Biomes Can Be Classified Geographically

Biomes Can Be Classified Geographically
Biomes Can Be Classified Geographically Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_biome
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Kriging interpolation surfaces showed that the functional groups succumbing to the highest local extinction rates compared to historical distributions included apex-predators, species at high trophic levels, and large-bodied species ( Fig 4 ) but this varied widely geographically among functional groups ( Fig 5 ).(More…)
  • Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination of Galagos finch gut microbial communities according to (A) species, during the dry season only (B) island, for the vampire finch only (C) diet, for all medium ground finches, formerly classified as G. difficilis, and (D) season, for only G. fortis and G. fuliginosa.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • To interpolate defaunation estimates at the assemblage level for the entire Atlantic Forest biome, we initially used the Moran Index (M) to assess the spatial autocorrelation of mammal species richness.(More…)

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KEY TOPICS

Kriging interpolation surfaces showed that the functional groups succumbing to the highest local extinction rates compared to historical distributions included apex-predators, species at high trophic levels, and large-bodied species ( Fig 4 ) but this varied widely geographically among functional groups ( Fig 5 ). [1] Based on morpho-ecological traits, all mammal species were classified into 10 trophic guilds or functional groups, which were not necessarily mutually exclusive. [1] Vulpes lagopus is a ‘true fox’ belonging to the genus Vulpes of the fox tribe Vulpini, which consists of 12 extant species. 27 It is classified under the subfamily Caninae of the canid family Canidae. [2]

730 putative SCNGs were identified by markerminer, of which 19 were classified as “strictly single-copy?, and 711 as “mostly single-copy? (Fig. 1, Additional file 5 : Table S2). [3]

Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination of Galagos finch gut microbial communities according to (A) species, during the dry season only (B) island, for the vampire finch only (C) diet, for all medium ground finches, formerly classified as G. difficilis, and (D) season, for only G. fortis and G. fuliginosa. [4] Further tests and sampling should be necessary for a more adequate description of the samples from Venezuela, currently classified as spp. perijana. [5]

This last lineage included the single sample from Venezuela, instead of the western clade that is geographically more proximate ( Prates et al., 2016 ; Prates et al., 2017 ). [5] Biogeographic models run using 8 regions suggest Darwin’s finches arose from a long-distance dispersal event from the Caribbean Islands as opposed to the geographically closer mainland South America. [6] Darwin and Wolf Islands are geographically isolated from the other islands of the Galagos (~ 300 km from Santa Cruz, more than double the distance between all other Galagos Islands), thus limiting genetic exchange with finches within the archipelago. [4]

The Tarsier is known to be quite unique geographically due to its distribution across Wallace’s Line. [7]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

To interpolate defaunation estimates at the assemblage level for the entire Atlantic Forest biome, we initially used the Moran Index (M) to assess the spatial autocorrelation of mammal species richness. [1] Geographic distribution of areas showing larger-than-average defaunation indices (based on kriging interpolation) for medium- to large-bodied mammal species across the Atlantic Forest biome. [1] Bivariate and multiple regression models predicting overall defaunation of medium- to large-bodied mammal assemblages across the Atlantic Forest biome. [1] We use data on medium- and large-bodied (i.e. adult body mass ?1 kg ) mammal assemblages throughout the entire Atlantic Forest biome, spanning parts of Brazil and Argentina, initially contained in Canale et al. (2012), Bogoni et al. (2017), and Lima et al. (2017). [1] Spatial distribution of the 497 mammalian mammal assemblages across the Atlantic Forest biome of South America on which this study is based. [1] Frequency distribution of the overall defaunation index for medium- to large-bodied mammals at 497 study sites across the Atlantic Forest biome of South America. [1]

