The Climate Of An Area Is

The Climate Of An Area Is
The Climate Of An Area Is Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_the_United_States
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • The U.S. state of Hawaii; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Belém, Brazil, are examples of areas with tropical wet climates.(More...)
  • Based on the SDSM, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios provided by HadGEM3 were used as input to the model to predict the future trends of precipitation and temperature in the source area of Liaohe River.(More...)
  • The climate and weather vary in different areas and change in different seasons.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Increasing temperatures can change the climate impacts and even the classification of a region.(More...)
  • Now the weather can only change naturally, in most cases, when there is a physical interaction between its components and those of the geography of the area i.e., the features of the land.(More...)
  • Cool summer climate s have winters with low temperatures and snow.(More...)
  • The annual average temperature rises in the study area is mainly due to the increase in winter temperature.(More...)
  • DOI established 21 Landscape Conservation Cooperatives where climate science is being applied for resource management.(More...)
  • Flickr / VasenkaPhotography "Climate change is not a future problem: it is happening now," the first line of Ann Arbor's ambitious climate-action plan reads.(More...)

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KEY TOPICS

The U.S. state of Hawaii; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Belém, Brazil, are examples of areas with tropical wet climates. [1] Using the world climate here would be incorrect as the climate is actually the default weather condition that an area is used to over a long period of time. [2] Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. [1] The sheltered, shady area kept residents cool in the hot, dry desert climate. [1] Overall topography plays a very impressive role in designing a climate of an area. [2]

It must be reminded that not only latitudinal positions influence temperature changes and that sea currents, air masses, continentality, maritimity, and altitude will also be defining factors, with climates considered temperate being found even in tropical areas or milder climates in polar regions. [3] Whereas weather refers to short-term changes in the atmosphere, climate describes what the weather is like over a long period of time in a specific area. [4] The figure below shows expected percent change in precipitation between the current climate and the end of the century in Australia, with purple areas indicating increased precipitation and orange indicating reductions. [5] If protected areas shall maintain their functions such as conserving biodiversity in times of (climate) change, their management will have to become more robust against such change. [6] We find that without mitigation, on average 33% of each conservation area can act as climate refugium (or 18% if species are unable to disperse), whereas if warming is constrained to 2 C, the average area of climate refuges doubles to 67% of each conservation area (or, without dispersal, more than doubles to 56% of each area). [7] Constraining global average warming to 2 C enables many species to continue (climatically) inhabiting areas presently occupied, because with lower amounts of warming, larger areas of Priority Places can act as climate refugia. [7]

A climatic refugium is defined in this study as an area where 75% of the total number of species presently found in a given taxon in a given Priority Place will still be found under a changed climate. [7] The drier season is usally due to proximity towards drier continental regions, so this climate is more commonly found in the subtropical countryside, near dry areas, such as Central-West Texas. [3] These climates occur near the rimlands of the Mediterranean Sea, in western and southern Australia, in the California region of North America, in southwestern South America, and in the western areas of South Africa. [3] The highlands climate zone is characterized by weather that differs from the surrounding area because of mountains. [8] There are a couple factors why the climate of large city landscapes differs from the climate of rural areas. [3] Protected areas would be well advised to comply with such guidelines and programmes and recognise them as chances to make management more (climate change-) robust. [6] Managing for climate change--developing strategies for protected area managers: results of a seminar organised by BfN and the United Nations Development Programme at the International Academy for Nature Conservation on the Island of Vilm, Germany, August 2010. [6]

While the impact of climate change on precipitation is fairly uncertain, we do expect with warming that many areas will experience more soil moisture droughts and declining runoff and streamflow resulting in an overall increase in drought risk and severity. [5]

Areas with continental climate s have colder winters, longer-lasting snow, and shorter growing season s. [1] Climate change is projected to increase drying in areas such as the Kalahari due to a shift in position of the Hadley cell where falling, drying air creates desert conditions (Lu et al. 2007 ) whilst observed desertification already exceeds that projected by climate models (Heffernan 2016 ). [7] By definition, without climate change, 100% of the area of all Priority Places acts as refugia. [7] This finding of the critical importance of conservation management in protecting biodiversity from climate change in these areas is significant. [7] General guidelines on climate change adaptation and specific principles for climate change-robust management can provide a framework into which protected area managers can fit their site-specific planning and actions. [6] Because of these findings, and to fill the knowledge gap regarding suitable evaluation criteria for climate change adaptation in protected areas, we present principles of climate change-robust management. [6]

Our study gives valuable insight into current deficiencies of accounting for climate change in protected area management planning. [6] Natura 2000 sites were also the smallest protected areas where climate change robustness of their management planning significantly increased with area size ( Fig 4 ). [6] Apart from basic resource capacities of protected area administrations, more delicate factors such as climate change risk perception of conservation managers, their planning capacities as well as personal values and beliefs can also play a role. [6] Lemieux C, Scott D. Climate change, biodiversity conservation and protected area planning in Canada. [6] In general, major conservation organizations argue that protected areas are the best means of addressing climate change since they play a significant role in both mitigation and adaptation. [6] Sieck M, Ibisch P, Moloney K, Jeltsch F. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change. [6] On one hand, protected areas are vulnerable to climate change because they are often conceptualised statically, despite the spatially and temporally dynamic nature of their conservation objects (e.g. individual species, communities or ecosystems). [6] We define climate change-robustness in protected area management as conservation management that is effective in sustaining the functionality of a protected area despite the myriad of potential impacts associated with climate change. [6] They support climate change-robustness of protected areas and should even be more promoted in the light of adapting to climatic or any kind of change. [6] The contemporary evaluation criteria for protected area management effectiveness consider climate change merely as one out of many factors that need to be considered, for instance as a threat to biodiversity. [6] Or as an alternative to new climate change-specific guidelines, existing guidelines for protected area management should be revised with regard to climate change adaption. [6] Protected areas are considered the cornerstones of conservation strategies and must also adapt to climate change while continuing to conserve biodiversity. [6] There are different lines of action for conservation, and for protected areas in particular, to face climate change and reduce vulnerability. [6] In a study on the vulnerability of German protected areas to climate change, Kreft et al. also included, among others, some aspects of conservation management itself. [6] A comparison of protected areas in other countries with those in Germany is without doubt essential to reach a good understanding of the existing range of adaptation approaches to climate change. [6] Lemieux CJ, T.J. B, Scott DJ, Gray PA. Protected areas and climate change in Canada: opportunities and challenges for adaptation. [6]

As we have indicated, among the Natura 2000 sites management planning of the smaller areas tends to be less climate change-robust than that of larger Natura 2000 sites. [6] Guidelines on management planning, the participation in quality programmes (such as the German nature park quality campaign ) and international networks (like the Natura 2000 network or the UNESCO MAB Programme) as well as effectiveness evaluation programmes exert an additional influence on the quality of protected area management and its climate change-robustness. [6] One purpose of our study was to assess climate change-robustness of protected area management plans in Germany. [6] In our study we focus on the adaptation of conservation management planning, evaluating management plans of 60 protected areas throughout Germany with regard to their climate change-robustness. [6] We use our proposed set of principles for climate change-robust conservation management in building an evaluation framework for assessing climate change-robustness of protected area management plans, focussing on a case study in Germany. [6] A good starting point is provided for further development towards climate change-robust protected area management since most principles were reflected by most of the plans suggesting that they are generally acknowledged as important. [6] Our findings suggest the climate change-robustness of management plans of German protected areas is rather low. [6] Citation: Geyer J, Kreft S, Jeltsch F, Ibisch PL (2017) Assessing climate change-robustness of protected area management plans--The case of Germany. [6]

Protected areas can only take up this role if their vulnerability to climate change can effectively be reduced. [6] Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change. [6] According to their climate change vulnerability index applied to German protected areas, most of the 121 assessed protected areas in Germany can be categorised as highly vulnerable against climate change; none of the sites showed low vulnerability. [6] Welch D. What should protected areas managers do in the face of climate change? George Wright Forum. 2005;22(1):75-93. [6] Managing protected areas in Central and Eastern Europe under climate change. [6] Protected area management effectiveness evaluations should account for climate change-robustness more explicitly, as the IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas Standard already demonstrates. [6] We found that climate change-robustness of protected areas hardly exceeded 50 percent of the potential performance, with most plans ranking in the lower quarter. [6] Distribution of protected area plans relative to the maximum performance of climate change-robustness. [6] We found a strong relationship between the four protected area categories and climate change-robustness, where BR and NLP composed the most robust group with mean climate change-robustness values of 40 and 34 and median values of 41 and 35, respectively ( Fig 3 ). [6] In the second stage, we tested for statistical significance for the contribution of individual site characteristics of the protected areas to climate change-robustness in "R" using the package "ggplot2" applying a Pairwise Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for protected area category and the Spearman?s Rank Correlation for area size in case of Natura 2000 sites. [6] Total quality scores for the principles of climate change-robust conservation management sorted by protected area category. [6] The lack of appropriate depth in addressing the principles of climate change-robust conservation management might imply that the necessary competence are still deficient in many protected area administrations and need to be developed. [6] By suggesting eleven principles with according criteria, we hope it may spark a discussion on (unused) options for making protected areas more climate change-robust. [6]

Two-thirds of the protected areas studied (n 60) achieved a climate change-robustness index value equal to or lower than 20% of the maximum score. [6] Distribution of climate change-robustness scores for the 60 protected areas analyzed. [6] Relationship between the four protected area categories and climate change-robustness. [6] Our results indicate that it is not individual site characteristics per se that affect climate change-robustness, but primarily the protected area category. [6]

Based on the SDSM, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios provided by HadGEM3 were used as input to the model to predict the future trends of precipitation and temperature in the source area of Liaohe River. [9] Contrasting climate impacts on habitat suitability for wintering and local species will likely be exacerbated in the "worst? of the climate scenarios (i.e., those indicating the highest impacts on water budgets), as most wintering species (ca. 60%) are small wading birds that use muddy areas and open water to forage and will likely benefit from increasing water salinities and reductions in aquatic vegetation. [10] They occupy less area of the state than many realize, but they profoundly impact the climate of the entire region. [11] Temperatures can drop below 0F in all areas of western Colorado, but the valleys of west-central and southwest Colorado receive abundant sunshine and the winter climate is not harsh. [11] The grid spatial and temporal resolution of large-scale climate factors is 0.5   0.5 degrees, covering four grids over the Liao River Source Area. [9] The climate of local areas is profoundly affected by differences in elevation and, to a lesser degree, by the orientation of mountain ranges and valleys with respect to general air movements. [11] The main feature of the mountainous area of central and western Colorado is the dramatic differences in climate over short distances. [11] Our study area, which includes the Dona wetland complex, provides an ideal case study for assessing the impacts of anthropogenic and climate stressors on waterbird populations. [10] The source area of Liao River is a typical cold region in northeastern China, which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS), it is important to understand future climate change impacts on NPS in the watershed. [9] In order to address the water quality issues, it is necessary to assessment of future climate change impacts on NPS in the Liao River source area. [9]

Averaged and smoothed regional projections of climate change in the study area predict a reduction in precipitation and an increase in temperature ranging from 10-50% ( Fig 3 ). [10]

The climate and weather vary in different areas and change in different seasons. [12] Gridded climate data: In order to consistently compare historic climate trends from one area to another, scientists estimate weather data in places and during time periods not covered by weather stations using computer models. [13] Costa Rica?s Caribbean coast is known for a similar, tropical beach climate to the Pacific side, but doesn?t reach the high temperatures found in the Guanacaste area. [14] Question : The rate at which rocks weather depends upon: a. the climate of an area b. the type of rock c the. [15] Some areas may experience heavier than normal precipitation, and other areas may become prone to droughts, as the traditional locations of rain belts and deserts shift in response to a changing climate. [16] What can you do if politicians in your area fail to address the climate crisis with the speed and scale that is needed? Put pressure on them to act. [17] Elevation plays a role in the climate of various areas as well. [18] Climate characteristics: The area is of Plateau mountain climate. [12] Because the GEF IEO has recently evaluated the LDCF and SCCF, this study focuses its assessment primarily on the GEF?s climate change mitigation focal area and draws on evidence from the 2016 LDCF and 2017 SCCF evaluations to provide a synthesis of GEF support for adaptation. [19] The greatest warming along the northern states emphasizes a general rule of climate change -- cold areas and seasons warm faster than areas and seasons that are already warm. [20]

The map also could help predict which areas will have climates more conducive to extreme weather phenomena such as tornadoes in places where historically there were few, he said. [21] Climate is the whole of the weather conditions that exist in one area over a long period of time, from years to decades. [22] The National Weather Service Mobile Alabama's Climate and Past Weather page provides climate data at your fingertips for many observation points in the local forecast area by accessing the NOWData tab as well as many other climate resources. [23] The climate is hotter in this area as compared to other regions. [24] If a particular area is dry over much of the year, or generally very cold, that is its climate. [22] The new assessment comes a few weeks before the Sept. 12-14 Global Climate Action Summit, which is expected to bring thousands of people to the Bay Area. [25] The region's smallest climate area includes Buffalo and its first ring suburbs. [26] You also have to take the climate of the area into consideration. [24] Our team in Glass King will ensure that the material you use for your window is suitable for the climate in your area. [24] "In talking to cities and counties about what they are doing to adapt to climate change, you hear a big need for staff and money, because the planning for adaptation has to happen mostly at the regional and local level," said Bruce Riordan, program director of UC Berkeley?s Climate Readiness Institute and one of four lead authors of the Bay Area report. [25] Long-term climate changes that warm the area over years, though, can make glaciers melt more quickly. [22]

According to a landmark new study by the University of East Anglia, the James Cook University, and the WWF, which was published in the journal Climatic Change, a 4.5C rise in the global mean temperature could make the climate of the area unsuitable for many of the animals and plants that live there currently. [27] Landsberg, H. E., 1970: Man-made climatic changes: Man?s activities have altered the climate of urbanized areas and may affect global climate in the future. [28]

