Difference Between Cloning Plants And Animals

Difference Between Cloning Plants And Animals
Difference Between Cloning Plants And Animals Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bioluminescent_organisms
C O N T E N T S:


  • Therefore, clone reproduction can be further categorized as cloning unicellular organisms and organism cloning (plants and reproductive cloning in animals).(More...)
  • While cloning of animals requires vast scientific knowledge and genetic experience, plants can clone themselves just by bending a branch to the forest floor.(More...)


  • If the embryo is quickly introduced into a serogate mother so itmay carry the cloned lifeform's growth into a fetus, and then toterm (assuming the gestation is successful and the clone is notrejected), then the cloning has gone 'full-term' and produced aliving/breathing stable clone of the original animal you weretrying to copy.(More...)



Therefore, clone reproduction can be further categorized as cloning unicellular organisms and organism cloning (plants and reproductive cloning in animals). [1] Mostly, cloning is done with single cells, but at present, with the advancement of recombinant DNA technology animals and plants are also cloned. [1] The science of cloning is directed towards the generation of a genetically identical 'copy' of a plant or animal. [2] Cloning - single cell cloning / organism cloning for plants / reproductive cloning for animals. [1]

Cloning plants is a convenient way of ensuring all your plants are exactly the same (genetically). [3] Early experiments with cloning plants showed that individual somatic cells (cells that do not form pollen or egg) could form complete, new clonal plants, indicating that the somatic cells had no irreversible changes in their genome compared to the original fertilized egg cell. [4] We've been cloning plants for decades, except that we refer to it as "vegetative propagation." [5]

One of the differences between plants and animals in this regard is that plants are, for the most part, sedentary. [6] Despite our science fiction fantasies, many organisms, including both plants and animals, actually reproduce by cloning naturally. [7] Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to another plant or animal. [8] Cloning is a natural reproductive strategy for both plants and animals. [7]

Through cloning, transgenic (organisms having genes of interest inserted in their genome) plants and animals are used to make clones from adults. [9] The 4 differences between animal tissue and plant tissue is the ability of plants to internally manufacture their own food. [10] This evidence not only indicates that NIPs would be involved in plant health and food quality (Maurel et al. 2015 ) but also highlights the great differences between plant and animal AQPs in their transport capacities. [11]

While cloning of animals requires vast scientific knowledge and genetic experience, plants can clone themselves just by bending a branch to the forest floor. [12] Cloning plants produces fast results from a reliable genetic source. [12]

Hybrids should not be confused with genetically modified organisms or (GMOs) which can be any plant, animal or microorganism which have been genetically altered using molecular genetics techniques such as gene cloning and protein engineering. [13] Many plant species and some animal species have natural methods of cloning. [14]


If the embryo is quickly introduced into a serogate mother so itmay carry the cloned lifeform's growth into a fetus, and then toterm (assuming the gestation is successful and the clone is notrejected), then the cloning has gone 'full-term' and produced aliving/breathing stable clone of the original animal you weretrying to copy. [3] Dolly was the first genetically cloned animal ever, the little sheep was one of a thousand, cloning has it's benefits and it's disadvantages. [3]

According to the Genetic Science Learning Center, the cloning process only has a success rate of between 0.1 to 3 percent in animals. [15] Cloning can't directly cure diseases in livestock, but the cloning process may be one way to make a healthy copy of a valuable animal that has contracted a disease, been injured, or died. [5] The cloning of humans and animals can be done the exact same wayfor both. [3] Natural cloning also occurs in animal organisms during processes such as budding (offspring grows out of the body of the parent), fragmentation (the body of the parent breaks into distinct pieces, each of which can produce an offspring), and parthenogenesis. [15] Some of these genetically engineered animals can be reproduced by cloning, which is why some people get confused about this concept. [5] No it does not. however there's still a debate on weather it is ethical since cloning can give the animal side effects such as they cannot live a long time like the original. [3] Scientists have been successful in cloning a number of different animals. [15] Cloning may also be a way to duplicate a disease-resistant animal, and over generations create a disease-resistant herd. [5] Myth: Cloning results in severely damaged animals that suffer, and continue to have health problems all their lives. [5]

Not really, cloning is the process of exactly copying an organism - which is done vegetative propagation of plants. [3] This process is sometimes called cloning because every new plant is exactly like the parent. [3] It is really hard to say for sure because this has been done for so long there are no records of the first occurrence of plant cloning. [3] One type of cloning uses cuttings--parts of plants that grow into new plants. [3] Other kinds of cloning use bulbs or tubers--underground parts that make new plants. [3] Another kind of cloning is grafting--the joining together of two plants into one. [3] In the case of plants, every cutting taken to generate another plant is essentially cloning. [2]

Clone reproduction or cloning is an in vitro method of producing multiple copies of cells or multiple copies of organisms under controlled conditions. [1] Cloning or clone reproduction is an in vitro process of obtaining multiple copies of the same organism using molecular biological and genetic engineering techniques. [1] Clone reproduction or cloning is an in vitro molecular technique that has the ability to produce clones of organisms under controlled conditions. [1] Cloning and genetic engineering are two types of techniques in biotechnology that are used to produce beneficial organisms. [16]

There is still a lot of apprehension about the technical difficulties involved in cloning human cells. [2] The hype created around the cloning of Dolly came from the fact that she was the first mammal ever, to be cloned from an adult cell. [2] If the embryo is quickly introduced into a surrogate mother so it may carry the cloned lifeform's growth into a fetus, and then to term (assuming the gestation is successful and the clone is not rejected), then the cloning process is said to have gone 'full-term'. [3]

Using cells from animal embryos to make clones has been has been around since the early 1990s, but the first animal cloned from a cell from an adult animal was Dolly the sheep, who was born in 1996. [5] Well if this is so, the cells of a plant would not correctly combine with an animal because their cells are totally different. [3] In both plants and animals, the individual matures to the point of being sexually mature and capable of reproduction. [6] This, in effect, completes the cycle of reproduction of plants and animals. [6] This very reason is why sexual reproduction became the dominant motif in plants and animals. [17] Bacteria and plants, as well as some animal forms, undergo asexual reproduction, producing genetically similar offspring. [16] Although it occurs in animals often through artificial means, asexual reproduction is a common occurrence in plants. [6] The process of fertilization occurs in both plants and animals. [6] In plants and animals, part of the maturation occurs during the embryonic stage, and the remainder occurs after birth and germination, respectively. [6] Once the animal is sexually mature, it can mate, or in the case of plants, carry out pollination and fertilization. [6] Plants are more subtle and simple,while animals have more layers. hope this answes your question. if it doesnt, let me know. [3] Personally i think it is okay in plants but it is wrong in animals as they are living creatures. [3] Bacteria, plants as well as animals have been genetically-modified for academic, agricultural, medical or industrial purposes. [16] For the majority of animals and plants, the most obvious answer is sex. [17] Many plants have a structure called the ovary that is the counterpart of that in animals. [6]

Animals are cloned by placing an adult cell into an embryo of another animal to produce the perfect animal,. [3] This leaves you with an empty egg, which onlyneeds a complete DNA molecule to act where in nature the parents'donated/combined chromosomes would otherwise have functioned/acted.having inserted the egg with the cell holding the completeDNA-molecule, a small controlled electric shock fuses the donorcell from the animal to be cloned, to the egg. [3] The first studies to test whether vertebrate animals could be cloned used a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), where nuclei from somatic cells were transferred to an egg cell whose own nucleus had been removed. [4] People who are identical twins are a form of clones, too! Man-made Clones Nearly 50 years ago, scientists made the first animal clones by splitting frog embryos. [3] Clone embryos are made by using a whole cell or cell nucleus from a donor animal and fusing it to an egg cell that's had its nucleus removed. [5] A clone produces offspring by sexual reproduction just like any other animal. [5]

A clone is an organism that is genetically identical to theorganism from which it was produced! 🙂 P.S. - Cloning is like creating twin. [3] The discovery of different cloning processes have introduced much rapid, efficient and accurate methods to obtain genetically identical clones of different organisms and thus, is very important in biotechnological applications. [1] The main difference between cloning and genetic engineering is that in cloning, the new organism is genetically similar to the parent organism whereas in genetic engineering, the new organism is not genetically identical to the parent organism. [16] Therefore, the main difference between cloning and genetic engineering is the change to the set of genetic information of a particular organism. [16]

Cloning isn't just a genetic identical organism, You may take acell from a jellyfish and place in cats, rabbit or mice and theanimal glows in the dark once charged with UV light. [3] Cloning is basically when a cell is extracted from an organisim, and injected into another so that organsim looks exactly the same as the first. [3] In humans and other mammals, the formation of identical twins is a type of natural cloning. [15] However there are serious ethic implications to cloning a human as cloning experiments have a very low success rate and it is likely that whatever will be created will be in great pain or horribly deformed. [3]

Cloning is a widely used technique in recombinant DNA technology. [1] Cloning techniques are laboratory processes used to produce offspring that are genetically identical to the donor parent. [15] Cloning is the technique used to develop genetically identical copy of a biological entity. [2] Cloning is a set of various artificial techniques that are used to develop genetically identical copy of any living thing. [2]

A combination of various genetic techniques and cloning is making the supply of suitable donor organs a distinct possibility. [2] In contrast to this cloning or asexual reproduction, in sexual reproduction genes are exchanged and the result is more genetic variability. [6] That's how scientists use cloning to make an exact genetic copy. [3]

As producers understand more about the cloning process, the rate at which LOS is observed in calf and lamb clones has been decreasing. [5] Cloning is an important process in Recombinant DNA technology. [1] Cloning is the process of creating genetically identical copies of biological matter. [15] Cloning can be considered as a natural process as well since it occurs during the asexual reproduction. [16]

Why WOULD you even clone? It's not like it's "cool" oranything, plus, cloning is against a LOT of religions and if yousay you don't care, well guess what, we don't care either. [3] Organism Cloning Organism cloning involves making an identical copy of an entire organism. [15] All Russet Burbank potatoes are the same genetically! Identical twins are a form of cloning that occurs naturally. [3]

