Consequence Of Decrease In Global Biodiversity

Consequence Of Decrease In Global Biodiversity
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C O N T E N T S:


  • The most serious consequence of a decrease in global biodiversity would be the A) increase in global warming and thinning of the ozone layer.(More…)
  • A number of studies have attempted to predict future states of global biodiversity, but they focus nearly exclusively on species richness and the extinction process (Sala et al., 2000 ; Pereira et al., 2010 ).(More…)


  • The global synthesis by Hooper and his colleagues found that in areas where local species loss this century falls within the lower range of projections (loss of 1 to 20 percent of plant species), negligible impacts on ecosystem plant growth will result, and changes in species richness will rank low relative to the impacts projected for other environmental changes.(More…)
  • All levels of organization of living things: biodiversity includes individual organisms and their genetic material; groups of similar organisms, such as populations and species; and groups of species in communities, ecosystems and landscapes (groups of adjacent ecosystems).(More…)



The most serious consequence of a decrease in global biodiversity would be the A) increase in global warming and thinning of the ozone layer. [1] Often it is the same non-native invasive species that are found in many cities worldwide (for example the rock dove Columba livia could be considered a global species), the result is a high species overlap between areas of formerly distinct biota, the homogenization of biological communities and a decrease in regional and global biodiversity (13, 14). [2]

Natural processes like crop pollination, waste decomposition, and regulation of the global carbon cycle all depend on biodiversity. [3] Studies that show how broadly single extinctions reverberate across ecosystems might buoy further efforts to protect global biodiversity. [4] According to most conservation biologists, the single greatest threat to global biodiversity is A) chemical pollution of water and air. [1] In terms of ecosystem services –functions like pollination, irrigation, soil reclemation and other things that would have to be paid for if nature couldn’t take care of it on its own–the value of global biodiversity has been estimated in the trillions. [5] GEO4: Chapter 5 Biodiversity (2007) Global overview describing biodiversity as a key pillar of ecologically sustainable development, providing a synthesis of the latest information on the state-and-trends of global biodiversity. [6] A paper last year in Trends in Ecology & Evolution scathingly attacked the idea of any global biodiversity boundary. [7] “Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending”. [8] Even though permanent global species loss is a more dramatic phenomenon than regional changes in species composition, even minor changes from a healthy stable state can have dramatic influence on the food web and the food chain insofar as reductions in only one species can adversely affect the entire chain ( coextinction ), leading to an overall reduction in biodiversity, possible alternative stable states of an ecosystem notwithstanding. [8] Human expansion, destruction of natural habitats, pollution, and climate change have all led to biodiversity levels that are considered below the “safe” threshold for global ecosystems. [4] Intensified and enhanced food production through irrigation, use of fertilizer, plant protection (pesticides) or the introduction of crop varieties and cropping patterns affect biodiversity, and thus impact global nutritional status and human health. [6]

Which of the following provides the best evidence of a biodiversity crisis? A) the incursion of a non-native species B) increasing pollution levels C) decrease in regional productivity D) high rate of extinction E) climate change. [1]

A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. [9] These global boundaries include climate change, freshwater use, ocean acidification and, yes, biodiversity loss (among others). [7]

The Global Biodiversity Assessment completed by 1500 scientists under the auspices of UNEP in 1995 updated what we know, or more correctly how little we know, about global biological diversity at the ecosystem, species and genetic levels ( Heywood, 1995 ). [10] Sustained overharvesting can lead to the destruction of the resource, and is one of the five main activities along with pollution, introduced species, habitat fragmentation, and habitat destruction that threaten global biodiversity today. [11] Most biologists recognize about 25 global biodiversity hotspots that have many species as well as many endemic species. [12]

Perhaps even more important than the loss of biodiversity is the transformation of global biogeochemical cycles, the reduction in the total world biomass, and the decrease in the biological productivity of the planet ( Golubev, in litt. ). [10] The 2010 Global Biodiversity Outlook report found that the population of wild vertebrates living in the tropics dropped by 59 percent between 1970 and 2006. [13] We know from recent assessments that global biodiversity loss is not occurring at random. [14] Three recent publications from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, an initiative involving more than 1,500 scientists from all over the world, provide an updated picture of the fundamental messages and key challenges regarding biodiversity at the global scale. [14] Although it is generally accepted that we are in the midst of an accelerating global extinction ( Pimm et al. 1995 ), the connections between biodiversity decline and emerging and reemerging disease in this period have received little attention. [15] Links between biodiversity and human health are often complex, with the interplay of regional and global drivers, such as human migration and climate change, acting over relatively long periods of time. [15] The global warming trend is recognized as a major biodiversity threat, especially when combined with other threats such as habitat loss. [11]

I completed this study last year and was surprised to find that although the species change quite a lot, biodiversity does not decrease towards urban areas at all. [2] On the basis of an analysis of 13 locations near human-case clusters and a control site, they suggested that human activities that decrease biodiversity, and during periods with unusually heavy precipitation, can increase the probability of HPS outbreaks. [15]