Consistent with increases in growing season length and the coldest temperature of the year, plant hardiness zones have shifted northward in many areas. 79 The widespread increase in temperature has also impacted the distribution of other climate zones in parts of the United States. [28] Warming climate is projected to make many now-dry areas dryer, in part by changing precipitation patterns. [29] Carbon losses from the biosphere to the atmosphere through urbanization account for almost 2% of the continental terrestrial biosphere total, a significant proportion given that urban areas only account for around 1% of land in the United States. 110 Similarly, statistical analyses of the relationship between climate and urban land use suggest an empirical relationship between the patterns of urbanization and precipitation deficits during the dry season. [28] A recent study on the North Pacific circulation patterns over the past 1.2 million years determined that sea ice on coastal areas can be an important factor in ocean circulation, therefore influencing climate at global and regional levels. [30] Coordinated modeling and observational studies have revealed other mechanisms by which the physical properties of urban areas can influence local weather and climate. [28] Batllori et al. (2017) used the climate velocity concept to determine whether the future climate of protected areas in North America would: (i) stay within the given protected area; (ii) shift to another protected area; (iii) shift to an unprotected area; or (iv) disappear (i.e., no future climate analog). [31] In addition to querying the climate velocity and displacement classification data, users are able to retrieve the predicted incoming and outgoing future climate locations for each and every pixel within any of the protected areas. [31] The climate data used to generate the climate velocity displacement results are provided for each protected area along with a downloadable report (in BETA ). [31]

Climate change and land-cover change in forested areas interact in many ways, such as through changes in mortality rates driven by changes in the frequency and magnitude of fire, insect infestations, and disease. [28] The application has the potential to inform conservation initiatives and contribute to assessing climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation in protected areas, both locally and regionally. [31]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Increasing temperatures can change the climate impacts and even the classification of a region. [1] Climate does not change from day to day like weather, but it does change over time. [1] Changes in day-to-day, day-to-night, and seasonal variations also help determine specific climates. [1]

Studying vegetation, temperature, and precipitation data, he and other scientists developed a system for naming climate regions. [1] The most familiar features of a region's climate are probably average temperature and precipitation. [1] This combats both the frigid temperatures and precipitation found in polar climates. [1] Both highland and upland climates are marked by very different temperatures and levels of precipitation. [1] Regions lying within the dry climate group occur where precipitation is low. [1] The range of weather in continental climate regions makes them among the most spectacular sites for weather phenomena. [1] A region's weather pattern s, usually tracked for at least 30 years, are considered its climate. [1] Places with a tropical wet climate are also known as rain forest s. [1] Small variations, called microclimate s, exist in every climate region. [1] Forest s and oceans serve as " carbon sink s" that have a cooling impact on climate. [1] They are the transition zone s between mild and polar climates. [1] They are often located between arid and tropical climate regions. [1] The last season is hot and wet as the ITCZ arrives and the region experiences months as a tropical wet climate. [1] Warm summer climate regions often have wet summer seasons, similar to monsoon climates. [1] Mesothermal climates include the Mediterranean Basin, most of coastal Australia, and the Pampas region of South America. [1] The populations of island nations such as Maldives or Comoros have been forced to contemplate becoming " climate refugee s"--people forced to leave their homes and migrate to a different region. [1] Unusually arid climates in a semi-arid region may prolong droughts, for instance. [1] In regions with mild climates, the increased atmospheric moisture associated with humid climates may increase the likelihood of hurricanes and typhoons. [1] Köppen observed that the type of vegetation in a region depended largely on climate. [1] Regions with mild and continental climates are also called temperate regions. [1]

In general climate means density of air, temperature of air,moisture content and wind speed. [2] Organisms that have adapted to one climate may have to migrate or adapt to warmer temperatures. [1] Temperatures in both arid and semiarid climates show large daily and seasonal variations. [1]

Thousands died in bitter cold as they retreated from Russia's cool summer climate in the winter of 1812. [1] Microthermal climates are characterized by cold winters and low potential evapotranspiration. [1] The marine west coast climate, a type of mild climate typical of cities such as Seattle, Washington, in the U.S. and Wellington, New Zealand, has a longer, cooler winter than the Mediterranean climate. [1]

According to the Köppen climate classification system, there are five climate groups: tropical, dry, mild, continental, and polar. [1] There are three climate types in the tropical group: tropical wet; tropical monsoon; and tropical wet and dry. [1] Tropical wet and dry climates sit just outside the ITCZ, near the Equator. [1] Although rainfall is limited in all dry climates, there are a few parts of the world where it never rains. [1] Lightweight, papery tapa cloth, on the other hand, is part of many cultures in the warm, humid climates of Polynesia, in the South Pacific Ocean. [1] Along the coast climate is dominated by moisture content in air and the best part in India is that one can experience all the climates in the country itself. [2] The atmosphere is the most variable part of the climate system. [1] The cryosphere is another generally consistent part of the climate system. [1] In these parts of the world, climate is influenced mostly by latitude and a region's position on the continent. [1]

When the weather does not follow the typical climate pattern, it can mean hard times for farmers and higher food costs for consumers. [1] Climographs can summarize daily, monthly, yearly, or decades-long weather patterns to help climatologists identify a region's climate. [1] British geographer Andrew John Herbertson described climate like this: "Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get." [1] Let?s describe this phenomenon based on the "weather" rather than the "climate". [2] People living in these climates have grown accustomed to the harsh weather, but those unprepared for such cold may suffer. [1]

Since the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, human activity has begun to impact climate. [1] A region's elevation, proximity to the ocean or freshwater, and land-use patterns can all impact climate. [1] A microthermal climate may include the temperate climate of Boston, Massachusetts; the coniferous forest s of southern Scandinavia; and the boreal ecosystem of northern Siberia. [1] Climate has influenced the development of culture s and civilizations. [1] The movement of tectonic plate s, volcanic activity, and the tilt of Earth's axis all have effects on climate. [1] Between the icy pole s and the steamy tropics are many other climates that contribute to Earth's biodiversity and geologic heritage. [1] Thunderstorm s and tornado es, among the most powerful forces in nature, form mostly in continental climates. [1]

The rainy, tropical climate of West Africa, for example, is influenced by the region's location near the Equator (latitude) and its position on the western side of the continent. [1] Tropical wet climates exist in a band extending about 10° of latitude on either side of the Equator. [1] On some mountains, such as Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, the climate is tropical at the base and polar at the summit. [1]

Most of Eastern Europe, including Romania and Georgia, has warm summer climates. [1] Continental climates are only found in the Northern Hemisphere. [1] Mediterranean climates are found on the west coasts of continents between 30° and 40° latitude, and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. [1] Usually, continental climates are found in the interior of continents. [1]

Denver, Colorado, just east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S., has this type of dry climate, known as a " rain shadow." [1] The two polar climate types, tundra and ice cap, lie within the Arctic and Antarctic Circles near the North and South Poles. [1] The Patagonian Plateau, in southern South America, has an upland climate. [1]

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. 1 These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. [3] Changes in average precipitation is much more difficult for climate models to predict than temperature. [5] Climate models are not perfect and projections of future average precipitation changes may become more consistent as models continue to improve. [5] In the fifth and final article in our week-long climate modelling series, Carbon Brief explores where the models agree and disagree about future changes in precipitation. [5] There are 39 different climate models within CMIP5 that provide estimates of precipitation changes in the future. [5]

Rising global temperatures are expected to further raise sea levels and change precipitation patterns and other local climate conditions. [4] The extent to which the Priority Places are exposed to changes in climate, in terms of changes in seasonal temperature and precipitation, was explored in relation to the observed seasonal climate variability in each Priority Place. [7] Osborn TJ et al (2016) Pattern-scaling using ClimGen: monthly-resolution future climate scenarios including changes in the variability of precipitation. [7] While the models used by climate scientists generally agree on how different parts of the Earth will warm, there is much less agreement about where and how precipitation will change. [5] Our findings result from an extensive global analysis of projected changes in the climatic ranges of plants and animals based on the outputs of 21 GCMs. However, it should be borne in mind that the estimates of climatic range shifts could be over- or under-estimated, due to the uncertainties in regional climate projection and the need to summarise this by using levels of model agreement, and also the effects of factors that could not be included in the simulations. [7] The influence of extreme weather events has been shown to cause local extirpation of butterfly species (Oliver et al. 2015 ) or mass die-offs of mammals and birds (Welbergen et al. 2008 ) and, depending on their frequency and intensity, might be more important than changes in mean climate in driving local extirpation (Bauerfeind and Fisher 2014 ). [7] The temperate zones (latitudes from 35 to the polar circles at about 66.5, north and south ) are where the widest seasonal changes occur, with most climates found in it having somewhat balanced influence from both the tropics and the poles. [3] There is a gradual change from polar to tropical climates across the middle latitude temperate zones. [3] Stein BA, Staudt A, Cross MS, Dubois NS, Enquist C, Griffis R, et al. Preparing for and managing change: climate adaptation for biodiversity and ecosystems. [6]

Hot summer days may be quite typical of climates in many regions of the world, but warming is causing Earth's average global temperature to increase. [4] When scientists talk about climate, they're often looking at averages of precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind, and other measures of weather that occur over a long period in a particular place. [4] Interestingly, despite all the focus on drought in the state of California, there is no consensus among climate models that the region will experience less precipitation on average in a warmer world. [5] Along with this, the humid subtropical climate may be wrongly separated from the Temperate group of climates, and further associated with the Tropical climates, much because of its name, temperatures and the vegetation found in Subtropical zones which can be somewhat similar to that of Tropical regions (For instance the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is spread across both Temperate and Tropical zones of the country). [3] While JPSS orbits, the satellites provide global observations of many other variables that influence climate such as atmospheric temperature and water vapor, snow and ice cover, vegetation, sea and land surface temperature, precipitation and more. [8]

The adaptation and mitigation activities of surrounding land users (11. 3) and their engagement in cooperative ecosystem-based climate management (11. 4) were not considered in more than 90% of the analyzed management plans. [6] Preston BL, Westaway RM, Yuen EJ. Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations. [6]

Climate is the average weather conditions in a place over a long period of time--30 years or more. [8] Despite the latitude, the higher altitudes of these regions mean that the climate tends to share characteristics with oceanic climates, though it also tends to experience noticeably drier weather during the lower-sun "winter" season. [3] These annual weather patterns classify the world into six major climate regions. [32] Regions where the Dry Summer Subtropical or Mediterranean Climates are found. [3] A Mediterranean climate shows mild winters and hot, dry summers, and includes the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, Southern South America and Southern California. [32] The subtropics (latitudes from about 23.5 to 35, north and south ) have temperate climates that show further similarities with the tropics, usually having warmer summers and milder winters. [3] The poleward outskirts of the temperate zone, is where the coldest but yet temperate climates such as the boreal climate are found, with colder winters and milder summers, showing further similarities with the poles. [3] This climate has long hot summers, and short, mild winters, with annual rainfall often concentrated in the warmest part of the year. [3] Looking at Climate Normals can help us describe whether the summers are hot and humid and whether the winters are cold and snowy at a particular place. [4] To describe the climate of a place, we might say what the temperatures are like during different seasons, how windy it usually is, or how much rain or snow typically falls. [4] Average annual precipitation projections by climate models should be approached cautiously. [5] These climate zones are so dry because moisture is rapidly evaporated from the air and there is very little precipitation. [8] These different climates all fall within the temperate zone which has a basic definition as being any climate with a mean temperature above ?3C (26.6F) but below 18C (64.4F) in the coldest month. [3] In some climate classifications, the temperate zone is often divided into several smaller climate zones, based on monthly temperatures, the coldest month, and rainfall. [3] Warm and hot climates prevail all over Africa, but the northern part is that most marked by aridity and high temperatures. [33] Regions with this climate include Western Europe, northwestern North America, southeastern and southwestern South America, southeastern Australia and parts of New Zealand. [3] Regions with this climate include northern temperate Asia, the northern United States, southern Canada, and parts of northeastern Europe. [3] Like the United States, different regions of the world have varying climates. [4]

Now the weather can only change naturally, in most cases, when there is a physical interaction between its components and those of the geography of the area i.e., the features of the land. [2] In large urban area s, for example, streets and buildings absorb heat from the Sun, raising the average temperature of the city higher than average temperatures of more open areas nearby. [1] The area receives direct sunlight year-round, and sits at an area called the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ, pronounced "itch"), where moist trade wind s meet. [1]

Sea level rises at about 2.3 millimeters (.2 inch) every year, contributing to up to 900% more frequent flooding in coastal areas. [1]

The current period of climate change has been documented by rising temperatures, melting glaciers, and more intense weather phenomena. [1] Climate change is also impacting organisms and species range s. [1] The study of historic climate change is called paleoclimatology. [1] The current period of climate change is sometimes called " global warming." [1] Climate changes happen slowly over hundreds or even thousands of years. [1]

Beaumont et al. ( 2011 ) analysed risks to ecoregions in terms of the number that are projected to be exposed to average monthly climates that differ from the baseline climate by more than two standard deviations in the year 2070. [7] And, we refer to these three-decade averages of weather observations as Climate Normals. [4] Over time, these weather observations allow us to quantify long-term average conditions, which provide insight into an area?s climate. [4] These include interactions between species, the effects of extreme weather events (McDermott-Long et al. 2016 ), the ability or otherwise of species to utilise novel climates (Williams and Jackson 2007 ) and regime shifts. [7] Over the coming 25 or 30 years, scientists say, the climate is likely to gradually warm, with more extreme weather. [34]

The six major climate regions are polar, temperate, arid, tropical, Mediterranean and tundra. [32] Regions where the Humid (Cfa) and Dry-Winter Subtropical (Cwa) climates are found. [3] Regions where the Temperate Continental Climates can be found. [3]

Southern Africa has a transition to semi-tropical or temperate climates (green), and more desert or semi-arid regions, centered on Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. [33] Dry Summer Subtropical or Mediterranean climates occur generally between 30 and 42 north and south, on the western sides of landmasses. [3] Similar in characteristic to the Mediterranean Climate which is also a Subtropical Climate with a dry season, in this case a dry summer. [3]

This climate has warm to hot summers and short mild winters; however, seasonal rainfall is the opposite of that of the humid subtropical type, with a winter or cool season rainfall peak being typical, and summer as drier season. [3] This causes the climate to have cool summers and cool (but not cold) winters. [3] These climates are frequently cloudy, and are fairly milder both in winter and summer in comparison to other temperate climates. [3] Boreal climate or subarctic climate is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers. [3]

