What Are the Drawbacks Of Sustainable Farming?

What Are the Drawbacks Of Sustainable Farming?
What are the drawbacks of sustainable farming? Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Agriculture,_Animal_Industry_and_Fisheries_(Uganda)
C O N T E N T S:


  • Some proponents of GM crops have argued that because they increase productivity they facilitate more sustainable farming practices and can lead to “greener” agriculture.(More…)
  • The main debate on how sustainable agriculture might be achieved centers around two different approaches: an ecocentric approach and a technocentric approach. 54 The ecocentric approach emphasizes no- or low-growth levels of human development, and focuses on organic and biodynamic farming techniques with the goal of changing consumption patterns, and resource allocation and usage.(More…)


  • Resistance to Disease and Pest : Farming the organic way enables farmers to get rid of irksome weeds without the use of any mechanical and chemical applications.(More…)
  • There are numerous natural sources of organic waste easily available around you like tree leaves on the field, food waste (collect more as possible from the neighborhood), various farming waste, etc. These all organic waste helps in improving the quality of production without affecting to the ecosystem.(More…)
  • In this paper, we review the available evidence on links between farming system (conventional vs organic) and human health.(More…)
  • By improving the soil structure, leaving soils undisturbed and practicing cover cropping, crop rotation farming boosts the ability of soil to store more carbon, and therefore, helps to offset carbon emissions associated with agricultural production.(More…)



Some proponents of GM crops have argued that because they increase productivity they facilitate more sustainable farming practices and can lead to “greener” agriculture. [1] For mass agriculture, it can be difficult to manage sustainable farming practices. [2] Farmers who have adopted GM crops have benefited from the operational benefits they provide, and current GM crops have facilitated the adoption of more sustainable farming practices, in particular, reduced tillage. [1]

Though, industrialized agriculture has been popular among many communities, environmental awareness has led to more farmers embracing the benefits of sustainable farming, in a bid to combat the adverse effects of industrialized farming on the ecosystems. [3] The benefits of sustainable farming can be found from producing healthy food for humans and animals, to conserving the environment and empowering farmers economically. [3] Sustainable farming leads to a reduction in the use of expensive synthetic fertilizers and other inorganic resources in livestock and crop production thus, farmers are able to save on inputs. [3] Sustainable farming, which simply means producing crops and livestock using practices that have minimal effects on the environment, has a wealth of benefits. [3] The first benefit that comes out of sustainable farming discourages the use of inorganic resources in production. [3] Sustainable farming limits optimum utilization of land and other resources, as it advocates for controlled use of production resources. [3] Unlike industrialized farming, which focuses on mass production, sustainable farming limits utilization of available resources. [3]

Urban farming which is a type of sustainable farming, cuts on transportation costs leading to lower food prices. [3] Other sustainable farming practices include: urban farming, agroforestry, biodynamics, permaculture, aquaponics and hydroponics. [3] Environmental benefits of sustainable farming are numerous. [3] Growers frequently ask if synthetic chemicals are appropriate in a sustainable farming system. [4] Environment-friendly, natural, not using pesticides and other chemicals, sustainable, regenerative, and healthy–these are the words used to describe this method of farming which has recently captured the attention of many countries around the world. [5] Organic farming, she pointed out, has the potential to contribute to sustainable food security by improving nutrition intake and sustaining livelihoods in rural areas, while simultaneously reducing vulnerability to climate change and enhancing biodiversity. [5] Sustainable intensive farming, intensive aquaculture, intensive livestock farming, and management-intensive grazing fall under this farming category. [6]

The main debate on how sustainable agriculture might be achieved centers around two different approaches: an ecocentric approach and a technocentric approach. 54 The ecocentric approach emphasizes no- or low-growth levels of human development, and focuses on organic and biodynamic farming techniques with the goal of changing consumption patterns, and resource allocation and usage. [7] Another way to define sustainable agriculture is to give attention to the “human and environmental aspects,” 46 because of the turn to a more unsustainable way of farming in U.S. agriculture. [7]

In light of concerns about food security, human population growth and dwindling land suitable for agriculture, sustainable intensive farming practises are needed to maintain high crop yields, while maintaining soil health and ecosystem services. [7] Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. [7]

Organic gardeners want to build a healthy, sustainable and environmentally beneficial farming system that becomes self-sustaining with minimal disruption. [8]

Numerous studies have confirmed that crop rotation as a sustainable farming method increases harvest. [9] With 70 percent of our fresh water supply currently used to support agricultural production, innovative farming techniques are paving the way for a more efficient and more sustainable future. [10]

“If we “pull together” as an industry to resolve data usage concerns, we will not only produce more food to feed more people, we can also create more profitable farmers and use more sustainable farming practices.” [11]


Resistance to Disease and Pest : Farming the organic way enables farmers to get rid of irksome weeds without the use of any mechanical and chemical applications. [12] These farming practices completely waive off external costs, incurred due to investment in chemical pesticides and nutrient runoff, and a number of health issues that result from agrochemical residue. [12]

Conservation agriculture and smallholder farming in Africa: The heretics? view. [1] Again, many of these concerns may be more a function of the impacts of simple and broad-scale farming practices facilitated by GM crops rather than GM crops per se. [1] The proponents of GM crops have argued that the application of GM technology would fundamentally improve the efficiency, resiliency, and profitability of farming (Apel, 2010 ). [1]

Some argue that because crops like Roundup Ready soybean greatly simplify weed management they facilitate simple farming systems including monocultures (Dunwell & Ford, 2005 ). [1] No-till farming and the environment: Do no-till systems require more chemicals? Outlooks on Pest Management, 23 (4), 153-157. [1]

