar problems for generations. [2] How big is the problem? According to a 2013 report from the Center for Neighborhood Technology, in the U.S., an estimated 2.1 trillion gallons per year about 16% of the water used in the nation daily is lost through outdated and leaky infrastructure. [8] The net effect has been a "water scarcity impact" of 1.176 m 3 of water per year, according Water 2030. [8] The United Nations considers water scarcity to be one of the most detrimental and crippling crisis attacking struggling economies and communities. [44] The impact of water scarcity is important but often lost in the details of the larger conflict. [9] Economic water scarcity is by far the most disturbing form of water scarcity because it is almost entirely a lack of compassion and good governance that allows the condition to persist. [8] Economic water scarcity is predominant throughout Africa, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. [8] Economic water scarcity is a term that begun having a wide range appeal in mid-2007. [44] Large parts of the world, particularly in Africa, suffer from economic water scarcity. [44] Water conservationists say if these steps are followed strictly, India may be able to minimize its water scarcity. [7] Water scarcity and control is not the focus of media, but the impacts of both are clearly felt throughout the conflict. [9] While water scarcity alone may not have caused the current conflict, the increase in urbanization and unemployment exacerbated socioeconomic tensions. [9] Just as water scarcity has been a driver of conflict, ensuring its protection and equitable provision can help resolve conflicts and perhaps offer the hope of more stability. [9]

Out of those figures, 2.4 billion will have inadequate water sources and have to deal with a series of life threatening diseases. [44] The world population is expected to reach 9 billion, placing pressure on water supplies. [8] By 2025, two-thirds of the world's population may be facing water shortages, according to the World Wildlife Federation. [8] By 2025, two-thirds of the world?s population may face water shortages. [44] A vast majority of the world population will regularly experience outbreaks of typhoid, cholera, malaria, zika, and dozens of other water borne illnesses and parasites. [44]

Water conservation or efficiency of use in industry and agriculture are the least expensive with the least impact on the environment. [8] Evidence suggests that in many cases the water is "recycled" for different uses. [44] Both the Houthi and Saudi forces have reportedly blocked deliveries of humanitarian aid including food and water to use against the other side. [9] Discretionary water use, which is anything beyond the necessary amount, should be charged more," Otto said. [43]

Access to power can be an obstacle to decentralized water treatment. [8] The country's exponentially growing middle-class is raising unprecedented demands on clean, safe water. [7] By 2030, water demand is forecast to increase by 40%, according to Even Kuross, a management consultant based in Oslo, writing in Fair Observer. [8] Without water management and strategies for adequately addressing ever-increasing demand, the solution is incomplete. [8] Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 is to "Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". [4] One of the most important recent milestones has been the recognition in July 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly of the human right to water and sanitation. [4] The United Nations' 2010 recognition of water as a human right has complicated the issue of water theft, said Vanda Felbab-Brown, a senior fellow in the foreign policy program at think-tank the Brookings Institution. [43] Many natural elements may even play a part in these issues, but we can choose what part we will play in the human interaction with water. [3] This process can treat seawater or groundwater containing salt concentrations that make the water unfit for human consumption. [8] This may be through the development of policies regarding domestic water supplies, the pollution and overdrafting of groundwater supplies, wetlands restoration, and issues such as water imports and exports. [8] As with most water issues, the biggest problem is still governance and equity. [42]

The past two hurricanes have completely overwhelmed these systems, and pipes have overflowed with millions of gallons of untreated water into streets, homes, and along the coasts of the state. [45] In Yemen, the contamination of water has led to the spread of a crippling cholera epidemic, which has infected half a million Yemenis and led to the deaths of an estimated two thousand. [9] In the developing world, finding a reliable source of safe water is often time consuming and expensive. [8] It is the source of life on Earth and quite possibly beyond - the discovery of traces of water on Mars aroused excitement because it was the first indication that life may have existed there. [42] Bathing, laundry, livestock, cleaning and cooking water not only comes from the same source but is oftentimes reused from one chore to another. [44] Surface water isn?t the only source reaching a breaking point in India. [7] Saving water will always be cheaper than building or drilling for new sources, Otto added. [43]

Adverse fallouts from water shortage aren't just limited to people. [7] Therefore, water is a subtle driver of the early clashes between the regime and the Syrian people. [9] Withholding water is used as a tactic of war across the country, primarily by the Syrian regime, but also by some opposition and extremist groups. [9] Official data shows that in the past decade, annual per capita availability of water in the country has plummeted significantly. [7] Libya : Another war torn country that?s facing a full sanitary cataclysm, the constant regime changes and wild political upheavals are taxing the nation?s capacity to create a viable water policy. [44] "A severe lack of regulation, over privatization and entrenched corruption are the salient reasons pushing the country to a water crisis," says Dr. Chintamani Reddy, a water expert and former professor of geography at Delhi University. [7]

Nirobox has options for both seawater and brackish water, as well as for wastewater treatment. [8] Evaluation of these factors, as well as technology and action to support healthy water supplies, is necessary to gain control of the situation. [3] Masdar estimated that seawater desalination requires about 10 times more energy than pumping well water does. [8]

In recent years, California faced a drought that lasted years, Australia survived the millennium drought, and Sao Paulo faced a water shortage crisis in 2015 due to both drought and inefficient infrastructures. [43] In December 2016, the Syrian government targeted the Ein el-Fijeh water facility of Wadi Barada and cut off the water supply to Damascus, leading to internal displacement. [9] Some reports claim that prior to being cut off, the Syrian government contaminated the water supply with diesel fuel. [9] Adding water supply through reuse or desalination, for example, isn't a panacea. [8] Water shortage and lack of water delivery infrastructure were posing a threat to tourism, necessitating a local, high-quality, dependable supply of potable water that wouldn't hurt the environment. [8] "When those aquifers can no longer supply water - and some, like the southern half of the Ogallala, may run out by 2050 - where will we be producing our food and where will the water come from?" he asks. [42]

Although the surface of our planet is covered mainly by water, over 73 percent to be exact, only 3 percent of it is considered drinkable. [44] These include the United Arab Emirates, nations with limited available water supplies such as Cyprus, and water-stressed areas of the U.S. There are an estimated 16,000 desalination plants in operation around the world, the largest of which are in Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Israel. [8] Using unclean water, in many areas, leads to an upswell of different disease, some of which are fatal. [44] The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, the region's water supplier, will deliver 15% less water to cities in the greater Los Angeles area starting in July 2018. [44] This crisis, while not at the forefront of most tribal disputes, has exacerbated tribal conflicts and increased the urban-rural divide, with instances of escalating violence over the control and routing of water in areas such as Taizz and Abyan. [9]

Some methods of irrigation are highly inefficient - in hot countries, water sprayed on crops evaporates before it can reach the roots. [42] Having local parties agree on the allowing water to be treated, a process hindered by constant aerial bombardment in both countries, and then having the international community enforce such agreements, can be a step toward prioritizing citizen safety and cooperation. [9] That sentiment hasn't stopped outright water theft on a large scale in countries like Brazil, India and Mexico. [43]

Clean water is an essential element for human health, wellbeing and prosperity. [1] Water is at the core of sustainable development and is critical for socio-economic development, energy and food production, healthy ecosystems and for human survival itself. [4] The International Decade for Action, "Water for Sustainable Development?, will commence on World Water Day, 22 March 2018, and terminate on World Water Day, 22 March 2028. [4] This article is part of a series of stories and op-eds launched by IPS on the occasion of World Water Day on March 22. [7] In just eight months from order to startup, Fluence provided three Nirobox containerized seawater desalination units with a total output of 1,500 m 3 of water a day. [8] Children go without any education, their sole responsibility trodding dozens of miles a day and fetching water. [44]

The city is not going to run out of water suddenly," Keller said. [43] Food plants require a large volume of water to process foods, clean plant equipment and remove waste products. [8] Another key in the water savings puzzle is the ongoing need worldwide for infrastructure monitoring and repair to prevent loss of water through delivery systems. [8] As the world?s water needs grow so is concern that we?re rapidly using up supplies. [42] Water is hard to transport over long distances, and our needs are growing, both for food and industry. [42] Water is managed at a local level, and often poorly managed. [42] The low water level of California's South Lake reservoir reflects the pressure that the state's drought conditions have put on water supplies. [8] The targets cover all aspects of both the water cycle and sanitation systems, and their achievement is designed to contribute to progress across a range of other SDGs, most notably on health, education, economics and the environment. [4] Sustainable development goal six from the UN concerns water, stating that safe water and sanitation should be provided to all by 2030. [42] Unclean water and poor sanitation are a leading cause of child mortality. [4]

One of the biggest obstacles limiting effective water management is politics and bureaucracy. [8] Despite this and similar successes, conservation is frequently pummeled in the environmental media for being ineffective, especially in the absence of meaningful water management policy and low water prices. [8]

All six of these cities (along with hundreds of smaller communities) rely on dams and aqueducts that transport Colorado River water hundreds of miles from its natural course. [3] In the UAE, for example, water demand is expected to double between 2011 and 2020. [8] The United States, a nation that takes for granted the gift that is drinkable tap water, is in the midst of a major water crisis. [44] The Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL, Daesh) shut down a major water channel from the Taqba Dam to Aleppo, which the Syrian government took control of in December 2016. [9]

For an example of international water tensions, take the construction of the Grand Renaissance Dam in the Nile, a $4 billion hydroelectric project financed by Ethiopia. [43] National Geographic provides us with information about the amount of water used to produce food and everyday items. [3] Recycled, or reclaimed, water can be used in a variety of applications across industries, both inside facilities and in the community. [8] Nonpotable water can be used for toilet flushing, irrigating landscaping, washing vehicles and streets, and other similar purposes. [8] Monitoring aging infrastructure and creating new technologies such as wireless smart valves and pipe defect and leak-detection sensing devices are helping, but they must be used along with water policies such as routine reporting and repair plans. [8] Much of the water is used for agriculture and domestic chores. [44] Even snow-making machines used in ski resorts draw water from already stressed mountain streams, making it almost impossible for native fishes and the aquatic insects they depend upon to survive. [7]

Much of the world is facing issues concerning water rights and water depletion. [3] The authors were uncompromising: the results showed that "water is the key environmental issue of the century," they said. [42] The increasing risks have cast a spotlight on the issue of water theft and mitigation efforts. [43] There's no single solution to the issue, however, as the context of water theft varies between places, Felbab-Brown said. [43]

Water and wastewater treatment present both a challenge and an opportunity for food plant operators. [8] No water for sale at this branch of Woolworths in Cape Town. [42] Cape Town in South Africa provided a stark example of what can happen when water supplies come under threat. [42] A public swimming pool, in a suburb of Cape Town has been emptied due to local water restrictions on March 6, 2018. [43]

Groundwater is water that collects below the earth's surface in fissures and crevasses, then moves into aquifers. [8] Water is also at the heart of adaptation to climate change, serving as the crucial link between the society and the environment. [4]

At a subsistence level, some people have access to only 5 liters of water per day for all of their cooking, drinking, and sanitation needs. [21] Main factors that contribute to this issue include poor management of resources, lack of government regulation, and man made waste. 1 18 percent of the world's population which resides in India only has access to 4 percent of usable water sources. [46] A joint 2014 study by the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Pacific Institute found that stormwater capture in the San Francisco Bay Area and urban portions of Southern California possesses the potential to increase water supplies by as much water as is used by the entire city of Los Angeles in a year. [20] "Sao Paulo was down to less than 20 days of water supply," says Betsy Otto, director of the global water program at the World Resources Institute. [19] By analyzing what works in countries with chronic water scarcity, we can borrow effective ideas and learn to better manage this invaluable resource. [18]

R. David G. Pyne, an engineer who pioneered the storage and withdrawal of water in aquifers for human use -- a practice known as " aquifer storage and recovery," or ASR -- estimates that at least 140 recharge well fields have been installed in about 25 states, and the technique is being used in about 15 other countries, including Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, England, Israel, and New Zealand. [20] Although many countries use recycled wastewater for irrigation, landscaping, and industrial purposes, few of them recycle water for drinking, mostly because the notion of "toilet to tap" is a tough sell. [18] In March this year, the state of Gujarat stopped the supply of irrigation water from a major dam to ensure there was enough for drinking purposes. [17] We may think of the world as the blue planet, but a vanishingly small percentage of the world?s water is available to meet our basic needs, including drinking, sanitation, and irrigation. [18]

To address water supply, sanitation and hygiene, USAID is working with local-level water-supply government institutions - such as River Basin Agencies and Ministry of Agriculture regional offices - to introduce water-efficient technologies and water management tools that promote conservation and increase public awareness and community involvement in water issues. [6] Although the water storage graphs for Cape Town's two main water sources (Berg River Dam and Theewaterskloof Dam) show that both have dropped below "very low" levels since 2015, Professor Barend Erasmus, Director of the Global Change Institute, says that declining surface water levels do not serve as a clear "early warning." [22] For those households who have reliable access to potable water, we use nearly double the global average - in a water scarce part of the world," says Maree. [22] As overdevelopment, population growth, and climate change upset the balance between water use and supply, urban centers from North America to South America and from Australia to Asia increasingly face threats of severe drinking-water shortages. [19] As population growth, pollution, and climate change increasingly threaten our water supply, water-poor countries have much to teach us about how to tackle what is rapidly becoming a global crisis. [18] Agriculture currently accounts for 70% of global water withdrawals, mostly for irrigation - a figure that rises in areas of high water stress and population density. [16]