A number of studies have attempted to predict future states of global biodiversity, but they focus nearly exclusively on species richness and the extinction process (Sala et al., 2000 ; Pereira et al., 2010 ). [16] The Global Biodiversity Outlook report notes that According to a recent study co-ordinated by the World Bank, 20% Amazon deforestation would be sufficient to trigger significant dieback of forest in some parts of the biome by 2025, when coupled with other pressures such as climate change and forest fires. [17] The UN?s 3rd Global Biodiversity Outlook report also mentioned earlier notes that shallow-water wetlands such as marshes, swamps and shallow lakes have declined significantly in many parts of the world. (p.42). [17] The UN?s 3rd Global Biodiversity Outlook report, mentioned earlier, also notes the extent to which deforestation is occurring as well as measures to address associated concerns. [17] We also added validated occurrence points from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility ( ), and from our own field sampling locations (electronic supplementary material, table S1). [18] What has been the global policy response to the global biodiversity losses and changes outlined in this article? The CBD is an international treaty signed by over 160 countries, with the aim of addressing biodiversity loss. [16] This biodiversity monitoring needs to be undertaken at both the species and genetic level, across different global environments, and across different scales (i.e., changes in, ? ?, ? ?, and ? ? diversity). [16] Namely, Since newly-planted forests often have low biodiversity value and may only include a single tree species, a slowing of net forest loss does not necessarily imply a slowing in the loss of global forest biodiversity. [17] Global extinctions of species, however, are only really the tip of the iceberg of human-mediated impacts on biodiversity. [16] Loss of Biodiversity and Extinctions — Global Issues This web browser is badly out of date. [17] The report also notes that water quality in freshwater ecosystems is an important biodiversity indicator, yet global data is quite lacking. [17] Global meta-analysis reveals no net change in local-scale plant biodiversity over time. [16] Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity. [16] Has land use pushed terrestrial biodiversity beyond the planetary boundary? A global assessment. [16] The 2010 biodiversity target has not been met at the global level. [17] Although biodiversity is hard to measure on a global scale, in recent years there has been scientific consensus that the planet?s biodiversity is in decline. [19] Kaschner, K., D. P. Tittensor, J. Ready, T. Gerrodette, and B. Worm, 2011: Current and future patterns of global marine mammal biodiversity. [20] Climate, Biodiversity, and Forests report, which looks at the link between forests, land-use and global warming. [17] Hooper, D. U., E. C. Adair, B. J. Cardinale, J. E. K. Byrnes, B. A. Hungate, K. L. Matulich, A. Gonzalez, J. E. Duffy, L. Gamfeldt, and M. I. O?Connor, 2012: A global synthesis reveals biodiversity loss as a major driver of ecosystem change. [20]

Species diversity: From global decreases to local increases. [16]


The global synthesis by Hooper and his colleagues found that in areas where local species loss this century falls within the lower range of projections (loss of 1 to 20 percent of plant species), negligible impacts on ecosystem plant growth will result, and changes in species richness will rank low relative to the impacts projected for other environmental changes. [21] Until now, it’s been unclear how biodiversity losses stack up against other human-caused environmental changes that affect ecosystem health and productivity. [21] With biodiversity, it?s harder to make predictions because ecosystems are very complex, and it?s hard to know how a changing habitat or a disappearing species might affect an ecosystem and its functions. [3]

“We obviously need the agriculture areas to support the human population, but as we get more agriculture areas, then we lose biodiversity and then the ability of biodiversity to support that agriculture starts to come into question,” says Newbold. [3] Some studies have already shown that extinction rates are increasing and that biodiversity is being affected in areas like the Amazon rainforest. [3] “Some people have assumed that biodiversity effects are relatively minor compared to other environmental stressors,” said biologist David Hooper of Western Washington University, the lead author of the Nature paper. [21] Today?s study, published in Science, is a very comprehensive quantification of how much biodiversity has been lost all over the world, as more and more land is changed by people — turned into pastures, fields, or cities. [3] Local biodiversity has dropped below safety levels across 58 percent of the world’s land surface. [3] Their model revealed that, globally, biodiversity has fallen on average to 84.6 percent of what it was before people changed the landscape. [3] The 90 percent limit in BII is considered on the precautionary side, so our planet?s biodiversity might not be in such dire condition as the paper suggests. [3]

“If you lose more biodiversity than that, humans are going to start suffering,” says Cardinale. [3] Scientists have also differed in their predictions of the eventual impact that will result from the diminishing biodiversity. [22]

In their study, Hooper and his colleagues used combined data from a large number of published studies to compare how various global environmental stressors affect two processes important in all ecosystems: plant growth and the decomposition of dead plants by bacteria and fungi. [21] “Our new results show that future loss of species has the potential to reduce plant production just as much as global warming and pollution.” [21]

Humanity is now using directly (e.g., by eating, feeding to livestock, using lumber and firewood) more than 3% of global NPP, and about 4% of that on land. [22]

“Unless we really convey. the implications of that biodiversity loss for human well-being, for livelihood, then we can?t really expect to be able to explain to decision makers why they should be paying money to conserve biodiversity,” says Tom Oliver, an associate professor in landscape ecology at Reading University in the UK, who did not take part in the study. [3] At the present time, data on the rates and direction of biodiversity loss remain sparse and often uncertain. [22]

Why then do we say that we are now experiencing an extinction (loss of biodiversity) crisis? A) Humans are ethically responsible for protecting endangered species. [1] A new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that less biodiversity in an area increases the risk of a domino effect of extinctions, where one species’ disappearance can cause other species to follow suit. [4] “Definitions tend to become less precise as the complexity of the subject increases and the associated spatial and temporal scales widen. 4 Biodiversity itself is not a single concept but can be split up into various scales (e.g. ecosystem diversity vs. habitat diversity or even biodiversity vs. habitat d. 4 ) or different subcategories (e.g. phylogenetic diversity, species diversity, genetic diversity, nucleotide diversity ). [8] May 2, 2012 – Loss of biodiversity appears to impact ecosystems as much as climate change, pollution and other major forms of environmental stress, according to a new study. [9] Date: May 2, 2012 Source: National Science Foundation Summary: Loss of biodiversity appears to affect ecosystems as much as climate change, pollution and other major forms of environmental stress, according to results of a new study. [9]