The climate of Africa is more variable by rainfall amount than by temperatures, which are consistently high. [33] There is much more agreement by the models that a warming climate will increase the severity of extreme rainfall and snowfall almost everywhere. [5] Chen IC, Hill JK, Ohlemuller R, Roy DB, Thomas CD (2011) Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming. [7] The extent to which the species within Priority Place boundaries are exposed to unsuitable climates was explored for two cases: (i) in which species do not track their favoured climate and (ii) in which species attempt to track their favoured climate at a rate informed by dispersal rates reported in the literature (Warren et al. 2013 ). [7] Species face a challenge in being able to track their preferred climate space across what is often an increasingly fragmented landscape (Settele et al. 2014 ), both in terms of the speed of movement required and any natural or anthropogenic obstacles to movement. [7]

These climates may occur in southern Asia, the southeastern United States, parts of eastern Australia, and in eastern coastal South America. [3] This is an illustration of the climate zones within the United States. [8] Climate zones of Africa, showing the ecological break between the hot desert climate of the Sahara Desert (red), the hot semi-arid climate of the Sahel (orange) and the tropical climate of Central and Western Africa (blue). [33] The climate of Africa is a range of climates such as the equatorial climate, the tropical wet and dry climate, the tropical monsoon climate, the semi-desert climate (semi-arid), the desert climate (hyper-arid and arid), the subtropical highland climate etc. Temperate climates are rare across the continent except at very high elevations and along the fringes. [33] The subtropical highland variety of the oceanic climate exists in elevated portions of the world that are within either the tropics or subtropics, though it is typically found in mountainous locations in some tropical countries. [3] "Temperate Climate" refers to climates between Polar and Tropical. [3]

While descriptions of an area?s climate provide a sense of what to expect, they don't provide any specific details about what the weather will be on any given day. [4] Scientists predict more extreme weather events as Earth?s climate warms. [4] NCEI?s weather and climate data provide valuable information for the logistics and transportation sector. [4] Meteorology studies weather, while climatology studies climate; both are atmospheric sciences. [35] There are many elements that make up both the weather and the climate of a geographical location. [35]

Scientists who study Earth?s climate look at the factors that affect our planet as a whole. [4] We can also describe the climate of an entire planet--referred to as the global climate. [4] Global climate is a description of the climate of a planet as a whole, with all the regional differences averaged. [4] Overall, global climate depends on the amount of energy received by the sun and the amount of energy that is trapped in the system. [4]

Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies. [4] Scientists have published strong evidence that the warming climate is making heat waves more frequent and intense. [34] This is a variant of the Subtropical climate that experiences a much drier winter. [3] Climate events, like El Ni, happen over several years, with larger fluctuations happening over decades. [4] Plants grow best in the climate conditions that are found in their native ecosystem. [8] It is found on large landmasses, away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50 to 70 N poleward of the humid continental climates. [3] Owing to Africa's position across equatorial and subtropical latitudes in both the northern and southern hemisphere, several different climate types can be found within it. [33]

Distance to the equator is only one part of an area?s climate. [8] Great parts of North Africa and Southern Africa as well as the whole Horn of Africa mainly have a hot desert climate, or a hot semi-arid climate for the wetter locations. [33]

Converting to these cleaner sources may be somewhat costlier in the short term, but they could ultimately pay for themselves by heading off climate damages and reducing health problems associated with dirty air. [34] The extra climate zone, labeled "H" on this map, is a special zone called the highlands. [8] It?s a specific type of climate zone map that can help you figure out what kinds of plants will survive in your back yard. [8] Normally the northern portions of the temperate zone feature Boreal, Continental, and Oceanic climates, while the southern portions of the temperate zone are often Mediterranean and humid subtropical climates. [3] From a floristic standpoint, each of these climate zones have generally temperate vegetation. [3]

Subtropical climates are generally located between 23.5 and 35 north or south on the eastern or leeward sides of landmasses. [3] The Oceanic climates occur in the higher middle latitudes, between 45 and 60 north and south. [3]

While models disagree on how average precipitation will change in many parts of the world, there are some areas where nearly all the models tell the same story about future changes. [5] The figure below shows the same annual average change in precipitation between today and the end of the century, but adds dots to indicate areas where at least nine out of 10 models agree on the direction of change. [5] Here percent changes in heavy precipitation events by the end of the century are shown per degree warming that we experience, and dots represent areas of the map where 90% of the models agree. [5] As first figure, but with areas where 90% of the models agree on the sign of the change highlighted with dots. [5] And, there are many different factors that can change the atmosphere in a certain area like air pressure, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and lots of other things. [4]

Geldmann J, Coad L, Barnes M, Craigie ID, Hockings M, Knights K, et al. Changes in protected area management effectiveness over time: a global analysis. [6] Kharouba H, Kerr J. Just passing through: Global change and the conservation of biodiversity in protected areas. [6]

Protected areas can also promote the adaptive capacity of ecosystems by providing a buffer against the rate and intensity of environmental change, or providing habitat corridors to facilitate species range- or ecosystem regime- shifts. [6]

This study builds on the previous work by providing estimates of the benefits of mitigation and autonomous adaptation (through dispersal only), in terms of protecting biodiversity in one set of priority conservation areas for biodiversity--WWF?s terrestrial Priority Places. [7] Benefits of reducing global temperature rise from 4.5 to 2 C in terms of avoiding loss of refugia across taxa in Priority Places are largest in the Eastern Himalayas (where over 75% of its area acts as a refugia for all five taxa at 2 C yet for none at 4.5 C), Fynbos, Coral Triangle, Chihuahuan Desert, Southern Chile, Sumatra, SE Rivers and West Africa (Fig. 3 a, compare purple and green bars). [7] The expectation is that further mitigation to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 or 1.5 C as outlined in the Paris Agreement would further reduce risk of extirpation and increased area of refugia. [7]

Here there is widespread agreement among the models that both the tropical Pacific and high-latitude areas will have more precipitation in the future. [5] In stark contrast, the Chinese FGOALS model projects a 30% average increase in precipitation by 2100, with almost no areas experiencing less rainfall. [5] The areas with the longest green bars are the ones which benefit the most from constraining warming to 2 C: they have few or no refugia at 4.5 C and three to five at 2 C. ( b ) The average (across taxa) area of a Priority Place that can operate as a refugium. [7] At 2 C warming, nine Priority Places are projected to have refugia extending on average over 70% of their area (Fig. 4 a): Southern Chile, Eastern Himalayas, Fynbos, Borneo, Sumatra, West Africa, New Guinea, Coral Triangle and Chihuahuan Desert. [7]

Under 4.5 C warming and with adaptation, the proportion of Priority-Place-taxa for which refugia persist over at least 50% of the Priority Place area declines to 30% (Fig. S2 a, blue diamonds). [7] Comparison at 2 and 4.5 C global warming expressed in terms of ( a ) Priority Places for which 75% of their area can operate as a refugium for up to five taxa. [7] Figure 4 a, b shows how, for birds and mammals, the extent of refugia can in all areas be increased under a 2 C global warming and under a 4.5 C global warming should habitat be available. [7]

In some areas, adaptation is already critical for conservation even at 2 C, for example, in Amazon-Guianas, Cerrado, Coastal East Africa and Orinoco. [7]

Lawler JJ. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning. [6] Cross MS, Zavaleta ES, Bachelet D, Brooks ML, Enquist CAF, Fleishman E, et al. The Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) framework: a tool for incorporating climate change into natural resource management. [6]

For instance, the newest version of the handbook for management planning of sites protected under the Habitats Directive of the EU in the German federal state of Brandenburg does not refer to climate change at all. [6] The most serious deficiencies we encountered were associated with principles dealing with the future and uncertainty in particular: planning with adequate time dimension (P4), addressing climate change (P1) and proactive risk management (P8 ). [6] Our study might provide some indication which principles could get assigned more weight in correspondence to their primary and immediate importance (e.g. addressing climate change, risk management, adaptive management, time dimension, managing for ecosystem functionality and resilience) and which ones might have less direct importance for climate change-robustness (e.g. individual criteria in terms of participation and acceptance, matrix management). [6] Three principles were very weakly met by the management plans: adequate time dimension (P4), addressing climate change (P1) and proactive risk management (P8). [6] If management plans constitute a key element of adaptation to climate change, their quality, functional role, preparation and implementation need to be improved. [6] The present study does not account for unofficial or non-published internal management documents which might in fact play an important role with regard to climate change adaptation efforts. [6] Scenario BAU (business as usual): Without climate change mitigation, and in the absence of achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, global annual average surface temperatures are projected to reach 4.5 C above pre-industrial levels by the end of the century and act as a "worst case? scenario in this study, although larger amounts of climate change are possible by 2100 (Collins et al. 2013 ). [7] Climate change is not limited just to temperature; how precipitation - both rain and snow - changes will also have an impact on the global population. [5] One recent study in Germany assessed to what degree conservation plans at the county level addressed potential impacts of climate change. [6] Geyer J, Strixner L, Kreft S, Jeltsch F, Ibisch PL. Adapting conservation to climate change: a case study on feasibility and implementation in Brandenburg, Germany. [6] Reyer C, Bachinger J, Bloch R, Hattermann F, Ibisch P, Kreft S, et al. Climate change adaptation and sustainable regional development: a case study for the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. [6]

Felton A, Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB, Montague-Drake R, Lowe AR, Saunders D, et al. Climate change, conservation and management: an assessment of the peer-reviewed scientific journal literature. [6] Unlike many other conventional threats, climate change is an overarching multifaceted element affecting all parts of any conservation system unprecedentedly, including other threats and their underlying drivers, as well as the management itself. [6] Therefore, all components of a management system contribute to conservation effectiveness under climate change and need to be tailored specifically to this effect. [6] MARISCO, an approach derived from the Open Standards, facilitates ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change and embraces risk management. [6] Cross MS, McCarthy PD, Garfin G, Gori D, Enquist CAF. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change. [6]

The figure below shows projected percentage change in precipitation between the current climate (represented by the 1981-2000 average) and the end of the century (2081-2100) in the average of all of the climate models featured in in the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report ( CMIP5 ), using the high-end warming scenario ( RCP8.5 ). [5] A climatic niche-based approach is used to assess whether and where biodiversity in terrestrial Priority Places around the world can persist under four future climate change scenarios, and in particular to explore the implications of countries? Paris Agreement pledges and to compare this with the implications if warming is constrained to 2 C above pre-industrial levels, or if a no-mitigation business-as-usual warming of 4.5 C occurs. [7] In the 4.5 C scenario, at least 25% of taxa in two thirds of Priority Places become vulnerable to local extirpation owing to climate change alone with adaptation but without mitigation (Fig. S3, red squares). [7]

Evaluations of local climate change adaptation plans have been conducted without a specific focus on conservation, for example in the USA, in Australia, Canada and India. [6] A similar finding applies to many climate change adaptation plans beyond nature conservation. [6] Although climate change adaptation in conservation has long been a focus of discussions and studies, this study sets a signal that its practical application to date has been slow and has not been conducted with enough rigor. [6] We presume that the strength of principles with higher performance partially arises from other discourses and discussions in connection with conservation than that of climate change adaptation. [6] Ibisch PL, Hobson P, Kreft S. The European nature conservation network Natura 2000 in meeting uncertain challenges of climate change: applying principles of complex systems and ecosystem theory. [6]

Cool summer climate s have winters with low temperatures and snow. [1] Mediterranean climate s have warm summers and short, mild, rainy winters. [1] North of regions with cool summer climates are regions with subarctic climate s. [1] In tundra climate s, summers are short, but plants and animals are plentiful. [1]

Tropical monsoon climate s are mostly found in southern Asia and West Africa. [1] Tropical wet and dry climate s are sometimes called " savanna " climates after the grassland ecosystem defined by wet and dry periods. [1]

Most arid climate s receive 10 to 30 centimeters (4 to 12 inches) of rain each year, and semiarid climate s receive enough to support extensive grasslands. [1] Many geographers and climatologists have modified the Köppen classification system over the years, including geographer Glen Trewartha, who added a category for high-elevation climate s. [1]

Humid subtropical climate s are usually found on the eastern sides of continents. [1]

President Trump has claimed that scientists stopped referring to global warming and started calling it climate change because "the weather has been so cold" in winter. [34] Overall, there is a progressive reduction of the amount of climate change to which the Priority Places are exposed as global warming is reduced. [7] To examine the potential impacts of the Paris Agreement on the Priority Places, four climate change scenarios were considered: 1. [7] Bateman BL, Murphy HT, Reside AE, Mokany K, VanDerWal J (2013) Appropriateness of full-, partial- and no-dispersal scenarios in climate change impact modelling. [7] Settele J, Scholes R, Betts R et al (2014) In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ et al (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. [7] Baker I, Peterson A, Brown G, McAlpine C. Local government response to the impacts of climate change: an evaluation of local climate adaptation plans. [6] A closer link to local planning settings and processes might give valuable insight into causes for success and failures of climate change adaptation in conservation. [6] We also quantify the contribution that can be made by using smart spatial conservation planning to facilitate some levels of autonomous (i.e. natural) adaptation to climate change by dispersal. [7] The evaluation framework for our analysis was based on three types of sources regarding climate change adaptation strategies: 1) fixed standards for holistic, sustainable, and equitable natural resource and conservation management (such as the Ecosystem Approach), 2) scientific publications on options and recommendations for adapting conservation to climate change and 3) experience from project activities on management planning integrating climate change. [6] The guidelines for Natura 2000 management planning generally do not develop instructions for climate change robustness, which is another factor. [6] Considering criterion 1.1 Climate change in situation analysis, a management plan would get a score of 0 if climate change was not mentioned at all in the situation analysis. [6] Climate change-robustness heavily builds upon a sturdy fundament of effective management combined with add-ons specifically tailored to tackling climate change. [6] Heller NE, Zavaleta ES. Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. [6]

The plan would receive a score of 1 if it mentioned climate change as a factor influencing conservation objects without further explanation, or if it elaborated on climate change for only a small fraction of the situation analysis while neglecting most parts of it. [6] Conservation has long been confronted with the increasing impacts of climate change and the need to adapt to it. [6] Collective experiential knowledge plays an important role in conservation and might be particularly useful for climate change adaptation. [6] Hagerman S, Dowlatabadi H, Satterfield T, McDaniels T. Expert views on biodiversity conservation in an era of climate change. [6] Beaumont LJ, Pitman A, Perkins S, Zimmermann NE, Yoccoa NG, Thuiller W (2011) Impacts of climate change on the world?s most exceptional ecoregions. [7] Climate, climate change, and their impacts on weather events affect people all around the world. [4] In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ et al (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. [7] Fischlin A, Midgley GF, Price JT et al (2007) In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) IPCC climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. [7]