Only 15 percent of total agricultural land is irrigated, resulting in inefficient water use and management. [6] USAID supports water resource management in Morocco by introducing new technologies to help improve agricultural productivity and rural livelihoods. [6] Of the water that we do have, 98% is already allocated for use, which means we have only 2% left over as a useable resource. [22] Excessive demand coupled with mismanaged water resources, erratic weather patterns and climate change have led to a sad state of affairs. [17] Until the current water 'crisis' fully developed in Cape Town, and the ominous-sounding phrase "Day Zero' became a daily headline in newspapers, few were actively mobilised around water as a valuable resource. [22] Lower income countries are most vulnerable as they lack good governance and do not have the resources to invest in water infrastructure. [21] Water pollution and poor resource management have also contributed to limited availability. [17] Supported by a USAID & Tissilt Association for Development as part of a water resource management project. [6] In Australia, the millennium drought strained water resources for more than a decade. [16] Even with all of the resources dedicated to the world water crisis, new and emerging technologies can help with water conservation. [16]

There could be other consequences such as stress levels spiking and people becoming violent as they try and access water or over stretched health facilities. [5] In addition people may be tempted to drink contaminated or non-potable water if they cannot afford to buy water or cannot easily access points of distribution. [5] Day zero, when the 4 million people living in Cape Town run out of water, is becoming a real possibility. [5] The ominous Day Zero narrative in Cape Town has brought water security into our daily lives and has made us pay closer attention to issues of water demand and availability. [22] Editor's Note : Since this story was first published on February 2, the "Day Zero" when Cape Town is set to turn off its water supply has been moved back several times, first to May, and then even later. [19]

Australia has developed an array of innovative techniques to increase its water supply, notably including "sewer mining" -- the use of small-scale, modular units to treat and reuse wastewater at the site where it is generated. [20] The largely arid country has implemented a centralized water management system, set up desalination plants, encouraged the use of treated waste water for farming and propagated the idea of drip irrigation, which involves dripping water onto the roots of crops rather than flooding entire fields. [17] Globally, one in three people lives in a country that faces a nationwide water crisis, but that proportion underestimates the number of people who face severe restrictions on water availability, since various countries (including Australia and the United States) have some very dry, heavily populated regions despite not facing a water crisis nationally. [18] It's predicted to fall another 13% by 2025 and 15% again by 2050, which means that in another 30 years each Indian household will have about 1.1 million liters of water per year, down from 1.8 million liters in 2011. (A country is considered to be suffering from water scarcity when availability is less than 1 million liters per capita per year.) [17] South Africa has always been a country with problems of water scarcity. [22] The district represents the vanguard of a paradigm shift in water storage and conservation in areas where scarcity is a major threat -- in the U.S. West and Southwest, assorted other states, and many nations. [20] With nearly 78% of the world?s poor living in rural areas, they are the first and hardest hit by water scarcity, suffering significant income losses. [21] South Africa is set for a steep decline in wine production in 2018 as the country grapples with a water crisis ravaging Cape Town and surrounding areas, a Paris-based global organisation said Tuesday. [22] South Africa on Tuesday declared a "national disaster" over a drought that has ravaged parts of the country and threatened to leave the city of Cape Town without domestic tap water. [22] What does Australia, Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, Miami, Cape Town, and the Middle East all have in common? Water scarcity. [16] In the U.S., Los Angeles, Salt Lake City and Miami are all on the verge of water scarcity due to climate change. [16]

A decade ago, the city was told that population growth and shifts projected to come with climate change-- drier, hotter weather, with less winter rainfall, and reduced stream flows --would require it find additional water sources. [19] By 2050, the world?s population will have grown by an estimated 2 billion people and global water demand could be up to 30% higher than today. [16] Growing populations and climate change add to global water crisis. [21] Population growth and a record drought, perhaps exacerbated by climate change, is sparking one of the world's most dramatic urban water crises, as South African leaders warn that residents are increasingly likely to face " Day Zero." [19] The city has informed residents that water supplies will be turned off on the day and only retained for high risk areas and essential services. [5] Already, many of the 21 million residents of Mexico City only have running water part of the day, while one in five get just a few hours from their taps a week. [19] The South African city of Cape Town announced new water restrictions Thursday to combat drought, saying it was looking more likely that it will have to turn off most taps on "Day Zero," or April 21. [22] Cape Town's main water supply, at the Theewaterskloof Dam, is running dry, and the city may soon have to turn off its taps. [19] Maree believes Gauteng can expect to run into water shortages in the near future, with high levels of urbanisation and growth leading to increased demand pressures on the limited water supply. [22] Water management is unsanitary, leaky, polluted by heavy metals, or not sufficient to deliver enough supply to support demand. [19] The country's dependence on agriculture, which forms a significant part of its economy and employs about 800 million people, cripples water management even further--especially given the unpredictable monsoons. [17] The World Water Council is an international multi-stakeholder platform organization whose mission is to mobilize action on critical water issues at all levels, including the highest decision-making level, by engaging people in debate and challenging conventional thinking. [16] The organization has built a foundation of technical specialists in the water industry, enabling them to better understand the complexity of water issues in rural areas of developing countries and thereby manage projects more effectively. [16] Over 30 UN organizations carry out water and sanitation programs, reflecting the fact that water issues run through all of the UN?s main focus areas. [16] In non-notified areas, NOC is issued with mandatory pre-conditions of adoption of rain water harvesting system, monitoring of ground water abstraction as well as monitoring of ground water level and quality etc. by the industry. [46] Where adverse soil composition prevents aquifer recharge by flooding, the use of "recharge wells" -- wells designed to pump or drain water into aquifers -- has spread. [20] SIWI believes that the best way to tackle water crises, and help bring about lasting change - with the ultimate goal being the eradication of poverty - is to strengthen water governance among public and private actors alike: the political, social, economic and administrative systems and processes that influence water?s use and management. [16] Accordingly, the coordinated use of some or all of these approaches has become known as Integrated Water Management, or, more familiarly, One Water. [20] It made strides in reducing water use from its six major reservoirs, which hold up to 230 billion gallons of water. [19]

For millions around the world, access to funds stands between them and safe water in their home. [16] Phase 2 of the LHWP is scheduled to increase the current supply rate of 780 million cubic metres of water per year to 1 260 million cubic metres per year. [22] Thirdly, the absence of a readily available water supply may predispose people to dehydration and heat stroke. [5] Some businesses may be unable to function without a water supply and people may lose their income or jobs. [5] This simple tactic showed people just how quickly the city was running out of water, creating a sense of urgency and pulling the community together. [18] In response to complaints that the showerheads were ugly, the city developed a flow regulator for existing showerheads, enabling even more people to save water. [18] The city has gotten "a slight reprieve" thanks to area fruit growers using up their annual water allocation, making more available for the city, and some water routing and conservation measures. [19] Areas that are at a high risk of outbreaks such as informal settlements will have their water supply maintained. [5] Even leak detection can play a significant role in increasing water supply, particularly in eastern U.S. cities whose aged pipes may lose as much as 30 percent of the water passing through them. [20]

Water scarcity becomes more concerning with every passing year. [18] The Canadian start-up Decode Global has developed the mobile game Get Water!, a game for social change focusing on the water scarcity in India and the effect it has on girls' education. [46] Children in rural India and Mexico were similarly harmed due to water scarcity. 2 Increased water scarcity also spreads disease because of exposure to contaminated water and less water for hygiene. 3 There are longer term effects as well, including causing nutritional deficits in young children which can permanently affect their learning capabilities. [21] With the era of dam building coming to an end in much of the developed world, places such as California and Australia are turning to local and less expensive methods to deal with water scarcity, including recycling wastewater, capturing stormwater, and recharging aquifers. [20] Water scarcity multiplies risk, raising the chances of civil conflict following periods of drought, amongst other problems. [21] All of these regions are suffering from drought conditions or are on the verge of water scarcity due to climate change. [16] Water scarcity, poverty, political stability and strong partner organizations all play a part in where projects are funded. [16] Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. [46] Orange County was then a bastion of political conservatism, not the sort of place associated with environmental innovation, but water scarcity is a powerful motivator. [20]

Various provinces, including Limpopo and the North West Province, have struggled with serious droughts in the past 10 years, and the Eastern Cape and parts of KwaZulu-Natal are suffering from water shortages. [22] This farm in Fresno County, California was flooded last year with water from the nearby Kings River to replenish the aquifer below. [20] Namibia couldn?t afford to think that way--and it has been purifying wastewater into drinking water for 50 years. [18] Texas is the only U.S. state that allows distribution of treated wastewater directly into potable water systems. [20] Lack of strict state regulation on ground water development has caused a strain on the amount of freshwater available. [46] In hand with the lack of government interference and continued industrial waste deposited into major rivers, most freshwater entering the bodies of water is defiled. [46] As it stands, water conveyed from faraway rivers and reservoirs to the Orange County Water District costs $1,000 per acre-foot; the unsubsidized cost of its recycled water is $850 per acre-foot. [20] According to Mountjoy, water collected in this way costs only $46 to $120 per acre-foot, as little as a thirtieth of the estimated cost of water from the proposed Temperance Flat Dam on the San Joaquin River. [20] Data on water consumption are very limited and vary greatly across different types of households, but the studies we do have have shown that Johannesburg households consume around 330 litres of water per person per day. [22] In honor of World Water Day 2018 on March 22, we thought we would do a round up on some of the latest water news, the latest water stats, as well as ten organizations whose missions are to create a water-secure future. [16] Marina Barrage has boosted the city-state?s water supply by 10%, as well as alleviating flooding and serving as a focal point for recreational activities, such as biking and art and music festivals. [18] The latest methods are considered more reliable than reservoirs, whose water supply varies with precipitation levels and season. [20] In addition to augmenting water supply, filling these aquifers provides environmental benefit: their water quality usually improves as levels inside them rise, and the higher levels prevent soil compaction and surface subsidence, which eventually occurs when aquifers are left unfilled. [20] In addition to raising awareness of the severe decline in the city?s water storage levels, Melbourne city leaders wanted to encourage citizens to consume less water at home. [18] In order to solve our water crisis, we need to change the way we think about and treat water - from a government perspective right down to consumer level. [22] The problem, however, is that AMD is usually just neutralised for pH levels, and many sulphates stay behind in the water. [22]

In addition to desalination and the use of recycled waste water, the city-state gives priority to building reservoirs and catchments to collect as much natural water as possible. [17] A second aspect of water security is making sure that that the water that we do have is safe enough to use. [22] Water stored in the percolation tank, is strictly meant for domestic use only. [46] Water will also be supplied through designated distribution points to limit the risk of dehydration, maintain hygiene standards and enable the flushing of toilets through the use of grey water. [5]

In the past, armed guards have been stationed at reservoirs to prevent water theft and trains have been used to transport water to suffering areas. [17] The Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) has notified 82 areas (Districts, Blocks, Mandals, Talukas, Municipalities) for regulation of ground water development. 12 In these areas, installation of new ground water abstraction structures is not permitted without prior specific approval of the Authority / Authorized officer. [46] According to the government, water catchment areas now cover two-thirds of Singapore's surface area, up from half in 2011. [17] One area that we have been focused is water conservation ; specifically the technologies that help businesses conserve water. [16]

Much like southern California, South Africa is arid, but Cape Town's most recognizable land mass, Table Mountain, traps onshore breezes coming off warm ocean waters, creating local rains that power rivers and fill underground aquifers. [19] Six Indian states are involved in battles over the river waters of the Yamuna in the north, the Narmada in the midwest and the Cauvery in the south. [17]

Residents of drought-stricken Cape Town received good news Tuesday when city officials said they now face losing piped water to their homes by July 9--a month later than last forecast. [22] "The question that dominates my waking hours now is: When Day Zero arrives, how do we make water accessible and prevent anarchy?" says Helen Zille, former Cape Town mayor and the current premier of South Africa's Western Cape province, in a guest newspaper column published earlier this winter. [19] Awaiting Day Zero: Cape Town faces an uncertain water future. [20]

Cape Town won several international water management awards. [19] IWMI works in partnership with governments, civil society and the private sector to develop scalable agricultural water management solutions that have a real impact on poverty reduction, food security and ecosystem health. [16] "Effective water management has to be carefully considered," says Vogel. [22]

Unfortunately, unchecked pollution has turned thousands of water sources into bodies of filth and disease. [17] Many rural communities rely on a single water source to sustain families and livelihoods. [6]

Along with the strain on surface water, the country is also facing great stress with freshwater. [46] Every time a government official speaks about water issues in South Africa, they mention that South Africa is a "water-scarce" country. [22] UN-Water coordinates the efforts of UN entities and international organizations working on water and sanitation issues. [16] With its inception in 1982, Global Water started as an advocacy group spreading awareness of water issues, however, that focus has transitioned into a project-oriented organization. [16] The Water Global Practice is currently managing a lending portfolio that includes 177 projects totaling US$24.5 billion, accounting for about 11% of total World Bank lending. [16] To achieve water security, the DWS says, an estimated "capital funding gap of around R33 billion per year is needed for the next 10 years." [22]