Biodiversity changes affect ecosystem functioning and significant disruptions of ecosystems can result in life sustaining ecosystem goods and services. [6] Terrestrial biodiversity is influenced by climate variability, such as extreme weather events (ie drought, flooding) that directly influence ecosystem health and the productivity and availability of ecosystem goods and services for human use. [6] The Earth?s natural assets are made up of plants, animals, land, water, the atmosphere AND humans! Together we all form part of the planet?s ecosystems, which means if there is a biodiversity crisis, our health and livelihoods are at risk too. [23]

“The assumption that there is a critical biodiversity level below which forest functioning will collapse prompted managers plant resilient tree species to climate change, pests, and disease,” Montoya explained, adding, “this was recommended to avoid reaching a tipping point in forest service provisioning, primarily timber production.” [7] Nutrition and biodiversity are linked at many levels: the ecosystem, with food production as an ecosystem service; the species in the ecosystem and the genetic diversity within species. [6] Biodiversity plays a crucial role in human nutrition through its influence on world food production, as it ensures the sustainable productivity of soils and provides the genetic resources for all crops, livestock, and marine species harvested for food. [6] We should care about loss in biodiversity in the populations of other species because of A) biophilia. [1] What is the single greatest threat to biodiversity? A) overharvesting of commercially important species B) introduced species that compete with native species C) pollution of Earth’s air, water, and soil D) disruption of trophic relationships as more and more prey species become extinct E) habitat alteration, fragmentation, and destruction. [1] Which of the following is the most direct threat to biodiversity? A) increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide B) the depletion of the ozone layer C) overexploitation of selected species D) habitat destruction E) zoned reserves. [1]

C) The current rate of extinction is high and human activities threaten biodiversity at all levels. [1] Human activities are disturbing both the structure and functions of ecosystems and altering native biodiversity. [6] “We argue that even small losses of biodiversity have important consequences for ecosystem function and service provisioning.” [7] Ecosystems with a higher biodiversity in the first place might be less affected a new study. [9] It has successfully challenged ecology’s central tenet that biodiversity is primarily an epiphenomenon of ecosystem function secondarily structured by community processes. [24] The emerging paradigm that biodiversity governs ecosystem function is rapidly evolving. [24] Of course, neither the central tenet of ecology nor the emerging paradigm is correct in an absolute sense, but the dialectic that promoted the emergence of biodiversity and ecosystem function as a paradigm redirected ecology to focus on the feedback between ecosystem function and biodiversity rather than studying them independently. [24]

The loss of biodiversity has two significant impacts on human health and the spread of disease. [5] Loss in biodiversity may limit discovery of potential treatments for many diseases and health problems. [6] July 14, 2017 – Climate change leads to loss of biodiversity worldwide. [9] Ecological effects of biodiversity are usually counteracted by its loss. [8]

This global synthesis found that in areas where local species loss during this century falls within the lower range of projections (losses of 1 to 20 percent of plant species), negligible effects on ecosystem plant growth will result, and changes in species richness will rank low relative to the effects projected for other environmental changes. [9] In the study, Hooper, Cardinale and colleagues combined data from a large number of published studies to compare how various global environmental stressors affect two processes important in ecosystems: plant growth and the decomposition of dead plants by bacteria and fungi. [9]

July 27, 2015 – Climate change, environmental pollution or land use changes – there are numerous influences threatening biodiversity in forests around the globe. [9] Though the current trend is caused, undeniably, by human action–through poaching, habitat destruction, pollution, and anthropogenic climate change, among others–mass reductions in biodiversity can–and have–occur without human interference. [5]

B) Fragmented forests support a lesser biodiversity because the forested-adapted species leave, and only the edge and open-field species can occupy fragmented forests. [1] The primary difference between the small-population approach (S-PA) and the declining-population approach (D-PA) to biodiversity recovery is A) S-PA is interested in bolstering the genetic diversity of a threatened population rather than the environmental factors that caused the population’s decline. [1] “Some people have assumed that biodiversity effects are relatively minor compared to other environmental stressors,” said biologist David Hooper of Western Washington University, the lead author of the paper. [9] Put simply, reduced biodiversity means millions of people face a future where food supplies are more vulnerable to pests and disease, and where fresh water is in irregular or short supply. [23] The air you breathe, the water you drink and the food you eat all rely on biodiversity, but right now it is in crisis – because of us. [7] May 7, 2014 – Biodiversity on Earth is in rapid decline, and flowing waters are particularly affected. [9] According to Rockstr, biodiversity decline does not have a hard planetary boundary like, say, climate change. [7]

Biodiversity underpins life on Earth, and refers to the variety found in biota from genetic make up of plants an animals to cultural diversity. [6] “This is of course just nonsense,” he noted, arguing that the planetary boundary for biosphere integrity is magnitudes more ambitious than the Aichi Targets from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international agreement set on preserving biodiversity – though already several goals have not been met. [7]

Instead he describes biodiversity as a variable that operates “under the hood of the planetary system” because it influences the stability of our climate, ozone layer and oceans – all of which Rockstr contends have very clear planetary boundaries. [7] According to Rockstr, biodiversity is one of the pillars supporting our planet – and if too much biodiversity is lost we risk “triggering a tipping point” in our climate or oceans, which in turn could risk pushing the planet into a new state. [7]

Biodiversity underpins the health of the planet and has a direct impact on all our lives. [23] Healthy local diets, with adequate average levels of nutrients intake, necessitates maintenance of high biodiversity levels. [6] We never observe a critical level of biodiversity over which functions collapse.” [7]