Miombo Woodlands was slightly less exposed in terms of temperature change than the others listed here, but overall, it was most exposed to climate changes because of the concurrently projected large percentage reductions in precipitation referred to above. [7] Welbergen J, Klose SM, Markus N, Eby P (2008) Climate change and the effects of temperature extremes on Australian flying foxes. [7] Poiani KA, Goldman RL, Hobson J, Hoekstra JM, Nelson KS. Redesigning biodiversity conservation projects for climate change: examples from the field. [6] Conservation Action Planning guidelines for developing strategies in the face of climate change. 2009. [6] Baynham M, Stevens M. Are we planning effectively for climate change? An evaluation of official community plans in British Columbia. [6] The majority of plans scored below 25% of the maximum score, lacked concreteness and neglected the issue of climate change adaptation. [6] This issue was also encountered in 57 climate change adaptation plans in developed countries. [6] Mitigation has a critical influence on how many places become vulnerable to climate change even allowing for adaptation by dispersal (green spots). [7]

The former metric indicates the total number of extensive refugia existing in Priority Places across the globe, whilst the latter indicates the average proportion of a Priority Place that still acts as a refugium under future climate change. [7] Priority Places are arranged in order of decreasing climate change impacts. [7] Fig. 3 a, b shows the Priority Places in which the refugia persist for the greatest amounts of climate change, i.e. ones where there are still some refugia even at 4.5 C warming. [7] A trait-based assessment of 16,857 species (Foden et al. 2013 ) estimated that 24-50% birds, 22-44% of amphibians and 15-32% of corals were highly vulnerable to climate change for a warming of approximately 2 C above pre-industrial levels. [7] You can think of global warming as one type of climate change. [34] As global climate changes, weather patterns are changing as well. [4] While the weather can change in just a few minutes or hours, climate changes over longer time frames. [4] While it?s impossible to say whether a particular day?s weather was affected by climate change, it is possible to predict how patterns might change. [4]

Bauerfeind SS, Fisher K (2014) Simulating climate change: temperature extremes but not means diminish performance in a widespread butterfly. [7] An analysis of obstacles to a successful adaptation of conservation management to climate change is essential. [6] Our results underline the deficiencies of the Natura 2000 complex regarding climate change (adaptation) that have been previously identified and discussed elsewhere. [6] Since 2007 the BR has engaged very actively in climate change mitigation and adaptation with several projects, cooperative partnerships and studies (e.g., ) which are mainly presented on the website of the BR. [6] This corresponds with the most prominent climate change adaptation deficiencies identified in other studies and contexts. [6] Surely, the process of climate change adaptation needs to be tailored to the site and to local needs. [6] Identifying and overcoming barriers for climate change adaptation. [6] Moser SC, Ekstrom JA. A framework to diagnose barriers to climate change adaptation. [6]

In addressing objective 4, we consider dispersal as a proxy to simulate a conservation strategy to climate change of joining existing ecosystems with connectivity gradients. [7] This means they will strengthen conservation with regard to climate change irrespectively of the exact manifestation of change, or with regard to other environmental or political changes. [6]

The latter showed the highest heterogeneity between criteria of all principles, with two comparably well-reflected criteria ( decentralization and clarification of responsibilities (9. 1), transdisciplinary planning team (9. 2)), and two criteria concerning climate change capacity building (9. 3 and 9. 4) not addressed at all. [6] The majority of principles and criteria resemble those of best practice conservation management, with a new and/or stronger significance with regard to climate change. [6] The analysis also considers the ability of species to track climate changes by dispersal, and the potential role conservation management in facilitating this. [7] A considerable number of publications with general recommendations on how to integrate climate change into conservation management and planning are now available. [6] A score of 2 could be reached if climate change was comprehensively included, elaborating on the impact on biodiversity as well as other factors, such as land use or infrastructure development. [6] The results are presented as a percentage of Priority-Place-seasons meeting the conditions for each of the four climate change scenarios (ranging from 2 to 4.5 C). [7] RCP8.5 is a scenario of "comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions" brought about by rapid population growth, high energy demand, fossil fuel dominance and an absence of climate change policies. [5] For each of the four climate change scenarios, the objectives are to: 1. [7]

Tang Z, Brody SD, Chang L, Quinn CE, Wei T. Moving from agenda to action: evaluating local climate change action plans. [6] Kumar P, Geneletti D. How are climate change concerns addressed by spatial plans? An evaluation framework, and an application to Indian cities. [6]

The other area was a BR in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania with an open landscape in the northern plains and a management plan prepared by an external contractor in 2003. [6] A similar minor heterogeneity between criteria showed the principle of systemic and strategic coherence (P6) where inter-protected area management (6. 4) was only weakly demonstrated (breadth 20%, depth 0.5) compared to the other three criteria. [6]

Purple colors show areas where precipitation will increase, while orange areas indicate less future rain and snow. [5] On average, warming is expected to result in dry areas becoming drier and wet areas becoming wetter, especially in mid- and high-latitude areas. (This is not always true over land, however, where the effects of warming are a bit more complex.) [5] Comparison at 2 ( a ) or 4.5 C ( b ) expressed in terms of the average (across taxa) area of a Priority Place that can operate as a refugium. [7] Figure 3 a indicates the number of taxa for which refugia exist covering at least 75% of the area of a Priority Place, whilst Fig. 3 b shows the average areal extent of refugia in each Priority Place, averaged across the five taxa. [7] A second metric was produced by calculating the average percentage of the area of a Priority Place that acts as a refugium, averaged across the five taxa and also across the Priority Places. [7] The proportion of Priority Place area acting as refugia for taxa rises with mitigation: under the 2 C scenario, the proportion of Priority-Place-taxa for which refugia persist over at least 50% of the Priority Place rises from 30 to 72% (Fig. S2 a, blue diamonds). [7]

Over time, these areas have been consolidated by WWF into 35 "Priority Places? around the globe, which have been scientifically identified as being home to irreplaceable and threatened biodiversity, and/or present an opportunity to conserve the largest and most intact representation of their ecosystem (Fig. S0 ), and it is the terrestrial component of this subset (33 places) that is analysed here. [7] Located just south of the Sahara is a narrow steppe (a semi-arid region) called the Sahel, while Africa's most southern areas contain both savanna plains, and its central portion contains very dense jungle ( rainforest ) regions. [33] These ecoregions comprise of areas which have some of the following characteristics: global rarity, high species richness, high species endemism and/or unusual ecological or evolutionary phenomena. [7] In at least one model much of the world outside high-latitude areas and the tropical oceans shows sizable drying. [5] There are actually relatively few areas that all the models agree will become wetter or drier. [5]

Red areas show decreases in heavy precipitation, while blue areas indicate increases. [5] The areas with the largest difference between brown and green bars ( a ) or orange and purple bars ( b ) are the ones which benefit the most from adaptation by dispersal. [7] One area was a NLP in Bavaria with a prevalence of forests and mountainous terrain; the plan was accomplished by the park administration in 2010. [6] One further competence was managing and planning with adequate spatial dimensions (P3 ), particularly considering and managing adjacent ecosystems/regions as areas of influence (3. 4). [6] With no mitigation, only 14% Priority-Place-taxa have refugia occupying more than 75% of the Priority Place area (Fig. S2 a, green triangles). [7] These benefits are accompanied by increases in refugial area in all Priority Places, especially in Fynbos, Coral Triangle, Chihuahuan Desert, Borneo, New Guinea and Sumatra (Fig. 3 b, compare purple and green bars). [7]

The refugium metric allows identification of areas at lower risk whilst the extirpation risk metric was most suited to identifying areas at higher risk. [7] Often the areas are very small and do not have appropriate buffer zones. [6] It mainly occurs in elevated areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and South America, on the Andes Mountains and on the Brazilian Highlands at the southern and southeastern portions of the country, and some mountainous areas across Southern Asia. [3] Increases in rainfall are expected in high latitude areas, as well as much of South Asia. [5] In Madagascar, trade winds bring moisture up the eastern slopes of the island, which is deposited as rainfall, and bring drier downsloped winds to areas south and west, leaving the western sections of the island in a rain shadow. [33]

Many more areas acting as refugia remain at 2 C than at 4.5 C (middle and bottom of the chart). [7]

Hockings M, Stolton S, Leverington F, Dudley N, Courrau J. Evaluating effectiveness: a framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas. 2. ed. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; 2006. [6] It may improve management by facilitating individual and institutional learning as well as the exchange between conservation managers and other actors, by lending credibility to all actors of protected area governance, by raising awareness of importance of protected areas and also by contributing to reporting obligations. [6] We analyse the accordance of protected areas and the respective management plans with individual robustness principles. [6] The high performance of the principle of holistic knowledge management (P5) is possibly grounded on the high motivation of administrations in Germany to compile and document knowledge about protected areas, which for many of them-in our experience-is appreciated as the most important planning outcome. [6] Nolte et al. found management planning to be one of the weak elements with regard to protected area management effectiveness. [6] For our analysis, we chose-for the four categories of protected areas-exclusively management plans, or those plans that currently have the function of a management plan, for the four categories of protected areas. [6] A high proportion of management plans considered the regional setting of the protected area beyond the borders of the protected area ( 11. 1 ; 48%) and the associated stakeholder cooperation ( 11. 2 ; 68%) with comparably high intensity (depth 0.66 and 0.67). [6] Protected areas with less accessible management plans or different protection status could be included. [6] Evaluation scores of the 60 protected area management plans as assigned in the plan quality evaluation process. [6] We also thank all staff of protected area and other administrations that provided access to requested management plans. [6] Other obstacles associated with the most deficient principles identified in other studies include a lack of resources and manpower, established management habits that conflict with a systematic learning process, static and incoherent legislation as well as restrictive policies and terms of reference for certain protected areas. [6] A considerable number of evaluations of protected area management effectiveness in general have been conducted applying various methods, most of which are based on the IUCN Management Effectiveness Framework (e.g., ) but also other approaches. [6] Nolte C, Leverington F, Kettner A, Marr M, Nielsen G, Bomhard B, et al. Protected area management effectiveness assessments in Europe--a review of application, methods and results. [6] Carpathian Biosphere Reserve: challenges and solutions for protected area management in Ukrainian Transcarpathia. [6]

Gillingham PK, Bradbury RB, Roy DB, Anderson BJ, Baxter JM, Bourn NAD, et al. The effectiveness of protected areas in the conservation of species with changing geographical ranges. [6] Most Natura 2000 protected areas, established under conservation legislation of the European Union, belong to the sites with especially poor performance, with lower values in smaller areas. [6] Protected areas are arguably the most important instrument of biodiversity conservation. [6] It is due to this particular standing that protected areas, especially large-scale conservation sites, should take up a leading role not only for traditional biodiversity conservation but also as potential cores for the crystallization of integrative conservation in the wider landscape. [6] The different types of (national) protected areas are defined in Germany's Federal Nature Conservation Act. [6]

Specific checklists for climate change-robust management need to be compiled, using, for example, the principles presented in this study or similar guidelines elaborated for conservation in Brandenburg, Germany. [6] Hallegatte S. Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. [6] To allow for the variation in regional climate change patterns, a refugium is identified in a grid cell only if at least 11 of the 21 GCM patterns agree in projecting its future existence. [7] The benefits of climate change mitigation for biodiversity have been previously quantified globally in terms of global climatic range loss, using a similar basis to that described here. [7] Zhu K, Woodall CW, Clark JS (2012) Failure to migrate: lack of tree range expansion in response to global climate change. [7] Some species ranges are beginning to shift to track climate change, with more mobile species (e.g. butterflies) sometimes tracking it better (DeVictor et al. 2012 ), and less mobile ones tending to lag behind, in particular some plant species (Zhu et al. 2012 ). [7] Climate change is already affecting species and their distributions. [7] Several studies have projected extensive range loss across large fractions of species globally or regionally due to climate change. [7] If species cannot adapt to changes in climate by dispersing (red spots), then even more species become vulnerable to climate change and mitigation is even more critical. [7] Foden WB, Butchart SH, Stuart SN, ViJ-C, Akkaya HR, Angulo A et al (2013) Identifying the world's most climate change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals. [7] Araujo M, Cabeza M, Thuiller W, Hannah L, Williams P. Would climate change drive species out of reserves? An assessment of existing reserve-selection methods. [6] Virkkala R, Heikkinen R, Leikola N, Luoto M. Projected large-scale range reductions of northern-boreal land bird species due to climate change. [6] O?Neill B, Oppenheimer M, Warren R et al (2017) Key risks of climate change: the IPCC reasons for concern. [7] Climate change poses risks to biodiversity, globally and regionally (Oppenheimer et al. 2014 ; O?Neill et al. 2017 ). [7] The graph shows the percentage of extirpation risks due to climate change alone averaged across Priority-Place-taxa. [7] Urban M (2015) Accelerating extinction risk from climate change. [7]

And, even larger climate changes happen over hundreds and thousands of years. [4] Quantify the extent to which climate change mitigation (i.e. reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions) can reduce climate change-induced range loss for the biodiversity of Priority Places. [7] To address objectives 2-5, we calculated the exposure of biodiversity within each Priority Place to changes in climate using each of the 21 GCM regional climate change patterns in turn. [7]

The refugee flows that have destabilized politics around the world have been traced in part to climate change. [34] Collins M, Knutti R, Arblaster J et al (2013) Long-term climate change: projections, commitments and irreversibility. [7]

The climate change-robustness is the sum of the 44 individual scores for each management plan reached by scoring all plans against each of the respective four criteria of each principle on a 0-2 scale. [6] It might benefit evaluation and revision of management plans, for example with regard to the principles of climate change-robustness. [6] We then evaluated the performance of individual management plans concerning the climate change-robustness framework. [6] We calculated the general climate change-robustness index for each management plan by summing the actual scores of each of the 44 criteria (max. score 88). [6]