Educating the public is an important starting point, but it has even more impact when accompanied by specific initiatives that encourage people to save water. [18] His book on dams, " Deep Water: The Epic Struggle Over Dams, Displaced People, and the Environment," won the J. Anthony Lukas Work-in-Progress Award for its "elegant, beautiful prose." [20] The current water situation in Cape Town can teach us a number of lessons that could assist us in working towards a more water secure Gauteng - and the country as a whole. [22] Cape Town officials are making plans to store emergency water at military installations, and say using taps to fill pools, water gardens, or wash cars is now illegal. [19]

Maree agrees: "We have to deal with the consumption and water wastage issue, which is a technical issue as well as a political issue and leadership issue, around changing behaviour." [22] The game's primary goal is to raise awareness of the water crisis, by educating children as well as adult gamers. [46] New water wells are being drilled and a plant that would reuse effluent is being built. [19] In other cases, the water table has been polluted and well water is no longer safe. [21] Places where it takes hours to bring home a precious jug of water from a well, where water is contaminated, and often the carrier of deadly diseases. [21]

Per capita consumption declined, the city reduced leaks, it forced large users to pay more, and generally promoted water efficiency, says Winter. [19] Overall, Melbourne ultimately reduced its water demand per capita by almost 50%. [18] The current and future water demands will have to be accommodated for within the current water availability." [22]

A study of Delhi's piped water systems a few years ago found that 40% of the city's water is lost due to pipe leaks and thefts via unauthorized connections. [17] A Bluefield study last year found that in a ranking of the current cost of water delivered from six technologies, dams and reservoirs were the second-costliest. [20] Cities such as Melbourne were less than a year away from running out of water. [16]

Now, according to NASA data, reservoirs stand at 26 percent of capacity, with the single largest, which provides half the city's water, in the worst shape. [19] Even without expanding the canals? volume, a 2015 study by RMC Water and Environment, a California consulting firm, found that recharge from November to March could reduce the region?s overdraft by 12 to 20 percent, and inclusion of additional months of recharge could hike that number to 30 percent. [20] As of 2016, about 35 percent of U.S. water utilities had already installed automated metering systems, according to a study by West Monroe Partners, a consulting firm. [20]

Water has always been cheap and, for the middle-class South African at least, there has always been a constant, reliable supply of water. [22] "We live in a region far from our water supply, we live on top of a watershed, and we spend great expense piping water here (from the Katse Dam via the LHWP). [22] The water supply to most health facilities will be maintained to enable them to manage ill patients, outbreaks and cases of dehydration. [5]

In the United Arab Emirates, which ranks second in the world among water-scarce countries, government officials launched a national campaign to conserve energy and water. [18] In Namibia, one of the most arid countries in southern Africa, citizens have been drinking recycled water since 1968. [18] In South Africa, the ruling African National Congress and the Democratic Alliance, the opposition party that runs the city, each have some responsibility for maintaining or administering water. [19] In 2016, the city of Latur experienced a great water shortage. [46] There is not a single Indian city that can provide potable water from its taps. [17] There are pools and water parks and wineries and lush gardens, though even as the city modernized, hundreds of thousands still live in impoverished settlements. [19] The city is prepping 200 emergency water stations outside groceries and other gathering spots. [19] The cheaper cost of treatment is counterbalanced by the need to install separate piping systems for non-potable water. [20] Singapore has been very smart about meeting its water needs efficiently. [17] "We need to find socially just ways of ensuring effective water management." [22]

Residents of Shimla had to wait nearly four days to get water, with many lining up with buckets to collect water from tankers. [17] A lack of hand hygiene and water to clean food may also lead to an increase in food-borne diarrheal diseases. [5] Most of the increased capacity that Nelson?s paper documents entails storing water in the emptied parts of overdrawn aquifers, which amount to millions of acre-feet. [20] Much like Cape Town's fiasco, reservoirs in Sao Paulo, Brazil, dropped so low in 2015 that pipes drew in mud, emergency water trucks were looted, and the flow of water to taps in many homes was cut to just a few hours twice a week. [19] This has led to a substantial drop in the levels of India's water table, which is a major concern. [17] There has been a 61% decline in the country's water levels from 2007 to 2017. [17]

The increased amount of solid wastes in water systems such as lakes and rivers also heavily pollute the water. [46] In California, the leading state in development of many of these strategies, no new storage dams have been built since 1978, but according to a peer-reviewed paper ? by water policy consultant Barry Nelson, adoption of the new methods has caused California?s water storage to increase since then by a "capacity greater than that of Lake Shasta," the state?s largest reservoir. [20] It has an annual surface water runoff (from rain) of 49 billion cubic metres. [22] A significant portion of water used for industrial and domestic purposes is waste when returned to the streams. [46] Rainwater harvesting - Rain water is accumulated and used for ground water recharge. [46]

There is no single UN entity dedicated exclusively to water issues. [16] To reduce the amount of water that agricultural projects consumed, the government identified the most water-intensive crops, such as bananas, and temporarily eliminated import tariffs as a way of encouraging imports rather than domestic farming of those crops. [18] From cheapest to most expensive, the progression goes: smart-meter leak detection, desalination of brackish water (usually in aquifers), wastewater recycling, stormwater capture, reservoirs, ocean desalination. [20] Water disputes abound within the country and among its neighbors. [17] With the rainy season just beginning in India, here's a look at the water crisis in the world's second most populous country. [17]

Rajendra Singh, a well-known water conservationist nicknamed "India's waterman," has said that over 70% of the country's groundwater is in "overdraft", implying that more water is consumed than is replenished. [17] According to government data, the average annual per capita water availability fell 15% between 2001-2011. [17]

The ability to provide clean water is a path to political legitimacy and can be used by any side in the conflict whether it be regime, opposition, or ISIS. In Syria, the United Nations Children?s Fund (UNICEF) reported in January 2017 that "about 5.5 million people in Damascus and Rural Damascus and 1.8 million people in Aleppo were deprived from access to safe water due to damage to water supply networks caused by the conflict for long periods." [9] In impoverished regions, such as Africa (where thousands die from a result of having zero access to clean water) or in Pakistan (where the shortage has claimed ? of its population), a different set of problems assaults the region: economic water scarcity. [44] Clean water is an essential ingredient of a healthy human life, but 1.2 billion people lack access to water, according to recent estimates from the International Water Management Institute cited in The World's Water: Volume 8, edited by Peter H. Gleick. [8]

A nation's development has frequently come at the cost of undercutting its sources of clean water, Betsy Otto, director of the World Resources Institute's global water program told CNBC. [43] As population growth increases demand and global warming reduces available resources, this problem will only get worse. [2]

Farmers will grow what they can to turn a profit, and many have little alternative than to use scarce groundwater resources. [42] Terrorist groups and local warlords use their own wealth and resources to create the needed infrastructure, the major caveat being that they control the pipeline and in turn use it for their own goals mainly recruitment. [44]

With these systems, wastewater once viewed as a useless, disposable commodity becomes a valuable resource. [8] It taxes the reserves and may lead to deterioration of fresh water resources. [43] A significant supply is locked up in ice and snow, which means just 1 percent of all fresh water is easily accessible to the global population. [43] In 2015, experts estimated that thirteen million Yemenis, or 50 percent of the population, struggle daily to have enough clean water for basic necessities. [9]

Over 90 percent of the waste water discharged into rivers, lakes, and ponds is untreated that leads to further contamination of fresh water sources. [7] Contamination of fresh water sources by industrial waste has sullied the waters of all major rivers. [7] An increasingly popular solution to fresh water scarcity is treating saline or brackish water sources through a process known as desalination. [8] India's water bodies and fresh water sources are threat from pollution, industrialization, human waste disposal and governmental neglect. [7] Water reuse whether it is grey water or recycled water can save fresh water for human consumption in times of water stress and water scarcity. [8]

Otto summed up the global state of preparedness for water scarcity, saying: "We've either under-invested in measures or allowed existing structures to fall apart." [43] According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, at least 1.8 billion people world-wide are estimated to drink water that is not protected against contamination from faeces. [4]

Millions of people struggle to find enough clean water to survive. [44] Over 884 million people worldwide live without clean water. [44]

With the planet's second largest population at 1.3 billion (after China's 1.4 billion), and expectant growth to reach 1.7 billion by 2050, India is struggling to provide safe, clean water to most of its populace. [7] In areas of Raqqa captured from ISIS, residents are digging their own wells because they cannot easily relocate to areas with clean water. [9] Access to clean water is of paramount importance for those without it. [44] In essence, a community without a viable source of clean water is destined for extinction. [44] Water scarcity, though, also offers a chance for cooperation between different groups, and provision of clean water is a path towards political legitimacy. [9]

The World Bank estimates that a city needs about 1,000 cubic meters of fresh water per person per year to maintain adequate supplies. [2] Who knew things would come to such a sorry pass for the rich and beautiful metropolis, ironically lapped by the aquamarine waters of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans? An ominous cocktail of deficient rainfall, devastating droughts and poor planning, say conservationists, have made Cape Town the first major city to run out of fresh water. [7]

Recycling the cooling water before discharge into evaporation ponds reduces use of valuable fresh water by 50% and lowers discharge volumes. [8] One important aspect of water reuse is that it preserves valuable sources of fresh water. [8] The stark reality, however, is that the percentage of fresh water probably only amounts to about 2.5 percent, according to often-cited assessments. [43] It's left Egypt fearing a potential disruption to its fresh water supply. [43] The government was looking for a system to reuse fresh water and minimize the discharge of brackish blowdown wastewater. [8] Fluence has worldwide experience in the advanced treatment of wastewater, creating systems for water reuse across a range of industrial, agricultural, and municipal processes. [8] Women are mainly responsible for water collection in these areas. [44] Conservation pricing, which charges the minimum amount for water that is sufficient for basic needs, should be provided at low rates. [43] Jonathan Farr, senior policy analyst at WaterAid, says: "Competing demands for water means that those who are poorer or marginalised find it more difficult to get water than the rich and powerful." [42]

The United Nations Millennium Declaration, following the Millennium Summit, aimed by 2015 to "halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water." [44]

Besides, I am willing to bet that agriculture uses maybe 90-95% of water in the country, so if scarcity was an issue for drinking water- at least in the big cities, any bulk water issues/needs for utilities could be addressed through a shift in sectoral use. [13] "Why is it that we treat water to a very high standard -- drinking standard -- and then use it for cooling buildings and watering plants? We could be capturing rainwater, recycling greywater -- and even wastewater -- and using that, in more of a closed-loop system." [27] The Mayo Clinic recommends two or three liters of water per day for drinking alone. [10] This leaves rural communities ill-equipped to cope with the consequences of drinking contaminated water--assuming they can access water at all. [28]

Goal six of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) calls for ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all, water use efficiency, and integrated water resources management. [24] Pakistan needs a sound national water policy which delineates the framework for balanced socio-economic development, management, and conservation of the country's water resources in an environment challenged by climate change. [24] Rabat- Morocco is now among 45 countries facing water scarcity, according to World Resources Institute water scarcity map, which reveals Morocco?s critical situation. [11] I visited Cape Town for two weeks in May 2017 in the midst of a drastic water shortage, and saw how the city of nearly 4 million is on the cusp of becoming the first modern metropolis to run out of the natural resource. [25] As our country is facing water shortage, but we are so blessed with water resources, instead millions of acres land are un arable. [24] "A lot of people in Kentucky actually get their water from wells that are sunk into flooded, abandoned mines," explained Erik Olson, a policy analyst for the Natural Resource Defense Council. [28] Construction of dams and other water-holding facilities in upstream Turkey and Iran, combined with increasingly erratic rainfall across the region, mean the amount of water flowing in key Iraqi rivers has fallen by at least 40 percent in recent decades, said Hassan Janabi, the country's water resources minister. [26] Pakistan can become water secure through efficient and sustainable resource management, improved service delivery, and better risk mitigation. [13] Given the importance of water to Pakistan's economy, getting water resource management right will be essential to realizing this goal. [24] "There's a willingness now to understand how these trends - water scarcity, changing climate factors, energy resources - are affecting our broader national security and geopolitical situation," said Sherri Goodman, a senior adviser for international security at the U.S. Center for Climate and Security, a policy institute with top military experts on its advisory board. [26] This is very unfortunate, we need to implement water policy in order to make the agriculture sector more vibrant and to generate hydroelectricity, which is more cheap energy resource. [24]

The points: out of proportion concerns over Water Scarcity and glacier melts, on farm management, irrigation conveyance losses, low productivity/ yeild and Insus Delta etc.is well taken.However, I beg to differ on need for new reserviors because Indus river system have very little flows after moonsoon and Tarbela Dam Reservior is depleting storage at very fast rate. [13] To realize the potential of the country's "water economy," a paradigm shift in reframing the national water policy and management is required at national level where all stakeholders are engaged and demand side measures are emphasized that promote conservation, water use efficiency, and controls excessive groundwater exploitation. [24] Cape Town might have dodged Day Zero, but a new hyper-consciousness of water use looks set to be the new normal -- and not just for the drought-hit African city. [27] This flower is from Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens in Cape Town, where water is not provided by the city and they use water for irrigation from a 110 megaliter dam. [25] Another day of blue skies in Cape Town, where low rainfall and decreasing dam levels have left the city facing a severe water crisis. [27]