Of the following statements about protected areas that have been established to preserve biodiversity, which one is not correct? A) About 25% of Earth’s land area is now protected. [1] Biodiversity hot spots are not necessarily the best choice for nature preserves because A) hot spots are situated in remote areas not accessible to wildlife viewers. [1]

The greatest cause of the biodiversity crisis, the one which includes all of the others, is A) pollution. [1] “Of more than 600 experiments of biodiversity effects on various functions, none showed a collapse,” Montoya said. [7] Mass reductions in biodiversity does not just lead to a less vibrant, colorful, natural world. [5] Biodiversity provides numerous ecosystem services that are crucial to human well-being at present and in the future. [6] “Instead, the rational for biodiversity as a planetary boundary is that the composition of trees, plants, microbes in soils, phytoplankton in oceans, top predators in ecosystems?together constitute a fundamental core contributor to regulating the state of the planet.” [7] People depend on biodiversity in their daily lives, in ways that are not always apparent or appreciated. [6]

Biodiversity loss can have significant direct human health impacts if ecosystem services are no longer adequate to meet social needs. Indirectly, changes in ecosystem services affect livelihoods, income, local migration and, on occasion, may even cause political conflict. [6] Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat. [8] The consequences of biodiversity loss aren’t just about the extinction of certain charismatic species. [4] There is growing concern about the health consequences of biodiversity loss and change. [6]

“Ecosystem effects of biodiversity loss rival climate change and pollution.” [9] Rockstr says biodiversity loss could risk the “safe operating space” for humans, leaving us in an alien world increasingly hostile to our own survival. [7] Sanders emphasized the biodiversity loss could cause “run-away extinction cascades.” [4] “How does Biodiversity loss affect me and everyone else?”. [8] Biodiversity loss also means that we are losing, before discovery, many of nature’s chemicals and genes, of the kind that have already provided humankind with enormous health benefits. [6] “Overlooked local biodiversity loss (letter and response)”. [8]

“Our results show that future loss of species has the potential to reduce plant production just as much as global warming and pollution.” [9] Even if you don’t care for poster-child species like polar bears, the crisis could also have ramifications for species that everyone cares about, like the crops that are the foundation of our global food supply. [4] E) global climate change resulting from a variety of human activities. [1] Which of the following groups is most threatened by global extinctions? A) mammals B) birds C) fish D) amphibians E) plants. [1] “These extinctions may well rank as one of the top five drivers of global change.” [9] Global extinction has so far been proven to be irreversible. [8] Global Environment Outlook: environment for development GEO-4 assessment is a comprehensive and authoritative UN report on environment, development and human well-being, providing incisive analysis and information for decision making. [6]

E) The amount of biomass in the producer level of an ecosystem decreases if the producer turnover time increases. [1] C) The genetic variation in the population will decrease over time. [1]