Organic farming is a type of agriculture that benefits from the recycling and use of natural products. [12] Organic farming is an agrarian activity that involves the use of green manure and compost for optimum crop rotation. [12]

The initial effort made by Sir Albert Howard, the Father of Organic Farming, has paid off, metamorphosing into a practice that sustains soil health and ecosystems, by relying on biodiversity, ecological processes and the progress of innovative health sciences. [12] The Father of the Modern Green Revolution, Norman Borlaug, argues that while organic farming practices are capable of catering to the demands of a very small consumer fraction, the expanding cropland is dramatically destroying world ecosystems. [12]

A 2008 survey and study conducted by the UN Environmental Program concluded that organic methods of farming result in small yields even in developing areas, compared to conventional farming techniques. [12] Despite the various advantages and disadvantages of organic farming, farms where organic methods for cropping are experimented with, display more profitability than conventional farms. [12] To add to this the increased demand for organic produce makes organic farming a profitable option for farmers. [12] The absence of chemicals in organic farming does not kill microbes which increase nourishment of the soil. [12] Enhances Soil Nourishment : Organic farming effectively addresses soil management. [12]

Lower Growing Cost : The economics of organic farming is characterized by increasing profits via reduced water use, lower expenditure on fertilizer and energy, and increased retention of topsoil. [12] Though regenerative organic farming practices are recognized as effective strategies for reducing CO2 emissions to an extent, the impact is not dramatic. [12]

Both of these are significantly reduced in sustainable agriculture because crops can be rotated year-round, runoff from fertilizer is generally decreased, and, as mentioned previously, the healthier soil is less prone to erosion. [2] Organic agriculture is definitely more sustainable in the long run, improving soil fertility and terrain drought resistance greatly. [12]

Sustainable agriculture fosters growth of natural microbes that act symbiotically with plants to give them more nutrients. [2]

There are numerous natural sources of organic waste easily available around you like tree leaves on the field, food waste (collect more as possible from the neighborhood), various farming waste, etc. These all organic waste helps in improving the quality of production without affecting to the ecosystem. [13] Apart from that, large farming spaces are required to cultivate organic crops using natural manure. [6] To fulfill the human consumption of food, production is raised by using various chemical fertilizers, the use of toxic pesticides on farming, and hybrid are used. [13] With the increase in population, there is need to fulfill the food requirement which is acquired by the grower and the farmers with plenty of uses of chemical fertilizers and pesticide in the agricultural farming for the greater amount of production. [13]

This farming practice cumulatively conditions and enriches the fertility of the soil, increases farm productivity, reduces pollution and destruction of the environment, prevents depletion of natural resources, saves on imported farm inputs, and protects the health of farmers, consumers, and the general public. [5] While monoculture farming has advantages in terms of efficiency and ease of management, the loss of the crop in any one year could put a farm out of business and/or seriously disrupt the stability of a community dependent on that crop. By growing a variety of crops, farmers spread economic risk and are less susceptible to the radical price fluctuations associated with changes in supply and demand. [4]

Lao is one of the many farmers in the Davao region who follow the organic methods of farming. [5] Organic cotton farming needs less irrigation and thus conserves water. [14] The government formalized the adoption of this farming system when Congress passed Republic Act No. 10068 or the Organic Act of 2010. [5] Perfecto said that those who believed the world will go hungry if farming went organic is “ridiculous.” [5]

“Intensive farming or intensive agriculture involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per unit of agricultural land area. [15] Conversion of agricultural land to urban uses is a particular concern in California, as rapid growth and escalating land values threaten farming on prime soils. [4] In this method of farming, use of toxic chemicals, pesticide, and synthetical fertilizers is strictly prohibited. [13] With help of this farming, a grower can minimize their cost in the farming and produce their best as there is no use of toxic chemicals or any pesticides. [13]

Synthetic chemicals also discourage smart farming practices such as cover crops and crop rotation, which in turn, may cause other harmful environmental problems like erosion. [14] The close proximity of newly developed residential areas to farms is increasing the public demand for environmentally safe farming practices. [4] This ensures regulated farming which results in healthy, safe, and affordable farm produce. [15] The system is envisioned in its broadest sense, from the individual farm, to the local ecosystem, and to communities affected by this farming system both locally and globally. [4]

Agriculture and live stock farming (animal husbandry) are jointly beneficial, which is very useful for animals and also to nature. [13] Organic farming (definition) : Organic farming is the method of agriculture that is totally based on the unused or minimal use of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides and which uses crop circle, green manure, compost, waste from the farming, manure of animals, etc. Organic farming maintains and raises the fertility power of soil on which it is followed. [13] Apart from this, organic farming is also helpful in increasing the soil productivity which leads to the optimum production without a use of any type of chemical or fertilizers to crop. [13]

Optimum diversity may be obtained by integrating both crops and livestock in the same farming operation. [4] The decline of ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean region, Pre-Columbian southwest U.S. and Central America is believed to have been strongly influenced by natural resource degradation from non-sustainable farming and forestry practices. [4] A farming technique that leads to environmental pollution and degradation of the natural resources, loses its ability to produce in the long-run. [3]

An emphasis on the system allows a larger and more thorough view of the consequences of farming practices on both human communities and the environment. [4] This method is advisable to those, who want to follow this farming without harming ecosystem as it is supposed that this method damage the ecosystem and human health least that remaining two. [13] This method of farming is followed by the people to achieve the optimum yield. [13] Each & every farming method comes with its benefits and some of its limitation. [13]