Some residents of Sao Paulo in Brazil had their water cut off during a severe drought in 2015, and Mexico City is currently experiencing water shortages, with some neighborhoods unable to access to a constant supply. [27] For many refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in these water scarce cities, it is difficult to access water supply and sanitation facilities. [12] It needs to make water allocation more efficient and fair, and offer incentives that reflect how scarce water is to encourage wise use. [13] One reason that water is scarce is because of massive population growth, nearly double what it was 30 years ago. [25]

In Cape Town, the precarious state of the city's water supply has been clear for years, Holmes says. [27] Cape Town, South Africa, is experiencing a massive drought, preparing for "Day Zero," when the city's water supply is depleted. [25] After a historic three-year drought, Cape Town faced the prospect of "Day Zero" -- the moment when the water supply runs too low to supply homes, and all the city's faucets go the way of those at the airport. [27]

Common but misleading measures cited are "storage volume per person" and storage in terms of "average days of water demand", typically compared to other countries, while ignoring differences in flow variability. [13] To avert the collapse of municipal plumbing, the city imposed a limit of 50 liters (13 gallons) of water per person per day, with sharp financial penalties for overuse. [27] To save groundwater reserves the city now also strictly discourages the use of boreholes to water lawns and gardens. [27]

Over 80 percent of wastewater is discharged into rivers and the sea without any cleanup, representing the misuse of a sustainable source of water, energy, and other recoverable materials. [11] Colin Wellenkamp, the executive director of the Mississippi River Cities & Towns Initiative, said that communities in Arkansas down to the mouth of the Gulf of Mexico face the most serious nitrate issues, due to bioaccumulation of the nutrients in their water source. (While most nutrient pollution is released farther north, contaminants tend to travel south, where they accumulate and sit near the mouth of the Gulf.) [28] Dealing with growing water security threats, however, has been difficult in a country financially devastated by years of war and by low oil prices, which have cut one of its main sources of income, said Janabi, who oversaw the restoration of Iraq's parched southern marshlands, now a World Heritage listed site. [26] Severe water scarcity in Pakistan is already having a negative impact on the country?s public health and the economy, with over 80 percent of water supplied in the country is considered unsafe. [24] Over 80 percent of water supplied is considered unsafe, and water scarcity and water-borne diseases are resulting in a loss of up to 1.44 percent of GDP. A number of standalone initiatives are underway to mitigate this impact; what else is needed now is a coordinated national policy on water. [24] He says Cape Town's challenge is that surface water provides 98 percent of its supply. [27] As the population rapidly increases, water demand is projected to far outstrip supply. [24] Approximately 95 percent of Pakistan's water is used for agriculture, with 60 percent of its population directly involved in agriculture and livestock, and 80 percent of exports based on these sectors. [24] Canal water is heavily undervalued and the cost of recovery is poor-- only 24 percent of the annual operation and maintenance cost is recovered--leading to water use inefficiencies and a financially unsustainable irrigation system. [24] At the basin-scale irrigation is estimated to be more than 80 percent efficient, with only a relatively small proportion of irrigation water lost through evaporation and non-productive plant use. [13] The five main focus areas of the recommendations are: improving access to water for the poor and landless; financing the urban and rural water value chain; safeguarding the Indus Basin and its infrastructure; improving water institutions and their management and governance; and building a base for science, technology, and social aspects of water. [24] "You have systems that are undergoing significant shocks constantly?so you really need an integrated approach because the system alone or these technical areas alone can?t handle the stress from each of these shocks?Trying to bring in the support from the local governments, from the INGO sector, or from the private sector, bringing these voices to the table will help significantly in hedging the risk of investing in water management strategies in fragile states." [12] Science is a key to hope--and solving grand challenges, whether in water purification or in other areas such as energy generation and storage or healthcare, and has the potential to address basic human needs while providing revolutionary economic growth and sustainable development. [23] Pakistan needs to shift its focus from scarcity to managing water demand and producing more from each drop of water. [13]

Solving the problems ultimately may require not just repairs and better use of limited water but negotiating effective water sharing agreements with Turkey and Iran - something that will be a huge challenge in a region where "geopolitics is an issue", he said. [26] There are 32 countries that have less water for each person and most of these countries are much wealthier and use less water for each person. [13] Residents are only allowed to use 50 liters of water a day, meaning toilets go unflushed, showers are under three minutes long, and agriculture is suffering. [25] For comparison, each American uses 80 to 100 gallons of water a day on average. [25] This car wash in the suburb of Sunset Beach uses recycled grey water, stored in a tank, to clean customers' cars. [27] The focus of the future reforms however should be on improving water use efficiency especially in the agriculture sector which continues to be the largest consumer of water while escaping taxation (or lightly taxed at the provincial level). [24] Additional storage would certainly yield additional useable water, but any increase in water use will inevitably reduce the flow to the sea, which is already at an environmentally unsustainable low level. [13] The water level in the dams that supply the vast majority of the city continues to fall. [27] Underneath the city are vast stores of water that could help maintain a steady supply. [27]

This week, Cape Town's water daily consumption averaged at 565 million liters -- about half the daily amount it consumed three years ago. [27] With agriculture being Pakistan's major sector (constituting 20% of GDP) and largest water consumer, it is estimated that even if a billion-dollar output is achieved for every million acre-feet of water utilized for agriculture, the water economy has the potential to increase total annual agricultural GDP to $200 billion from its current $50 billion. [24]

According to the World Bank report Turbulent Waters: Pursuing Water Security in Fragile Contexts, water security is more difficult to achieve in fragile contexts because of a range of factors, including weak institutions and information systems, strained human and financial resources, and degraded infrastructure. [12] Despite being surrounded by water, Cape Town is dangerously low on the vital resource. [25] In order to preserve water resources, a multi-year strategy has been developed. [11] Refugee and IDP numbers continue to increase worldwide, while pressure is mounting on finite water resources. [12]

Certainly when public water money doesn?t even require those private water businesses to use it for, well, community water systems, then the chances those systems will improve is close to nil. [28] "Every time I visit home and use the water, I notice my face breaking out again," she said. [28] A Syrian child in Zaatari Camp uses a water kiosk designed for hand washing and water collection. [12] The Indus basin is most likely over-developed from an environmental sustainability perspective in terms of volumes of water diverted for use. [13]

It?s more of a water management issue I believe! Some of the world?s largest non-polar glaciers are located in the northern areas of Pak. [24] The Water Scarce Cities Initiative offers a new avenue for knowledge sharing on urban water management by creating and sustaining stronger connections between cities facing water scarcity - as evidenced by the constructive convening of diverse voices at the workshop in Beirut. [12] By bringing together stakeholders with first hand experiences with water scarcity in urban contexts, WSC is bringing to light solutions and strategies for survival in a water scarce world. [12] Realizing the common global need to improve resilience to demographic shocks, particularly in fragile contexts, the World Bank?s Water Scarce Cities Initiative (WSC) hosted the Second Technical Workshop in Beirut, Lebanon. [12] The World Bank?s Water Scarce Cities Initiative (WSC) provides the unique opportunity for urban water practitioners, global thought leaders, and institutions to share solutions to such complex water security issues. [12]

With a rapidly growing population, Pakistan will inevitably become more water scarce in a relative sense. [13] This workshop gave diverse participants - such as youth and women - the opportunity to learn from one another about principles and successful applications of Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) in fragile and water scarce environments. [12]

Innovative methods in water conservation, recycling, wastewater management, water treatment, and rain water harvesting should become realities in cities and towns. [24]

World Water Day is drawing attention to the growing threat of water scarcity. [27] "Provided we continue our current water savings efforts, Day Zero can be avoided completely this year," deputy mayor Ian Neilson said in a statement. [27] LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - After years battling Islamic State militants, Iraqi farmers - many of them military volunteers - are now returning to their homes and fields only to find a new threat: a shortage of water. [26] Most years, groups to Cape Town drink tap water, but we were instructed to purchase three-gallon water bottles. [25] When people think of water crises, they tend to think of big cities like Flint, Michigan, or Cape Town, South Africa. [28] Cape Town, South Africa, is poised to become the first major city to run out of water. [25] Experts say the move that would fundamentally change Cape Town's water math is drilling into aquifers beneath the city. [27] If recent months have made Cape Towners conscious of their water consumption as never before, they may be at the forefront of a global trend. [27] The U.S. intelligence community published a report that predicted global water requirements will exceed supply by 40% by 2030. [25] Although Morocco is still far from the "extremely high" ratio of water withdraw to supply, as the case in many Middle Eastern countries, the kingdom is still considered in water deficit. [11] Enhanced control is indeed fundamental to be matching of field-scale water supply to water demand, and to enabling any sort of water trading system. [13] Unlike many countries, in Pakistan the timing of flows is not vastly different to the timing of demand, although some storage is needed to capture the monsoon peak and release this water later in the Kharif season and in the early Rabi season. [13] Pakistan is a water-rich country - only 35 countries have more renewable water. [13] Water issues need to be resolved expediently for the sake of peace and prosperity in the country. [24] GOP needs to declare 'Water Emergency' at the yap level for controlling water wastage by end users. [24] There needs to be more focus on better irrigation service delivery and better on-farm water management, coupled with improvements to boost productivity. [13] Greater engagement of multiple stakeholders is required at the local level in water management and the capacity-building of local institutions. [24] Macro level water management will never have required political consensus however micro level control can be effected through community mobilization and strict punitive measures. [24] Cape Town relies on six reservoirs for the majority of its water, but depleted levels tell a story of the drought. [25] With global temperatures rising, you might expect Cape Town to serve as a warning, spurring authorities around the world to rethink their water systems. [27] At a water-planning conference in downtown Cape Town, jugs of murky grey water stood in the bathrooms, to be used to flush toilets. [27] They don't represent an unlimited supply of water to be used with abandon. [27]

First, this problem of water security is often presented as one of water scarcity. [13] Severe water scarcity is already having a negative impact on the country's public health and the economy. [24] Through events such as the Second Technical Workshop in Beirut, WSC aims to shift the mindsets of water managers, demystify available water scarcity solutions, and offer true and tested pathways to water security. [12]

Farther south, colonias --which are unincorporated settlements near the Mexican border -- in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico also frequently lack running water or sewer access. [28] The national plan to secure water availability in Morocco demands an investment of MAD 200 million by 2030. [11] India is suffering the worst water crisis in its history, with millions of lives at risk, according to a recent report. [27] FEMA says it has transported about 6 million liters of water to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (which were recently battered by Hurricane Irma). [10]

"This is the kind of thing that happens when a source water becomes contaminated," says Olson. [10] While war was raging, water was a secondary concern - but today it is fast becoming a new source of conflict, he said. [26]

"When I?m advocating funding for colonias, sometimes people don?t even know there are thousands of communities who don?t even have running water," Gonzales added. [28] People without the ability to get to an open grocery store have been collecting water from open or leaking pipes, but that water may be contaminated. [10] Water insecurity can weaken the social compact between a government and its people, adding to a downward spiral of water insecurity and fragility. [12] Persistent myths, which can misguide policy, are barriers to improving water security for the people of Pakistan. [13]

Morocco?s volume of water has dropped by 80 percent to reach 500 cubic meters per inhabitant per year, against 2,500 cubic meters in 1960, according to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and United Nations data. [11] Under the current restrictions commercial properties must reduce their water usage by 45 percent compared to 2015 or face fines. [27]

These solutions may include regulating and monitoring groundwater abstraction, as well as rehabilitating/developing water storage infrastructure using labor intensive methods. [12] Unsafe water takes a kind of shorter-term psychic toll as well. [28] No water trading going on in Pakistan?? Or, does it all boil down to "Well, the ministers just decide this. [13] I believe that it is time to initial a discussion of water rights as well. [13]

The problems in irrigation are more to do with inefficient and unfair distribution of the water, and low productivity in terms of the yield and value of crops a unit of water used. [13] "In addition, a credit scheme under the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act would provide more opportunity to private investors, by eliminating existing requirements that WIFIA funds be used for "Community Water Systems.?" [28] He's won the Stockholm Water Prize a few years ago, and is still going strong. [27] The tap water in Pretty Prairie, Kansas, for example, "has exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency?s legal limit" for nitrate for more than 20 years, the Environmental Working Group reported in 2017. [28] Attempts over the years to update and approve a national water policy have failed due to lack of priority and consensus among federating units, and the approval of the 2002 draft national water policy has been delayed for a decade and a half. [24] Damage to Iraq's own dams and other infrastructure from years of fighting - and from a recent earthquake - also is making water supplies more irregular, he said. [26]

He has already restored the water supply to more than a thousand villages. [27] Often, the very industries that provide a community its economic backbone are what?s damaging or even poisoning its water supply. [28] In West Virginia, some say accidents affecting the water supply have become a fact of life. [28] In 1993, Milwaukee's water supply was compromised after the system's filters stopped working properly. [10] FEMA is on the ground with supplies, but with badly damaged roads and bridges, some communities are completely cut off from the supply chains and running dangerously low on water. [10] The city's efforts to increase water supply by tapping into aquifers is damaging the ecosystem and putting rare species in danger. [25] Rural farmers have had their water supply from the city's six dams cut by as much as 87%. [25]