All levels of organization of living things: biodiversity includes individual organisms and their genetic material; groups of similar organisms, such as populations and species; and groups of species in communities, ecosystems and landscapes (groups of adjacent ecosystems). [12] Mechanistic pathways that lead from changes in biodiversity to human health can occur at the genetic, microbial, organismal (host or vector species), community, and habitat levels. [15] The effects of human activities on biodiversity have increased so greatly that the rate of species extinctions is rising to hundreds or thousands of times the background level. [10] There’s also some interesting work on helping threatened species (or any species) cope with habitat fragmentation due to human influence: Kylie Soanes is one in Australia whose blog has some interesting stuff again there’s some biodiversity data along the way. [2] The main threats to biodiversity are habitat loss and fragmentation, habitat degradation, introduced species, and over harvesting. [12] The growth of cities may cause biodiversity to decline by fragmenting or destroying large areas of natural habitat on which many species depend. [2] Three explanations have been proposed that may explain the suburban peak in biodiversity, (i) The import of exotic species into urban areas increases species richness at a faster rate than native species are lost. (ii) Urban areas contain a large number of widely different habitats at small scales such as gardens, parks and wasteland. [2] In addition to the twin effects of fragmentation and habitat loss there is another factor working to reduce biodiversity in urban areas. [2] What has been less recognized is that biodiversity also influences human well-being, including the access to water and basic materials for a satisfactory life, and security in the face of environmental change, through its effects on the ecosystem processes that lie at the core of the Earth’s most vital life support systems ( Figure 1 ). [14] By affecting ecosystem processes such as biomass production by plants, nutrient and water cycling, and soil formation and retention, biodiversity indirectly supports the production of food, fiber, potable water, shelter, and medicines. [14] Overharvesting threatens biodiversity by degrading ecosystems and eliminating species of plants, animals, and other organisms. [11] They have many books and magazines on these topics, ranging from descriptions of particular species and ecosystems to general discussions of biodiversity and conservation around the world. [12] Unregulated and inappropriate harvesting could potentially lead to overexploitation, ecosystem degradation, and loss of biodiversity; further, it can negatively impact the rights of the communities and states from which the resources are taken. [11] Loss of biodiversity stems largely from the habitat loss and fragmentation produced by human appropriation of land for development, forestry and agriculture as natural capital is progressively converted to human-made capital. [11] One of the studies in the assessment, published in the journal Science, found that 58 percent of Earth’s land surface–where 71 percent of all humans live–has already lost enough biodiversity “to question the ability of ecosystems to support human societies.” [25] Compelling evidence now shows that the reverse is also true: biodiversity in the broad sense affects the properties of ecosystems and, therefore, the benefits that humans obtain from them. [14] Summary of case studies linking biodiversity change to health effects in humans. [15] I have been studying the effects of urbanization on biodiversity in the city of Leicester in the UK. By collecting arthropods along an urban-rural gradient I have been able to observe changes in species composition, richness and abundance. [2] The most dramatic examples of effects of small changes in biodiversity on ecosystem services have occurred at the landscape level and have involved alterations of food-web diversity through indirect interactions and trophic cascades. [14] “When you look at the effect on the economy, many people immediately think of what I call the market value of food and water, but there’s a huge economic value in the way biodiversity — nature — regulates our climate, regulates pollution, regulates our pollination services and storm surges to protect the coast from sea level rise,” Watson explains. [26] The evidence available indicates that it is functional composition–that is, the identity, abundance, and range of species traits–that appears to cause the effects of biodiversity on many ecosystem services. [14] As well as the direct provision of numerous organisms that are important for human material and cultural life ( Figure 1, path 1), biodiversity has well-established or putative effects on a number of ecosystem services mediated by ecosystem processes ( Figure 1, path 2). [14] Because there are well-established links between functional traits of locally abundant organisms and ecosystem processes, especially for plants, it may become possible to identify changes in ecosystem processes and in ecosystem services that depend on them under different biodiversity scenarios. [14] The links between changes in ecosystems, biodiversity, and infectious diseases are complex. [15] Anthropogenic changes to forest habitats can reduce biodiversity and bring people into closer contact with wildlife, increasing the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. [15] By studying biodiversity at regular points along the transect you are able to observe changes as the habitat becomes increasingly rural, in turn this allows you to determine what effect (if any) the city has on biodiversity. [2] These losses are driven by increasing demands on species and their habitats, and by the failure of current market systems to value biodiversity adequately. [10] The first quantitative estimates of species losses due to growing coral reef destruction predict that almost 200,000 species, or one in five presently contributing to coral reef biodiversity, could die out in the next 40 years if human pressures on reefs continue to increase ( Reaka-Kudla, 1996 ). [10] Rodents’ life history patterns may be another mechanism by which biodiversity decline increases the human risk of infectious disease ( Mills 2006 ). [15] Introduced species are a greater threat to native biodiversity than pollution, harvest, and disease combined. [27] Compared to other threats to biodiversity, invasive introduced species rank second only to habitat destruction, such as forest clearing. [27] Experimental designs for studying links between biodiversity and ecosystem processes and services need to not only meet statistical criteria but also mimic biotic configurations that appear in real ecosystems as a result of common land-use practices (e.g., primary forest versus monospecific plantations versus enrichment planting, or grazing-timber agroforestry systems versus a diverse grazing megafauna versus a single grazer such as cattle). [14] The first is that the number and strength of mechanistic connections between biodiversity and ecosystem processes and services clearly justify the protection of the biotic integrity of existing and restored ecosystems and its inclusion in the design of managed ecosystems. [14]

Hooper DU, Chapin FS, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P, et al. (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: A consensus of current knowledge. [14] Sustainable practices, which preserve environments for long-term maintenance and well-being, can help preserve habitats and ecosystems for greater biodiversity. [11] They are the ones who rely the most on the “safety net” provided by the biodiversity of natural ecosystems in terms of food security and sustained access to medicinal products, fuel, construction materials, and protection from natural hazards such as storms and floods. [14] Besides diminishing the natural world around us, scientists believe that this loss of biodiversity will harm people. [12] All forms of life: biodiversity includes all living things — including bacteria, fungi, plants, insects and other invertebrates, and vertebrates — regardless of how similar they are to other species or how useful they are to people. [12] All the interactions among the forms of life and their levels of organization: biodiversity is more than just the parts of a living system, such as genes, individuals and species — biodiversity also includes the ways the various parts interact with each other, including competition, predation and symbiosis. [12] In the biodiversity box, the hierarchical components of biodiversity (genotypes, species, functional groups, and landscape units) each have the characteristics listed in the sub-box and explained in Figure 2 (number, relative abundance, composition, spatial distribution, and interactions involved in “vertical” diversity). [14] If you believe that biodiversity has inherent value, then each species is valuable and should be protected from extinction. [12] According to a 2015 study published in Science Advances, the best available evidence reveals “an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way.” [13] “There is no question the continued loss of biodiversity undermines human well-being. [25] Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: Biodiversity synthesis. [14] It is important to note that parasites can be important drivers of biodiversity and components of ecosystem health ( Hudson et al. 2006 ). [15]

Biodiversity hotspots are areas that have large numbers of species and/or have many species that are not found anywhere else (endemic species). [12] Biodiversity in the broad sense is the number, abundance, composition, spatial distribution, and interactions of genotypes, populations, species, functional types and traits, and landscape units in a given system ( Figure 2 ). [14] Perhaps the clearest link between biodiversity and human health is through the spread of invasive species and pathogens. [15] Mechanisms linking biodiversity change and human health at different levels. [15] The links between biodiversity and human health occur from the microbial level to that of the habitat. [15] Most of the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services summarized in Table 1 emerged from theory and manipulative experiments, involved biodiversity within a single trophic level (usually plants), and operated mostly at the level of local communities. [14] We need to know more about the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services in species-rich ecosystems dominated by long-lived plants. [14] Biodiversity influences ecosystem services, that is, the benefits provided by ecosystems to humans, that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living ( Box 1 ). [14] Overharvesting not only threatens the resource being harvested, but can directly impact humans as well for example by decreasing the biodiversity necessary for medicinal resources. [11] Without cuts to fossil fuel consumption, climate change will have as big an impact on biodiversity declines as land use change by 2050. [25] We have to drastically cut fossil-fuel use by using more mass transit, electric vehicles, and increasing energy efficiency, because climate change impacts biodiversity, the report notes. [25] On the landscape scale, biodiversity conservation in the Amazon has been linked to the mitigation of vectorborne diseases and the resulting impact on economic well-being, measured by macroeconomic indicators such as gross domestic product, exports, imports, and national investments ( Pattanayak et al. 2007 ). [15]