Note that this farming use only unwanted and biodegradable waste, which is just passing away by us. [13] Determining the optimal use of farm-generated by-products is an important challenge of diversified farming. [4]

For any farming, farmers firstly look for their advantage and disadvantages before following it. [13] In a general sense, when only a few enterprises are run by the farmer, in which he has acquired special knowledge, it is known as specialized farming. [16]

“It won?t only retain soil productivity but it can make farming viable. [5] Are also responsible for a healthy and quality product in your farming. [13] Rodale Institute Farming Systems Trial is America?s longest running, side-by-side comparison of conventional and organic agriculture. [14] This farming technique is also applied in supplying livestock. [6] Including livestock in the farming system increases the complexity of biological and economic relationships. [4]

With a change in climate, there is need of farming which is based on nature and is not harmful to the environment. [13] A systems approach gives us the tools to explore the interconnections between farming and other aspects of our environment. [4]

There may be situations where the use of synthetic chemicals would be more “sustainable” than a strictly nonchemical approach or an approach using toxic “organic” chemicals. [4] “Although organic agriculture often produces lower yields on land that has recently been farmed conventionally, it can outperform conventional practices–especially in times of drought–when the land has been farmed organically for a longer time,” said Laura Reynolds, co-author of the Worldwatch report, “Organic Agriculture Contributes to Sustainable Food Security.” [5] Existing farmland conversion patterns often discourage farmers from adopting sustainable practices and a long-term perspective on the value of land. [4] To be more sustainable over the long-term, labor must be acknowledged and supported by government policies, recognized as important constituents of land grant universities, and carefully considered when assessing the impacts of new technologies and practices. [4] Sustainable production practices involve a variety of approaches. [4] New policies and institutions must be created to enable producers using sustainable practices to market their goods to a wider public. [4]

It is important to realize that each small decision can make a difference and contribute to advancing the entire system further on the “sustainable agriculture continuum.” [4] Every person involved in the food system–growers, food processors, distributors, retailers, consumers, and waste managers–can play a role in ensuring a sustainable agricultural system. [4] A herd health program is critical to sustainable livestock production. [4] Preventive strategies, adopted early, can reduce inputs and help establish a sustainable production system. [4]

Sustainable approaches are those that are the least toxic and least energy intensive, and yet maintain productivity and profitability. [4] Sustainable farmers, however, maximize reliance on natural, renewable, and on-farm inputs. [4] Many inputs and practices used by conventional farmers are also used in sustainable agriculture. [4] There are many practices commonly used by people working in sustainable agriculture and sustainable food systems. [4] In addition to strategies for preserving natural resources and changing production practices, sustainable agriculture requires a commitment to changing public policies, economic institutions, and social values. [4]

A common philosophy among sustainable agriculture practitioners is that a “healthy” soil is a key component of sustainability; that is, a healthy soil will produce healthy crop plants that have optimum vigor and are less susceptible to pests. [4] In sustainable systems, the soil is viewed as a fragile and living medium that must be protected and nurtured to ensure its long-term productivity and stability. [4] Converting to sustainable practices does not mean simple input substitution. [4] Consumers can play a critical role in creating a sustainable food system. [4] A wide diversity of strategies and approaches are necessary to create a more sustainable food system. [4]

In sustainable agricultural systems, there is reduced reliance on non-renewable energy sources and a substitution of renewable sources or labor to the extent that is economically feasible. [4]

Intensive farming (also intensive agriculture ) is the practice where a lot of labor and capital is employed to maximize agricultural produce or yields. [15] As a consequence, the quality of foods sourced from intensive farming sites often lacks the same nutrition values as compared to those produced using the conventional farming methods or organic farming. [15] Organic foods are more expensive in the market (40 % more than conventional farming) because as per present market demand, growers are not capable of fulfilling it. [13]

Accordingly, the engagement on different areas of the practice by different farmers such as intensive fruit production, intensive vegetable production on any of the numerous options namely onions, cabbage, carrots, tomatoes etc, intensive livestock farming on any of the several options namely poultry, beef, goat, rabbit, pig etc, and intensive aquiculture simply means more variety of food. [15] Since intensive farming mainly focuses on mass food production in a specific food crop or animal production, it leads to more variety of food for human consumption. [15] With the demand for food soaring across the world due to the ever-increasing number of human populations, intensive farming offers the advantage of high crop productivity with the possibility of meeting the food market demands. [15]

Hey, guys! Organic farming is much beneficial in comparison to the Inorganic farming, as there is great demand for organic food in the market. [13] Since the organic farming is used to produce nutritious & high-quality food that can give a healthy life. [13] Organic farming can be profitable, and organic food appeals to consumers as both a healthy and ethical choice. [14] Not only does organic farming build healthy soil, but it helps combat serious soil and land issues, such as erosion. [14] Since organic farming involves the interaction between micro organism and soil, it is helpful in supplying all essential crop nutrient to the plant for good development. [13]

Organic farming is such method, which did not harm the climate in any way since there is no use of any type of chemicals and toxic pesticide. [13] As organic farming does not use any type of chemical and fertilizers, it causes to low investment as those things are too expensive in the market and also harmful to our ecosystems. [13] Organic farming makes no use of harmful chemical during complete farming. [13] Use of organic farming is advisable that to following the inorganic farming method. [13] Think about the alternative sources of biodegradable and organic waste as the complete organic farming is base on the use of it. [13]