Although the Atlantic Forest biome of South America shows several clear signs of defaunation, the extent to which this biome has lost its mammal fauna remains poorly understood. [1] Defaunation index (Dbs) and adjusted defaunation index for different mammal trophic levels and functional groups across the entire Atlantic Forest biome (at both the assemblage- and cluster scales) and Dbs broken down by provincial regions at the assemblage-level only. [1] In doing so, this serves as a baseline comparison for each Atlantic Forest locality or provincial region and between other forest biomes both in the Neotropics and the Paleotropics. [1] Should these actions be implemented, it may be possible to prevent the Atlantic Forest biome from becoming an even “emptier forest” that will severely compromise patterns of diversity, ecological processes, ecosystems functioning, and ultimately human welfare. [1] A conservation action plan thus becomes imperative to prevent this biome from becoming an even “emptier forest”, severely compromising patterns of diversity, ecological processes and ecosystem functioning. [1] Since T. hemsleyanum is a typical component of warm-temperate evergreen (WTE) forest habitats in subtropical China, it has emerged as an excellent model species to address the evolutionary history of WTE forest biomes in eastern Asia over Neogene time scales. [3] Tetrastigma hemsleyanum is of great medicinal importance and used as a model system to address the evolutionary history of warm-temperate evergreen (WTE) forest biomes in East Asia over Neogene time scales. [3]

This biome succumbed to the highest conversion rates in the highly agricultural semi-deciduous plateaus of interior regions, where forest cover is now restricted to only 7%. [1] The Arctic fox ( Vulpes lagopus ), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome. 1 7 It is well adapted to living in cold environments, and is best known for its thick, warm fur that is also used as camouflage. [2] We used a Defaunation Index, which was scaled-up to the entire biome using kriging interpolation, to examine the integrity of site-specific mammal faunas. [1] Our main hypotheses outlined here have thus been largely vindicated, yet we provide a note of caution about the possible overestimation of the degree of defaunation based on differences between historical and contemporary site occupancy within the overall biome and among individual functional groups. [1] Gray and colored bars represent the historical biomass and the contemporary biomass, respectively, at each province within the Atlantic Forest biome. [1] Over five centuries of burgeoning European settlements, the history of deforestation and degradation throughout the Atlantic Forest, in many respects, reflects the fate of all tropical forest biomes globally. [1] To make matters worse, protected areas (PAs) across the altitudinal range covered by the Atlantic Forest is massively skewed towards elevations above 1200 masl, yet only less than 5% of this biome is above this threshold. [1] The Atlantic Forest is widely recognized as a megadiversity hotspot, but the degree to which this biome has been emptied of its large vertebrate fauna is poorly documented. [1]

This directional loss in diversity introduces nonrandom impacts on the functional space of communities and reinforces the notion that conservation strategies should consider all scales of any given biome. [1] High-elevation areas of the Serra do Mar and Serra Geral-which span a montane knife-ridge from the states of Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul-were the least defaunated across the entire biome (Figs 4, 5 and 6 ). [1] We know very little about the history of population declines induced by overhunting because baseline information on this biome is extremely scarce, not least because of the dearth of historical records from 17 th -18 th century naturalists. [1]

Pennington & Lavin (2016) Pennington RT, Lavin M. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability. [5] Here we estimate electrocution rates for birds on power lines covering both arid and semiarid biomes of central Argentina. [6]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(7 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (23) Wish you were here: How defaunated is the Atlantic Forest biome of its medium- to large-bodied mammal fauna?

2. (3) Evolutionary insights from comparative transcriptome and transcriptome-wide coalescence analyses in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum | BMC Plant Biology | Full Text

3. (3) Deep divergence of Red-crowned Ant Tanager (Habia rubica: Cardinalidae), a multilocus phylogenetic analysis with emphasis in Mesoamerica

4. (2) Arctic fox – Wikipedia

5. (2) The gut of the finch: uniqueness of the gut microbiome of the Galagos vampire finch | SpringerLink

6. (2) Birding News | #birdingnews via @aba

7. (1) Tarsier (Tarsius) – Animals – A-Z Animals