Habitat destruction renders entire habitats functionally unable to support the species present; biodiversity is reduced in this process when existing organisms in the habitat are displaced or destroyed. [11] The concept of biodiversity encompasses more than just the total number of species on the planet. [13] Since Rio, many countries have improved their understanding of the status and importance of their biodiversity, particularly through biodiversity country studies such as those prepared under the auspices of UNEP/GEF. The United Kingdom identified 1250 species needing monitoring, of which 400 require action plans to ensure their survival ( Bendall, 1996 ). [10] Protective measures for biodiversity, such as legislation to protect species, can prove effective. [10]

Biodiversity change is therefore inextricably linked to poverty, the largest threat to the future of humanity identified by the United Nations. [14] Before you actually do anything, you need to learn both about the local threats to biodiversity and about the most effective ways that you can counteract those threats. [12] The challenge we have is how can we meet the food needs, the water needs and the energy needs in a way that doesn’t destroy biodiversity and nature.” [26] A sharp decline in biodiversity is affecting every region of the world, threatening the ability of citizens in many nations to find adequate food and clean water, according to a United Nations report. [26] The tremendous variety of living species–collectively known as biodiversity –forms the bedrock of our food, clean water, air and energy. [25] Biodiversity has provided plants for crops that feed billions of people, as well as decomposing organisms (such as bacteria and fungi) that release nutrients from organic material into soil and water. [12] Previous studies have also often focused on a limited range of taxa such as bees (15) or plants (1), whereas this study aimed to examine biodiversity as a whole. [2] The aim of the study was to answer two questions. (i) Does urbanization affect biodiversity? And (ii) If so how? [2] How severely fragmentation affects biodiversity depends to a large extent on the size of habitat patch that remains. [2] Biodiversity is greatly reduced when large areas of natural habitat are fragmented. [2] Visiting parks and natural areas either where you live or while you travel will help you gain a deeper understanding of biodiversity, and an appreciation for how you are connected to the full scope of life on Earth. [12] Scientists say there is a biodiversity crisis because the current rate of extinction is roughly 100-1,000 times faster than the natural rate. [12]

Biodiversity has always been an integral part of the human experience, and there are many moral reasons to preserve it for its own sake. [14] The diversity of arthropod communities then served as an indicator of the overall biodiversity of the sampling area. [2] The extensive agricultural areas occupied by small farmers contain much biodiversity that is important for sustainable food production. [10] It’s generally easiest to help conserve biodiversity in your local area or region. [12] Many of these programs focus on the biodiversity of the local region or globe, and what you can do to help protect and restore it. [12]

He added that biodiversity issues also need to receive much higher priority in policy making and development planning at every level. [25] We need to eat a more balanced diet, with less meat and less food waste, to take pressure off biodiversity, said Watson. [25] This is a sobering conclusion for those who argue that biodiversity is simply an intellectual preoccupation of those whose basic needs and aspirations are fulfilled. [14]

These assessments also looked at the causes of biodiversity declines and how government policies could help slow them down and even reverse them. [25] Sadly, it is often the case that urbanization causes biodiversity to decline. [2]

Peixoto and Abramson (2006) built a mathematical model to predict the effects of variation in biodiversity on HPS dynamics in North America, where the deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) is the primary reservoir. [15] Thank a lot for your summary about effects of urbanization on biodiversity, Sam. [2]

By affecting the magnitude, pace, and temporal continuity by which energy and materials are circulated through ecosystems, biodiversity in the broad sense influences the provision of ecosystem services. [14] All components of biodiversity, from genetic diversity to the spatial arrangement of landscape units, may play a role in the long-term provision of at least some ecosystem services. [14] In this article, we provide a synthesis of the most crucial messages emerging from the latest scientific literature and international assessments of the role of biodiversity in ecosystem services and human well-being. [14]

Chief among them are: (a) human-induced changes in land cover at the global scale lead to clear losers and winners among species in biotic communities; (b) these changes have large impacts on ecosystem processes and, thus, human well-being; and (c) such consequences will be felt disproportionately by the poor, who are most vulnerable to the loss of ecosystem services. [14] As a consequence of global change drivers, such as climate, biological invasions, and especially land use, not only is the total number of species on the planet decreasing, but there are also losers and winners. [14]

If all these policies (or global measures) and weapons are used in the battle against invaders, there is every reason to think that most native species and ecosystems can be protected against this threat. [27] The trend towards global biotic homogenization of urban areas poses a serious threat to local, native species in countries around the world. [2] It now appears that the global decline in amphibian species recognized in the 1990s is, in some part, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. [11] Global decline in amphibian species : This Limosa Harlequin Frog (Atelopus limosus), an endangered species from Panama, died from a fungal disease called chytridiomycosis. [11]