NP per definition-as large landscape-scale protected areas-also have an appropriate fundament theoretically favouring climate change-robust management, but many of them exhibit weaker enforcement, administration and implementation of that definition. [6] This would not only increase climate change-robustness, but also improve management planning in general, which in many cases is currently suffering from substantial deficiencies. [6] Judging from our experience, we would argue that an evaluation of actual management performance and effectiveness might produce even lower climate change-robustness scores. [6] The low values of climate change-robustness might represent the tip of an iceberg of management deficiencies. [6]

We found the principles of climate change-robustness were reflected very differently in the plans. [6] A more detailed description of the principles and their contribution to climate change-robustness of conservation management can be found in S1 Table. [6] Such management planning instruments address many shortcomings of current conservation management and take up on the presented principles of climate change-robustness. [6] Principles and criteria of climate change-robustness (comprehensive list of principles and criteria with full titles, further description, rationale and references can be found in S1 Table ). [6] Main sources for defining principles and criteria of climate change-robustness used in the evaluation protocol (listed in chronological order). [6] Classification of performance of climate change-robustness principles as per rate and degree of accordance. [6] BR, NLP and NP generally acknowledged the principles of climate change-robustness with accordance rates of more than 50% for most principles. [6] Breadth, depth and total quality scores for the 11 principles and 44 criteria of the climate change-robustness index. [6]

It would be fruitful to extend and diversify the study sample for a more thorough assessment of climate change-robustness of conservation management. [6] Less than a third of the plans (16) achieved an index score of more than 25%, of which only two sites scored slightly more than 50% of climate change-robustness. [6]

In many cases the reservation, insecurity and entrenched habits of planners and managers can be stronger impediments to climate change-robust management than those generated by existing legislation. [6] Many of those planning and procedural options can be considered climate change-robust (or no-regret) adaptation options. [6] Lastly, we recommended the presented principles and criteria as essential guideposts that can be used as a checklist for working towards more climate change-robust planning. [6] It is noteworthy that the most vulnerable conservation sites in Germany (i.e. the Natura 2000 sites as also identified by Kreft et al. ) have the least climate change-robust conservation management planning. [6] Climate change-robust conservation management was defined using 11 principles and 44 criteria, which followed an approach similar to sustainability standards. [6] We defined eleven principles of climate change-robust conservation management, and identified 44 guiding criteria (four for each principle) to enable assessment ( Table 3, S1 Table ). [6] The strongest accordance with the principles of climate change-robust conservation management was achieved in terms of holistic knowledge management (P5), public accountability & acceptance (P10) as well as systemic & strategic coherence (P6). [6] Our evaluation framework provides eleven principles and 44 criteria for climate change-robust conservation management. [6] Description and rationale of the principles and criteria of climate change-robust conservation management. [6] One may envision a kind of certificate for climate change-robust conservation management. [6] In order to make conservation management more climate change-robust it would be beneficial to further explore factors that might explain variation in robustness. [6]

The focus could be widened beyond protected areas and include plans and policies of other means of conservation management on varying levels (e.g., county-level plans, national biodiversity strategies). [6] This is also reflected by our results: most of the younger plans in our sample belong to Natura 2000 sites, which attained lower robustness scores relative to large, national protected areas. [6] Description of the four protected area categories sampled in the study: Biosphere reserves, national parks, nature parks and Natura 2000 sites. [6] Addressing implementation would have gone beyond the scope of this study, or would have limited the sample of scrutinised protected areas to a low number. [6]

Protected area managers may use these principles in their planning activities, their daily work, for identifying area-specific shortcomings and strengths and thus enhance robustness of the site they are responsible for. [6] The principles were also applied differently in the four protected area categories ( Fig 6 ). [6] Different protected areas might have different competences regarding those principles. [6]

Corson C, Gruby R, Witter R, Hagerman S, Suarez D, Greenberg S, et al. Everyone's solution? Defining and redefining protected areas at the Convention on Biological Diversity. [6] Often, this may mean linking existing protected areas by protecting or restoring the habitat within the areas between them, thus allowing species to potentially disperse to areas becoming newly climatically suitable. [7] One part of the vulnerability of protected areas is also caused by human interactions within and with the protected area and its human non-human parts. [6] Approximately 15% of German territory is covered by 5,266 protected sites of the European Natura 2000 network as reported under the EU Habitats Directive (4,621 Special Areas of Conservation--SAC) and Birds Directive (738 Special Protection Areas--SPA), but they are partly overlapping with national protected areas. [6]

The higher robustness performance of BR and NLP is not surprising, since their definition and legislation inherently provide much better for climate change-robustness than do NP and Natura 2000 sites. [6]

Khoury A, Seidou O, Lapen DR. Combined impacts of future climate and land use changes on discharge, nitrogen and phosphorus loads for a Canadian river basin. [9] For the two scenarios, the future changes of climate variables were arranged for the 2020 s (2021–2040), 2050 s (2041–2070) and 2080 s (2071–2100) using the baseline (1961–2000). [9] Marchowski D, Jankowiak ?, Wysocki D, ?awicki ?, Girjatowicz J. Ducks change wintering patterns due to changing climate in the important wintering waters of the Odra River Estuary. [10] A number of significant changes in climate occur at the western edge of the plains and near the foothills of the mountains. [11] A change in breeds may help livestock keepers cope with a changing climate. [36] Like the Rhone Valley, however, the temperate climate that has long been a boon to Napa winegrowers is undergoing change that has the potential to disrupt the industry. [37] Forage growth is highly climate-dependent and is threatened by changes in climate variability. [36]

Based on different climate scenarios, climate factors such as precipitation and temperature will be generated and used as inputs to the hydrological model to predict water quality pollution in future. [9] Climate change-driven increases in the variability of precipitation may render some vulnerable rangeland regions poorly suited to livestock intensification--a practice that is increasingly being adopted as a strategy to meet local, regional, and global food security needs. While these endeavors may increase food production significantly, they may also harm grasslands or pose economic and livelihood risks for pastoralists and ranchers. [36] China’s northeast regions are affected by the geographical conditions, the climate is cold and precipitation is unevenly distributed, leading to the loss of nonpoint source pollution is special 3 – 5. [9] Human and climate impacts on wetlands are particularly severe in this Mediterranean region, a trend that will likely continue and further exacerbate pressures on wetland biodiversity well into the future. [10] It mainly contains three parts: (1) choose the appropriate predictors; (2) model calibration and validation; (3) generation of future climate variables. [9]

With elevations ranging from below 7,000 feet in the lower mountain valleys to more than 14,000 feet on the highest peaks, all aspects of the climate are affected: temperature, humidity, precipitation and, of course, wind. [11] Elevation and topography remain dominant controls of local climates, but precipitation gets progressively less and temperature progressively warmer approaching the Utah border. [11] The climate of the plains is comparatively uniform from place to place, with characteristic features of low relative humidity, abundant sunshine, infrequent rain and snow, moderate to high wind movement, and a large daily and seasonal range in temperature. [11] Higher temperatures, drier conditions, increased fuel availability, and lengthening warm seasons--all linked to climate change--are increasing wildfire risk. [38] Climate modeling studies suggest Colorado seasonal snowpack is vulnerable to projected increases in temperatures but less so than the Cascades and Sierras of the western United States. [11] Our changing climate is bringing warmer temperatures and increasingly variable rainfall patterns to many of the world?s pasturelands. [36]

The climate is Mediterranean sub-humid with rainy winters and dry summers. [10] Testing in some Latin American grazing systems has shown that having a "fodder bank" can provide strategic feed resources that can be used in times of nutritional stress, which helps to manage increasing weather and climate risk. [36] Climate scientists predict that this type of weather will only become more frequent as earth continues to warm--a dangerous premonition for Russia's reindeer herds. [37]

Environmental suitability for the guilds of diving birds and vegetation gleaners will decline in future climate scenarios, while many small wading birds will benefit from changing conditions. [10] Data is extracted for the current climate and future scenarios in the period of 1961–2100. [9]

Seoane J, Bustamante J, D'az-Delgado R. Competing roles for landscape, vegetation, topography and climate in predictive models of bird distribution. [10] The net consequences of climate and human impacts for the waterbird community remain unclear, however, as responses to environmental perturbations are expected to be species-specific and even site-specific. [10] Prospective exercises aimed at horizon-scanning human and climate impacts on waterbirds require a thorough comprehension of the environmental drivers structuring their habitats. [10]

Loperfido JV. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: scaling and climate. [9] It's also pertinent that the CRSI results are not based on long-term climate projections, but upon events that have actually occurred over the last 16 years, or which are likely to happen in the next 10. [39] With different materials coming in year by year depending on climate, vegetation and how the land was being used at any one time, the sediments comprise a potential record of humans and their activities going back thousands of years. [40] Visualize the following: The Earth's climate swings between cold glacial and warm interglacial periods; the last glacial interval was about 20,000 years ago; sea level was about 126 meters (413 feet) below modern sea level. [40]

It is Metcalfe County, in Kentucky, that earns the dubious honor of being the least resilient county in the entire U.S., despite its relatively low risk from climate events. [39] There is a gap between the climate modeling versus the kind of modeling insurance companies need (in order) to decide what risk to write. [41] Decreased mobility amplifies the risk imposed by a changing climate. [36]

Colorado?s combination of high elevation, midlatitude, and continental interior geography results in a cool, dry, and invigorating climate. [11] Add that to the fact that the Middle East's increasingly hot climate makes it difficult for the lake to replenish itself, and therein lies the problem: Experts estimate that if it continues to disappear at its present rate, the Dead Sea could be completely dry by 2050. [37]

Even though the state is in a semiarid climate, the most damaging events from an economic standpoint are flash floods and droughts. [11] Two climate factors affect fire in the western United States: increased fuel flammability driven by warmer, drier conditions and increased fuel availability driven by prior moisture. [38] The southwestern United States has already begun a long-predicted shift into a decidedly drier climate. [38]

In order to evaluate the impact of future climatic change on nonpoint source pollution, The SWAT model was established for the three small watersheds in the source area of Liao River including the Dongliao, Zhaosutai and Tiaozi river watersheds. Usually, most studies use calibrated parameters based on the assumption that the change in processes will be small in comparison with the changes for climatic conditions. [9] Changes in firefighting practices over time--such as more frequent use of intentional burning to clear fuels as a fire suppression tactic--may have had impacts on the boundaries of burn areas, but generally, the effects of human development vary regionally, in some cases increasing fire activity and in others decreasing it. [38] In dry grazing areas, such changes in precipitation are estimated to threaten the health and livelihoods of millions of people. [36] So what that means is that the rate that they're entitled to get in certain areas is going to change, because those areas now demonstrably are at higher risk, too. [41]

The precipitation and temperature generated by SDSM under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were used as input to the SWAT model to predict the future climate change impact on runoff and nonpoint source pollution. [9] It establishes the relationship between large-scale weather predictor factors and regional meteorological factors, such as precipitation and temperature, then the model is tested by the observation data of climate stations, and the future climate change scenarios provided by HadGEM3 is used as inputs to predict the trend of precipitation and temperature in the future. [9] Crossman (2013) applied the coupled model of HBV and INCA-P to forecast the impact of climate change on phosphorus migration and transformation in the Black River basin in Canada, the results show that the future precipitation and temperature will increase, so that the total phosphorus load shows an increasing trend, especially in winter 17. [9] After the evaluation of future precipitation and temperature, the impact of future climate change on water quality was evaluated in terms of Flow, TN and TP at the watershed outlet. [9] Crossman J, et al. Impacts of climate change on hydrology and water quality: Future proofing management strategies in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Canada. [9] The results of this study have great potentials to aid watershed management, specifically to effective control of agricultural nonpoint source pollution, and improve the quality of water environment when under climate change scenarios. [9] Figure  6 shows the monthly temperature and precipitation for the two climate change scenarios in the future 2020 s, 2050 s and 2080 s. [9] Summary of the future annual and season temperature and precipitation for the two climate change scenarios. [9] In the future climate change, although the precipitation will be increasing, but the precipitation is mainly increased during the dry period, and the annual increase in precipitation is not significant. while the temperature will be rising, causing the evaporation intensified, which is the main reason for the decrease in streamflow. [9] To obtain reliable climate change series, the SDSM model was calibrated and validated by temperature and precipitation. [9] It shows that SDSM can generate precipitation and temperature monthly time-series under climate change scenarios, and monthly temperature is better generated by SDSM than monthly precipitation, because SDSM has certain limitations to downscale the precipitation regime. [9] Gulacha MM, Deogratias MM. Generation of climate change scenarios for precipitation and temperature at local scales using SDSM in Wami-Ruvu River Basin Tanzania. [9] As climate change appearance has affected hydrological cycle by increasing precipitation, temperature and evaporation process, it will result in various problems of water resource and water quality 10. [9] Precipitation and temperature are the two dominant factors affecting runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the watershed scale when the climate changes. [9] Studies indicate that the trend of China’s future climate change in temperature will increase in all seasons, especially in winter. [9] Junk WJ, An S, Finlayson CM, Gopal B, Kv?t J, Mitchell SA, et al. Current state of knowledge regarding the world?s wetlands and their future under global climate change: a synthesis. [10] Even though the results of this study give reasonable conclusion for the future climate change impact on hydrology and water quality, there may be other factors that need to be considered, such as the impact by the future landuse change and the changes of soil environment. [9] As a widely popular method, hydrological models in combination with downscaled GCMs are usually used to project impacts of water resource under climate change scenarios at hydrological cycle scale. [9] We aimed to predict how habitat suitability for each species would improve or deteriorate under three climate change scenarios within the range of predictions of regional climatic models for the next hundred years. [10] Species associations with environmental features were subsequently used to predict changes in habitat suitability for each species under three climate change scenarios (encompassing changes in environmental predictors that ranged from 10% to 50% change as predicted by regional climatic models). [10] Percentage of species per guild whose conservation status may change; i.e. non-endangered species that will be negatively impacted by predicted environmental changes and endangered species that may benefit from the new Climate Change scenarios (CC). [10] From a horizon-scanning perspective, it is worth noting that the conservation status of some species may change, and hence conservation requirements, according to predicted impacts of climate change on habitat suitability. [10] Saet et al. (2015) used the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and multi-GCM to evaluate future climate changes impacts on snowmelt streamflow and water pollution load in a mountainous high-elevation watershed 18. [9] Seat BK, Hyung JS, Minji P. Assessment of future climate change impacts on snowmelt and stream water quality for a mountainous high-elevation watershed using SWAT. Paddy Water Environmental. 2015; 13 :557-569. doi: 10.1007/s10333-014-0471-x. [9] Park JY, Park MJ, Ahn SR. Assessment of future climate change impacts on water quantity and quality for a mountainous dam watershed using SWAT. Transactions of the ASABE. 2011; 54 (5):1725-1737. doi: 10.13031/2013.39843. [9]