Beyond money and ethics, though, organic farming practices result in numerous environmental benefits. [14] It is the practical experience, traditional knowledge of farming, a wisdom of person, and the good practices of livestock farming or animal husbandry that plays an important role in successful organic farming. [13] To stop this and provide a good and quality food, organic farming is carried out. [13] Food from organic farming have great demand in the market and is not fulfilled by present no. of growers. [13] In the present time, the product from organic farming has high demands in the market because of its health benefits. [13] Besides the health principle of health, this is also a good benefit of following organic farming. [13] In the ancient time of Indian culture, farming was done in accordance with the adaptable and natural environment of human health, due to which the cycle of exchange between biological and inorganic substances is altered so that there is no pollution of any type, whether it may be land pollution, water pollution, air pollution etc. There is a long history of organic farming in India. [13] Organic farming ( cultivation, consumption or processing plays an important role in increasing the health of our ecosystem also of the earth organism from micro to macro organism which includes everything, the human being as well. [13]

Organic farming practices do help discourage erosion from occurring. [14] There remains concrete limitations to the successful practice of organic farming in the country. [5]

Organic farming encourages healthy biodiversity, which plays a critical role in how resilient, or not, a farm is to issues like bad weather, disease, and pests. [14] To learn more about biodiversity, check out the book The Organic Farming Manual by Ann Larkin Hansen – chapter 13 is all about preserving and encouraging healthy biodiversity on an organic farm. [14]

One good thing about organic farming is that it keeps the family healthy. [5]

It also supports the livestock farming as they are the biggest and good source of the organic waste. [13] Livestock farming is the best and big source of organic matter like animal’s urine, fodder waste, etc. [13]

Another benefit of organic agriculture is that it uses up to 50% less fossil fuel energy than conventional farming, and common organic practices– including rotating crops, applying mulch to empty fields, and maintaining perennial shrubs and trees on farms–also stabilize soils and improve water retention, thus reducing vulnerability to harsh weather patterns. [5] The farmer makes more profit by maximizing yields on a small piece of land as opposed to the conventional farming methods that needed large tracts of land but produced less yields/food produce. [15] Intensive farming simply aims to produce perfectly looking yields and to possibly extend their shelf life instead of enhancing nutritional value and taste which breeds room for poor quality food products in the long-run. [15] The majority of the food products used in intensive farming systems, especially vegetables, fruits, poultry, and livestock are full of growth hormones. [15] Since intensive farming centers primarily on mass production of nice looking food products, the production strategies overlook the need for quality and nutritious food products. [15] The consumption of food products procured from intensive farming areas is also said to be responsible for the increase the number of congenital abnormality cases. [15] As opposed to traditional farming, the employ of intensive farming to produce vegetables, poultry, beef, milk, eggs, and fruits has made food prices affordable. [15] Public health publications and cancer statistics prove a direct correlation between the consumption of food sourced from intensive farming areas and an increasing number of cancer victims. [15] Considering how industrialized intensive farming is, it does not lots of job per unit of food produced which means less job creation opportunities. [15] With the introduction of intensive farming, farm produce, such as vegetables, fruits, and poultry products have become less expensive. [6] Intensive farming as opposed to traditional farming utilizes less space, labor and resources to produce much greater volumes. [15] The reason for this is that intensive farming requires less space and produces more than the invested inputs. [15]

Intensive farming helps the farmer to easily supervise and monitor the land and protect his livestock from being hurt or hounded by dangerous wild animals. [6] Keeping livestock animal is also helps become successful in organic farming. [13] Organic farming not only helps preserve more natural habitat areas but also encourages birds and other natural predators to live happily on farmland, which assists in natural pest control. [14] Like organic farming, many critical problems arose, which can be prevented with help of practical base knowledge of any of those mention points. [13] Organic farming helps keep our water supplies clean by stopping that polluted runoff. [14] Organic farming also supplies sufficient Nitrogen to the crop through numerous component of it. [13] To get rid of this problem, people have started to use the Organic farming. [13] Following organic farming is beneficial to the farmer than the inorganic farming. [13] Organic farming increases the productivity of soil for a long term as it enhances the biological activity & also manages the level of organic matter or content of the soil. [13] In India, Organic farming is not an unusual method, it is used from the ancient time by the Indian culture. [13] In ancient India, people used to do organic farming as they are using cattle as a business whose proof is in our texts of the older document like Lord Krishna and Balram are addressed as Gopal and Haldar. [13] Intensive farming is the latest technique used to yield high productivity by using measures such as keeping a large number of livestock indoors, and using an excessive amount of chemical fertilizers on a tiny acreage. [6] One of the main rewards of intensive farming is the production of high crop yields. [15] One of the major advantages of intensive farming techniques is that the crop yield is high. [6]

Satisfying the market demands has only been achievable through intensive farming because the yields are produced in large quantities on a small piece of land. [15] Intensive farming is an agricultural system that aims to get maximum yield from the available land. [6] Products, such as eggs, meat, and other agricultural items that are easily available in many supermarkets today are produced using modern intensive farming methods. [6]

Friend! today we are going to learn what is Organic farming, it advantages and disadvantages methods, and also the importance of Organic farming in India. [13] There are three types of organic farming; pure, Integrated green revolution and Integrated method. [13]

Proper care & management in your organic farming are the key factors in deciding the amount of production. [13] Following organic farming can lead to lots of benefits to the grower. [13] It provides healthy and happy life to all those parties, who involves in the organic farming and after that like the growers, labors, processors, distributors, traders and mostly and widely the consumers. [13] During the Regional Organic Agriculture Congress last year, they were recognized as the organic farming family. [5]