These links may involve other social and global environmental changes, such as climate change, migration, and population growth, which occur over different scales of space and time, so there may be many ways in which these factors interact to affect human disease. [15] The widespread decline of biological populations could plausibly initiate a dramatic transformation of the global ecosystem on an even faster timescale: perhaps a single human lifetime. [13] If the global ecosystem were to cross a tipping point and substantial ecosystem services were lost, the results could be “widespread social unrest, economic instability, and loss of human life.” [13] There is a new focus on the interrelationship between agrodiversity conservation and sustainable use and development practices in smallholder agriculture, with emphasis on use of farmers’ knowledge and skills as a source of information for sustainable farming ( Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Implications, 1995 ; Uitto and Ono, 1996 ). [10] This book is the fourth installment in the Global Environmental Change series created by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) in conjunction with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [27] There is compelling evidence that the tapestry of life, rather than responding passively to global environmental change, actively mediates changes in the Earth’s life-support systems. [14]

According to a 2012 paper published in Nature, there are reasons for thinking that we may be approaching a tipping point of this sort in the global ecosystem, beyond which the consequences could be catastrophic for civilization. [13] Land degradation to date has likely depressed the global economy by about 10 percent; that is, if humanity had not degraded its vital ecosystems, the economy would be 10 percent larger than it is today. [26] A five-year estimate of global forest cover loss for the years 2000-2005 was 3.1 percent. [11] In the humid tropics where forest loss is primarily from timber extraction, 272,000 km 2 was lost out of a global total of 11,564,000 km 2 (or 2.4 percent). [11]

A Global Invasive Species Program, formed by the United Nations and other international organizations, is beginning to answer this call with a series of programs designed to deal with particular sorts of introduced species. [27] Many studies have shown that the extirpation of native species in urban environments and the influx and non-native invasive species is leading to global biotic homogenization. [2]

Along with increasing mobility, demographic change, and anthropogenic disturbance, we appear to be undergoing a distinct change in global disease ecology. [15] “Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences and control.” [27] By 2100, climate models predict global temperatures will be on average 4C warmer and sea levels will be 0.7m higher under “business as usual” conditions. [13] Global warming will also raise ocean water levels due to melted water from glaciers and the greater volume of warmer water; shorelines will be flooded, affecting many species; many islands will disappear altogether. [11] Added to this are the resource-hungry activities of industrial agribusiness: everything from crops’ need for irrigation water, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides, to the resource costs of food packaging, transport (now a major part of global trade), and retail. [11] This inevitably leads to habitat destruction which has been called “the largest factor contributing to the current global extinction event”(4). [2]

In the process of habitat destruction, the organisms that previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. [11] In many cases the provision of services to the most privileged sectors of society is subsidized but leaves the most vulnerable to pay most of the cost of biodiversity losses. [14] The study of wild primates may help reveal the relationship between biodiversity and infectious disease. [15] Maintaining biodiversity and changing our approach to land use is actually good for the economy, not a burden on it, as many tend to think, the study found. [26]

Understanding the impact of small patch size is critical for scientists and conservationists alike if biodiversity is to be preserved. [2] Conservation biology is a mission-oriented science that focuses on how to protect and restore biodiversity, or the diversity of life on Earth. [12] The term “biodiversity” literally means “the diversity of life.” [12]

This trend increases the probability that we will protect the large-scale processes (such as nutrient cycling) that biodiversity depends on. [12] “We have to look at climate change and biodiversity together,” he insists. [26] The links between biodiversity and ecosystem services have been gaining increasing attention in the scientific literature of the past few years. [14] The report, from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), consists of four regional assessments that cover the globe. [26] “Biodiversity is at the heart not only of our survival, but of our cultures, identities, and enjoyment of life,” said Robert Watson, chair of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). [25] D’az S, Tilman D, Fargione J, Chapin FI, Dirzo R, et al. (2005) Biodiversity regulation of ecosystem services. [14] To the question of how biodiversity matters to ecosystem services, we have to reply that it depends on what organisms there are. [14]

Some disease dynamics may operate independently of biodiversity if they rely on nongeneralist vectors or a certain abundance of reservoir hosts ( Kilpatrick et al. 2006 ). [15] As mentioned above, sustained overharvesting is one of the primary threats to biodiversity. [11] A major international report on biodiversity warns of serious threats to all living things, but many solutions are available. [25]

Biodiversity has utilitarian value because it benefits people directly and maintains interactions between the living and non-living parts of the environment. [12] Because it is impractical or impossible to count every individual in most populations or communities (groups of populations), biologists measure biodiversity by first sampling the organisms and then extrapolating to estimate the total number of organisms. [12] If Christopher Columbus were to come to the Americas today, he would find 30 percent less biodiversity than in 1492. [25] Improved understanding of these causal mechanisms can inform decisionmaking on biodiversity conservation as an effective way to protect human health. [15] We conclude by describing how decisionmakers can use such information to design conservation initiatives that protect both biodiversity and human health. [15]

Direct effects of drivers of biodiversity loss (eutrophication, burning, soil erosion and flooding, etc.) on ecosystem processes and services are often more dramatic than those mediated by biodiversity change. [14] As it happens, a 2006 study published in Science does precisely this: It projects past trends of marine biodiversity loss into the 21st century, concluding that, unless significant changes are made to patterns of human activity, there will be virtually no more wild-caught seafood by 2048. [13] We have focused on human disease as an end point, but there are other nondisease health consequences of biodiversity loss, such as psychological well-being, that have been investigated ( de Vries et al. 2003, Fuller et al. 2007 ). [15] We propose that habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization can increase the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases affecting humans. [15]

Biodiversity loss in these fragments may increase zoonotic and anthroponotic pathogen exchange by forcing species into atypical ecological interactions that facilitate transmission. [15] The value of information : Incomplete knowledge, combined with the irreversible nature of some forms of biodiversity loss, such as species extinctions, implies a type of premium for biodiversity protection called quasi-option value. [15] The rate of extinction has accelerated throughout human history, and biodiversity loss is occurring throughout the world. [12]