Accordingly, we framed our results within the current global warming trend that is expected to cause changes in wetland conditions (e.g., increasing salinity and temporality of water bodies) by predicting changes in waterbird occurrence, and hence in habitat suitability, within different scenarios of climate change. [10] HadGEM3 RCP4.5 and HadGEM3 RCP8.5 were used to produce future climate change scenarios obtained from Global Climate Change Committee IPCC Data Center. [9] The General Circulation Models (GCMs) is widely used in predictions of climate change as a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 and other trace gases emissions in different future scenarios 37. [9] Ahmed KF, Wang GL, Silander J. Statistical downscaling and bias correction of climate model outputs for climate change impact assessment in the U.S. northeast. [9] Downscaling is necessary when assessing the potential impacts of climate change in future at the regional scale using GCM simulations. [9] Mehdia B, Ludwig R, Lehnera B. Evaluating the impacts of climate change and crop land use change on streamflow, nitrates and phosphorus: a modeling study in Bavaria. [9] These study indicate the trends of nonpoint source pollution during the snowmelt period under climate change conditions, accordingly adaptation measures will be necessary. [9] The watershed is located in China’s northeastern cold region, unique climate conditions lead particularly to nonpoint source pollution, and NPS will change due to global climate change. [9]

Climate change has increased the risk of wildfires through warmer temperatures and drier conditions that lengthen wildfire season, increase the chances of a fire starting, and help a burning fire spread. [38] Higher temperatures, reduced snow pack, increased drought risk, and longer warm seasons are all linked to climate change, and in recent decades, these have increased wildfire risk, contributing to the frequency and severity of wildfires. [38] As climate change drives more catastrophic weather events, property and casualty insurers are thinking about these sorts of risks. [41] "Risk" covers the physical impacts of climate change, and how exposed a community is to such events. [39] At present, many studies have assessment the effects of climate change on the water quantity, but few studies have done on the impact of water quality. [9] Many studies used GCMs coupled with hydrological model to simulate the potential effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality under different conditions. [9] Tahir et al. (2010) simulated the climate change effects on snowmelt runoff under different climate scenarios in a large mountainous watershed in Northern Pakistan by employing the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM), which is based on a simple degree-day method for snowmelt simulation 16. [9] Gulacha (2017) projected the climate change under SRES A2 and B2 scenarios in the Wami-Ruvu River basin using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to reduce the coarse scales of HadCM3 outputs to local scales by involving predictor predict and relationship 19. [9]

Percentage changes of streamflow(m 3 s −1 ), TN(t) and TP(t) in annual periods with the climate change scenarios. [9] Table  4 summarizes the percent changes of future annual Flow, TN and TP loads for the two climate change scenarios. [9] Summary of the future annual and season streamflow for the two climate change scenarios. [9] Using HadGEM3 of GCMs, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change scenarios were applied to the watershed and future progection results were arranged for the 2020 s (2021–2040), 2050 s (2041–2070) and 2080 s (2071–2100) using the baseline (1961–2000). [9] In this study, according to climate change actual situation in our country, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios of HadGEM3 by the Hadley Centre at UK Meteorological Office (HC-UKMO) were used. [9] Fan M, Shibata H. Simulation of watershed hydrology and stream water quality under land use and climate change scenarios in Teshio River watershed, northern Japan. [9]

Regardless of changes in the landscape due to forest management, hotter and dryer conditions due to human-caused climate change make it easier for fires to spread. [38] As climate change affects rainfall patterns, livestock management must also change. [36]

City leaders have partnered with NASA to try and better understand climate change, using data from NASA satellites to figure out ways to better understand and adapt to increasing temperatures. [37] Earlier snowmelt, temperature changes, and drought associated with climate change are important contributors to the increase in large and long fires. [38]

In cold areas, while snowfall during the winter melt in early spring with the temperature rises, causing water environment deterioration increase due to nonpoint source pollution concentrate outflow in spring 11, 12. [9] In the cold area, rainfall and snowfall is part of the driving force of nonpoint source pollution, and the temperature has great influence on the migration and transformation of nonpoint source nitrogen and phosphorus. [9]

The increased temperature will promote the absorption rate of nitrogen and phosphorus in vegetation, which resulted in the decrease of TN and TP loads in the source area of Liao River. [9] The statistical relationship between large-scale weather predictor factors and regional meteorological factors in the source area of Liao River was found by using SDSM. SDSM were established by utilizing the NCEP reanalysis data and the observed precipitation/temperature data of each meteorological station. [9] The results show that the Liao River source area tends to become warmer in the future under two scenarios. [9] Liao River source area is an important grain growing area in China, experiences serious problems with agricultural NPS that impact the regional economy and society 20. [9] The digital elevation model (DEM) was obtained from the international scientific data service platform http://www.dsac.cn/ which using Arcgis10.0 software splicing, projection transformation and cutting functions, generating DEM map of the Liao River source area. [9] In this study, snowmelt parameters initial ranges were suggested by the SWAT-CUP software, and considered to be typical ranges in the source area of Liao River. [9] Bian JM, Hu YX, Li YS. Water quality assessment in source area of Liao River based on BP neural network. [9]

The Dead Sea is shrinking at a rate of around four feet a year; the body of water has already lost one-third of its surface area since development in the region started earlier this century, and sinkholes are appearing in spots where the water has receded. [37] Some of the high mountain valleys, which lie in the rain shadow of mountains, are the driest areas in the state and receive an average of less than ten inches of precipitation per year. [11] By ranking regions, states, and counties across the U.S., they hoped to reveal which areas need to boost their resilience most urgently—and to prompt local and national governments to act accordingly. [39]

Many modified grazing management practices--including rotational grazing, fattening cattle outside of arid areas, the utilization of crop residues, and early offtake--can help confer resilience. [36] While places like Kodiak Island are expected to fare well, residents of areas like Appalachia, the southeast, and western Texas are on course to suffer far worse than the average American. [39] Because of their water-limited status, these areas have been passed up as places to grow crops, serve as urban centers, or be designated as biosphere reserves. [36]

Wang Y, Bian JM. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the Source Area of the Liao River, China. [9] The snowmelt by winter snowfalls contributes considerably to water resources in these cold areas, and supplies a concentrate amount of nonpoint source nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants during spring period 6. [9] Agricultural activity in the area is prevalent, which is adversely impacting on the local environment and degrading the water quality seriously, especially in spring and summer 31. [9] Rainfall and climatic factors largely dominate the hydrological regime in this area, particularly within the Dona wetland complex, with most waterbodies flooding annually due to winter rains and drying up in the summer. [10]

A 2017 study found that the total area burned by large wildfires in the Great Plains rose 400 percent over a three-decade study period (1984-2014). [38] Even with 117 metrics, it is difficult to capture the nuances and challenges of resilience in a country as large and diverse as the U.S. But it's a work in progress; the authors are still honing their methods and the ranking system, and recently released a version of the index adapted to coastal counties in EPA region four to improve the accuracy of these areas. [39] "Important for local food security" regions with high pasture area, but low market influence (market access/personal purchasing power). [36] The proportion of pasture area indicates the relative importance of livestock to the agricultural production system: The higher the percentage, the more important livestock is to a region. [36] The Liao River source area is the main of commodity grain base in China. [9] The most frequent zone for tornado genesis in all of the United States is a narrow, north-to-south-oriented strip of land situated in Weld County, northeast of the Denver metropolitan area. [11] Scientists have observed a significant increasing trend in the number of large fires and the total area burned per year in the United States. [38]

Davidson NC. How much wetland has the world lost? Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. [10] Resident species and those that breed in this wetland network will also be more negatively impacted than those using this area for wintering or stopover. [10] Average wind movement is less, but areas very near the mountains are subject to periodic, severe turbulent winds from the effects of high westerly winds over the mountain barrier. [11] Point-counts were carried out fortnightly at 80 different localities (black dots) within an area of ca. 6,000 km 2 in southwestern Spain that encompasses permanent and temporary water masses within the provinces of Huelva, Cadiz and Seville. [10] Calculating risks means asking questions about the chances of flooding in a given area, and whether houses there are built in the floodplain. [39] The other thing that's occurring too -- areas that were thought to be lower risk like Santa Rosa are now understood to be at a higher risk. [41] The low-elevation areas both north and south of the Palmer Divide and directly east of the Rockies are the driest. [11] Ram'rez F, Navarro J, Af I, Hobson KA, Delgado A, Forero MG. Adapting to a changing world: Unraveling the role of man-made habitats as alternative feeding areas for Slender-bille Gull (Chroicocephalus genei). [10] These areas are the wettest areas in the state of Colorado. [11]

Therefore, a quantitative assessment the impacts of climate change on nonpoint source pollution in snowmelt period is an important way to solve this problem 13, 14. [9] Concurrently, ecological and hydrological impacts resulting from climate change may pose additional, cumulative threats for wetland ecosystems. [10] SDSM is a decision support tool for assessing climate change impacts based on statistical downscaling method. [9] Sun JL, Lei XH, Tian Y. Hydrological impacts of climate change in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. [9] Nohara D, Krroh A, Hosaka M. Impact of climate change on river discharge projected by multimodel ensemble. [9] Arnell NW, Charlton MB, Lowe JA. The effect of climate policy on the impacts of climate change on river flows in the UK. Journal of Hydrology. 2014; 510 :424-435. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.12.046. [9]

Giorgi F, Lionello P. Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region. [10] Huttunena I, Lehtonen H, Huttunena M. Effects of climate change and agricultural adaptation on nutrient loading from Finnish catchments to the Baltic Sea. [9] Asked whether the administration's skepticism about climate change would affect its plans for the index, the spokesperson simply says: "This index addresses acute meteorological events." [39] It is also one of the safest places to live in the United States—at least when it comes to climate change. [39] Despite the lack of quantitative models linking climate change with environmental predictors for waterbirds, we considered changes in environmental variables of a similar magnitude to those predicted for climatic variables. [10] Knudsen E, Lind A, Both C, Jonz N, Pulido F, Saino N, et al. Challenging claims in the study of migratory birds and climate change. [10] To really thrive in a future of climate change, the nation will need more than solar energy and sea walls. [39] MP: If fires are getting bigger because of climate change, past experience only tells you so much about what that experience is going to be in the future. [41]

Anomaly of monthly streamflow, TN and TP compared compared with the baseline under the climate change scenarios. [9] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013) 38 has published new climate change scenarios based on four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with an indicator of the total radiative forcing values in 2100. [9] The result is different from the response in northern USA and Canada 24, 25, but this finding is the same with the response of the winter climate change in northern Japan 26, 27. [9] Climate change lengthens the window of time each year conducive to forest fires. [38] Climate experts have predicted that Rio de Janeiro will be the South American city most hurt by climate change. [37] Collins M, Knutti R, Arblaster J, Dufresne J-L, Fichefet T, Friedlingstein P, et al. Long-term climate change: Projections, commitments and irreversibility. [10] Therefore, climate change will affect nonpoint source pollution through changing the hydrological cycle process on the watershed scale. [9] Observations show that climate change has already had a hand in shaping fire seasons, especially in California and the western United States. [38]

The models use a combination of existing and corrected weather records, temperature change based on elevation, knowledge of local climate anomalies, and satellite data to estimate temperature and precipitation values. [13] IL Correspondent, Wendy DeChambeau says, "Because of Bolivia's proximity to the equator, the country maintains a mild climate year-round, though it's still far enough south to have slight seasonal changes. [14] Changes in climate are due primarily to human-caused emission of heat-trapping gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). [13]

Climate characteristics: Most parts of South China are of tropical subtropical monsoon climate, with high temperature and ample rainfall in summer and mild weather and little rainfall in winter. [12] A humid, tropical climate provides year-round average temperatures in the low to mid 80s F with most rain showers occurring in the summer months of January to March. [14] METHODOLOGY: Each city's winter temperature is calculated using the average temperature for December, January, and February via data from the Applied Climate Information System (ACIS). [20]

The annual average temperature rises in the study area is mainly due to the increase in winter temperature. [9] With an annual accumulated precipitation of 476 mm and an average daily mean temperature of 17.2C, this annual cycle fell well within the average range for the study area (541 mm and 17.3C for the long term 1994-2016 average; Fig 2 ). [10]

Figure  8(b) shows the study area with the digital elevation map for modeling and the locations of weather stations. [9] Averaged and smoothed regional projections of climatic variables in the study area (including all available regional models for the provinces of Seville, Cadiz and Huelva; sourced online from AEMET-Agencia Estatal de Meteorolog'a-: http://www.aemet.es/es/serviciosclimaticos/cambio_climat ; accessed on March 2017). [10] It was considered that the established SWAT model can reflect the real pollutant output in the study area. [9] The study area: ( a ) Location map and ( b ) digital elevation model. [9] The digital elevation model (DEM) used in the study area was obtained from the national DEM of China with a resolution of 90 m 90 m. [9]

The detailed discussion for snowmelt parameters sensitivity of the study area can be found in our published papers (Wang et al. 36 ). [9] The study area is the watershed covered the Liao River basin, the Zhaosutai River basin and the Tiaozi River basin with an area of 11283 km 2. [9]

DOI established 21 Landscape Conservation Cooperatives where climate science is being applied for resource management. [13] It?s impossible to describe an average temperature or overall climate. [14] Huanchaco, a traditional fishing village that is becoming more popular for its surfing and tourism, enjoys a mild climate year-round, with temperatures reaching the high 70s F or low 80s F in the summer months. [14] The climate in China - a market continental monsoonal climate - is typically warm and wet in spring, hot and rainy in summer, cool and dry in autumn, and cold and windy in winter. [12]