Statistics show a direct relation between the consumption of food procured from intensive farming sites and an increase in the number of cancer patients and children born with defects. [6] The vegetables and fruits sourced from areas that practice intensive farming and full of invisible pesticides. [15] Intensive farming as earlier stated involves the utilization of numerous types of agro-chemicals including chemical pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and acaracides. [15] Intensive farming involves the use of various kinds of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides. [6] Fruits and vegetables purchased from farms that promote intensive farming are covered with invisible pesticides. [6] It is labor intensive farming as it requires skilled farm management. [13]

There is a tug-of-war between the animal rights activists and farmers of intensive farming. [6] Intensive farming is highly criticized and thought to be cruel to the animals. [15] Intensive farming requires a lot of labor, capital and resources which makes it more practical to only focus on one production area. [15] For this reason, intensive farming has helped improve agricultural production. [15] Various agricultural institutes and environmental protection agencies have taken the initiative to monitor and control the possible adverse effects of intensive farming. [15] Environmental studies and reports indicate that intensive farming impacts and degrades the environment in countless ways. [15] Reports and studies reveal that intensive farming affects and alters the environment in multiple ways. [6]

If one takes a keen look at the intensive farming systems, he or she will realize there are many hybrid varieties of plants, poultry and livestock. [15] With the introduction of intensive farming, the space, equipment, and other requirements for farming are less and more economical. [6] As compare to inorganic farming, usually production is always less. [13] Organica farming also better the health in compared to the inorganic farming product. [13]

In combination with other strategies, sustainable agriculture practices and policies can help foster community institutions that meet employment, educational, health, cultural and spiritual needs. [4] In sustainable agriculture there is a decreased use of synthetic chemicals and non-renewable resources. [3] Educating land use planners and decision-makers about sustainable agriculture is an important priority. [4]

For farmers, the transition to sustainable agriculture normally requires a series of small, realistic steps. [4] Sustainable agriculture is more than a collection of practices. [4] This page is an effort to identify the ideas, practices and policies that constitute our concept of sustainable agriculture. [4]

Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals — environmental health, economic profitability, and social and economic equity. [4] Not only does sustainable agriculture address many environmental and social concerns, but it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, laborers, consumers, policymakers and many others in the entire food system. [4] Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems directory is a catalog of UC’s programmatic activities in sustainable agriculture and food systems. [4] Sustainable agriculture presents an opportunity to rethink the importance of family farms and rural communities. [4]

While there is more than one cause of algal blooms, a primary human-based cause of algae blooms is runoff from the petroleum-based fertilizers often used in conventional farming. [14]

Much of the growth is due to women farming outside the “male dominated field of conventional agriculture”. 49 In community supported agriculture women represent 40 percent of farm operators, and 21 percent of organic farmers. [7] While the name sounds fancy and futuristic, smart farming (also referred to as precision agriculture) is simply the use of technology to collect data to create, an “intelligent” farm. [17] The use of available city space (e.g., rooftop gardens, community gardens, garden sharing, and other forms of urban agriculture ) for cooperative food production may be able to contribute to sustainability. 51 A recent idea (2014) is to create large, urban, technical facilities for Vertical farming. [7] The survey indicates farmers already have welcomed some components of regenerative agriculture, such as crop rotation (66 percent), no-till or conservation-tillage farming (57 percent) and manure application (44 percent). [18] Boyer points out that the path toward regenerative agriculture is imperfect, as no two farmers and no two farming cycles are alike. [18] Corporate farming may soon be a threat to the water bodies that will quickly dry up from excess irrigation, polluting of fisheries by disposal of chemical wastes, depletion of oxygen in the atmosphere and increasing threat to all those engaged in agriculture. [19] Contract farming is another way forward to deal with the usefulness of agribusinesses when corporate farming is not used to abuse the commercialization of agriculture. [19] Have you ever heard of the concept of corporate farming? Yes, the world of corporates has ventured into agriculture too. [19] Farming may not sound like an issue you need to care about, but the agriculture industry is in dire need of refinement. [17]

This farming also encourages the employment of food cultivation techniques that increase the storage life of crops for exports. [19] The phenomenon is being called peak soil as present large-scale factory farming techniques are jeopardizing humanity’s ability to grow food in the present and in the future. [7]

Did you know? About 2% of the total farmlands in the U.S., under this type of farming, produce as much as 14% of the overall crop production. [19] There has been evidence provided by developing nations from the early 2000s stating that when people in their communities are not factored into the agricultural process that serious harm is done. 46 Although global food security would most likely not drastically fall, these practices would impact, first hand, local, rural farming communities, making them unable to feed themselves and their families. [7] There may be some techniques of farming that are inherently in conflict with the concept of sustainability, but there is widespread misunderstanding on effects of some practices. [7] Because it does not allow us to practice any harmful farming. [20] The institute estimates 108 million acres of farmland around the world currently adhere to regenerative farming practices. [18]

While we are trying to blend millennia of indigenous knowledge with the latest scientific understanding of human and environmental health to create a farming system that is “all good,? it currently feels a little vulnerable.” [18] The environmental cost of transportation could be avoided if people take back their connection to fresh food. 53 This raises questions; however, about the excess environmental costs associated with local farming vs more large scale operations which offer food security around the world. [7]

Most of this traditional knowledge cannot be used for chemical farming. [21] In economies thriving on this type of farming, farmers face problems of reduced profits or increased costs. [19] Increased production may come from creating new farmland, which may ameliorate carbon dioxide emissions if done through reclamation of desert as in Israel and Palestine, or may worsen emissions if done through slash and burn farming, as in Brazil. [7] Asian economies like India and Pakistan have resorted to corporate farming in a bid to lure multinationals into investing in the agricultural sector to reform it through industrialization. [19] Which allow us to reuse the assets like water, fish feed and other disposable elements generated or introduced in a farming environment. [20]