I really appreciate WSC( Water Scares Cities initiative) doing such good work for urban areas. [12] Those countries could come with bottled water and filters." [10] Strict water restrictions are in place, but the city may run out of water by April 2018. [27] The city has won awards for its environmental work and water conservation, but still ended up in drought despite, or possibly because of, the protections. [25] At a recent conference on water policy organized by the Hisaar Foundation and The Asia Foundation in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, participants from the public and private sector discussed recommendations regarding where the country's water policy and its implementation need to focus, with specific strategies for a provincial water policy. [24] Water from all three aquifers will need to be treated and piped into the municipal plumbing. [27] Given that there isn?t much profit in running water to sparsely populated, low-income areas--indeed, water boards in rural communities are already raising rates to try to make ends meet--it?s unclear how blindly funding the private sector would incentivize the massive rebuilding projects these communities desperately need. [28] Apart from bringing the agriculture sector under the tax umbrella, there is a need to reform water tariffs and cost recovery. [24]

From hand-sanitizer in place of soap to 2-minute showers, the thousands of measures -- big and small, public and private -- adopted to cut Cape Town's water consumption will be needed for some time yet. [27] Water is rampantly wasted at tap, washroom, household, shop, hotel, restaurant level. [24] The workshop included presentations such as the Malta water security experience and a panel discussion on Urban Water Management Challenges and Approaches. [12] The workshop findings highlight that robust water management systems should be a priority in fragile contexts, and that pursuing water security in fragile contexts requires cross-sectoral approaches to reduce the risks of fragility. [12] Besides pricing incentives, maintaining infrastructure and innovation have an important role to play in water management and conservation. [24] Lastly, the private sector should be brought into the public policy discourse over water management. [24] Water management in WSCs is becoming too serious and it calls for concerted and focused action by the experts in the field. [12] I believe on farm water management can be streamlined through private sector with very small public sector investment. [13] I would only add that water management is closely linked to knowledge management and without honest knowledge keeping and open and cool tempered debate no improving is possible. [13] Once the water is released from the Tarbela or Mangla dams or barrages, Management remains with no control to regulate flows towards willing buyers. [13]

Many refugee camps quickly become quasi cities that suffer from poor planning, poor water supplies, and poor sanitation. [12] Factually, the real culperit is the Indus Basin Treaty (IBT) whereby waters of eastern rivers were given to India forever and hastly built replacement works without sediment flushing mechanism, unlined canals etc. were put in place. [13] The fact that India is diverting water from rivers given to Pakistan under the Indus Basin Treaty is contributing to less flow to the sea. [13]

The county water board says these issues stem from old, busted-up water infrastructure and a "bleak" financial situation. [28] While infrastructure and technology improvements would be required to support water trade or transfers, it is most likely to be political and governance issues that prove to be the most complex barriers to overcome. [13]

It is the responsibility of government to protect the common good, and the state of rural water systems proves that this is a responsibility state and federal governments have refused to take up for far too long. [28] That fear makes sense: In 2017, Trump introduced a budget proposal that would entirely defund the USDA?s water and wastewater loan and grant program. [28] "That water is often coming from shallow groundwater which is very susceptible to sewage and other contaminates," Olson explains. [10] With predictions that Cape Town could run out of water in only a few months, residents are already facing tough restrictions. [27] The water crisis is clear before you're even out of Cape Town International Airport. [27]

Other communities, from West Virginia to North Carolina, trace their water problems to the waste produced from burning coal, which is often stored in liquid ponds that have a tendency to spill and leak. [28] Fixing rural water problems can be a costly prospect, but finding the money is often more a matter of political will. [28] Colonias have long been subject to environmental injustice, but the rest of rural America?s water problems are largely invisible, too -- not least to the government bodies responsible for solving them. [28] "You don't have to have a huge water upset to create a very serious problem," says Olson. [10]

As World Water Week draws to a close, water and climate expert Jens Berggren explains why climate change is already affecting our precious H2O. [27] Those include better coordination of migration and climate change responses, promoting better urban resilience and strengthening climate-sensitive development in Mali, water security in Iraq and risk assessments in the Lake Chad region. [26]

According to The Guardian, more than 2.5 billion people across every continent don?t have access to basic levels of fresh water for at least one month each year - a situation growing ever more critical as urban populations expand rapidly. [16] A 2018 report from global advocacy group WaterAid put India at the top of its list of countries with the worst access to clean water close to homes--163 million Indians live this way. [17] As the world?s largest multilateral source of financing for water in developing countries, the World Bank has a portfolio of water investments of US$35 billion. [16]

In the face of explosive human population growth, our freshwater supply continues to diminish, endangering a precious and indispensable resource. [18] More than a billion people worldwide lack reliable access to safe drinking water--and this precious resource will only grow scarcer in the coming decades. [18] "Residents of Cape Town are very surprised by how dramatically the situation has escalated, says Magalie Bourblanc, a public policy analyst specializing in resource management at South Africa's University of Pretoria. [19] Additional challenges, including pollution, poor management and infrastructure maintenance, wastage and excessive consumption, burden our resources. [22]

To make the idea more palatable to consumers squeamish about drinking what was formerly sewage, the district treated the wastewater, then stored it in the local aquifer to dilute and further cleanse it before withdrawing it for use. [20] Warming in the Salt Lake City region is depleting local streams, and seawater from flooding is contaminating fresh water wells in the areas around Miami. [16] "Johannesburg lies on top of the watershed, so we pump a lot of fresh water up the catchment to use, and then we release return flows that are often very polluted. [22]

The organization addresses threats to conservation involving climate change, access to clean water, ocean health, and everything in between. [16] Rather than simply taking donations, Charity: Water gets people to start their own campaigns to raise money for clean water. [16]

Shimla, a historic hill town in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh, is the latest addition to a list of Indian towns and cities that are starved for water. [17] Mountjoy?s organization is tracking more than 200 farms whose owners have agreed to allow flooding in wet years on a fraction of their land in return for water delivered at no or reduced cost. [20] "But climate change is a factor now, and it's only begun to dawn on them how much the demand for water will just keep increasing." [19] What must also be addressed is the unacceptably high levels of non-revenue water (particularly water losses from poorly maintained and leaking infrastructure) and ensuring that consumers are billed fairly for water, and the revenue collected. [22]

WWF?s fresh water initiative partners with governments, businesses, international financial institutions and communities to ensure healthy freshwater systems exist to conserve wildlife and provide a sustainable future for all. [16]

How did Cape Town get to the point where it had to plan for "Day Zero," when extreme restrictions on access to water will be enforced? We don't pretend to know all of the details as to how a metropolitan area of nearly 4 million people managed to become "the first major city in the modern era to face the threat of running out of drinking water." [35] In the face of a water crisis of this magnitude, Cape Town residents are having to plan, and plan quickly--not only for how to drastically reduce water consumption in their homes, but also for how to navigate some 200 water access points (the places where municipal water will be available for collection after Day Zero hits) in a city of almost 4 million people. [37]

According to the authors of the Nature Conservancy survey, the economic development that accompanies urbanization not only means that people use more water per-capita, for things like washing machines, dishwashers, and so on, but that they?re also more likely to be drawing the water to run their machines from municipal supplies, rather than from independent sources like wells. [37] Many are forced to congregate in areas where water sources are simply unable to supply a population influx even though water is a basic human right. [14] Bottom line is that there's a finite amount of rain water and snow runoff which is the vast majority of the renewable water supply and there's a lot of demand for it, when you consider all it's used for both naturally and by man, including filling rivers and lakes, supplying the forests and natural areas, farming demands and tap water needs. There's a huge demand. [47] The North African nation?s agricultural exports--which mostly cater to out-of-season demands in the European market--make up a significant percentage of its GDP. Farmers had been overusing water resources during what may have been the country?s worst drought in 30 years to continue growing impractical, water-intensive crops, like watermelon. [34] Due to the fact that is difficult and costly to relocate the population, it is likely that there will some areas with more population than what can be sustained with the available water resources. [47] "Cape Town is really the canary in the coal mine for so many large cities across the world," lamented Sanders, "especially those arid, dryer climates, to really reflect on how we view water and how we treat water as a resource, because even here in Los Angeles, we have a lot of progress to make in terms of per capita water use." [37] Besides repairs and recycling, there is a dire need to increase per capita water availability without stressing available water resources. [32] The World Resources Institute recently crunched data on water consumption and projected climate patterns, and predicts that by 2040, most regions in the world will be facing some level of water stress, and 33 countries could face "extremely high" stress. [34] Control of Water Resources: where water supplies or access to water is at the root of tensions. [14] The Iowa Source Water Ag Collaborative is ready to partner with these communities to coordinate and develop resources. [15] "Water is our most precious resource, and creating a more resilient, self-reliant Los Angeles means increasing the amount of water we source locally," Garcetti told Environmental Protection. [37] Government should create awareness among the people to reduce the water wastage.While water is a renewable resource, it is at the same time a finite resource. [36] Military Tool: where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation or state as a weapon during a military action. [14] Political Tool: where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation, state, or non-state actor for a political goal. [14] Military Target: where water resource systems are targets of military actions by nations or states. [14]

Years of conflict have decimated wells in Central African Republic, putting the population at risk of disease from drinking dirty water. [31] Lines of people waiting to collect natural spring water for drinking in Newlands in the drought in Cape Town, South Africa. [35] Residents of Flint, Michigan have been drinking bottled water since 2015, when elevated lead levels were detected in residential tap water--despite city officials' insistence that the water was safe. [34] It depends on the Nile for 95 percent of its water for drinking, agriculture and electricity generation. [14]

Rainwater tank systems have been widely adopted across the world to provide a safe local source of water in underdeveloped rural areas, a substitution for mains water for non potable end uses in. [48] It?s an unfortunate reality that while LA has drastically reduced its water demand--Cooley confirmed that despite the city?s population growth, water use is lower today than it was 30 years ago--it?s still necessary to prepare for long droughts, to better recycle water, and to continue to reduce use. [37] LA?s water portfolio, what scientists call the sources from where a city gets its water, is diverse and well-funded, but experts say the city can do more to accommodate for future climate change and population growth. [37] Climate change, global warming, water scarcity, growing population, etc. scares me. [47] Demand-induced scarcity results from the water needs of increasing populations. [14] That?s a total of 2.2 million people who need water, hygiene, and sanitation assistance. [31] The establishment of two such desalination plants in Karachi will cost less than two days of financial earning but will provide 58 million cubic metres of water a year to the city and its inhabitants. [32] More than 80 percent of LA?s water is imported, making it the largest cross-basin transferer of all the large cities in the world, pulling approximately 8,895 million liters of water from the Colorado River Basin every day. [37] It is capable of producing 80 thousand cubic metres of water a day and 29 million cubic metres of water a year. [32] Or, put another way, "this $4.8 trillion in economic activity directly or indirectly depends on the supply of 167 billion liters of water per day to these cities. [37] Another two days of earnings can be allocated to assemble a water distribution system from Karachi to other areas in Sindh province and to create a fund reasonable enough to supply salaries to the employees hired for maintenance and functioning of the created infrastructure on a monthly basis. [32] In addition to repairs, water recycling plants with an ability to recycle water at the tertiary level should be installed in areas across the city so that used water can be recycled. [32] A rich city like Los Angeles is able to draw water from the Colorado River, over 200 miles away from the LA metro area, while poorer cities don?t have the luxury of importing, even from nearby basins. [37] Climate change : Over millenia, population and specially food production have concentrated in areas with reliable water availability (along rivers for example). [47]

It?s become somewhat of a meme online, but Twitter?s response to Zille also gets at a real problem at the heart of water scarcity across the world: The homeless and the poor have massively disproportionate access to usable water. [37] Water scarcity is a challenge for society as a whole, which needs to gather the will to develop a strategic water plan to avert the otherwise inevitable "Day Zeroes" to come. [35] Americans use more water taking a five-minute shower than the average person in a developing country uses for an entire day. [14] Most of the underlying causes of water shortages have been noted by others, but there are a few issues that need to be highlighted: the primary use of water is Agriculture. [47] When we use approximately 12 million gallons of water annually, on average, every drop counts. [37] Developers are using new technology to conserve water, from installing efficient sprinklers and drought-tolerant landscaping, to expanding the use of water meters and upgrading an estimated 10 million toilets that were installed in houses and offices before the 1990s. [37] Another day of revenue from the city can be utilized to create the proposed lake large enough to hold 58 million cubic metres of water. [32] Water loss during transmission is a serious concern as the city loses 30 per cent of its share from source of origin to the point of utilization. [32] Mexico City, Tokyo, and Delhi top the list of the five most water-stressed cities, according to the Nature Conservancy?s first global survey of megacities ? water sources. [37] This is one main reason that "the strategic management of these cities? water sources is therefore important for the future of the global economy." [37] Climate Change, Water Supply and Sanitation: Risk Assessment, Management, Mitigation and Reduction pulls together the final outcomes and recommendations from the PREPARED project that. [48] Climate change accounts for the significant drop in local rainfall and dwindling snowpack in the surrounding mountains over the past few years, and both those sources eventually become potable water. [37] The entire picture is complicated, but because ocean water is difficult and costly to purify and because lakes and underground sources can be depleted, there is a finite amount of readily usable water which varies year to year and that hits some regions harder than others. [47] Shade balls shield the water supply from birds and stop algae blooms, and they prevent a significant amount of evaporation, saving an estimated 1 billion gallons of water a year. [37] It is estimated that thirty years from now, approximately one-third of our population will suffer from chronic water shortages. [36] By the end of last year, Angelenos had reduced water usage by the mayor?s goal of 20 percent. [37] In January, city officials began restoring the polluted San Fernando Valley aquifer, just one part of the mayor?s plan to step up treatment and recycling of wastewater to reduce imports of water by 50 percent by 2035. [37] The city recycles a stunning 86 percent percent of its water supplies. [37] That?s the day when Cape Town, South Africa is predicted to become the first major city in the world to run out of water. [37] Day Zero: that?s the ominous label officials in Cape Town have bestowed on the day that water will run out. [34]