Although there are efforts of individuals to "de-extinct" extinct species, the approaches used are much more sophisticated than simple cloning, and require reassembly of the genomes of the extinct species by using the closest living relatives as a template. [5] Myth: Scientists can bring back extinct species by cloning them. [5] Scientists the world over are considering cloning as a medium to create better models of diseases to progress in finding effective treatments for those diseases. [2] How do you spell breakthrough? D-O-L-L-Y Scientists have succeeded in cloning an adult mammal. [15]

The intersection of stem cell technology, genetic engineering, and cloning poses both scientific and ethical challenges. [4] Both cloning and genetic engineering are vital in the production of hormones and other pharmaceutical products. [16] Cloning: Cloning is the production of more copies that are genetically identical. [16] Cloning: Cloning is important for maintaining beneficial characteristics of a particular organism over generations. [16] Hope this Helps 🙂 Good luck 🙂 Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact geneticcopy of another. [3] Cloning is the creation of a perfect replica of a particular organism. [16] When we speak of cloning, we typically think of organism cloning, but there are actually three different types of cloning. [15]

Other ethical concerns about cloning involve the fact that the current process has a very high failure rate. [15] We don'tcare if you like cloning since there is no way we are ever going tosupport cloning. [3] They aren't too different at all, the only major difference is that certain people have moral issues with cloning. [3] Amphibians such as frogs first underwent cloning in the 1950s. [5] Cloning is a possible biodiversity enhancer, assuring the longevity of endangered species. [2] Cloning refers to the creation of similar populations of genetically identical individuals. [16] Really all cloning is. breeding without male, femaleinteraction. the interaction is now scientist for a closer endresult of color,size, ect. taking the chance out. [3] Ethics are involved in both cloning and genetic engineering. [16] Cloning also occurs in nature through asexual reproduction. [16]

Therapeutic cloning uses enucleated human eggs and somatic cell nuclear transfer technology to create a human embryo that is a genetic clone of the patient. [4] A farmer or breeder can use natural mating or any other assisted reproductive technology, such as artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization to breed clones, just as they do for other farm animals. [5] Clones of adult animals are created by a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. [15] Myth: Clones have exactly the same temperament and personality as the animals from which they were cloned. [5]

An animal has roughly the same genetic makeup as a human and it should be theoretically the same. [3] That's because it's hard to take a skin cell and expect it to grow into another whole animal. [3] We don't expect food from clones to enter the food supply in any great amounts, as these animals will be used for breeding. [5] After years of detailed study and analysis, FDA has concluded that meat and milk from clones of cattle, swine, and goats, and the offspring of clones from any species traditionally consumed as food, are as safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. [5] Despite science fiction books and movies, clones are born just like any other animal. [5] Clones are born the same way as other newborn animals: as babies. [5] Once fertilized, the egg begins to develop into an embryo in much the same way that an animal embryo develops. [6] Vertebrate animals also carry out reproduction by way of sperm and egg. [6] Temperament is only partly determined by genetics; a lot has to do with the way an animal has been raised. [5] Dolly was the first cloned agricultural animal who was born in 1996 and since then, goats, bulls as well as horses have been cloned. [16] Another concern is that the cloned animals that do survive tend to have various health problems and shorter lifespans. [15] They don't as by deffinition they are an exact replica of the animal from which they were cloned. [3]

That embryo is implanted into the uterus of a surrogate dam (a livestock term that breeders use to refer to the female parent of an animal) to grow just as if it came from embryo transfer or in vitro fertilization. [5] Early studies with enucleated frog eggs found that donor nuclei from early embryos supported development of a complete adult animal, but nuclei from tadpoles or adult frogs could not. [4] Actually, there are a bunch of cons to this. 1. a very low chance of survival and once in an experiment, only 1out of 841 embryos made it to birth 2. it's also very expensive and costs a lot of money, so why wouldwe be wasting money on that, just breed some animals, there's nodifference other than the fact that it's technically a GMO andartificial as well. 3. [3] It produced a living/breathing stable clone of the original animal you were trying to copy. [3] The offspring are not clones, and are the same as any other sexually-reproduced animals. [5] Most clones that are normal at birth become as strong and healthy as any other young animals. [5] In the case of animals, the male and female are mobile individuals that physically interact with one another in the process of mating. [6]

In this process, asexual methods are incorporated under in vitro conditions to produce a clone of new plants. [1] Grafting, budding and plant tissue culture are the most novel techniques used to produce plant clones. [1] Plant tissue culture, which is one of the most promising techniques to produce plant clones, is now widely used in agricultural biotechnology. [1]

Clones can be found naturally in nature in single-cell organisms that reproduce asexually by forming buds like plants. [3] By this reasoning you have created a living copy of the genetic material of the plant which is in essence a clone. [3] When this occurs, the resulting plant is a genetic replica, or a clone, of the parent plant. [6] A bumble bee comes along and gets pollen atached to it and it then goes onto the stigma of a plant which makes the plant reproduce, and creat a copy of the plant.This is a natural way that plants clone themselfs. [3] A plant can clone by producing extra bulbs or by sending off shoots containing the plant's genome. [3] We eat fruit from plant clones all the time, in the form of bananas and grafted fruits. [5] Plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa produce spores that develop into new individuals that are genetically identical to the parent organism. [15] Asexual reproduction is a natural phenomenon that takes place in organisms especially in prokaryotes and some plants. [1] This process creates an identical plant from a piece of root or stem from the donor plant. [3] Wax is sometimes used to cover a cut in a woody stem, in older plant books. [3] When you cut and regrow a part of a plant you are removing some of the genetic material and then continuing its growth separate from the source. [3] No. Plants can be cloned by snipping off a small part and placing the cut end in a root-stimulating agent. [3] Many types of plants are reproduced from a process called vegetative propagation. [3] In the moss plant, fertilization occurs by the sperm swimming to the egg. [6] The moss plant depends on rain or very wet conditions in order for the sperm to swim from the male parts of the plant to the egg in the female parts. [6] If a particular disease killed off one plant in a farmer's crop, it would kill all the plants. [3] Spore production is another main method in which plants as well as some microorganisms (fungi). [1] Because plants have many more stem cells, not only at meristems, regions of growth where unspecialised cells are actively dividing, but all through the plant. [3] Asexual reproduction is observed in prokaryotes and some plants. [1] Asexual reproduction is applied in natural conditions for plant breeding. [1] In plants, asexual reproduction takes place through different vegetative parts of the plant such as the bulbs, tubers, rhizome or the adventitious roots. [1]

Therapeutic cloning in humans can be a revolution in cell and tissue transplantation for the treatment of diseases. [2] Therapeutic cloning, where the cell nucleus is replaced to treat certain disease, is a boon in tissue engineering. [2]

Therapeutic Cloning Therapeutic cloning involves the cloning of human embryos for the production of stem cells. [15] Should humans be cloned? Should human cloning be banned ? A major objection to human cloning is that cloned embryos are used to produce embryonic stem cells and the cloned embryos are ultimately destroyed. [15]

Clone reproduction is widely applied in molecular cloning techniques and in recombinant DNA technology. [1] In molecular cloning, multiple copies of a particular gene can be produced as a clone. [16]

With the success in animal cloning, the scientists are now looking into generating human antibodies to fight infectious diseases and even cancer. [2] Animal cloning is associated with a number of other medical and scientific applications, like the development of animal organs for human transplants, which is also called xeno-transplantation. [2]

These early results suggested that as vertebrate animals progressed through embryonic development, birth, and aging, their somatic cell nuclei became "programmed" to differentiate into specialized cells, rather than support embryonic development. [4] The somatic cell nuclear transfer is a common procedure used in animal cloning. [1] Reproductive cloning or artificial animal cloning is a much debated topic, as there are a lot of ethics and social concerns involved in producing animal clones under in vitro conditions. [1] The study of animal cloning gives man a better understanding of the process of development of the embryo. [2] What are the risks of cloning? One of the main concerns as it relates to human cloning is that the current processes used in animal cloning are only successful a very small percentage of the time. [15] ANimal cloning is like pie its round and big and it can duplicte if you cook it loots of times, however when you duplicte it the taste goes away little by little its truly amazing sometimes. [3] Animal cloning is less controversial, but like animal testing of shampoos etc., some people are against it. [3]

As far as we know, no reproductive cloning of humans has yet been attempted. [4] Reproductive cloning is the method of creating an identical copy of an entire multicellular organism. [16] The two types of cloning techniques used in biotechnology are molecular cloning and reproductive cloning. [16] Cloning: Cloning can occur naturally in asexual reproduction and artificially through molecular cloning and reproductive cloning. [16]

Mammalian reproductive cloning is still inefficient, with a low success rate, complications during pregnancy, and possible premature aging of the cloned offspring ( http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/cloningrisks/ ). [4] In reproductive cloning, this early-stage embryo is implanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother. [4] In therapeutic cloning, the early-stage embryo is disaggregated to recover and culture embryonic stem cells. [4]

The only difference is that clones don't require a sperm and egg to come together to make an embryo. [5] The key difference between asexual reproduction and clone reproduction is the setting of the process. [1] The environment that the clone lives in could have a difference on how it develops. [3]

For bacteria and other asexual organisms, there isn?t really a difference. [17]

Molecular Cloning Molecular cloning focuses on making identical copies of DNA molecules in chromosomes. [15] In America also, reproductive cloning is banned since the first time came in the California legislature in the year 1997. [2] Scientists have not yet figured out why these problems occur and there is no reason to think that these same problems wouldn't happen in human cloning. [15]

Adult cells easily revert to stem cells in plant culture, so a very small explant can be encouraged in agar medium to start to grow into a callus (undifferentiated ball of plant cells). [3] Asexual reproduction takes place under natural conditions in prokaryotes and some plant cells. [1]