Although a farmer can use a good deal of traditional knowledge in organic farming, since the practice is not as common as chemical farming, it is difficult for good scientific organic farming practices to propagate to the small farmers. [21] Numerous small farmers practice organic farming; however, since they are unaware of the market opportunities, they are not able to reap the benefits of organic farming. [21] The various benefits of organic farming for small farmers all over the world include a high premium, low capital investment, the ability to achieve higher premiums in the market, and the ability to use traditional knowledge. [21] Small farmers can benefit drastically by practicing organic farming as it helps them get a high premium for their produce and reduces the capital investment involved in farming. [21] Therefore, in cases of natural calamity, pest or disease attack, or irregular rainfall, when there is a crop failure, small farmers practicing organic farming have to suffer less as their investments are low. [21] Small farmers can successfully practice organic farming with proper guidance from public and non-governmental organizations. [21]

Simply put, the Rodale Institute, a nonprofit that promotes organic farming, summarizes regenerative agriculture as “a down-to-earth solution to global warming.” [18]

Transitioning into perennial agricultural systems that can produce food staples is one of the challenges well face in the coming years in order to create a sustainable form of agriculture. [22] Practical wisdom requires recognition of past failures in agriculture to better attain a more sustainable agricultural system. [7]

Crops that require high levels of soil nutrients can be cultivated in a more sustainable manner with appropriate fertilizer management practices. [7] For if something is sustainable, it should be that way in all aspects of it, not just the crop yield or soil health. [7] Such methods may also support sustainable weed management in that the development of herbicide-resistant weeds is reduced. 38 Cropping systems that include a variety of crops (polyculture and/or rotation) may also replenish nitrogen (if legumes are included) and may also use resources such as sunlight, water, or nutrients more efficiently (Field Crops Res. 34:239). [7] Sustainable agriculture depends on replenishing the soil while minimizing the use or need of non-renewable resources, such as natural gas (used in converting atmospheric nitrogen into synthetic fertilizer), or mineral ores (e.g., phosphate). [7] Two of the many possible practices of sustainable agriculture are crop rotation and soil amendment, both designed to ensure that crops being cultivated can obtain the necessary nutrients for healthy growth. [7] Sustainable agriculture can be understood as an ecosystem approach to agriculture. 6 Practices that can cause long-term damage to soil include excessive tilling of the soil (leading to erosion ) and irrigation without adequate drainage (leading to salinization ). [7] In conventional agriculture the benefits are easily visible with no weeds, pests, etc. and the “process of externalization” hides the costs to soil and ecosystems around it. 60 A major barrier to sustainable agriculture is the lack of knowledge of its benefits. [7]

“Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability”. [7] Agriculture is also key to achieving Sustainable Development Goals set by countries. [23]

“Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils”. [7] There are also many ways to practice sustainable animal husbandry. [7] There are a lot of opportunities that can increase farmers? profits, better communities, and continue sustainable practices. [7]

From the description of aquaponics, we know that, It aims to the combined and sustainable production of plants and animals. [20] There are several studies incorporating these negative externalities in an economic analysis concerning ecosystem services, biodiversity, land degradation and sustainable land management. [7] For irrigation systems to be sustainable, they require proper management (to avoid salinization ) and must not use more water from their source than is naturally replenishable. [7] Triple bottom line frameworks (including social and environmental aspects alongside the financial) show that a sustainable company can be technologically and economically feasible. [7] In 2007, the United Nations reported on ” Organic Agriculture and Food Security “, 46 stating that using organic and sustainable agriculture could be used as a tool to reach global food security without expanding land usage and reducing environmental impacts. [7] It is the second most important nutrient for plant after nitrogen, 16 and is often a limiting factor. 17 It is important for sustainable agriculture as it can improve soil fertility and crop yields. 18 Phosphorus is involved in all major metabolic processes including photosynthesis, energy transfer, signal transduction, macromolecular biosynthesis, and respiration. [7] In sustainable agriculture, changes in lower rates of soil and nutrient loss, improved soil structure, and higher levels of beneficial microorganisms are not quick. 60 The changes are not immediately evident to the operate when using sustainable agriculture. [7] “Soil management in relation to sustainable agriculture and ecosystem services”. [7]

In practice, there is no single approach to sustainable agriculture, as the precise goals and methods must be adapted to each individual case. [7] A farm that is able to “produce perpetually”, yet has negative effects on environmental quality elsewhere is not sustainable agriculture. [7] Sustainable agriculture has become a topic of interest in the international policy arena, especially with regards to its potential to reduce the risks associated with a changing climate and growing human population. [7] Pursuing sustainable agriculture results in many localized benefits. [7] There are different scientific communities that are looking at the topic of sustainable agriculture through two separate lenses: multifunctional agriculture (MFA) and ecosystem services (ES) 55. [7] “Comparative review of multifunctionality and ecosystem services in sustainable agriculture”. [7]

The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change, as part of its recommendations for policy makers on achieving food security in the face of climate change, urged that sustainable agriculture must be integrated into national and international policy. [7]

When it comes to organic farming, farmers can make use of this traditional knowledge. [21] Organic farming refers to means of farming that does not involve the use of chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. [21]

These resources in the past were thrown away into large waste disposal sites, are now used to produce low cost organic compost for organic farming. [7] In organic farming, soil fertility needs to be replenished with the regular application of organic fertilizers. [21] Organic farming may also turn out to be expensive given the situation when a small farmer has to carry out the transition, modify the soil structure drastically, or get a certification. [21] Since chemical inputs, which are very costly, are not required in organic farming, small farmers are not as dependent on money lenders. [21] In cases of organic farming, small farmers are not dependent on those who provide chemical know-how. [21] Organic farming normally does not involve capital investment as high as that required in chemical farming. [21] It should be noted that while shifting from chemical farming to organic farming, the transition might be costly. [21]