Wars and disasters can contaminate once-reliable water sources or cut people off from them altogether. [14] Across the globe, water troubles are already straining the lives of millions of people. [34] Reduced water quality : As @JanDoggen rightly pointed, it is not often the case that people drink the water straight out of rivers. [47] If you look at Thamirabharani river, Pepsi sucking more water from the river, though people faces acute water shortage around the region. [36] Supply-induced scarcity results from rivers running dry, lowered water tables, polluted groundwater and surface water courses. [14] Where water is viewed strategically, in countries such as Israel and Singapore, water scarcity and stress do not limit economic development and business growth. [35] Water scarcity has always been an environmental issue for residents of Karachi. [32]

We need to treat it as such by recognizing that access to water requires investment to protect and provision equitably. [35] Unincorporated townships are often denied access to the water and sewer infrastructure of larger cities or towns. [34] The United Nations says water is a universal human right, but as it stands today, access to municipal water supplies is more of privilege. [37] It is becoming more expensive and difficult to actually use the available water for agriculture and human consumption. [47] If we use water too quickly, water should get evaporated and come down again as precipitation. [47] In addition to Santiago's comment: if you use water, it does not necessarily evaporate directly. [47]

Majority of Yemen?s water supply is used for agricultural purposes. [14] Julien (in gray) and the rest of Concern's team assemble a mobile drilling kit or "village drill," which is used to provide new water sources for conflict-affected communities in Kouango, Central African Republic. [31] In some villages, water sources were purposely contaminated by armed groups who placed the remains of the deceased inside of community wells. [31] Groundwater, for example, is a fairly abundant but non-renewable water source in some locations. [47] It means that it?s easier for LA to save water, because there?s more water falling in the surrounding mountains, more natural groundwater sources, and more chance that rainwater can be absorbed back into the water table when it does rain, in contrast to desert cities like Sana?a, the capital of Yemen. [37]

No big rivers are originating in TN. So we depend on Karnataka, AP, and kerala for our water needs as many rivers are originating from these states. [36] The homeless population here is often forced to live alongside derelict river beds, surrounded by water that is totally undrinkable, with no way of bathing or using the toilet. [37] Increase in demand : As population grows, there is more overall water consumption. [47] In the case of Cape Town, which actually has a Mediterranean biome like LA, environmental scientist and co-author of the Nature Conservancy survey Julie Padowski says the water crisis there has to do in part with a boom in population and poor drought planning. [37] Diminishing water supplies may lead to the taps being turned off for the four millions inhabitants of Cape Town. [37]

The city captures and recharges an average of 200,000 acre-feet of water annually, in addition to the 40,000 to 60,000 acre-feet of water recharged in local basins each year. [37] The core idea is to enable the city to have surplus water for a year at its disposal. [32]

NYCity for example depends on reservoirs upstate that are fed by rain and snow-melt, and when they started to have some shortages, which weren't uncommon during low snow years in the 80s and 90s, they began (temporarily and only during drought years) drawing water from the Hudson river, which required more filtration but it's abundant. [47] Los Angeles An estimated 80 percent of water from the concrete-paved LA River flows straight into the Santa Monica Bay. [37] They were full at the start of 2014, but estimates from the end of January 2018 show that water levels are now at 26 percent of capacity. [34] When the level drops to 13.5 percent, officials plan to shut off pipes and start controlling water distribution to residents. [34] The majority of the human body (60 percent) is composed of water. [14] Beyond how we treat water in our own homes, and how we maintain and engineer the infrastructure in the built environment, diplomacy and politics are also a major part of a sustainable water program, because in the end, water is a human rights issue. [37] It has numerous socio-economic and environmental challenges, however the top three, in my opinion, are water shortage, electricity issues and waste management. [32] Despite our reliance on importation, "the city of Los Angeles is pursuing one of the most progressive models for local water management for any other large city," Sanders says. [37] While conservation efforts may stave off the inevitable, there?s one thing city planners and water management can't predict: when it will rain again. [34] As important as sustainable management of water is at the civic level, an informed culture of how individuals, from contractors to children, treat water is vital. [37] Another somewhat surprising solution is the revitalization of the LA River, which prioritizes water conservation through stormwater management. [37] As per the data Irrigation takes 85.3 % of water, but in reality Industries consuming more water from rivers. [36] There is a dire need to fix leakages and a high percentage of water loss shouldbe lowered to a reasonable figure of under 10 per cent. [32] Ancient water ways in the Moroccan desert used gravity to transport ground water without the need for pumps. [34] "We need to put our heads together and focus on coming up with a toolbox of solutions that can adapt to our changing climate and its ensuing water problems. [37]

Did you know that more than two billion people lack access to safe water at home? Test how much you. [31] Honesty and transparency: The public sector must acknowledge a new normal and investments are required to ensure access to water. [35] The history of conflicts over water resources are usually long and violent. [14] Or cities currently using all their renewable water resources AND likely to experience dryer climate in the future. [47] Water is too often treated as a taken-for-granted asset, rather than a strategic resource for economic development, social well-being and ecosystem health. [35] It is important to mention here that available water resources are already stressed so the only option Karachi is left with is to harvest seawater. [32] Terrorism: where water resources, or water systems, are either targets or tools of violence or coercion by non-state actors. [14]

Most worrying of all, the majority of water points (such as wells) in the area have been destroyed. [31] As such we appreciate the value of water once the rivers, reservoirs, ponds, wells, etc. run dry. [36] Depletion of fossil water reservoirs : In the same fashion that a oil well can be used up and it will never "refill". [47] Hunger levels could be cut in half if water were used more efficiently on farms. [14]

As the population is growing, per capita water availability is decreasing at an even faster pace. [32] Many countries in Africa live with a hundredth of the U.S. water usage per capita. [47] These countries also turn their investments in water technology innovation into an export initiative (WATEC and Singapore World Water Week, respectively). [35] The World Bank categorized Pakistan as one of the most water stressed countries in the world. [32] Countries can negotiate peace agreements through a designated joint water committee for conflict resolution. [14]

Every community?s source water is unique and developing and implementing SWP plans must be locally-led to address local conditions. [15] The Collaborative encourages awareness and education to continue positive engagement of Iowans in partnerships that enhance and protect Iowa?s source water. [15] For more information on source water protection in Iowa, visit www.iowasourcewater.org. [15] You have to consider the source of water for each location. [47] When LA experiences such stresses as drought or failing infrastructure, the diversity of water sources "makes the system much more resilient, because it gives you a much better chance of having water available at any given time." [37] This "multi-resource mix? comprises water from different sources made available through adapted technological solutions which are socially embedded. [48]

Water is a leveler because suddenly it?s a scarce commodity for people, regardless of class. [37] TN become a water scarce state when the neighboring states were going on constructing Dams after dams, without bothering or honoring the commitment they have agreed with water treaties. [36]

If these fundamental drivers of water scarcity are not addressed, with costs shared proportionately, we hinder the public sector?s ability to ensure water resiliency and security. [35] Water scarcity is not only be in Tamilnadu wherever there is an unplanned growth happening all through. [36] Water scarcity can be demand-driven, supply-driven or it can be the result of structural inequalities between different groups of water users. [14] Everyone should come forward to reduce the water scarcity by stop doing against the nature. [36] The solutions to LA?s water scarcity are varied but complementary, which as Padowski points out, is its strength--the repairs and decontamination of existing infrastructure alongside more creative, or expensive techniques. [37] There are two key factors responsible for creating water scarcity in the first place. [32]

Why should Karnataka give Cauvery (Kaveri) water to Tamil Nadu? The people of Karnataka have no water. [36] For Sanders, part of the work of preparing Californians for drought and conserving water falls on the people. [37] Already, people are saving buckets of graywater, t he water you?d usually let wash down the drain: water for the dishes, water left over at the end of a shower, water left over after shaving. [37] Water conflicts have risen because people were denied their rights. [14]

The technological solutions identified with the Namibian partners were rainwater and floodwater harvesting, groundwater desalination, sanitation and water reuse. [48] In the low-lying Sundarbans, that means salty sea water encroaches on groundwater and reservoirs, rendering it useless for human consumption. [34] Yes, theoretically, we could build pipes and/or desalination facilities so that no human lacks water. [47] Mangrove trees can filter the salt as they take in water, but human kidneys have no such adaptation. [34] The human body can survive approximately more than a month without food but can only live without water for about a week. [14] The future of a city?s water sustainability is caught in the balance between how fast a city?s population grows, and how quickly it can generate the financial means to accommodate the water-needs for that growth. [37] We are depending on Monsoon every year and always Pray for good rains in Karnataka so that some water is released to Mettur. [36] About 80 percent of LA?s water now flows out to the Santa Monica Bay. [37] More than 80 percent of LA?s water is imported, making it the largest cross-basin transferer of all the large cities in the world. [37] If 70 percent of the Earth is covered by water, how can there be a water shortage? Simple. [14]

Then it should become more clear why it might become tricky to supply water to everyone in the future. [47] NYC is proud of it's tap water and the Hudson water, even if just 10% of the tap water supply for a summer here or there, wasn't very popular. [47] LA?s sheer size and density also seriously impact water supply. [37] Finding ways to maintain this water supply over time is thus of considerable economic importance." [37]

How do you bring water to rural, undeveloped areas? Many parts of CAR are quite literally "off the grid," meaning there are no water pipes to connect to and roads are often in poor condition or nonexistent. [31] Its a myth that growing trees will bring rain in cities but it would curb the city becoming heat island there by reduce the usage of water. [36] The South African city is just one of many localities across the globe to face extreme water shortages in recent years--and one of many more to come. [34] The cost of desalinated water is around USD 3 per 1,000 litres (i.e. PKR 315 per 1,000 litres) and is extremely reasonable from the point of view of Karachi. [32] Those who can afford to are buying bottled water from a fledgling "black market," while others insist they?ve lived in Day Zero conditions their whole lives. [37] Conservation policies during droughts have helped, but oftentimes, water usage shoots up as soon as the drought conditions lessen, even though it would be wiser to save up the rainy day fund for the next severe drought cycle. [34]

They clean the pond periodically so that even the small rain will give enough water for agriculture. [36] In 2008 and 2015, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power dumped millions of four-inch balls into Silver Lake?s Ivanhoe Reservoir and Sylmar?s Los Angeles Reservoir. [37] If you were to draw enough water from the great lakes, that would reduce Niagara Falls' electrical generation. (which might be secondary to water needs but just throwing that out there.) [47] All of these factors have led to the high level of water imports that LA relies on today. [37] "LA is working to change the paradigm of water management by managing them together." [37] Management and availability of water is also connected to the income of the average city-dweller, Nature Conservancy?s survey found. [37]

More children die from diarrhea caused by dirty water and lack of sanitation than malaria, measles, and HIV/AIDS combined. [14] Even is there is sufficient water available it is often of insufficient quality for the purpose you want it for ?We often don't drink straight out of rivers ?We don't irrigate with salt water This adds to the experience of shortage. [47] River water fed by mountain glaciers depends on the size of the glacier, as the glaciers shrink, meltwater decreases. [47] LA draws water from the Colorado River, pictured here in Imperial Valley, over 200 miles away. [37] Any water applied to such soils will flow off the land and contaminate lakes (Lake Erie for example) or rivers. [47]

It can also be a recreational spot for residents, and the stored water can then be redistributed to satisfy secondary and tertiary demands like washing clothes, cars and watering lawns. [32] In October 2017, the government shut off water supplies in the rural town of Zagora in response to shortages. [34] The 2018 World Economic Forum Global Risks Report lists the Water Crisis as one of the top five in terms of impact. [35] The agri. scientists are well aware of the reasons but what can they do as they cannot nationalise the deep borewells or cover the water bodies with large devaporising material as tried by one clowning politicians. [36] Bringing water to these remote communities means drilling wells -- a task that?s more difficult than it sounds. [31]

TN is used as a flood water drain basin and not thinking that the criver cauvery is also belong to them. [36] Before 1972 when thete was no dams constructed in Karnataka, TN did have water problem at all. [36] Congress is the biggest culprit for all the water problems TN facing now. [36]

With proper infrastructure, water shortages could be largely eliminated, but that's expensive and there's also border issues. [47] As long as we continue to refer to Cape Town as a natural (rather than man-made) disaster, hope will be the best water strategy we can muster. [35] Cape Town residents queue to refill water bottles at Newlands Brewery Spring Water Point on January 30, 2018 in Cape Town, South Africa. [37] Cape Town neither has the same history of urgency about water as LA, nor the resulting culture of re-use, which for them comes up as a disadvantage. [37]

The country ran decades-long advertisements, featuring a solemn woman whose face dries and cracks as she urges Israelis to conserve water, and they worked. [37] Infrastructure across the country has been destroyed, and countless water points have been left unusable due to violence, disrepair, and overuse. [31] Yemen : It may become the first country in the world to run out of water. [14]