The body cells of plants and animals are clones ultimately derived from the mitosis (cell reproduction) of a single fertilized egg. [18] Cloning an animal involves creating an exact genetic copy of the parent cells. [19] Will cloned organs be cost-effective? Will cloning techniques really reach the common man? Man, a Man-made Being?: Moreover, cloning will put human and animal rights at stake. [19] There were sporadic successes at cloning other animals, like CC (abbreviation for 'copycat'), the first cat to be cloned, an Asian gaur, an endangered species, which Bessie, a cow, gave birth to, and way back in the 1960s', frogs being cloned, albeit with limited success. [19]

Although scientists have been cloning certain organisms like the carrot quite successfully for decades, attempts to clone animals have not been as successful. [19] We've discussed the ways that cloning fits into horticulture, but what about animal agriculture? Scientists have the ability to clone animals. [7] People are also concerned about animal welfare both for the clone, many of which do not survive, and the trauma to the surrogate mother, who may suffer miscarriages during the cloning process. [7] Cloning an animal is very different from cloning a human gene. [19] Cloning animals is not currently used in agriculture due to ethical and technical concerns about the process. [7] Cloning can be done from a dead animal -- if genetic material is available. [20] When cloning an animal, a nucleus of a cell containing chromosomes made up of DNA protein is placed into an egg cell or oocyte from which the nucleus has been removed. [19] Although cloning animals and more advanced techniques of tissue culture are relatively new, some types of cloning have been around for thousands of years. [7] People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) president Ingrid Newkirk issued a statement saying she would "love to have talked her out of cloning," noting that "millions of wonderful adoptable dogs are languishing in animal shelters every year or dying in terrifying ways when abandoned." [21] In all the animal experiments, fewer than two to three percent of all cloning attempts succeeded. [8] Although some animals do reproduce through cloning, such as starfish or worms, farm animals do not reproduce through cloning naturally. [7]

Humans can speed up the process of strawberry cloning but taking cuttings from a mother plant and propagating them in tissue culture. [7] Humans have learned to take advantage of the ability of plants to reproduce through cloning in our horticulture and agriculture practices. [7] Cloning can also be applied to plants to remove or alter defective genes, thereby making them resistant to diseases. [19] Some plants can reproduce from pieces of an old plant -- a type of cloning. [20]

Before you can choose a pro/con, you must first collect evidence to support your argument on if our democracy should permit cloning of human cells. [19] The process of cloning humans the gene is needed to be first isolated from the genome and this DNA sequence is copied into a smaller piece of DNA, for example a plasmid. [19] Scenarios of cloning by nuclear transfer have involved older children, and the only reason to clone an existing human is to create a genetic replica. [8] Therefore, even if cloned humans have genetic diseases and shortened life-spans, cloning is not harmful. [8] Cloning, therefore, benefits couples with fertility problems by providing them with another choice for reproduction; it benefits children by preventing them from inheriting genetic diseases, if cloned from the right donor; and it also benefits children by purposefully equipping the cloned child with a great foundation of intelligence derived from the DNA of someone who has proven themselves in life. [8]

In the process of cloning, to create the cloned cells, there exists differing methods that depend on the kinds of cells to be cloned and the results desired. [19] Note that the "nuclear transfer" type of cloning actually does not clone the donor cell, but only its nucleus. [20] Specifically, a cloning vector is DNA taken from a virus, plasmid or cells (of higher organisms) to be inserted with a foreign DNA fragment for cloning purposes. [22] Some organisms, such as bacteria, normally reproduce by cloning; they get bigger, then divide in two, producing two identical daughter cells. [20] Cloning (in this context) involves growing a new organism from a single cell of an old organism. [20] The basic procedure here is similar to that used for cloning, although "common cloning" uses nuclei from adult cells. [20] This is particularly a challenge if the cell used for cloning is already differentiated. [20] Since the cloning vector can be stably maintained in an organism, the vector also contains features that allow for the convenient insertion or removal of DNA. After being cloned into a cloning vector, the DNA fragment can be further sub-cloned into another vector that can be used with even more specificity. [22] Human cell-line colony being cloned in vitro through use of cloning rings. [23] Two years after the famous sheep named Dolly arrived in the world, becoming the first mammal cloned from an adult animal cell, the Council of Europe approved the first international agreement that prohibited the cloning of human bein gs. [23]

At this nascent stage of cloning, there is no consensus yet about the ethical issues that are thrown up by the process of the destruction of human embryos, so that stem cells can be collected. [19] Even if early attempts at cloning humans results in genetic diseases and shortened life-spans, it does not follow that cloning is a harm. [8] The bottom line here remains that there has to be complete human control over genetics in order to justify the scientific procedure of cloning. [19] Cloning could also be used in cases where the couple is at high risk for having a child with a genetic disease (if, say, the disease is caused by a recessive gene that both of the would-be parents have). [8] Detrimental to Genetic Diversity: Cloning creates identical genes. [19]

For the monkey cloning, the flow chart shows the donor nucleus coming from embryonic cells. [20] The common form of cloning that is discussed involves "nuclear transfer"; only the nucleus of the cell to be cloned is used, and it is transferred to an egg cell that has been deprived of its own nucleus. [20] Therefore, the only cases in which cloning is a harm to the cloned are the cases in which the clones have sentient lives that are not worth living. [8] Nearly 10 years after scientists cloned the first cat, predictions of a vast commercial market for the "resurrection" of beloved pets through cloning have fallen flat. [21] Pros and Cons of Cloning When Dolly, the first cloned sheep came in the news, cloning interested the masses. [19]

A reasonable interpretation of my discussion above of the scientific background is that it would be inappropriate to do cloning experimentation on humans at this point, given what we know about the process. [20] Although cloning other species does give rise to some misgivings, whether reviving extinct or endangered species, or to reproduce a dead pet, the prospect of cloning humans artificially is one of the most controversial debates that the human species has been pondering about, raising a number of ethical issues involved. [19] The way that the proponents of cloning humans go, we are indeed trying to play God. [19] The area of interest is cloning of mammals from adult cells. [20] The page also discusses cloning monkeys from embryonic cells -- a result announced at about the same time as Dolly. [20] Only those cells containing the cloning vector will grow when antibiotics are present. [22]

Cloning is the process of reproducing asexually, where one organism produces an offspring that is a perfect copy. [7] Types of Cloning Technologies 1.DNA cloning or Recombinant DNA technology 2.Reproductive Cloning 3.Therapeutic Cloning Ethical Issues The third process of cloning raises some questions about the abstract, about the interference with Nature and with God. [19] Handout 3 - Ethical Issues of Cloning In the movie Jurassic Park, based on the best-selling book of the same name by Michael Crichton, scientists clone dinosaurs by using the DNA that was preserved for millions of years. [19]

As for artificial cloning, there are three types: genetic, reproductive and therapeutic. [23] Invitation to Malpractices: While cloning allows man to tamper with genetics in human beings, it also makes deliberate reproduction of undesirable traits, a probability. [19] Learn the issues raised by genetic cloning and the scientific and public policy terms used to discuss this area of science. [19] Cloning could help to eliminate genetic diseases and promote beneficial traits. [8] Cloning may also help us combat a wide range of genetic diseases. [19]

Cloning may find applications in development of human organs, thus making human life safer. [19] The common denominator in national and international standards that prohibit cloning in humans is the concept of human dignity, something that, according to Timothy Caulfield, should be analysed and defined better. [23] The second is whether there is sufficient knowledge about cloning at this point to allow extension of the procedure to humans. [20] Thanks to cloning, the death of a child need no longer be a singular human tragedy but, rather, can be an opportunity to try to replicate the no longer priceless (or irreplaceable) dead child. [8] There are many scientific reasons why cloning work on humans is unlikely. [20] With that background, it is extremely unlikely that cloning would work with humans (using current procedures). [20] What do you think of when you picture cloning? Many of us start to imagine a scene from a science fiction movie, with humans emerging from pods covered in gooey slime. [7]

Vectors are among the essential tools for gene cloning and are most useful if they also encode some kind of marker gene encoding a bioindicator molecule that can be measured in a biological assessment to ensure their insertion, and expression, in the host organism. [22] Advances in gene editing technologies and in regenerative medicine that, in some cases, use or combine cloning techniques, are ahead of bioethical laws. [23] All engineered vectors have an origin of replication (a replicator), a cloning site (located where the insertion of foreign DNA neither disrupts replication or inactivation of essential markers), and a selectable marker (typically a gene that provides resistance to an antibiotic.) [22] Those working with DNA refer to cloning a gene -- making many copies of it outside its normal environment. [20]

In the 1980s, some companies tried commercializing the cloning of livestock by the process of taking the nuclei from fetuses and embryos. [19] Embryo Cloning: In this procedure, identical twins are produced, basically by reproducing how twins are created naturally. [19]

In this lesson, we'll be exploring what cloning is and how it is used to produce our food sources in agriculture and horticulture. [7] They used to do pet cloning, but now farm it out to other companies like ViaGen Pets, he said. [21] In part, this requires that the cell used for cloning be able to revert to the "primitive" state typical of an egg cell -- able to replicate and differentiate. [20]

Cloning is simply making a genetically identical copy of an organism. [7] Obtain Specific Traits in Organisms: Cloning can make it possible for us to obtain customized organisms and harness them for the benefit of society. [19] Cloning, as you know, is copying or replicating biological traits in organisms. [19]

Therefore, cloning is harmful to the clones only if it makes them worse off than not existing at all. [8] Though cloning may work wonders in genetics, it has potential disadvantages. [19]