Some climate models predict that coastal regions will become wetter and the middle of continents will become drier. [16] Climate: long-term meteorological conditions that prevail in a region, with a decade as the minimum span of averages. [13] Ecuador is blessed with some of the best weather on the planet ?which is why it took the top spot in the Climate category of the 2018 Global Retirement Index. [14] As the second most biodiverse country in world you can find whatever climate you desire in Colombia--warm and tropical weather on the Caribbean coast, eternal spring in the lower Andes mountains, and even cooler in the upper mountains. [14] More information about China's climate can be found in China climate & Weather, with data and detailed information. [12] A trip to China allows a visitor to experience various weather and climates in different parts of China. [12] While weather does play a part in our experience of climate, it is just one small corner of a much bigger picture. [13] For more ideas on policies you can pass as part of a mobilization plan, you can look at our local Draft Climate Mobilization Implementation Plans. [17] With a marked continental monsoonal climate, most parts of China are in temperate zone. [12] As part of this organizing toolkit, we?ve included a resolution for declaring a climate emergency and committing to achieve zero emissions (and beyond) at emergency speed, as well as optional policy language triggering a report into the creation of a climate emergency mobilization department. [17] As you explore this beautiful region, you can really pick the altitude that gives you the climate you prefer. [14] The climate is almost the exact opposite of the coastal regions. [14] The China climate and weather information here can help you to clear about where and when to travel to China in different time and what should be prepared before going to China. [12] Staff members are authorities in communicating climate and weather links, sea level rise, climate. [20] Daily or monthly weather values are calculated for every square in a regular grid pattern and analyzed to define the climate over time. [13] Climate is a trend in weather conditions over decades or centuries. [13]

Your plan may also include the city?s role as a climate advocate, pushing other localities and higher levels of government to launch their own mobilizations. [17] Ask those who attend to meet with their city council members, mayor or mayor's staff about creating a climate emergency declaration, department, and plan. [17]

Organize a community meeting(s) to share the truth about the climate crisis in your home, at a place of worship, or at your organization. [17] Some of this is due to the variance in geography and culture throughout the nation, but much of it is due to the unique climate in each place. [14]

Consider sharing model resolution language, a fact sheet on the need for climate emergency resolutions, Talking Points, and/or petition signatures. [17] The global climate is changing, and is already affecting the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. [13] Currently, the combined effect of all clouds is one of net cooling, meaning that clouds are dampening the rate of climate warming. [16] There are two ways that our warming climate is causing sea level rise. [16] If this didn?t happen, climate warming would be much more dramatic. [16] Prehistoric fossil records show us that Earth?s climate is warming 40 times faster than any other period in the planet?s history. [13]

This town sits at the gateway to the Amazon and is home to a tropical climate. [14] Continuously updating the reference period to the most recent 30 years made sense when climate data were used primarily for short-term forecasting and agricultural applications because the goal was to compare the current year to what most people had experienced recently and were "used to." [13] The country is made up of many different climate zones, which also creates a lot of microclimates within the country. [18] While Costa Rica is a small country, often compared to the size of the state of West Virginia, you will find a surprising number of different climates and microclimates. [14]

Climate change is likely causing parts of the water cycle to speed up as warming global temperatures increase the rate of evaporation worldwide. [16] Warmer temperatures associated with climate change and increased carbon dioxide levels may speed plant growth in regions with ample moisture and nutrients. [16]

Ongoing and future climate change will likely affect all aspects of park management, including natural and cultural resource protection as well as park operations and visitor experience. [13] Today, climate change is no longer a vague threat in our future; it is the changing reality we live with, and requires continuous planning and adaptation. [13] The main purpose of this study was to provide insight and lessons for GEF?s climate change support moving forward, by assessing the relevance, results, effectiveness, and lessons learned through GEF support to the issues of climate change mitigation and adaptation. [19]

Climate change is fundamentally transforming protected lands and will continue to do so for many years to come. [13] It moves from place to place through the water cycle, which is changing as climate changes. [16] Though natural evolution and change are an integral part of our national parks, their physical infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, visitor experience, and intrinsic values are at risk from the effects of climate change. [13] If the proportion of different cloud types changes, it could affect the rate of climate change because different types of clouds have different impacts on the Earth's climate. [16] Climate change will manifest itself not only as changes in average conditions, creating a "new normal," but also as changes in particular climate events (e.g., more intense storms, floods, or drought). [13]

Stretching 741 square miles, the Bradenton Area is part of the vibrant Tampa Bay region, just south of Tampa and north of Sarasota. [42] According to geographical and cultural differences, China is divided into four geographical regions, namely North China, North West China, Qinghai-Tibet Area and South China. [12]

The Southern Zone on the Pacific side stretching down to the Panamanian border is known for higher humidity but also the unique combination of beach and mountain landscape offers higher elevation in that area and thus lower temperatures the higher up you go. [14] Geographically, the southern areas are in tropical or subtropical zone, while the northern areas are in frigid zone. [12]

In the West, the warmer winters can lead to faster snow melting and less snowpack, which can stress water levels in reservoirs for areas that depend on melting snowpack later in the year for both drinking and agriculture. [20] The geography makes the northerly winds blow from the high latitude areas so the northern parts are cold and dry in winter. [12] As some areas become more prone to droughts, they are at risk of wildfires and crop failures in the dry conditions. [16]

Nationwide, the country averages around 100 inches per year, with some specific areas receiving up to 25 feet of rainfall per calendar year in mountainous areas. [18] While in summer, monsoons from southern coastal areas bring warm and moisture. [12]

Flickr / VasenkaPhotography "Climate change is not a future problem: it is happening now," the first line of Ann Arbor's ambitious climate-action plan reads. [43] The Climate Prediction Center Link provides short and longer range climatic outlooks and education about the larger scale global circulations that impact temperatures and weather. [23] "This rise in minimum temperatures, possibly attributed to a warming of Lake Erie?s waters, may further heighten the difference in climate between the Erie Coastal zone as compared to other regions in Western New York," Vermette said. [26]

Two places can have the same weather on any individual day but very different climates. [22] When the official weather station moved from downtown Buffalo to the Buffalo Niagara International Airport in 1943, it limited the amount of climate data from inside city limits over the last 50 years. [26] One way to think about this is that climate is what you expect, and weather is what you get. [22] People have begun to transform the weather in an unintentional way -- through activities that have been altering Earth?s climate. [22]

Next, they'll study the data they've collected in more detail with hopes of using it to develop a high-resolution model projecting the region's climate to 2040 or beyond. [26] "Different regions are responding differently to climate change." [26] It?s different from climate, which is a description of the conditions that tend to occur in some general region during a particular month or season. [22]

Have you considered the Chandler AZ climate as you plan on building a home? Selecting windows isn?t easy. [24] The city's historic Climate Action Plan, created in 1993, is a set of policies and initiatives aimed at slashing the city's carbon emissions. [43]

Which places does that leave? According to climate scientists and urban planners, not a lot. [43] Scientists say a warming climate may make such record-breakers ever more common. [22] It merges with the Niagara Frontier climate during the summer. [26] Another way is that climate is what tells you that you will probably be able to go skiing in Colorado this winter. [22] "The user simply indicates the location where tornadoes are presently frequent and ClimateEx finds all locations where in 50 years the climate will be conducive to tornadoes." [21] It's not surprising that the climate today is different from the climate a half-million years ago. [21]

Take a drive from the shores of Lake Ontario to Ellicottville and you'll travel through four climate zones. [26] The Ontario Coastal zone is the region?s climate chameleon. [26] Defined by its 1,000 feet or higher elevation, the Southern Tier is the most expansive climate zone in Western New York. [26] That means conclusions about climate trends in the urban zone are sketchy. [26]

The Pacific Northwest states generally have cool and wet climate. [24]

We need to lead on adaptation as well, to minimize impacts to biodiversity and people in the Bay Area, especially for frontline communities who will bear the brunt of these changes," said David Ackerly, dean of the UC Berkeley College of Natural Resources and the report?s coordinating lead author. [25] No major low temperature impacts to area growers and local gardeners over the local area. [23]

Generally, this area below the Niagara escarpment is where the least extreme - and warmest - weather is found during the autumn and winter months. [26] Other UC Berkeley authors of the Bay Area assessment are Mark Stacey, Scott Moura, Kara Nelson and Jennifer Stokes-Draut of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Steven Beissinger, Gregory Biging and Whendee Silver of the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management; cooperative extension specialist Max Moritz; and John Radke and Paul Waddell of the College of Environmental Design. [25] Many areas of the Bay Area will be inundated by a 16-inch rise in sea level (blue), which is much less than predicted for the future. [25] Mobile Alabama Area - The average monthly high was 76.6° or 0.9° below normal. [23] Pensacola Florida Area - The average monthly high was 76.4° or 0.7° above normal. [23]

The area burned in "large-fire" years in the Bay Area has steadily increased over the past 80 years. [25] One example is the Bay Area Regional Reliability Project, in which the area?s largest water agencies have joined forces to develop a regional solution to improve water supply reliability for over 6 million area residents and thousands of businesses and industries. [25] Summer is warm in the northern areas while it is hot in southern areas. [24]

"When people think about climate change, they think about temperature: global warming," he said. [21] While California has taken major action to rein in statewide carbon emissions, which drive greenhouse warming and climate change, he said, dedicated funding and clear guidance to help the cities and counties adapt to rising sea levels, hotter temperatures, unpredictable rainfall and drought and year-round wildfires are still lagging. [25]

Announced on the first day of a three-day California Adaptation Forum in Sacramento, the Fourth Climate Change Assessment summarizes the impacts already being experienced around the state, estimates how much worse it will get by the end of the century, highlights adaptation programs now planned or underway at the local and state level and lists actions that the state should take to lessen the human, environmental and financial costs. [25] California today issued its latest assessment of the many challenges the state faces from climate change -- including wildfires like those still raging throughout the state - and highlighted for the first time the regional impacts with nine deep-dive reports spearheaded by University of California scientists. [25]

The North Coast Summary Report, spearheaded by coordinating lead author Theodore Grantham, a UC Berkeley cooperative extension specialist and adjunct professor of environmental science, policy and management, highlights similar challenges but more upbeat opportunities to adapt to climate change. [25] It uses prediction models to display which parts of the globe will experience the most or least climate change in the next 50 years. [21] "People think now, 'Oh, it?s going to be wetter: more precipitation.' But, pick up any climate change book on the Great Lakes and they say, "Definitely, going to be drier.' You know why? Higher temperatures, more evaporation," Werick said. [26] Ann Arbor formally launched the plan in 2012, but according to Shandas, the city has "a long history of planning for climate change" that makes it highly adaptable to a warmer planet. [43] Facebook/Travel Portland Portland was the first U.S. city to come up with a plan to prepare for climate change. [43] When the city released its climate-action plan in 2007, it was one of the first large U.S. cities to recognize the threats of climate change. [43] Denver has since come up with a set of sustainability goals for 2020, released in 2013, and a revised action plan for addressing climate change. [43]

Roman Khomlyak/Shutterstock The Pacific Northwest is the best U.S. region for escaping the brunt of climate change, Shandas said. [43] "Because most of the north coast has relatively intact coastal ecosystems, there are unique opportunities to accommodate climate change impacts like sea level rise, for example by preserving or restoring marshlands as coastal buffers, or setting back levees and allowing the coastline to migrate inland, rather than relying on traditional approaches, such as building seawalls," Grantham said. [25] "There are places that might at least temper the effects of climate change," he said. [43] "If you were looking at climate change at a scale of a million years, you wouldn't worry too much," Stepinski said. [21] Betts, R. A., P. D. Falloon, K. K. Goldewijk, and N. Ramankutty, 2007: Biogeophysical effects of land use on climate: Model simulations of radiative forcing and large-scale temperature change. [28] Feddema, J. J., K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, L. O. Mearns, L. E. Buja, G. A. Meehl, and W. M. Washington, 2005: The importance of land-cover change in simulating future climates. [28] Mitigating the effects of global warming -- better described as irreversible changes to the climate structure -- is about more than saving the planet in the longer term; it?s about saving human lives in the near term. [44] Changes in land cover and land use have long been recognized as important contributors to global climate forcing (e.g., Feddema et al. 2005 7 ). [28] Ward, D. S., N. M. Mahowald, and S. Kloster, 2014: Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change. [28] For instance, there have been moderate changes in the range of the temperate and continental climate zones of the eastern United States since 1950 80 as well as changes in the coverage of some extreme climate zones in the western United States. [28] Physical climate effects from land-cover or land-use change do not lend themselves directly to quantification using the traditional radiative forcing concept. [28] Biogeochemical cycles are sensitive to changes in climate and atmospheric composition. [28] Chan, D., and Q. Wu, 2015: Significant anthropogenic-induced changes of climate classes since 1950. [28]

In 2012, for example, the National Weather Service?s Climate Prediction Center forecasted normal summer temperatures in the Northeast and Midwest U.S. Instead, the regions experienced three separate, record-breaking heat events in June and July that resulted in more than 100 deaths. [44] For travelers planning to traipse around the United States, it can certainly help to become familiar with the country's major climate regions beforehand, as well as the average temperature of each if you want to enjoy your trip to the fullest. [45] The climate in the Southeast could be best described as humid and sub-tropical, with warmish winters and (very, very) hot summers; it's not uncommon for summer average temperatures to be over 100 degrees. [45] The Northeast is characterized by a fairly diverse climate, with bitterly cold winters (that often bring extreme weather in the form of ice storms and snowstorms) and semi-humid summers, especially to the south. [45] Composited across 10 global climate models (GCMs), summer (June-August) water-balance deficit in the future (2030-2059) increases compared to that under historical (1916-2006) conditions. [28] A physics analysis of the future interaction of these three motions indicate that the next glacial period of our current Ice Age is not due for 100,000 yearslong long after the 90 years required for the oceans to fully absorb and bring earth's overall temperature & climate into equilbrium with today's CO2induced heat (not to mention that which, in our ignorance, we keep adding). [29] Elfatih Eltahir, a professor of hydrology and climate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has studied the issue in the Mideast and Asia, said the new study "is an important paper which emphasizes the need to consider both temperature and humidity in defining heat stress." [29] The 2017 Climate Science Special Report adds that "Heavy precipitation events in most parts of the United States have increased in both intensity and frequency since 1901 ( high confidence ). [30]