Biodiversity loss is a distinct environmental crisis with its own unique syndrome of causes, consequences, and solutions–such as restoring habitats, creating protected areas (“biodiversity parks”), and practicing sustainable agriculture. [13] Many activities indispensable for human subsistence lead to biodiversity loss, and this trend is likely to continue in the future. [14] Such considerations warrant decoupling biodiversity loss from climate change, because the former has been consistently subsumed by the latter as a mere effect. [13] Biodiversity loss can also have a direct effect on zoonotic disease transmission. [15] There could be surprising effects of biodiversity loss that scientists are unable to fully anticipate in advance. [13]

Based on the available evidence, we cannot define a level of biodiversity loss that is safe, and we still do not have satisfactory models to account for ecological surprises. [14] In this article, we discuss the connections between biodiversity loss and human health at multiple hierarchical levels to understand the mechanistic basis of this transition. [15]

Biodiversity loss is also a contributing factor behind climate change. [13] The causal relation between climate change and biodiversity loss is bidirectional. [13] The repercussions of biodiversity loss are potentially as severe as those anticipated from climate change, or even a nuclear conflict. [13] There are myriad phenomena that are driving biodiversity loss in addition to climate change. [13]

People who rely most directly on ecosystem services, such as subsistence farmers, the rural poor, and traditional societies, face the most serious and immediate risks from biodiversity loss. [14] Biodiversity loss in Sumatra : (a) One sub-species of orangutan is found only in the rain forests of Borneo, while the other sub-species of orangutan is found only in the rain forests of Sumatra. [11] Biodiversity loss is a “threat multiplier” that, by pushing societies to the brink of collapse, will exacerbate existing conflicts and introduce entirely new struggles between state and non-state actors. [13] There is another existential threat that the Bulletin overlooked in its Doomsday Clock announcement: biodiversity loss. [13] The unavoidable conclusion is that biodiversity loss constitutes an existential threat in its own right. [13]

Mice also serve as a key food supply for carnivorous mammals and birds, and their removal or reduction could indirectly result in wider-scale biodiversity loss. [15]

Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest decreases natural mitigation of CO2 and destroys the habitats of many endangered species. [13] When protein and vitamins from local sources, such as hunting and fruit, decrease as a result of habitat loss, the rich can still purchase them, whereas the poor cannot. [14]

The extinction of a single species may decrease the utilitarian value of nature. [12] Numerous studies have found that both the richness and abundance of native species including plants (1), mammals (6), insects (7) and amphibians (8) decrease in response to urbanization. [2]

Economic development that does not consider effects on these ecosystem services may decrease the quality of life of these vulnerable populations, even if other segments of society benefit. [14] Natural wetlands protection or restoration in the Gulf Coast region could be geographically targeted to decrease mosquito infection prevalence. [15]

The people of the Americas consume three times as much of nature?s services as the global average, the assessment found. [25] The Americas are home to 40 percent of global nature today, but they have experienced significant declines since Western colonization. [25] Consistent with these data, the 2014 Living Planet Report shows that the global population of wild vertebrates dropped by 52 percent in only four decades–from 1970 to 2010. [13]

Greater mobility and trends in urbanization have contributed to the global nature and reach of these diseases. [15] Jones and colleagues (2008) noted that global resources to combat the risk of emerging infectious diseases are poorly allocated: The risks of emergence are greatest in lower-latitude developing countries in the tropics, particularly for zoonotic diseases of wildlife origin. [15]

By taking up carbon dioxide, forest ecosystems could help control global warming. [12]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(27 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (38) Biodiversity Loss Threatens Human Well-Being

2. (30) Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology | BioScience | Oxford Academic

3. (23) Society for Conservation Biology | Conservation Biology FAQ

4. (20) Biodiversity Loss: An Existential Risk Comparable to Climate Change – Future of Life Institute

5. (20) How does urbanization affect biodiversity? Ecologica

6. (17) CHPT 56 Questions and Study Guide | Quizlet Flashcards by prmh

7. (17) Threats to Biodiversity | Boundless Biology

8. (16) WHO | Biodiversity

9. (13) Worlds Biodiversity Is Under Assault, IPBES Warns, But There?s Still Hope

10. (13) Could biodiversity destruction lead to a global tipping point? | Environment | The Guardian

11. (13) Ecosystem effects of biodiversity loss rival climate change and pollution — ScienceDaily

12. (10) The world’s biodiversity has decreased below’safe’ levels – The Verge

13. (9) United System-Wide EARTHWATCH Biodiversity Assessment

14. (8) Biodiversity Generation and Loss – Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

15. (8) Loss of Biodiversity and Extinctions — Global Issues

16. (8) Biodiversity loss – Wikipedia

17. (7) Biodiversity loss has an enormous impact on humans, according to a UN report

18. (6) ActionBioscience – promoting bioscience literacy

19. (6) Losing Biodiversity Could Lead to “Extinction Cascades” – Futurism

20. (5) Ecosystem effects of biodiversity loss could rival impacts of climate change, pollution | University of Michigan News

21. (4) 6 problems caused by shrinking biodiversity | TreeHugger

22. (3) The Loss of Diversity Causes and Consequences – Biodiversity – NCBI Bookshelf

23. (3) How does Biodiversity loss affect me and everyone else? | WWF

24. (3) Ecosystem Consequences of Biodiversity Loss: The Evolution of a Paradigm on JSTOR

25. (2) Ecosystems and Biodiversity | National Climate Assessment

26. (1) Genetic consequences of climate change | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

27. (1) What is Biodiversity and How Does Climate Change Affect It?