It can enable the genetic alteration of plants and animals. [19] The new hybrid cell develops into a new organism, a clone of the animal that donated the nucleus. [20] The technique starts with taking the nucleus of a cell from a tissue like skin, and inserting it into an animal egg that has had its own DNA-carrying nucleus removed. [24] Poo says the new approach is more customizable and can produce a greater number of genetically identical animals than the first technique used to clone primates, a simpler method called embryo splitting. [24] The twins that are thus formed have identical DNA. Although this procedure has been used on various animal species, there has been only limited experimentation done on humans. [19] Reproductive Cloning: In this procedure, the DNA is removed from an ovum and replaced with the DNA extracted from a cell taken from an adult animal. [19] In reproductive cloning, whole animals are reproduced, as in the case of Dolly, while in the therapeutic technique embryonic stem cells are produced by cloning to create tissues that can replace other damaged ones. [23]

The key difference with Dolly is that the donor nucleus came from a cell from an adult animal. [20] They can become any kind of cell -- naturally in ordinary development of the embryo into an adult animal, or in the lab. [20] The donor cells were from the last known specimen of the animal; samples had been taken the year before its death. [20] Cloned animals tend to have a high rate of miscarriage, mortality rates and increased health issues, such as the first clone Dolly the sheep. [7] Previous attempts to clone monkeys through the Dolly method, known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), produced viable embryos but they failed to mature into healthy animals. [24] Animal rights groups say the process causes undue suffering to the dogs that provide the egg cells and carry the embryos. [21] This egg cell divides to produce the embryo that in turn develops into the animal. [19] The embryo is allowed to develop into a new animal with the same DNA as the donor. [8] Results from work with model animals were sufficiently encouraging that trials with humans have been done. [20] These incredible animals are able to make clones of themselves through asexual reproduction. [7] Companies that clone animals are "preying on grieving pet owners, giving them a false promise that they are going to replicate their beloved pet," she told AFP. [21] Based on studies done on animals, it results in animals being born with severe genetic defects. [19] Human cloning remains a scientific miracle and while we have successfully cloned animals, we must at the same time, focus on the fact that on the other hand we are constantly abusing Nature. [19] Creating a Cloned Sheep Named Dolly -- an introduction to Dolly and to cloning, from the NIH Science Education pages: http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB?OpenDocument&Highlight0,dolly. [20]

Such defects are not uncommon in cloning, and are probably due to imperfect reprogramming of the genome during the cloning process. [20] President Clinton countered this argument with another theological debate while banning the process of cloning, saying that we are trying to "play God". [19] Replacement cloning involves replacing a body that has been extensively damaged, or has failed, or is in the process of failing, followed by transplanting the brain either partially or entirely. [19]

Substitute for Natural Reproduction: Cloning in human beings can prove to be a solution to infertility. [19] With cloning, it would be possible to produce certain desired traits in human beings. [19] Will this Technology Reach the Common Man?: In cloning human organs and using them for transplant, or in cloning human beings themselves, technical and economic barriers will have to be considered. [19] Given the shortcomings of current technology, cloning is not the best option. [8] Context: Embryologists are crucial to the development of cloning technology. [19] The technology of cloning is too tempting to leave unregulated. [19]

Imagine multiple living entities like one another! Another con of cloning is that it is not clear whether we will be able to bring all the potential uses of cloning into reality. [19] Procedures such as the cloning that created Dolly the sheep do something like this. [20] Cons of Cloning Like every coin has two sides, cloning has its flip side too. [19]

In some ways cloning is less problematic than IVF because no one is being asked to relinquish a claim on a biological child. [8] We sense that cloning represents a profound defilement of our given nature as procreative beings, and of the social relations built on this natural ground. [8] If positive changes can be brought about in living beings with the help of cloning, it will indeed be a boon to mankind. [19] Will cloning fit into our ethical and moral principles? It will make man just another man-made being. [19] This separation makes complex beings simpler to reciprocate through cloning. [19]

The teacher will go over vocabulary words to ensure that the students understand the meaning of the terminology that will be used in this exercise. 2. (5 minutes) The teacher will show the students a powerpoint on cloning that will include a video on how cloning takes place. [19] Although there is practical unanimity in the prohibition of embryonic cloning for reproductive purposes, in the case of cloning for other purposes not all countries prevent it. [23] Actually, cloning is a phenomenon that occurs naturally in a wide variety of species from aphids to armadillos, to poplar trees, to bacteria. [19] The teacher will provide handouts and index cards with information pertaining to cloning for students to use in their ad. 4. (15 minutes) Allow class time for each group to present or display their campaign ad. [19] Imprecise use of the term cloning confuses the public at the cost of good science. [19]

As scientists, we find that absolutely no evidence has been presented that any such cloning has occurred. [20] Scientists have the necessary technical training and background to make informed decisions about cloning. [19]

We started with a general perspective on what stem cells, regeneration, and cloning are about. [20] I think this book can be a good introduction to cloning and stem cells, with a little science and a good sense of the public debate. [20]

We are repelled by the prospect of cloning human beings not because of the strangeness or the novelty of the undertaking, but because we intuit and we feel, immediately and without argument, the violation of things that we rightfully hold dear. [8] Context: The idea of cloning human beings raises ethical and moral concerns. [19] Non-reproductive cloning takes place in a laboratory and cannot lead to a human being. [19]

Clones have been commonplace in horticulture since ancient times; many varieties of plants are cloned simply by obtaining cuttings of their leaves, stems, or roots and replanting them. [18] Plants that are able to propagate by asexual means produce genetically identical plants that are clones. [18] The first is present in some plants or bacteria, which produce genetically identical offspring, and also in monozygotic twin siblings (arising from the same fertilised ovule), with practically the same genetic information. [23]

Question a (4 pts) How has the Bt protein been used to increase insect-resistance in plants? Include in your answer its function, its origin, the "meaning" of "Bt" and why the Bt protein is not toxic to humans. [25] A vast array of fruit and nut tree varieties and innumerable ornamental plants represent clones. [18] These cuttings grow into perfect copies of the parent plant or clones. [7] Farmers cut these shoots and plant them, propagating new banana trees, and thus creating banana clones for our breakfast. [7] Sometimes plants even clone themselves in a race to reproduce. [7] These roots shoot out sideways from the plant and produce new strawberry plants at intervals along the stolons. [7] For many plants, you can take a cutting or a small stem from the plant. [7] As banana plants grow, shoots develop off of the main stem. [7]

A general conclusion is that the process is still very inefficient and often produces animals with abnormalities; we don't know why. [20] As has only recently become clear, there is a very high incidence of major disabilities and deformities in cloned animals that attain live birth. [8] Cloned cows often have heart and lung problems; cloned mice later develop pathological obesity; other live-born cloned animals fail to reach normal developmental milestones. [8] The news this week that singer Barbra Streisand had cloned her dog grabbed international headlines, and sparked fresh outrage from animal rights groups. [21] Coat patterns may differ, and the cloned animal will have no awareness of the life its predecessor lived. [21]

Within this technique, red lines have been drawn on the replication of human beings, but not of animals. [23] He agrees that the minimum number of animals should be used. [24]

"We have produced thousands of happy, healthy cloned cows and hundreds of cloned horses," says its website, adding that company scientists "have been developing successful animal cloning and reproductive technology for over 15 years." [21]

Explore the tensions between the protection of human dignity and the alleviation of human suffering raised in the discussion of therapeutic cloning of human cells. [19] Analyze the reasons supporting and opposing therapeutic cloning of human cells. [19] Decide, individually and as a group, whether the government should permit therapeutic cloning of human cells; support decisions based on evidence and sound reasoning. [19]

In molecular cloning, the vector is a DNA molecule that serves as the carrier for the transfer or insertion of foreign gene(s) into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed. [22] According to Pattinson, in the event that the technology of nuclear transfer (passing the nucleus of a cell to an ovule without a nucleus) becomes as safe as in vitro fertilization, the laws that prohibit reproductive cloning will face a great challenge. [23] Both therapeutic and reproductive cloning turn human embryos into little more than spare parts or new clothes for those who can afford them. [19] The processes for therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning both share a fundamental act: the destruction of human embryos. [19] In 2013, the scientist had already obtained human embryonic stem cells by means of therapeutic cloning, which opened the door to the development of new tissues for the patient. [23] Therapeutic cloning holds great promise to alleviate human suffering and advance human knowledge. 3. [19]

Won't it devalue mankind? Won't it demean the value of human life? Handout 2 - Human Cloning Process Cloning is the creation of an exact genetic copy of any organism. [19] The first successful cloning of a mammal, Dolly the sheep, in 1996 conjured up in the public imagination alarming visions of armies of identical human clones, and many legislatures hastened to prohibit the reproductive cloning of human beings. [18] "If the technology advances such that concerns over safety can be addressed, it may be that regulations banning human reproductive cloning will be revisited," says Langlois. [23] There are various methods of human cloning: embryo cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. [19] In therapeutic cloning, the process of extracting stem cells, therefore, is equivalent to murdering the human being. [19]

The list of gene expression differences is a huge step compared to knowing nothing about the two cell types. [20] Use of adult cells turns out to be a major difference, because of the differentiated state of these cells. [20]

The list of gene expression differences is not short or simple. [20]

She made history by being the first mammal cloned from an adult animal cell. [23] Question : Question 1 (6 pts) Animal cloning is now a reality after the first successful attempt with Dolly. [25]

Human cloning: can it be made safe? An article by S M Rhind et al, Nature Reviews Genetics 4:855, 11/03. [20] "In 2015, the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO produced a report which contained a recommendation calling on states and governments to produce an internationally legally binding instrument to ban human cloning for reproductive purposes," explains Ade Langlois, Professor of International Relations at the University of Lincoln (United Kingdom), in a conversation with OpenMind. [23] For its part, UNESCO approved the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights in 1997, which also includes its opposition to human cloning for reproductive purposes, but is not mandatory. [23]

I also drew a visual diagram of how the human cloning process worked. [19] This same problem is thought to occur with humans; thus we predict that human cloning would not work with current technology. [20] Human cloning is basically about creating a genetically identical replica of a previously existing or existing person. [19] The Need for Human Cloning One of the key issues that science throws up through genetic engineering is making a better tomorrow, or in fact, improving the flaws gifted by Nature so we are promised better offspring. [19]