Organic farming involves synergy with various plant and animal life forms. [21] Small farmers are able to understand this synergy easily and therefore find it easy to implement the organic farming techniques. [21] A small farmer can get into certification-based organic farming only when there is a large group of 500-2000 farmers and the government funds the certification process. [21]

In this paper, we review the available evidence on links between farming system (conventional vs organic) and human health. [24] Seven years ago, Conservation International released a comprehensive global study of fish farming called Blue Frontiers that spotlighted problems with poorly run fish farms, but concluded that aquaculture “has clear advantages over other types of animal source food production for human consumption.” [25] Food and Water Watch, a Washington-based non-profit, says fish farms are “generally big, dirty and dangerous, just like factory farming on land.” [25] “Look at salmon farming anywhere on the planet,” says Marianne Cufone, the founder of the Recirculating Farms Coalition, which represents small-scale fish farms that recycle their water. [25]

The Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) and the Global Aquaculture Alliance were formed to reward farmers who practice responsible fish farming. [25] Scientists have found that farming fish is better for the climate than raising land-based animals, though the data is squishy. [25]

Even the United States Department of Agriculture makes no claims that organic farming methods produce safer foods with higher nutritional value compared with conventionally produced foods. [26] Organic farming protects the environment by removing chemicals and other artificial farming methods from the equation; it saves soil and water and reduces pollution. [26] The additional manual labor required to pull weeds and rotate crops versus the cost of using a chemical weed killer reduces production and elevates the costs of organic farming. [26] Organic farming generally relies on prevention and biological means for plant protection, such as crop rotation, intercropping, resistant varieties, biological control employing natural enemies, hygiene practices and other measures. [24] A lower Cd content of organic crops is therefore plausible due to a lower Cd content in the fertilisers used in organic farming, and potentially due to higher soil organic matter in organic farmland. [24]

Strassner C, Cavoski I, Di Cagno R, Kahl J, Kesse-Guyot E, Lairon D, Lampkin N, Loes AK, Matt D, Niggli U, et al. How the organic food system supports sustainable diets and translates these into practice. [24] Further evaluation is needed to assess the extent to which organic food systems can serve as example of a sustainable food systems. [24]

Vision for sustainable food and agriculture is therefore important for the world in which food is nutritious and accessible for everyone and natural resources are managed in a way that maintain ecosystem functions to support current as well as future human needs. The present chapter illustrates effect of climate change and insecurity in agriculture in the view of food security. [27] Burlingame B, Dernini S. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Sustainable diets and biodiversity. [24]

Certain production methods, such as changes in the use of pesticides and antibiotics, can be implemented in conventional production, e.g. supporting a development towards a sustainable use of pesticides. [24] This is of specific value for the transition towards sustainable use of pesticides in the EU, which has a strong emphasis on non-chemical plant protection measures including prevention and biological agents. [24] European Parliament and Council of the European Union: Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. [24]

Now, U.S. aquaculture advocates – backed by mainstream conservation groups – are saying that locating well-run operations out in the ocean could produce sustainable food and protect wild stocks from overfishing. [25] In the discussion, we widen the perspective from production system to food system and sustainable diets and address the interplay of agricultural production system and individual food choices. [24] Moomaw W, Griffin T, Kurczak K, Lomax J. The critical role of global food consumption patterns in achieving sustainable food systems and food for all. [24] UNEP: Avoiding future famines: strengthening the ecological foundation of food security through sustainable food systems. 2012. [24] The long-term goal of developing sustainable food systems is considered a high priority by several intergovernmental organisations. [24]

Dernini S, Berry EM. Mediterranean diet: from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern. [24]

WHO: Health indicators of sustainable agriculture, food and nutrition security in the context of the Rio+20 UN Conference on Sustainable Development. www.who.int/hia/green_economy/indicators_food.pdf. 2012(accessed 2017-09-11). [24]

Osterberg J, Wingstrand A, Nygaard Jensen A, Kerouanton A, Cibin V, Barco L, Denis M, Aabo S, Bengtsson B. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia Coli from pigs in organic and conventional farming in four European countries. [24] Therapeutically the same antibiotics used in conventional farming may be used in organic farming, but under different conditions. [24] Rlig RM, Engel K-H. Influence of the input system (conventional versus organic farming) on metabolite profiles of maize (Zea Mays) kernels. [24] Organic farming and gardening were not moral or environmental choices, but simply the way of life. [8]

Specific conditions for conventional livestock farming in different countries, as well as farmers? attitudes, may differ between countries, e.g. conventional pig production at above EU animal welfare standards and farmers? attitudes in Sweden. [24]

There are several routes by which pesticides not approved for use in organic agriculture may contaminate organic products, including spray drift or volatilisation from neighbouring fields, fraudulent use, contamination during transport and storage in vessels or storages where previously conventional products have been contained, and mislabelling by intention or mistake. [24]

By improving the soil structure, leaving soils undisturbed and practicing cover cropping, crop rotation farming boosts the ability of soil to store more carbon, and therefore, helps to offset carbon emissions associated with agricultural production. [9] Planting rows of crops that follow the lay of the land is an example of the soil conservation technique known as ______ farming. [28] In _____________ farming, a single variety of a single crop is planted over large areas of land. [28] Crop rotation farming benefits from this method by achieving stabilized long-term productivity of farmlands. [9] True or False: Based on precise measurements of yields, the rice crops did not suffer at all from the duck rice farming trial at the Massa rice farm. [28] Farming without pesticides is also better for nearby birds and animals as well as people who live close to farms. [29] Don’t have the cash lying around to get your container farming operation up and running? Good news! This particular kind of indoor farm has captured everyone’s attention. [30] The initial attempt at duck rice farming at the Massa family farm had limited success because ______. [28]