"The contrast between the environments could not have been more dramatic yet, both places were experiencing huge impacts from the warming climate," said Wofsy. [44] Seto, K. C., and J. M. Shepherd, 2009: Global urban land-use trends and climate impacts. [28] Swann, A. L. S., F. M. Hoffman, C. D. Koven, and J. T. Randerson, 2016: Plant responses to increasing CO2 reduce estimates of climate impacts on drought severity. [28] Sippel, S., J. Zscheischler, and M. Reichstein, 2016: Ecosystem impacts of climate extremes crucially depend on the timing. [28]

Frank, D. et al., 2015: Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: Concepts, processes and potential future impacts. [28] Forward velocity relates to outgoing climates of a region; it considers baseline climate and identifies, for any given location, the nearest locations with similar climate (i.e., its analog) in some future period. [31] Forward velocity can also be thought of from a species perspective: at what rate must an organism in the current landscape migrate to remain within constant climate conditions in the future. [31] Climatic velocity is a measure of the speed at which a local climate and its constituent species must shift to reach a location with the same climate in the future. [31] The El Ni Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate phenomenon characterized by the warming of the eastern waters of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, mainly west of northern Latin America. (Usually the warmest waters are found in the western Pacific Ocean, near Australia and Indonesia.) [30] To fully address the threat of global warming, we must demand action from our elected leaders to support and implement a comprehensive set of climate solutions. [30] We can reduce global warming emissions and ensure communities have the resources they need to withstand the effects of climate change--but not without you. [30] The results are computed using the MPI-ESM-LR global climate model for 2071-2100 using relative concentration pathway (R.C.P.) 8.5 from the I.P.C.C. Fifth Assessment Report. [31] Since its inception, the model has been used to understand the global biogeochemical cycling of mercury; the intercontinental transport of air pollution, which is critical to EPA?s setting of air quality standards; and has added considerably to the knowledge of worldwide emissions of pollutants and climate gases. [44] Knutti, R., and J. Sedlek, 2013: Robustness and uncertainties in the new CMIP5 climate model projections. [28] The data it collects will help improve the accuracy of the environmental models that inform climate policies. [44]

"Lots of people would crumble well before you reach wet-bulb temperatures of 32 C, or anything close," said coauthor Radley Horton, a climate scientist at Lamont-Doherty. [29] Ward, D. S., and N. M. Mahowald, 2015: Local sources of global climate forcing from different categories of land use activities. [28] Lobell, D. B., and C. Tebaldi, 2014: Getting caught with our plants down: The risks of a global crop yield slowdown from climate trends in the next two decades. [28]

The following sections describe advances since the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) 6 in scientific understanding of land cover and associated biogeochemistry and their impacts on the climate system. [28] Physiological as well as biophysical processes that influence land cover and biogeochemistry interact with drought through stomatal closure induced by elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels. 48, 49 This has direct impacts on plant transpiration, atmospheric latent heat fluxes, and soil moisture, thereby influencing local and regional climate. [28]

Climate, on the other hand, is the pattern of weather measured over decades. [30] Grimmond, C. S. B., H. C. Ward, and S. Kotthaus, 2016: Effects of urbanization on local and regional climate. [28] Increased decomposition of soil organic matter in response to climate warming increases nitrogen mineralization. [28] Maloney, E. D. et al., 2014: North American climate in CMIP5 experiments: Part III: Assessment of twenty-first-century projections. [28] Codepink planning: Meeting with Codepink co-founder Jodie Evans and Divest from War campaign coordinator Nancy Mancias to discuss upcoming actions, including at the Climate Summit in San Francisco in September. 1-2:30 p.m., Reem's California, 3301 East 12th St., No. 133, Oakland. [46] Rally for S.F. State professor: Palestinian rights activists rally in support of San Francisco State University Professor Rabab Abdulhadi, who has been sued along with the university for allegedly fostering an anti-Semitic climate on campus. 1-3 p.m., Phillip Burton Federal Building, 450 Golden Gate Ave., San Francisco. [46]

Grassland areas decline while total forested area extent remains constant throughout the century. 9 The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), under a lower scenario (RCP4.5), preserved and expanded forested areas throughout the 21st century. [28] Some areas in the Midwest, Southern Great Plains, and the Southeast had decreases of a week or more between the periods 1986-2015 and 1901-1960. 2 These differences reflect the more general pattern of warming and cooling nationwide (Ch. 6: Temperature Changes). [28] Shifts in cold hardiness zones across the contiguous United States suggest widespread expansion of thermally suitable areas for the cultivation of cold-intolerant perennial crops 88 as well as for biological invasion of non-native plants and plant pests. 89 However, changes in available water, conversion from dry to irrigated farming, and changes in sensible and latent heat exchange associated with these shifts need to be considered. [28] The urban heat island effect will strengthen in the future as the structure, spatial extent, and population density of urban areas change and grow ( high confidence ). [28]

In the United States, this urban heat island effect results in daytime temperatures 0.9-7.2F (0.5-4.0C) higher and nighttime temperatures 1.8- 4.5F (1.0-2.5C) higher in urban areas, with larger temperature differences in humid regions (primarily in the eastern United States) and in cities with larger and denser populations. [28] With South Africa?s Western Cape region currently experiencing a drought, the fynbos for which the area is famous could face localised extinctions of a third of its species, many of which are actually unique to the region. [27]

If global warming continues on pace, the models predict that by 2050 the wildfire season in the western U.S. will be about three weeks longer, twice as smoky, and will burn more area. [44] Now, a new global study projects that in coming decades the effects of high humidity in many areas will dramatically increase. [29]

The jet stream is short for "tropospheric polar jet stream," and is a current of fast-moving air found in the area of the atmosphere where weather occurs and jets fly. [30] When a deep trough occurs over eastern North America, this creates colder than usual weather for those areas as a general rule. [30]

In the mid-high scenario (RCP6.0)--the Asia Pacific Integrated Model (AIM), 11 urban land use increases due to population and economic growth while cropland area expands due to increasing food demand. [28] Mickley and her team have developed a model to predict, at the county level, areas most at risk for smoke waves. [44] The model would allow local governments or the U.S. Forest Service to prioritize these areas in fire mitigation efforts such as clearing out dry underbrush or performing controlled burns. [44]

Recent studies confirm and quantify that surface temperatures are higher in urban areas than in surrounding rural areas for a number of reasons, including the concentrated release of heat from buildings, vehicles, and industry. [28]

There is now strong evidence that urban environments modify local microclimates, with implications for regional and global climate change. 102, 104 Urban systems affect various climate attributes, including temperature, rainfall intensity and frequency, winter precipitation (snowfall), and flooding. [28] The global hydrological cycle is expected to intensify under climate change as a consequence of increased temperatures in the troposphere. [28] Rosenzweig, C., J. Elliott, D. Deryng, A. C. Ruane, C. Mler, A. Arneth, K. J. Boote, C. Folberth, M. Glotter, N. Khabarov, K. Neumann, F. Piontek, T. A. M. Pugh, E. Schmid, E. Stehfest, H. Yang, and J. W. Jones, 2014: Assessing agricultural risks of climate change in the 21st century in a global gridded crop model intercomparison. [28] Challinor, A. J., J. Watson, D. B. Lobell, S. M. Howden, D. R. Smith, and N. Chhetri, 2014: A meta-analysis of crop yield under climate change and adaptation. [28] Hellmann, J. J., J. E. Byers, B. G. Bierwagen, and J. S. Dukes, 2008: Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species. [28]

While climate change does not affect Earth?s tilt, it does have potential implications for many of the other factors that influence winter weather in the U.S., including Arctic sea ice, the polar jet stream, the polar vortex, and El Ni. [30] For years, climate contrarians have pointed to snowfall and cold weather to question the scientific reality of human-induced climate change. [30] Such misinformation obscures the work scientists are doing to figure out just how climate change is affecting weather patterns year-round. [30] Strong scientific evidence links climate change with increasing heat waves, coastal flooding, and other extreme weather events. [30]

Two major reports released since 2014, the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Climate Science Special Report (2017) have stated unequivocally that temperatures are rising. [30] Changes in biogenic VOC emissions can impact aerosol formation and feedbacks with climate (Ch. 2: Physical Drivers of Climate Change, Section 2.6.1; Feedbacks via changes in atmospheric composition). [28] Urge Congress to strengthen the National Flood Insurance Program so that we can better protect people and property from the impacts of climate change, and ensure taxpayer dollars are being spent wisely. [30]

Uncertainties about how climate change will affect land cover change make it difficult to project the magnitude and sign of future climate feedbacks from land cover changes ( high confidence ). [28] Zaehle, S., P. Friedlingstein, and A. D. Friend, 2010: Terrestrial nitrogen feedbacks may accelerate future climate change. [28] The majority of Americans did not believe climate change would harm them personally, according to a Yale University study. [44] Increased nitrogen deposition and natural nitrogen-cycle responses to climate change will influence the global carbon cycle. [28] It?s easy to feel helpless and overwhelmed in the face of global climate change but legislative action can make a difference when it comes to the environment. [44] It?s not just the continental U.S. that is facing health consequences from global climate change. [44]

Yang, L. H., and V. H. W. Rudolf, 2010: Phenology, ontogeny and the effects of climate change on the timing of species interactions. [28] Despite progress such as the Paris Climate Agreement, climate change still spells trouble for species such as African Wild Dogs who call the Miombo Woodlands in Southern Africa home. [27] Zaehle, and J. U. Smith, 2007: Climate change cannot be entirely responsible for soil carbon loss observed in England and Wales, 1978-2003. [28] That connection -- between climate change and human health -- has been, in large part, missing from public conversations and political debate in America today. [44] "While we may have dysfunction in Washington, parts of the U.S. are doing serious things about climate change," said McElroy. [44]

"Geographic variation in opinions on climate change at state and local scales in the USA." [44] Climate change in the northern high latitudes is directly contributing to increased fire occurrence (Ch. 11: Arctic Changes); in the coterminous United States, climate-induced changes in fires, changes in direct human ignitions, and land-management practices all significantly contribute to wildfire trends. [28] EPA, 2016: Climate Change Indicators in the United States, 2016. 4th edition. 96 pp., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [28] Grundstein, A., 2008: Assessing climate change in the contiguous United States using a modified Thornthwaite climate classification scheme. [28]

Potentially affected regions include large swaths of the already muggy southeastern United States, the Amazon, western and central Africa, southern areas of the Mideast and Arabian peninsula, northern India and eastern China. [29] In the coming decades, the area burned in August could increase by 65 percent in the Pacific Northwest; could nearly double in the Eastern Rocky Mountains/Great Plains; and quadruple in the Rocky Mountains Forest region. [44] Portions of the Southwest that have significant monsoon precipitation and some mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest are exempt from this deficit. 71 Projections for 2030-2059 suggest that extremely low flows that have historically occurred (1916-2006) in the Columbia Basin, upper Snake River, southeastern California, and southwestern Oregon are less likely to occur. [28] They could also disrupt the function and structure of a region?s ecosystems and could, for example, alter the range and types of animal species in the area. [28] As wildfires increase in frequency and intensity, more and more communities are at risk of prolonged exposure to harmful levels of smoke, including heavily populated areas such as California?s San Francisco, Alameda, and Contra Costa counties, and King County in Washington. [44]

The online application allows users to query all of the many results obtained by Batllori et al. for all the protected areas included in their study. [31]

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3. (78) climate - National Geographic Society

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5. (49) Changes in Land Cover and Terrestrial Biogeochemistry - Climate Science Special Report

6. (35) Temperate climate - Wikipedia

7. (28) How will climate change affect endangered Mediterranean waterbirds?

8. (25) Explainer: What climate models tell us about future rainfall | Carbon Brief

9. (24) What?s the Difference Between Weather and Climate? | News | National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)

10. (16) Colorado Climate | Articles | Colorado Encyclopedia

11. (16) Global Climate Change - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)

12. (16) From sea to rising sea: Climate change in America | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

13. (14) It?s Cold and My Car is Buried in Snow. Is Global Warming Really Happening? | Union of Concerned Scientists

14. (13) The Worlds Best Climate and Weather in 2018 - Top 6 Choices

15. (12) China Climate & Weather in Different Regions of China

16. (12) UC Berkeley leads new assessment of Bay Area climate impacts | Berkeley News

17. (12) Tracking change in the five climate zones of Western New York The Buffalo News

18. (12) Livestock and Climate Variability - Environment Reports

19. (12) Climate Change Increases Wildfire Risk - See How Your Area is Affected

20. (10) The Water Cycle and Climate Change | UCAR Center for Science Education

21. (10) As Climate Change Intensifies, Here Are the Most--and Least--Resilient Counties in America - Pacific Standard

22. (9) Scientists Say: Climate | Science News for Students

23. (9) Climate displacement in protected areas | AdaptWest

24. (9) Climate of Africa - Wikipedia

25. (9) Best US cities to escape climate change - Business Insider

26. (9) NOAA SciJinks :: What are the different climate types?

27. (7) Organizer Toolkit -- The Climate Mobilization

28. (6) Which topographical factors affect the climate of an area? - Quora

29. (6) New interactive map shows climate change everywhere in world -- ScienceDaily

30. (6) How Does Chandler AZ Climate Affect Your Windows? - Home Window Repair - Chandler AZ

31. (6) Humidity May Prove Breaking Point for Some Areas as Temperatures Rise, Says Study

32. (6) Climate Change Is Complex. We?ve Got Answers to Your Questions. - The New York Times

33. (6) 14 Places Most Affected by Climate Change - CondNast Traveler

34. (5) April 2018 Graphical Climate Summaries Mobile/Pensacola

35. (5) Climate-Related Disasters Make It Harder to Buy Home Insurance in California | KQED Science

36. (4) Heres Where Winters Are Warming the Most | Climate Central

37. (3) Costa Rica Weather has two distinct seasons: High & Green Season - Go Visit Costa Rica

38. (3) Climate Change Is Coming? | Natural Selection

39. (3) What are the Six Major Climate Regions? | Sciencing

40. (3) Climate Regions of the United States | USA Today

41. (2) Climate Change (CC) Focal Area Study 2017 | GEF Independent Evaluation Office

42. (2) Weather and climate - Wikipedia

43. (2) Climate change--lessons from the Vikings

44. (2) Bay Area political events: Anti-Kavanaugh strategy, climate change - SFChronicle.com

45. (1) Solved: The Rate At Which Rocks Weather Depends Upon: A. T. | Chegg.com

46. (1) Location & Climate |

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