It is a combination of both reproductive and therapeutic cloning. [19] It includes some nice figures, including a flowchart comparing therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. [20] Therapeutic Cloning: The initial stages of this procedure are practically the same as Reproductive Cloning. [19] Reproductive cloning can be identified, isolated, criminalized, and, when necessary, punished without limiting the scientific knowledge or medical advances that might be gained through therapeutic cloning. 4. [19]

Therapeutic and reproductive cloning are clearly different. [19]

Gene transfer into plant cells is commonly performed using the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which acts as a vector and inserts a large plasmid into the host cell. [22] Retroviruses are excellent vectors for introducing genes into animal cells. [22]

Cloning refers to producing genetically identical individual to donor cells and copying gene, which involves the creation of an animal or individual that derives its genes from a single other individual; it is also referred as asexual reproduction. [26] The technique of nuclear transfer, the same cloning technique that led to the forming of Dolly the sheep works by taking the nucleus from the cell of one animal and transplanting it into the egg of another animal. [27] As there is no fundamental reason to suspect that clones will produce novel toxins or allergens, the main underlying food safety concern was whether the Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning process results in subtle changes in the composition of animal food products. [26] Species cloned Further information: List of animals that have been cloned The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species. [28] More appropriately, given that cloning is not particularly efficient at present: a niche opportunity exists in the production of small numbers of cloned animals with superior genetics for breeding. [26] Cloning is a powerful technique by producing genetically identical individuals and potentially it could be used for multiplication of elite animals and minimizes the genetic variation in experimental animals. [26] Animal conservation: Cloning can be used along with other forms of assisted reproduction to help preserve indigenous breeds of livestock, which have production traits and adaptability to local environments that should not be lost from the global gene pool. [26] Denning C, Priddle H (2003) New frontiers in gene targeting and cloning: success, application and challenges in domestic animals and human embryonic stem cells. [26] Public opinion and food safety to genetically engineered and cloned animal: Public opinion against cloning is apparent throughout the world. [26] SCNT cloning thus far has been very inefficient process and cloned animals have exhibited serious health problems. [26]

Aside from that, the cloning of extinct animals and their successful revival will also allow scientists to fully study the species as living organisms, instead of just studying their remains. [9] Cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor nucleus. [26] Veterinarian should acquire basic knowledge about the application and techniques of animal genetic engineering and cloning and this should be part of the academic curriculum. [26] In most of developing country including Ethiopia have no attempt of animal genetic engineering and cloning which could be attributed to lack of knowledge and skill, technological insufficiency as well as financial limitation. [26] The process of cloning a particular farm animal using SCNT is relatively the same for all animals. [28] Of these, the nuclear cloning technology is considered to have the greatest potential application for animal agriculture and medicine. [26] Edwards JL, Schrick FN, McCracken MD, van Amstel SR, Hopkins FM, et al. (2003) Cloning adult farm animals: a review of the possibilities and problems associated with somatic cell nuclear transfer. [26] Cloning using somatic cells offers opportunities to select and multiply animals of specific merits. [26] Cloning could be extremely useful in multiplying outstanding F1 crossbred animals, or composite breeds, to maximize the benefits of both heterosis and potential uniformity within the colonal family. [26] The same poll also revealed that 61% European Union citizens of citizens believe the cloning of animals to be morally wrong (The Gallup Organization, 2008). [26]

If it's approved, it would be the first genetically altered animal approved for human consumption in the U.S. Down the road, genetically modified plants could be used to produce pharmaceuticals. [29] Human directed genetic manipulation was occurring much earlier, beginning with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection. [26] Because the genetic code for all organisms is made up of the same four nucleotide building blocks, this means that a gene makes the same protein whether it is made in an animal, a plant or a microbe. [26] Sunlight can make you feel good, especially on a cold day, but it can't give you energy. right? Animals eat food to gather energy and plants use sunlight to make energy, but wouldn't it be better if organisms could use both energy sources? If you were running out of food you could just sit in the sun to gather energy, saving your food for a rainy day. [30] The way we get energy is different from plants because plants and animals don't use all of the same organelles for this process. [30]

In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. [28] The transfer of a cell nucleus from a body cell into an egg from which the chromosomes have been removed or inactivated; is method used for cloning of organisms. [26] A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings (cylinders). [28] Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. [28] Cloning is the process of creating a copy of a single cell or an entire living organism. [9] In the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media. [28] Through the use of genetic engineering and cloning, scientists have created pigs which are deficient for aGalT and do not produce it on the surface of their cells. [26] To date, many scientists will agree that the process of cloning is not yet fully developed to be used as a way to promote the conservation of species. [9] Cloned offspring in human and farm animals sometimes produced in nature when early embryo splits in to two (or sometime, more) species of just a few days after fertilization, before the cells have become too specialized. [26] Once it is an embryo, the embryo can be implanted into a surrogate which will give birth to the cloned animals, which will be genetically identical to the donor of the cell. [27] In July of 1996, Scottish scientists created the first animal cloned from an adult cell. [26] In 2001, the Center for Veterinary Medicine at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determined that it should undertake a comprehensive risk assessment to identify hazards and characterize food consumption risks that may result from Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) animal clones and therefore asked companies not to introduce these cloned animals, their progeny, or their food products (milk or meat) into the human or animal food supply. [26] Since many human proteins cannot be produced in microorganisms and production in cell culture is often laborintensive with low yields, the production of biopharmaceuticals in transgenic animal bioreactors is an attractive alternative. [26] This evidence confirms that AQPs as solute transporters play important physiological roles associated with the transport of glycerol, urea and other small solutes in the reproductive systems of both plants and animals. [11] As well as CO 2, both in animals and plants, AQPs can transport reactive oxygen species, which make them important players in redox signaling and detoxification. [11] Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, some invertebrate animal species (including nematodes, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some mites, some bees, some Phasmida and parasitic wasps ) and a few vertebrates (such as some fish, 4 amphibians, reptiles 5 6 and very rarely birds 7 ). [31] Besides studies in plants and animals that have been separately presented, there are features that can be compared, such as those described in the reproductive systems. [11] Aquaporins (AQPs) can be revisited from a distinct and complementary perspective: the outcome from analyzing them from both plant and animal studies. (1) The approach in the study. [11] While plant AQPs can transport a broad variety of solutes including non-metals and metals (urea, NH 3, boron, silice, arsenite, etc.), animal counterparts are more restricted, prevailing a limited list of small no charge solutes. [11] Although current AQPs show higher diversity in plants than in animals, recent evidence has revealed that the latter groups showed originally a high diversity in earlier mammals. [11] H 2 O 2 translocation through AQPs is an important signal for the onset of immunological responses in animals and plants. [11] Our perspective includes comparing information mainly on plants and animals and discussing current hypotheses and controversy on the role and function of AQPs. [11] It is usually said that the diversity of aquaporins in plants is higher than in animals. [11] Besides separate classifications, plant and animal aquaporins are highly conserved and share common ancestors. [11] Since recent detailed reviews have been dedicated to them (Törnroth-Horsefield et al. 2010 ; Verdoucq et al. 2014 ; Kreida and Törnroth-Horsefield 2015 ; Chevalier and Chaumont 2015 ), we mention here the most relevant features for comparison between plants and animals. [11] In contrast to plants, the sites for Ca 2+ and pH inhibition are differentiated in animals. [11] While in plants the focus has been put on structural determinants, in animals it has been put on signal transduction and the role of the cytoskeleton. [11] Future works will elucidate important details of these two different mechanisms observed in plant PIPs and AQP4 from animals. [11] Gaps still exist at the molecular level when addressing their function in both plant and animal subfamilies. [11] Plant and animal AQPs are also probably the most studied channels due to their impact in terms of economical interests: growth, development and fitness when addressing the plant kingdom, and mainly human health and disease in the case of animal AQPs. [11]

Proteins that have been expressed in transgenic animals include therapeutic proteins for the treatment of human diseases ; proteins that enable animals to better resist disease and proteins that result in the production of more healthful animal products (milk, eggs or meat) for consumers. [26] Transgenic animals can be created to gain knowledge of gene function and further decipher the genetic code, study gene control in complex organisms, build genetic disease models, improve animal production traits, and produce new animal products. [26] Genetic engineering is the processes of producing genetically modified animals by using different techniques such as exogenous pronuclear DNA microinjection in zygotes, injection of genetically modified embryonic stem cells into blastocysts and retrovirus mediated gene transfer. [26] A genetically engineered or transgenic animal is an animal that carries a known sequence of recombinant Deoxy ribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) in its cells, and which passes that DNA onto its offspring. [26]

Methods Reproductive cloning generally uses "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT) to create animals that are genetically identical. [28] Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individual to the donor cells by using different techniques such as somatic cell nuclear transfer and embryo splitting. [26] Once the genome transferred with the egg cell then one cell embryo is created and the process of cloning is completed and further development of the clone can occur ( Figure 1 ). [26] Embryo splitting may be considered the first true cloning procedure involving human intervention, and was first described by Willesden and Polge in 1981, when monozygotic twin calves were produced. [26] The success of cloning in rhesus macaque monkeys almost twenty years ago (1999) also provided essential support to the hypothesis that humans can be possibly cloned. [9] The goal is not to create cloned human beings (called "reproductive cloning"), but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat disease. [28] The nuclear transfer cloning process that cloned Dolly the sheep. [27] The genetic remodeling process that occurs during gametogenesis (i.e. the production of eggs and sperm), is thought to naturally reset any epigenetic anomalies that might result from the cloning process. [26] By utilizing the genetic material of already dead organisms, cloning can even contribute to expanding the diversity of gene pools. [9] During cloning, the gene of interest, as well as the organism bearing that gene of interest, is replicated faster than those undergoing the natural process. [9] As compared with cloning domestic organisms (e.g., cattle), the process of cloning endangered species is considered to be more difficult and would probably take years (and even decades) to complete. [9] For the cloning of primate species, including humans, the technical barrier is now broken. [27]

Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. Cloning in biotechnology. [10] Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell. [28] Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. [28] At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few cells, sterile polystyrene rings (cloning rings), which have been dipped in grease, are placed over an individual colony and a small amount of trypsin is added. [28]

Since the first successful execution of the process in 1996, cloning has become a useful technique in the field of biotechnology. [9] It is African's first cloned (nuclear transferred) healthy calf, produced with handmade cloning. [26] The first mammalian cloning (resulting in Dolly the sheep) had a success rate of 29 embryos per 277 fertilized eggs, which produced three lambs at birth, one of which lived. [28] In 1928 he and his student, Hilde Mangold, were the first to perform somatic-cell nuclear transfer using amphibian embryos - one of the first moves towards cloning. [28] The application of nuclear transfer technology, or cloning, will enable the augmentation of beneficial alleles and/or the removal (via gene knock-out) of undesirable alleles associated with disease resistance or susceptibility. [26]

Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a clone of a single individual, but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation. [28] The announcement of her birth in early 1997 shocked the scientific community and stirred debate over the possibility of cloning humans. [26] In cloning, the nucleus of a diploid cell from a donor organism is inserted into an enucleated egg cell and the cell is then stimulated to undergo continued mitosis, resulting in an organism that is genetically identical to the donor. [31] The oldest form of cloning, asexual reproduction, is exhibited by various organisms like insects, and microorganisms. [9] As many organisms in the planet approach endangerment and extinction, cloning appears to be a possible solution to restore populations. [9] Many organisms, including aspen trees, reproduce by cloning. [28]

Artificial embryo splitting or embryo twinning, a technique that creates monozygotic twins from a single embryo, is not considered in the same fashion as other methods of cloning. [28] Critics also argue that even if cloning could help in desperate times, present techniques to execute these goals are deemed to be ineffective to make a difference. [9] To highlight the concepts, techniques and challenges of genetic engineering and cloning. [26] During the past decades, however, the term biotechnology has come to be associated more with molecular- based technologies, such as gene cloning and genetic engineering. [26] Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. [28] The reason why SCNT is used for cloning is because somatic cells can be easily acquired and cultured in the lab. [28] A key point to remember is that cloning is achieved when the oocyte maintains its normal functions and instead of using sperm and egg genomes to replicate, the oocyte is inserted into the donor?s somatic cell nucleus. [28]

As mentioned above, the notion that cloning would only result in the absence of genetic uniqueness would no longer be justifiable, assuming that the procedures are conducted safely. [9] In essence this form of cloning is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. [28] Despite being considered as an artificial mode of reproduction, cloning is in fact very common in a natural setting. [9] Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for more than 50 thousand years. [28]

A number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. [28] Majority of the concerns against cloning are based on the absence of unique nuclear DNA in the child's genome. [9] Jaenisch R (2003) The biology of nuclear cloning and the potential of embryonic stem cells for transplantation therapy. [26] Cloning and Stem Cells. 9 (3): 432-49. doi : 10.1089/clo.2007.0033. [31]

Another major advantage of cloning is that it can serve as a means to increase agricultural production, particularly livestock and fresh produce. [9] Last but not the least is the use of cloning as a means to produce children for infertile and same-sex couples. [9]

Aside from that, the mere process of cloning remains to be elucidated. [9] To date, many people still believe that the process of cloning itself is not ethical. [9]

In 1999 a cloning project attempted to split a macaque embryo into multiple parts early during development, creating twins. [27] Murray JD, Anderson GB (2000) Genetic engineering and cloning may improve milk, livestock production. [26] Even though, genetic engineering and cloning are interesting sciences with wide range of application, they have also some uncertainties and challenges and further investigation are needed to develop the technology. [26]

Work with nuclear transfer resulted in the successful cloning of many species from embryonic nuclei. [26] Lai L, Kolber-Simonds D, Park KW, Cheong HT, Greenstein JL, et al. (2002) Production of alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs by nuclear transfer cloning. [26]

Scientists have made some major achievements with cloning, including the asexual reproduction of sheep and cows. [28] There is a lot of ethical debate over whether or not cloning should be used. [28] This is not the first time that Rhesus macaque monkeys have been the subjects of cloning attempts, but it is the first successful attempt. [27] Cloning, as a sudden scientific concept, has shown itself to the general public as a technique that can be done with ease and relative success, since it accomplished the cloning of the Dolly, the sheep in 1997. [9] Cloning techniques have been around for a longer period than that. [9] Some approaches that may overcome this problem are based on cloning techniques. [26]

Will cloning endangered species have an effect? Yes, but maybe it's a positive effect. [32] Rob DeSalle wants you to make up your own mind about things like GMOs and cloning. [32] Cloning, or asexual propagation, has been common practice in the horticultural world for hundreds of years. [28] Rapid multiplication of desired livestock: Cloning could enable the rapid dissemination of superior genotypes from nucleus breeding flocks and herds, directly to commercial farmers. [26] Will cloning human beings have an effect on the natural world? I think it probably will. [32]

Scientists at the faculty of veterinary sciences and animal husbandry of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir successfully cloned the first Pashmina goat (Noori) using the advanced reproductive techniques under the leadership of Riaz Ahmad Shah. [28] These genetic gains could be achieved through the controlled release of selected lines of elite live animals or cloned embryos. [26] Sets of cloned animals could be effectively used to reduce genetic variability and reduce the numbers of animals needed for some experimental studies. [26]

In animal epithelia, the AQP would function like a thermostat by sensing the transepithelial gradient and regulating-via a cell signaling system-the magnitude of the paracellular flow to approach an osmotic set point (Hill and Shachar-Hill 2006 ). [11] The fact that animal AQP1 is expressed in tissues involved in gas but not water exchange, like the pulmonary capillaries, epithelium, vascular smooth muscle, and red blood cells (Effros et al. 1997 ; Preston and Agre 1991 ; Shanahan et al. 1999 ; Verkman 2006 ), supported the hypothesis that AQP1 could function as a gas channel. [11] Even in animals like sea slugs that can keep chloroplasts in their own cells, these cell parts have to be "refilled" from time to time. [30] For many years, several laboratories worldwide have tried to produce ES cells from farm animals, and although some success has been claimed, no robust and reproducible method has been published. [26] It is possible to produce antibodies in the mammary gland that are capable of preventing mastitis in cattle, sheep and goats and mastitis metritis agalactia (MMA) in pigs, and/or antibodies that aid in the prevention of domestic animal or human diseases. [26] The reason we chose to break this barrier is to produce animal models that are useful for human medicine. [27] Houdebine LM (2005) Use of transgenic animals to improve human health and animal production. [26] The short-term survival of cyanobacteria in cells in this experiment isn't too far off from what happens in photosynthesizing animals in the wild. [30] Biotechnology has contributed to the genetic improvement of farm animals for decades, through artificial insemination and embryo transfers. [26] The genetic modification of sheep containing an extra copy of a growth hormone gene resulted in animals who reportedly grew faster, leaner, and larger than those conventionally bred; produced more wool; or produced milk for prolonged periods. [26] Such technology presents a wide range of applications, such as the production of biopharmaceuticals, studies on gene expression and its regulation, the improvement of animal production, production of herds resistant to specific diseases and many other biomedical and medical purposes. [26] It is highly applicable and crucial technology which involves increasing animal production and productivity, increases animal disease resistance and biomedical application. [26]

Even if, transgenic and cloned animals have wide range application and the science is very interesting and valuable, many challenges from the food safety, animal welfare, public and social acceptance points of view, socio-cultural and religious obstacles and technical inefficiency are headache for the technology. [26] The first step is to collect the somatic cells from the animal that will be cloned. [28] Scientists have been attempting to clone animals through nuclear transfer of somatic cell (SCNT) for several decades. [26] The composition of food products derived from clones have found that they have the same composition as milk or meat from conventionally-produced animals. [26] Although the amount of data describing the health of the progeny of clones is more limited than the amount describing the health of animal clones themselves, there is an underlying biological assumption behind the predicted health and resultant food safety of the sexually-produced progeny of clones. [26] Rudenko L, Matheson JC, Adams AL, Dubbin ES, Greenlees KJ (2004) Food consumption risks associated with animal clones. [26] The first genetically modified food animal, AquAdvantage(R) salmon, is awaiting government approval. [29] The first genetically modified animal was a mouse created in 1973 by Rudolf Jahnish. [26] This is the first recognized example of an animal species where both females and males can reproduce clonally resulting in a complete separation of male and female gene pools. 43 As a consequence, the males will only have fathers and the queens only mothers, while the sterile workers are the only ones with both parents of both genders. [31] Parthenogenesis Clonal derivation exists in nature in some animal species and is referred to as parthenogenesis (reproduction of an organism by itself without a mate). [28] Strikingly, the animal structures resolved are mainly derived from the AQP2-lineage, due to their important roles in water homeostasis regulation in humans. [11] The properties’ of milk that bear consideration for modification are those that affect human and animal health. [26] The advent of modern biotechnology provides new avenues for genetic improvement in the production of farm animals. [26] Whitelaw CB, Lillico SG, King T (2008) Production of transgenic farm animals by viral vector-mediated gene transfer. [26] Genetic engineering of agricultural animals has the potential to improve disease resistance by introducing specific genes into livestock. [26] This method has strong limitations: on average, less than 1% of embryos injected and 10% of animals born are transgenic, genes can only be added, not replaced or deleted, and multiple copies of the transgene are inserted at random, hindering the correct regulation of gene expression and possibly interfering with endogenous gene function. [26] The resultant recombinant DNA construct is usually designed to express the proteins that are encoded by the genes included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal. [26] Micro-injection is the first successful approach for the creation of transgenic animals based on the injection of a foreign DNA construct into a fertilized oocyte. [26]