As climate change intensifies, melting ice in Greenland and Antarctica causes sea water to rise. [34] Poor infrastructure, like climate change, will continue to exacerbate America?s water woes. [34]

The demand for water is rising year after year, and need increases parallel to population growth. [11] The minister said fighting in Iraq had damaged significant parts of the country's water infrastructure but his capital investment budget for water infrastructure improvements over the next two years is set at zero, even as demand to solve the country's water shortages soars and the country imports 70 percent of its food. [26]

With "Day Zero" looming, stores cannot keep up with the demand for water tanks and canisters. [27]

Thousands of people die every day from lack of clean water. [12] Clean water may have been taken away from people in Cape Town, but many poor blacks have never even had that human right. [25]

Residents talk about people moving from rural to urban areas, making resources in the cities scarce. [25] According to the Natural Resource Defense Council, the island has the worst rate of drinking-water violations of any state or territory. [10] InAsia is a weekly in-depth, in-country resource for readers who want to stay abreast of significant events and issues shaping Asia\'s development, hosted by The Asia Foundation. [24] At the same time climate change will impact available resources. [23]

One of the most fundamental measures of quality of life is access to clean water. [23] Today two thirds of humanity face water stress at some point during the year and one in 10 do not have clean water. [23]

Prerequisites would include legally secure water property rights (ideally separated from land property rights); reliable and accessible measurements of water availability, distributions and use; and trusted, empowered and capable institutions for water allocation and regulatory oversight of water markets. [13] Regarding water pricing, a series of small dams (reservoirs, lakes, ditches) in the canal command area would be required to regulate flows - an incentive for water markets. [13]

It is disgraceful that in this day and age there is no clean water for children to drink. [12] It is up to the global scientific community to provide the world with affordable, available clean water for continued positive growth. [23] "The Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) will be open for business for private firms to both manage and repair water infrastructure at taxpayer?s expense," Michelle Chen recently explained at The Nation. [28]

Vikas, who has spent nearly all his life near the banks of the river in Patna, says that the gradual decay in the quality of the water due to pollution over the years has created a deficit between the population and the volume of clean river water they have access to. [39] An estimated 76 million people in India have no access to a safe water supply, and the situation is only getting more serious. [39] As the 3rd largest population center in the world, its 25 million people need water, and lots of it, to survive. [49] The lack of a sanitation network means that the population in the area is drinking dirty water. [33] The aid group follows Sphere minimum standards a set of universal benchmarks for humanitarian responses established in 1997 which require, for instance, four gallons of water to be provided per day per person for bathing, cooking, and drinking. [38] A part of "Youth User Group? first set up in 2012 by Action India in Sunder Nagri with support from WaterAid India, Bharat utilizes his water testing kit to determine if the water is safe for drinking or not. [39] There have been at least 10 cases of leptospirosis from drinking contaminated water and officials are investigating four deaths which may have been caused by waterborne bacteria. [38] Taking water to where it is needed involves more than simply putting cups of water for drinking or cooking on the table. [33]

Businesses--from companies that bottle water and sell it, to water services providers, to industries that use water to produce their goods--have an important stake in how water resources are used and protected for future generations. [30] With a projected population growth of 1.4 billion people by 2050, the total available water resources would barely match the total water requirement of the country. [39] In 2015, a report by the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation stated that though India receives an average annual rainfall of 1170 mm, poor storage infrastructure allows it to store only 6 per cent of rainwater, compared to 250 per cent stored by developed nations. [39] For such efforts to yield continued results, the focus on cleaning India?s major water bodies as well as proper management of rain and surface water resources should be further prioritised. [39] As water scarcity becomes more pressing, both public and private entities have had to examine their stances on how water resources should be controlled. [30] By providing water testing kits, rainwater harvesting solutions and alternate water supply systems such as development of surface water, WaterAid is providing accessibility and storage solutions for available water resources. [39] The Union Ministry of Water Resources has estimated the country?s current water requirements to be around 1100 billion cubic metres per year, which is estimated to be around 1200 billion cubic metres for the year 2025 and 1447 billion cubic metres for the year 2050. [39] Eileen Sobeck was recently hired as executive director of California's powerful State Water Resources Control Board after decades in federal service. [29] Until California?s latest drought really took hold in around 2012, few residents of the Golden State had ever heard of the State Water Resources Control Board. [29] Deadly fires and dry conditions have returned to the state, adding to the list of challenges juggled by the State Water Resources Control Board. [29]

No one is better positioned to deliver groundbreaking knowledge on the critical resource of global water than Circle of Blue. [49] Of the remaining 3% of the world's water resources, only about 1% is readily available for human consumption. [50] The PowerShares Water Resource Portfolio ETF ( PHO ) is the largest, with a U.S.-centric basket of 36 holdings that tilts toward mid- and smaller-cap companies. [50] Water is a basic, vital resource without which the environment degrades and turns into a desert of rocks, sand and, finally, salts. [33] For decades, a wealthy and connected cabal of major families and tribal leaders have exploited Jordan?s water resources. [41] Careful observation and analysis of the movement and condition of surface water is essential for understanding this resource, especially during times of drought. [40]

Whether it?s climate change or dealing with water scarcity - an area that?s common in a lot of western states - I think it just makes what we do at the state level even more important. [29] By now, what?s needed are water filters and solar-powered generators that communities can use to run pumps to access wells. [38] Despite this massive expense, the flow is often so feeble by the time it reaches residents, many of whom receive municipal water access only every few weeks, they don?t have enough time to fill the rooftop tanks they use to tide themselves over until the next delivery. [41] Traditionally, most of the Western world?s water bodies and water systems have been publicly owned, although private landowners have had limited rights to use water sources on their property. [30] Water supply in India has two principal sources, namely water from rivers and groundwater. [39] So, as Jordan?s population has continued to outpace all projections, besting the 2035 forecast of 9 million as early as 2015, stunned officials have resorted to raiding all water sources in sight--to devastating effect. [41] Lack of sensitisation with regard to both conservation of water and pollution of water sources has resulted in a large part of the population for whom water has become more of a curse than a boon. [39] When the challenge is so great and children so thirsty, people often take their water sources into their own hands. [49] Take for instance, the Ganga, which flows through 11 states of India and provides water to more than 500 million people. [39] Arsenic laden water has many adverse health effects and affects over 900 million people in India. [39] Two out of every three people will face water shortages by 2025, the World Meteorological Organization says, and hundreds of millions more might grapple with dangerously poor water quality. [41] At least 30 million cubic meters are lost to illegal wells every year, according to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, though independent experts suspect the total might be much higher. [41] It would take us 260 million years to desalinate the oceans for human consumption if all the water we drank came from the sea. [33] With next to no Jordan River water now reaching the lake, the lowest place on Earth, surface levels are falling by around a meter a year, taking everything from roads to rice crops with them. [41] "Although Jordan contributed very little to the imminent impact of climate change, it is nevertheless expected to suffer on a much higher level compared to other countries," says Prince Hassan bin Talal, the king?s uncle and former chairman of the U.N. Secretary-General?s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation. [41] A WaterAid report in 2016 ranked India among the worst countries in the world for the number of people without safe water. [39] "The water quality is going down, the water quantity is going down, but you need to provide water for people," says Raed Nimri, a water expert at Mercy Corps and deputy head of Water Innovations and Technologies, a U.S.-funded water-saving program. [41] With less rain, little river water, more people and already ailing aquifers, the numbers are no longer adding up. [41]

Government records show that in 1980, just 1% of India?s rural areas had access to safe, usable water. [39] The dual problems of not having access to water, or having access to unsafe water have resulted in safe and hygienic water, a basic amenity becoming a luxury. [39] The California Water Science Center uses a network of more than 500 streamgages to collect real-time data on surface water at locations across the state. [40] As the five-year drought worsened, the board would go on to order water use limits on every water agency in the state, which led to rationing requirements in households across California. [29] About 70% of the earth's surface is covered in water, but 97% of it is saltwater, which is unfit for human use. [50] Rapid industrialization and increasing agricultural use have contributed to worldwide water shortages. [50] One Detroit mother of five said to United Nations representatives: "How can you deny a person the right to use a toilet?" After her water was shut off, she was evicted and had to move her family to a bus shelter. [30] One of the ways the company has responded is by working with local nonprofits to help build "check dams" that allow water from monsoon season to be stored for later use. [30] Beyond water-services companies, many corporations that use significant quantities of water have also found themselves at the crux of conflicts over how water should be managed. [30] Water Deeply: Meanwhile, the board has a new duty to regulate water use by legalized marijuana growers. [29] Our job was to make sure that the use of water and potential discharge of pollutants into water is regulated. [29] As a comprehensive 2012 U.S. intelligence report put it: "The use of water as a weapon or to further terrorist objectives also will become more likely beyond 10 years." [41]

At best, water shortages could set the global economy back $500 billion a year, according to the World Bank. [41] Everyone should drink about two litres of water per day, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts estimated the amount of water contained in all the Earth?s oceans and seas at 1332 billion cubic kilometres. [33] Residential water prices have already gone up threefold over the past few years, from around $8 to $25 per quarter, though the World Bank says water is still underpriced. [41]

This population boom alone, however, didn?t doom Jordan?s water supply, government strategists say. (Though they insist the Syrian refugees, who come from a less arid land, have little understanding of water conservation practices.) [41] We began this article by saying that it is in our power - in the power of western countries with developed industry and technology - to provide services to communities which lack the necessary tools for providing a water supply. [33] A helicopter drops water on a fire burning July 19, 2016, at Hollywood Reservoir, a key water supply for the city of Los Angeles. [29] Water shortages have gotten so bad, they?ve already sparked clashes between refugees and native Jordanians, and the officials charged with catering to booming demand with a shrinking supply are beginning to panic. [41] Globally, water demand is forecast to rise by roughly 50 percent by 2050. [41] The UN also has determined that water and sanitation must be sufficient, safe, acceptable, accessible and affordable, defining "affordable" as not more than three percent of a household?s income. [30] The little rain the country receives is projected to drop 30 percent by the end of the century, according to Stanford University?s Jordan Water Project. [41] Almost 20 percent of Jordan?s electricity goes to pumping and circulating water around the country, according to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation. [41]

Unfortunately, millions of Indians across the country are not equipped with such facilities to test whether the water consumed and used by them is safe enough or not. [39] Photo: Kieran McConville Julien (in gray) and the rest of Concern?s team assemble a mobile drilling kit or "village drill," which is used to provide new water sources for conflict-affected communities in Kouango, Central African Republic. [51] This method is called desalination by decantation and has the least environmental impact (energy to heat up the water can, and should, be obtained from renewable sources). [33]

The rivers are shrinking because of pollution and industrialization, while the population keeps growing, pushing us towards an enormous water deficit. [39] The country?s population growth shows few signs of slowing, so it can?t fall back on water imports, as some lightly populated Pacific and Caribbean island nations have done. [41] Ten of the country?s 12 aquifers are now almost depleted, says Maysoon Zoubi, head of the Higher Population Council and a former secretary-general of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation. [41]

With more than 70 percent of the island lacking power, he says, wastewater treatment and water delivery systems have stalled out. [38] At 90 cubic meters per person per year, one of the lowest per capita water shares in the world, Jordanians enjoy about 3 percent of Americans? consumption. [41] As in much of the region--and the world--most of Jordan?s water, at least 65 percent, goes to agriculture. [41]

With no municipal water access, el-Qaisi and his neighbors have always had to rely on private tanks to service their cisterns. [41] Some had no access to water at all, except what could be filtered from mud through a cloth. [33]

Almost 19,000 villages across the country still do not receive regular water supply. [39] The sudden loss of his water supply, however, has left him nearly hopeless. [41] With a water supply that?s one-fifth as salty as seawater, he can?t grow anything but sickly looking palm trees. [41]

Within days of the storm?s landfall, Gleick recommended that the United States quickly move military assets, like desalination units that pull salt out of ocean water, to the islands. [38] Water for human consumption returns days, weeks or months later to the oceans, or comes out of our taps after being treated, so subsequent desalination is not necessary. [33] Every day, he collects water from the taps and begins testing it for impurities. [39]

On April 6, state authorities announced that the city?s water is safe to drink, but residents and advocates are concerned that their tap water remains unsafe because some tainted pipes still need to be replaced. [30] We are lucky to live on a planet that has a much larger amount of water than we need to drink. [33] CNN reported that Marc Edwards, the Virginia Tech environmental engineer who ran tests on the contaminated water in Flint, Michigan, had concluded that samples taken from wells at the Dorado Groundwater Contamination Superfund Site, near Puerto Rico?s capital of San Juan, were safe to drink. [38] On April 2, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality approved the company?s permit to increase the amount of water it withdraws from the groundwater table from 250 to 400 gallons per minute, for which it reportedly pays a $200 annual fee. [30] Water quality degradation, surface and groundwater level declines, land subsidence - all are impacts of drought. [40] Our reporting provides critical context on groundwater management, emerging water policy, innovative solutions and the environmental changes threatening the region. [29]

As scarcity concerns have grown, industries have expanded around water, ranging from desalination to dam construction to bottled water. [30] As with any other scarcity, the water shortage creates investment opportunities. [50]