Agriculture introduces one technology to improve farming activities. [31] These Drones can revolutionize agriculture, making the entire farming mapping process as an easy process. [31] It brings an interesting mix of skills and experience to indoor agriculture not found in traditional farming. [30]

Even if there are newer versions, farmers still use their Drones to save farming cost. [31] Another interesting thing about container farming just occurred to me: It’s ageless! While the traditional farmer’s median age is over 60, the container farmers range in age. [30]

This is the complete opposite to intensive monoculture farming, where the land is often tilled every year. [9] Globally, there are an estimated 500 million smallholder farming households – representing 2.5 billion people – relying, to varying degrees, on agricultural production for their livelihoods. [32] True or False: The best ducks for duck rice farming are those that were bred to sit around all day and eat and gain weight quickly for industrial meat production. [28] True or False: When he used industrial rice farming techniques, Takao Furuno considered ducks to be a pest. [28] Some examples of policy and legal/regulatory intervention areas include lending quotas, interest rate caps, bank branch expansion regulations, prudential regulations impacting agricultural lending, warehouse receipt financing frameworks, and alternative dispute mechanisms for contract farming. [32] According to data gathered by Indoor Ag-Con, 80 percent of people coming into container farming have no agricultural background. [30]

There are so many advantages to container farming, that even Kimbal Musk launched his own urban farming incubator program using freight containers. [30]

Organic farming practices reduce pollution, conserve water, reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility, and use less energy. [29] GMOs have therefore likely already done far more to reduce pesticide use than organic farming while not having the drawback of lower yields although I’m not aware of anyone having published an explicit comparison. [33] As with nitrogen, most existing assessments of organic farming productivity, as the Australian agricultural scientist David Connor has written, “confuse yield of individual crops with that of production systems.” [33]

Techniques used in sustainable agriculture practices include: a. crop rotation to minimize crop pests. b. frequent use of herbicides to keep weeds down. c. flooding crops frequently with abundant water to reduce pests and increase runoff of excess nutrients. d. abundant use of fertilizers to allow plants to reach their full capacity. [28] True or False: Consumers who have household incomes such that organic produce does not fit their budget may not be able to support sustainable agriculture. [28]

Our work in agriculture finance helps clients provide market-based safety nets, and fund long-term investments to support sustainable economic growth. [32] In sustainable agriculture, ___________ is to soil erosion as ___________ is to soil fertility. [28] We offer a broad portfolio of products to our customers and provide extensive customer service for modern and sustainable agriculture. [10]

A similar challenge applies for synthetic pesticides, which are noisily avoided in organic farming. [33]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(33 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (49) ? Organic farming; Method, Advantages & Negatives Aspects?

2. (40) What is sustainable agriculture? — UC SAREP

3. (38) Sustainable agriculture – Wikipedia

4. (27) Advantages and Disadvantages of Intensive Farming – Conserve Energy Future

5. (20) Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review | Environmental Health | Full Text

6. (18) Benefits of Organic Farming for Small Farmers | Organic Facts

7. (15) An Overview of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Intensive Farming

8. (14) Advantages And Disadvantages of Organic Farming You Must Know About

9. (12) How Organic Farming Benefits the Environment

10. (12) Benefits of Sustainable Farming: Agriculture Evolution | Urban in Suburban

11. (12) Organic Farming: Benefits and limitations The Philippines Graphic

12. (9) BIO 104 CH. 17 Flashcards | Quizlet

13. (7) Pros and Cons of GMO Crop Farming – Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

14. (7) Are You Aware of the Pros and Cons of Corporate Farming?

15. (6) Can Deepwater Aquaculture Avoid the Pitfalls of Coastal Fish Farms? – Yale E360

16. (5) Regenerative Agriculture: What are the Benefits? | Vitacost Blog

17. (5) The Many Advantages To Freight Container Farming | Garden Culture Magazine

18. (4) 10 Benefits of Crop Rotation in Agriculture | Greentumble

19. (3) What are some pros and cons of sustainable agriculture? | Socratic

20. (3) Aquaponics Description, Advantages and Disadvantages – Farming Method

21. (3) Advantages & Disadvantages of Organic Foods | LIVESTRONG.COM

22. (3) Pros and Cons of Drones in Agriculture – Grind Drone

23. (3) Agriculture Finance & Agriculture Insurance

24. (3) Organic farming can feed the world — until you read the small print – Alliance for Science

25. (2) Challenges and Advantages of Drip Irrigation – Holger Weckwert – Bayer – Crop Science

26. (2) What You Need to Know About Smart Farming

27. (2) Organic Foods: What You Need to Know: The Benefits and Basics of Organic Food and How to Keep It Affordable

28. (2) Advantages and Disadvantages of Organic Fertilizer – LovetoKnow.com | LinkedIn

29. (1) Digital agriculture: enough to feed a rapidly growing world?

30. (1) Advantages and Disadvantages of Specialized Farming | Agriculture and Technology

31. (1) The Importance of Tree Crops in Sustainable Agriculture – The Permaculture Research Institute

32. (1) COP23 – Agriculture Advantage: The case for climate action in agriculture | CCAFS: CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security

33. (1) Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security – ScienceDirect