Steps must be taken to ensure that people do not end up using arsenic laden water, as that would be more harmful than beneficial, said K.B. Biswas, Chairman, Central Ground Water Board. [39] "Some people will still be above the law, but there has been a drive to reduce their number and hopefully their impact," says Samer Talozi, a professor at the Jordan University of Science and Technology and member of the Stanford Water Project. [41] It is important to empower local people and enable them to save water for usage. [39] U.S. Northern Command, which is coordinating the military's aid efforts in Puerto Rico, confirmed reports that people are using potentially contaminated containers often washed out detergent bottles to collect water. [38] "It?s unacceptable that people are still depending on water bottle deliveries for day-to-day survival," says Oxfam?s Thompson, adding that people continue to fear that future shipments won't arrive. [38]

Politics in Washington, she says, make this an important time for states to lead on water and climate issues. [29] Nestlhas clashed with environmental and community advocates in the United States and Canada over the water it withdraws for its bottled water. [30] The S&P 1500 Water Utilities Index is a sub-sector of the Standard & Poor's 1500 Utilities Index; this index is composed of just two companies, American States Water (NYSE: AWR ) and Aqua America (NYSE: WTR ). [50] The state water board is led by a five-member board appointed by the governor. [29] The state is getting more serious about tackling the causes of its crisis--from launching family-planning campaigns to raising water prices and cracking down on bigwig water barons. [41] That was just the beginning of what Californians would learn about the state water board, as it is informally known. [29] In the U.S., too, water managers in 40 states expect water woes over the next decade. [41] "In some ways, this has happened since time immemorial," says Aaron Wolf, a professor of geography and noted water expert at Oregon State University. [41]

Cadagua, a company with more than four decades of experience in the building and maintenance of inverse osmosis desalination plants, knows well that these water treatment facilities are not used only in the places that would normally come to mind, such as poor regions or overpopulated islands. [33] In the U.S., the dead zone off the Gulf Coast highlights the impact of fertilizer runoff, and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), an additive in unleaded gasoline, can be found in well water from California to Maryland. [50] "The idea that there are communities forced to take water from wells on Superfund sites is completely inexcusable," Gleick says. [38]

Residents of Flint, Michigan, have been unable to drink their tap water since the city?s contamination crisis made headlines four years ago. [30] Estimates suggest that within the last ten years American per-capita consumption of bottled water has doubled - the average American drinks approximately 200 bottles of water a year. [50] In 2001, the Tamil Nadu government made it compulsory for each household to have rainwater harvesting infrastructure and the results reflected in the improvement of overall water quality within 5 years. [39] In recent years, the final stages of the installation include nanoporous graphene filters: which let the water through but trap microscopic particles. [33] How the world responds to water challenges in the next months and years will have effects for generations. [49] Several hundred thousand Palestinian refugees fled over the border following the creation of Israel in 1948, two years after Jordan?s founding, almost tripling the new state?s water requirements overnight. [41] With no ground, rain or surface water, they envisage growing an initial 130 tons of vegetables a year. [41] A year later, 200 families returned to settle on the land once again, but by then the damage to the water network through neglect was overwhelming. [33]

Bharat from Sunder Nagri in East Delhi has a weighty kit bag which he carries around and opens alongside water taps in the area. [39] While we are struggling to spread awareness about Rain Water Harvesting, a lot of work has been done in the area concerning rain water conservation, globally. [39] The Trump administration lifts a ban on mining near the Boundary Waters area of Minnesota. [49] According to Peter Gleick, a climate and water scientist with the Bay Area public policy nonprofit the Pacific Institute, the U.S. government could have taken steps prior to or immediately after Maria hit Puerto Rico to speed up recovery. [38] "We are praying to God for help," says Sobhi al-Abadi, one of an estimated 30,000 water tank drivers who service unconnected homes and businesses across the capital area. [41]

The Asian Development Bank has forecast that by 2030, India will have a water deficit of 50 per cent. [39] The U.S. Agency for International Development has spent over $800 million on water projects in Jordan since 2000. [41] The Dow Jones U.S. Water Index is composed of approximately 29 stocks; it is a barometer consisting of a large number of international and domestic companies that are affiliated with the water business and have a minimum market capitalization of $150 million. [50] Other new alternatives include the PowerShares Global Water Portfolio ETF ( PIO ), which tracks the Nasdaq OMX Global Water Index, and the First Trust ISE Water Index Fund ( FIW ). [50] Drought in New South Wales, Australia What?s Up With Water condenses global water news into snapshot each week. [49] On a global scale, nonprofits and the media are noting growing attempts to gain private rights to water that was previously in the public commons, through extensive land purchases in South America, Africa, Asia and elsewhere. [30] Some governments and nonprofits have created a global "water justice movement" to try to maintain the traditional model of public ownership and delivery of water. [30] The World Economic Forum has declared the growing global "water crisis" a leading risk to the global economy. [30] Uniting classic journalism and data literacy, Circle of Blue informs global audiences about the growing competition between water, food, and energy in a changing climate. [49]

Truck deliveries of bottled water are sporadic, and she says that the military has sent water trucks to several sites without providing clean containers to safeguard the water. [38] Unable to properly wash their clothes or even clean dishes, they?re slowly reconciling themselves to a world with almost no water. [41]

I am happy that this meeting is taking place, for it represents yet another stage in the joint commitment of various institutions to raising consciousness about the need to protect water as a treasure belonging to everyone, mindful too of its cultural and religious significance. [49] There also needs to be significant improvement to the territory?s municipal water system, which wasn?t in great shape before the storm hit. [38] "The streets are getting the water we need!" says Samir Kukh, a retired civil servant, who lives in the capital?s Bayader neighborhood. [41] You can even do it at home: all you need is a pan full of tap water, loads of salt, and oregano (to simulate the tiny living organisms in the sea). [33]

Perhaps half of all extracted water is lost to leaky pipes; in some otherwise dry districts of Amman, gushing jets of freshwater irrigate the concrete. [41] New federal estimates suggest serious water shortages on the Colorado River are closer than thought. [29] Syrian refugees collect water after crossing into Jordanian territory, near the town of Ruwaished, on May 4, 2016. [41] At the same time as severe water shortages pitch Syrian refugees and Jordanians into conflict with each other, particularly around Ramtha in the north, these powerful landowners are guzzling groundwater. [41] Is water a human right or a commodity? It?s treated like both. [30] In 2002, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights had adopted Comment 15, which stated: "The human right to water is indispensable for leading a life in human dignity. [30] The country is far from blameless regarding its water plight. [41] Jordan could be the first country to run out of water, but it likely wouldn?t be the last. [41] "In a country that might run out of water," says Mohammed Atiyeh, a farmer in the southern Jordan Valley, "there is regulation only for the weak and poor." [41] "We?re a country of refugees," says el-Qaisi, the water-deprived mechanic, showing off a modified shopping cart with which he and his neighbors plan to ferry large tanks of water up their hill. [41]

Jordan?s current water budget is a little under a billion cubic meters, but by 2025, it?s forecast to hit at least 1.4 billion. [41] Similar issues are at stake in California, where Nestlpumps water out of the San Bernardino National Forest for its Arrowhead Mountain Spring Water. [30] As a reader of Water Deeply, you know that we help make sense of water issues in California and across the American West. [29] Water Deeply: You?ve spent much of your federal career working on fisheries issues. [29] These studies support successful planning and science-based decision-making by water managers who must address complex issues and competing interests in times of drought. [40]

The problem is that the amount of energy needed to heat water up to 100 C is huge. [33] Because of climate change, Jordan?s water shortage could soon get dramatically worse. [41]

According the United Nations Children?s Fund (UNICEF), more than 180 million people are deprived of access to clean water in countries affected by conflict, violence, and instability. [14] They may not get much relief in their new home--the city?s infrastructure can?t keep up with its ever-growing population, and millions of slum dwellers lack access to clean water. [34] A staggering 95% of the area?s population is without access to clean water. [31]

What went wrong? Where to place the blame? More important, how to avoid such problems arising again as access to fresh water becomes one of the dominant public policy issues of the 21st century? While specific local factors may be driving the crisis in Cape Town, the issue is much broader than any one city and speaks to the central role water plays in our lives -- a role that is both underappreciated and, as a result, undervalued. [35] With a little bit of innovation -- and a lot of people power -- communities in the Kouango region are finally getting access to clean water. [31] This year, Concern?s drilling teams will create 40 boreholes, providing clean water to some 14,000 people in the area. [31]

Those cities that have, on average, higher-earning residents who can pay for water from farther-away sources, while those with lower-earning residents are often forced to rely on stressed surface and groundwater resources. [37] A point to consider here is how to satisfy the demand of an increasing population with finite resources. [32] The solution to all three problems is both realistic and achievable provided proper time, expertise and financial resources are invested in this direction. [32]

It aimed at integrating science, technology and society with the common goal of establishing a multi-resource mix for water use to improve the living conditions of people in the project region. [48] The conflict has forced more than 600,000 people to flee their homes; many are living in crowded displacement camps without clean water or sanitation. [31]

Drawing water from the great lakes, the largest fresh water source in the world outside of the large glaciers isn't a long term solution because the Great lakes don't refill very fast. [47] Relying on wind and solar power, Elemental?s model promises to provide potable fresh water at a fraction of the cost of traditional desalination by eliminating the need for expensive fossil fuels. [37]

It is the human nature that we value things only when they are scarce or are in short supply. [36]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(51 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (95) Water Access, Resources & Sanitation - Our World in Data

2. (73) What Is Water Scarcity? | Fluence

3. (54) Cape Town is running out of water. Is LA next? - Curbed LA

4. (44) What Will Happen If the World No Longer Has Water?

5. (41) The Water Scarcity Problem Thats Destroying Countries - Business Connect World

6. (37) Five myths about water in Pakistan | End Poverty in South Asia

7. (33) Cape Town water crisis: adapting to a water-scarce future | Environment| All topics from climate change to conservation | DW | 26.03.2018

8. (32) Where Water is Scarce, Communities Turn to Reusing Wastewater - Yale E360

9. (32) Are we running out of water? | News | The Guardian

10. (31) Lessons from Cape Town's water shortage

11. (31) 76 Million Don?t Have Safe Drinking Water: India?s Looming Water Crisis | World Water Day Special

12. (30) Pakistans Water Crisis: Why a National Water Policy is Needed - The Asia Foundation

13. (29) World Water Day 2018: What You Need to Know About the World Water Crisis

14. (27) Lack of Clean Drinking Water in Conflict Areas - Unsafe Foods

15. (26) Rural America’s Drinking-Water Crisis | The New Republic

16. (26) Cape Town water crisis: Cities should prepare for water scarcity

17. (26) hydrology - If water is a renewable resource, why is there water scarcity? - Earth Science Stack Exchange

18. (26) Running Out of Water: Conflict and Water Scarcity in Yemen and Syria

19. (25) The Global Water Crisis: Why Are India?s Taps Running Dry? | Time

20. (25) Why Cape Town Is Running Out of Water, and the Cities That Are Next

21. (23) Strong thirsts in fragile countries: walking the water scarce path of refugees | The Water Blog

22. (23) A Right to Water - Is Water a Human Right or a Commodity? | 3BL Media

23. (22) The people of Cape Town are running out of water--and they?re not alone | Popular Science

24. (22) Water Scarcity: Indias Silent Crisis | Inter Press Service

25. (20) Cape Towns Day Zero is causing money problems as water is scarce - Business Insider

26. (20) Water: The Scarce Resource - Human Influence on Water

27. (20) Mitigating the water shortage in Karachi

28. (20) How many millions of people without drinking water would be able to drink if we managed to desalinate the oceans? - Ferrovial Blog

29. (19) Solutions to the World?s Water Crisis Can Be Found in the Driest Places

30. (19) Why is Tamil Nadu facing water scarcity? - Quora

31. (17) Water | United Nations

32. (16) California?s New Water Boss: States Must Set Own Course on -- Water Deeply

33. (15) Puerto Rico's Drinking-Water Crisis Isn't Going Away Anytime Soon Mother Jones

34. (14) People power brings clean water to Central African Republic - Concern

35. (14) The U.S. could have avoided Puerto Rico?s water crisis | Grist

36. (14) Water scarcity in India - Wikipedia

37. (13) Averting the next Cape Town: Water strategy is a shared responsibility | GreenBiz

38. (11) How Cape Town's water crisis could make people sick

39. (10) Source Water Ag Collaborative Supports Drinking Water Protection Efforts -- Clean Water Iowa

40. (10) As climate threats grow, Iraq battles a new enemy: Water shortages | Reuters

41. (10) How To Invest in Water: The ultimate commodity | Investopedia

42. (9) Morocco Facing Water Scarcity

43. (9) Solving the Global Water Crisis | Rainmaker Worldwide Rainmaker Worldwide

44. (8) The Next Big Crisis: Drinking Water - TheStreet

45. (8) Circle of Blue | Water Reporting, Data & Convening

46. (7) It's up to the world of science to provide everyone with clean, affordable water | World Economic Forum

47. (6) Water and Sanitation | Morocco | U.S. Agency for International Development

48. (5) Drought | USGS California Water Science Center

49. (5) Integrated Water Resources Management in Water-scarce Regions: Water Harvesting, Groundwater Desalination and Water Reuse in Namibia | IWA Publishing

50. (3) Hurricanes Irma and Harvey make drinking water a Scarce Resource - Tematica Research

51. (1) People power brings clean water to Central African Republic | HuffPost

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