Rapid dissemination of the genetics of the parental animals by nuclear transfer could result in the generation of mini herds in two to three years. [26] Considerable effort and time is required to propagate the transgenic animal genetics into commercial dairy herds. [26] It is noteworthy that the genetic merit of the 'cloned’ animals can be fixed, while continuous genetic improvements is introduced in commercial herds by using artificial insemination breeding programs. [26] These could be clones of performance tested animals, especially sires. [26] The genetic engineering of animals has increased significantly in recent years, and the use of this technology brings with it ethical issues, some of which relate to animal welfare defined by the World Organization for Animal Health. [26] Changing milk composition may improve animal growth is the addition or supplementation of beneficial naturally occurring hormones, growth factors or bioactive factors to the milk through the use of genetic engineering. [26]

With the success of gene editing systems like CRISPR, editing the genome of animals is easier than ever before. [27] There is also the possibility of introducing beneficial fats such as the omega-3 fatty lipoprotein receptor gene and hormones like leptin are also potential targets that would decrease fat and cholesterol in animal products. [26] Transgenic animals often exhibit variable or uncontrolled expression of the inserted gene, resulting in illness and death. [26] The techniques for obtaining transgenic animals in species of agricultural interest are still inefficient. [26] In animals, parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell. [31] The construct integrates randomly into the host oocyte genome, subsequently the zygote continues embryonic development and the embryo is transferred to a foster mother and eventually develops to a transgenic animal. [26] The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients, such as a cow or sheep in the case of farm animals. [28]

This process can either add or delete specific genomes of farm animals. [28]

In flowering plants, cells of the gametophyte can undergo this process. [31] Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. [28] The term clone is used in horticulture to refer to descendants of a single plant which were produced by vegetative reproduction or apomixis. [28] It is the reproduction method used by plants, fungi, and bacteria, and is also the way that clonal colonies reproduce themselves. [28]

Prasch CM, Ott KV, Bauer H, Ache P, Hedrich R, Sonnewald U. β- amylase1 mutant Arabidopsis plants show improved drought tolerance due to reduced starch breakdown in guard cells. [11] To create "Bt corn," for example, scientists incorporated genetic material from Bacillus thuringiensis (a bacteria that produces a substance toxic to caterpillars) into the DNA of corn plants. [29] The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek word ???? kl?n, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. [28] In plants, parthenogenesis means the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell, and is a component process of apomixis. [28] When something causes a spontaneous disruption of the normal inheritance process -- perhaps a "mistake" in DNA replication -- the offspring (or even just a portion of the parent plant) can display different characteristics. [29] Since the dawn of agriculture, humans have taken steps to improve plant traits, such as hardiness, taste, adaptability and beauty. [29] Cross-pollination can produce haphazard results, so plant breeders looked for ways to ensure more consistent offspring from crossed plants, resulting in a technique called hybridization. [29] It's still an important breeding technique and it's the primary way amateur plant breeders create new varieties. [29] The latest -- some might say greatest -- technique is genetic engineering (GE), and advocates say it's just the next step in humanity's long history of innovations for improving crop plants. [29] Detractors insist that there is a fundamental and dangerous difference between conventionally bred and genetically engineered plants. [29] Ruiz-Lozano JM, del Mar AM, Barzana G, Vernieri P, Aroca R. Exogenous ABA accentuates the differences in root hydraulic properties between mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal maize plants through regulation of PIP aquaporins. [11]

Therefore, the main approach in plants was to study the water transport capacity of tissues/organs where AQPs are highly expressed, focusing on the relationship between the function of water channels and a specific physiological process. [11] This statement is supported on the fact that there are only 13 types of AQPs in mammals (Verkman et al. 2014 ) while in specific plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Glycine max or Gossypium hirsutum, there are 35, 55, 66 or 71 members, respectively (Johanson et al. 2001 ; Quigley et al. 2001 ; Gupta and Sankararamakrishnan 2009 ; Park et al. 2010 ; Maurel et al. 2015 ). [11] Classification of AQPs in higher plants describes seven subfamilies: the plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), the tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), the nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), the small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), the uncategorized (X) intrinsic proteins (XIPs) that are absent in some higher plant species, the hybrid intrinsic proteins (HIPs), and GlpF-like intrinsic proteins (GIPs) (Maurel et al. 2015 ). [11]

The high genetic diversity found in plants also shows examples of loss events, such as GIPs in Dicotyledonae and XIPs in Monocotyledonae (Danielson and Johanson 2008 ; Finn and CerdĂ  2015 ), a feature atributed to functional redundancy (Maurel et al. 2015 ). [11] Genetic modification has also produced plants with higher nutrient levels than their conventionally bred counterparts. [29] Although there is no solid evidence to support the horizontal gene transfer hypothesis in general (PĂ©rez Di Giorgio et al. 2014 ), the high diversity found in plant NIPs is thought to be associated with tandem duplication events as well as to the degree of polyploidy found in angiosperms (Finn and CerdĂ  2015 ). [11] NIP genes from plants would have originated from the nitrite-oxidizing class (AqpN) of Bacteria, before the evolution of Eukaryota (Finn and CerdĂ  2015 ). [11] Johanson U, Karlsson M, Gustavsson S, Sjovall S, Fraysse L, Weig AR, Kjellbom P. The complete set of genes encoding major intrinsic proteins in Arabidopsis provides a framework for a new nomenclature for major intrinsic proteins in plants. [11] Examples of these organisms include blueberry plants, hazel trees, the Pando trees, the Kentucky coffeetree, Myricas, and the American sweetgum. [28] In plants parthenogenesis is a component process of apomixis. [31] The first section is dedicated to the evolutive relationship between plant and animal AQPs. [11] The third section is dedicated to comparing the transport capacities of plant and animal AQPs in terms of permeating molecules. [11] Diversity and evolution of plant and animal AQPs has been widely revisited (Abascal et al. 2014 ; Maurel et al. 2015 ; Finn and CerdĂ  2015 ; PĂ©rez Di Giorgio et al. 2014 ; Von BĂĽlow and Beitz 2015 ; Song et al. 2014 ). [11] Several recent works on plant and animal AQPs have focused on trafficking mechanisms, which have been reviewed in detail (Luu and Maurel 2013 ; Verdoucq et al. 2014 ; Conner et al. 2013 ; Chevalier and Chaumont 2015 ; Hachez et al. 2013 ; Kitchen et al. 2015b ; Noda et al. 2010 ). [11] While animal AQPs do not transport ions, an increase amount of evidence shows that plant counterparts can also transport metals. [11] We have summarized a crosstalk of the most notable features of plant and animal AQPs and compared the known information provided by phylogenetic, structural and functional studies. [11]

The next wave of genetically modified plants includes the "Roundup-Ready" crops. [29] Plant tissue culture, also called micropropagation, is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile. [10] Over time, plant breeders developed increasingly sophisticated techniques to attain specific traits. [29] The first step in creating a hybrid is to create two pure strains of plants by repeatedly inbreeding plants until a very stable strain is attained. [29] Gerbeau P, Amodeo G, Henzler T, Santoni V, Ripoche P, Maurel C. The water permeability of Arabidopsis plasma membrane is regulated by divalent cations and pH. Plant J. 2002; 30 :71-81. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2002.01268.x. [11] Plant Physiol. 1997; 114 :827-834. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.3.827. [11] BMC Plant Biol. 2009; 9 :134. doi: 10.1186/1471-2229-9-134. [11] Plant Mol Biol. 2009; 70 :565-579. doi: 10.1007/s11103-009-9492-z. [11] Front Plant Sci. 2016; 7 :1659. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01659. [11] Tian S, Wang X, Li P, Wang H, Ji H, Xie J, Dong H (2016) Plant aquaporin AtPIP1;4 links Apoplastic H 2 O 2 induction to disease immunity pathways. [11] For instance, the regulation of L pr oscillations that occur during the day was studied in some plant species (Lopez et al. 2003 ; Vandeleur et al. 2009 ). [11] Cordeiro RM (2015) Molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of reactive oxygen species by mammalian and plant aquaporins. [11] Like in plants, transepithelial solute fluxes have been described. [11] Like the cases of PIPs from plants, M1 and M23 can form heterotetramers, which exhibit a variable capacity to diffuse and bind to adhesion complexes (Smith et al. 2014 ). [11] Structure-function studies performed with members of some groups of plant AQPs (TIPs, PIPs, y NIPs) showed that some residues exposed to cytosol can be phosphorylated and modulate water transport (Maurel et al. 1995 ; Johansson et al. 1998, Guenther et al. 2003 ). [11] Besides the well-described AQPs with high water transport capacity, large amount of evidence confirms that certain plant AQPs can carry a large list of small solutes. [11] While the structure of almost 50% of mammal AQPs have been resolved, the structure of only two AQPs has been resolved in plants. [11] By contrast, studies on plants have been mainly focused on the physiological role that AQPs play in growth, development and stress tolerance. (2) The transport capacity. [11] The role of AQPs on plant physiology was studied in association with circadian rhythms. [11] In plants, specific pollen AQPs have been reported, such as TIP1;3, TIP5;1, NIP4;1 and NIP4;2 (Soto et al. 2008 ; PĂ©rez Di Giorgio et al. 2016a, 2016b ). [11] Other studies in plants highlight the key role that AQPs play for tolerance under stress conditions. [11] It is evident that structural studies are needed in plant AQPs. [11] Soto G, Alleva K, Amodeo G, Muschietti J, Ayub ND (2012) New insight into the evolution of aquaporins from flowering plants and vertebrates: orthologous identification and functional transfer is possible. [11] How Genetic Engineering Differs from Traditional Plant Breeding The browser version you are using (IE 8) is no longer supported by our website. [29]

Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. [28] Parthenogenesis is distinct from artificial animal cloning, a process where the new organism is necessarily genetically identical to the cell donor. [31] It has advanced application in various sectors including increased animal production and productivity, increase animal disease resistance and biomedical application. [26] One major application of animal transgenesis is the production of pharmaceutical products, also known as animal pharming. [26] Robl JM, Wang Z, Kasinathan P, Kuroiwa Y (2007) Transgenic animal production and animal biotechnology. [26] Houdebine LM (2009) Production of pharmaceutical proteins by transgenic animals. [26] Beside to this Food safety, animal welfare, public and social acceptance and religious institutions are the most common challenges for the development of this technology. [26] Mu-Ming Poo, Director of the Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology at CAS says an increased number of animal models for biomedical treatments is a good thing. [27] It has been shown that specific antibodies can be produced in genetically engineered animals. [26] Half of the animals died or had to be euthanized due to severe health problems during the investigation, indicating a high mortality rate among genetically engineered piglets. [26] Sullivan EJ, Pommer J, Robl JM (2008) Commercializing genetically engineered animal biomedical products. [26] The obvious difference is the ability of the animals move, commonly called as locomotion. [10] The dog is believed to be the first animal domesticated, possibly arising from a common ancestor of the wolf. [26] This is not unexpected, as many animals will lay eggs even if there is not a male to fertilize them. [31] The body of evidence obtained by animal physiologists led to the hypothesis that AQPs would be osmosensors (Hill et al. 2004 ), acting as both sensors and signal transducers (Hill and Shachar-Hill 2006 ). [11] Cryobanking of somatic cells from rare and endangered birds and animals against further losses of diversity or possible extinction of Wildlife to preserve endangered indigenous breeds of livestock adapted to particular environments. [26]

The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissues. [28] Ishibashi K, Sasaki S, Fushimi K, Uchida S, Kuwahara M, Saito H, Furukawa T, Nakajima K, Yamaguchi Y, Gojobori T. Molecular cloning and expression of a member of the aquaporin family with permeability to glycerol and urea in addition to water expressed at the basolateral membrane of kidney collecting duct cells. [11]

Direct applications of Nuclear Transfer (NT) technology in human therapies, principally therapeutic cloning as opposed to human reproductive cloning. [26] "Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective". [31]

It may be used also as a tool for the production of stem cells for therapeutic purposes, as therapeutic cloning. [26] Therapeutic cloning is achieved by creating embryonic stem cells in the hopes of treating diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's. [28]

Organism cloning Further information: Asexual reproduction Organism cloning (also called reproductive cloning) refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. [28] Artificial cloning of organisms Artificial cloning of organisms may also be called reproductive cloning. [28]

Some scientific, governmental and religious organizations oppose reproductive cloning since serious ethical concerns have been raised by the future possibility of harvesting organs from clones. [26] Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. [28] The majority of religious organizations distinguish between reproductive and therapeutic cloning. [26]

Extensive information is now available covering and integrating approaches such as phylogeny, structure and physiology, in particular transport studies or regulatory mechanisms to understand how the presence of these proteins makes a difference in cell physiology and how this can be extended to tissue/organ/individual levels. [11] Genetically, there's only a 2% difference between a chimpanzee and a human. [32] Recent evidence shows that M1 and M23 have distinct aggregation properties that produce differences in their cellular localization and functions (Smith et al. 2014 ). [11]

These are drawings of the three methods scientists used to get the cyanobacteria into animal cells. [30] Animal cells use mitochondria to convert food into energy, and plant cells use both chloroplasts and mitochondria to make energy from light, air, and water. [30] Animal cells do not have plastids, which are common in plant cells (chloroplasts). [10]

Plant Cell. 2012; 24 :3463-3481. doi: 10.1105/tpc.112.101758. [11]

Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. [28] Human cloning Main article: Human cloning Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. [28] Vajta G, Gjerris M (2006) Science and technology of farm animal cloning: state of the art. [26] Much work is to be done on creating public awareness on genetic engineering and animal cloning to avert the sociocultural and religious problems facing this technological advancement. [26] A2005 Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology poll found that two-thirds of United States consumers indicated that they are uncomfortable with animal cloning in general. [26] Work continued in the field of animal cloning and in 1952 the nuclear transfer procedure was invented. [26]

For the other two methods, the scientists needed to upgrade the bacterial cells to be able to avoid the defenses of the animal cells. [30] Though we haven't designed any plant-imals yet, scientists are trying to get cells that make energy from sunlight to grow inside of animal cells. [30] The problem is tricky; how would you go about making an animal cell that gets energy from both food and sunlight? We may not have instructions to this puzzle, but there are clues. [30]

Its Center for Integrated Biosystems was the first to clone a hybrid animal and has been recognized for its cloning expertise twice by Popular Science magazine. [33] Aren't most plants clones? Animals? There is this show I binged called "Humans" and it's practically about clones/androids waking up from their labor programming. [34] Although Gregor Johann Mendel, a scientist and Augustinian abbot in Brno, Moravia (now in the Czech Republic), became hailed in the 20th century as the father of modern genetics, the long-delayed acceptance of his discoveries reflects the very slow pace of plant and animal breeding advances through most of human history. [35] The mission of the College of Agriculture and Applied Sciences is to enhance the lives of people through education, discovery and outreach, which collectively guide the ethical and sustainable use of land, food, water, and economic resources, thereby improving the health and well-being of humans, plants, animals and the environment. [33] Learn to design and apply technologies to guide the ethical use of land, food, water, and economic resources thereby improving the health and well-being of humans, plants, animals and the environment. [33]

K. Kris Hirst, of Iowa City, Iowa, an archaeologist who writes and speaks on early world agriculture, agrees that early farming R&D involved much more than selective breeding, and was "also a matter of the humans learning what the plants or animals need and finding a way to give it to them." [35] Working with plants and animals can mean everything from understanding plant and animal genetics to growing crops, running a greenhouse, raising healthy animals, discovering ways to treat diseases, or managing land for plants, animals and people. [33] Conserving plant and animal genetic diversity: The broader our genetic diversity, the more resilient our crops can be against the next disease or natural disaster. [35] Change has always occurred in plant and animal breeding, but by a long shot, agriculture's genetic advances haven't always been so brisk. [35] For the next few weeks, Agri-Pulse will explore "The Breeding Edge" - a seven-part series on how these new precision methods for plant and animal breeding are set to transform global food production and the potential impact for agribusinesses, farmers and consumers around the world.) [35]

Cloning Machine Plant Counts - Choose your cloning machine based on the quantity of clones you plan to root. [12] The EBB and flow system utilizes the most advanced plant cloning technology on the market today and operates as a true hydroponic system. [12] One of the great advances has been in how successfully we are able to reproduce plants through cloning. [12] You?re thinking this is all a lot of complicated bunk and you want to keep tenting and sweating over plant cloning as you have the past 30 years. [12]

Even though the pace toward modern plant and animal breeding quickened remarkably in the 20th century, since the birth of farming about 8,000 BC, in what's now Iran and Iraq, and in Central America not much later, most improvements in strains of crop and animal species have gradually evolved over hundreds of years. [35] They've found quick, inexpensive ways to edit the proteins within plant and animal chromosomes and with precise and predictable results. [35] Either way, the methylation patterning males and females and also between X and Y alleles agree with the results in animals and some recent results in plants. [36] Feng S, Cokus SJ, Zhang X, Chen P-Y, Bostick M, Goll MG, Hetzel J, Jain J, Strauss SH, Halpern ME. Conservation and divergence of methylation patterning in plants and animals. [36] Their fight to keep farm plants and animals healthy and productive is nearly always a catch-up game or rear-guard action. [35] Hirst, meanwhile, isn't in the life sciences arena, but has a view about GE, the new laboratory magic entering the ancient plant and animal breeding pipeline. [35] Most plant sex chromosomes appear to be of younger evolutionary origin than animal sex chromosomes and are, therefore, less degenerated. [36] There are big innovations underway in labs and universities that analysts describe as "revolutionary," enabling the creation of new plants and animals in months rather than decades. [35]

Whether you want life at the speed of chemical reactions and cell division, a trotting horse or a growing plant, we have a program for you. [33] Unlike every other advanced organism plants can even clone themselves. [12] Clones of plants are different and marijuana growers do it all the time when they get a preferred strain. [34] A nursery person with no scientific background at all can clone a plant with the expertise of an advanced geneticist. [12] Those areas may include environmental plant physiology, genetics, molecular biology, plant breeding, crop production, sustainable and organic crop and forage production systems, weed science, urban landscape management, and water management in agricultural and horticultural crops, including turf and other ornamentals. [33] "Whether it's trans-genes, genetic markers, or other technology," he said, "these are all tools that are added to an existing plant breeding pipeline. [35] This technology is advanced, simple to learn and use, successful even after prolonged use over the course of seasons, has a much higher rate of healthy root growth and most importantly, produce a better and healthier plant. [12] Plants are not confined to one way of reproduction like every other living thing on this planet, they have over a dozen different ways that they can procreate. [12]

Cloning humans was banned by international treaty which just means that everyone's doing it thinking no one else is. [34] The X and Y amplicons, which had SNPs between alleles, were cloned in pCR2.1 vector (TA Cloning, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and X:Y ratios of 0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25; 100:0 were used for the real time analysis. [36] The amplified products were cloned in pCR2.1 vector (TA Cloning, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and Sanger sequenced (Macrogen Ltd., Seoul, South Korea). [36]

"Cloning of grapes goes back hundreds of years," for example, and manure has been used to enrich soils since the earliest agriculture; crop rotations have long been used, too, to improve soil and crop vigor, he points out. [35] When you first purchase a cloning machine, you will need to go through several simple steps. [12] DWC is an extremely simple cloning system that even the most inexperienced will find simple to use. [12]

Sounds trendy and politically correct but the chemical broth they use to grow the animal parts are horrible for the human brain. [34] "Domestication," Hirst said, "is always associated with getting smaller, calmer, sweeter-tempered animals, who didn't mind being milked and were disinclined to attack the humans or wander off." [35] Actually, she said, scholars believe most sought-after characteristics were those in animals that could adapt to living close to humans. [35] Many genetics laboratories and crop and animal breeders are knee-deep in new gene editing processes. [35] Old fashioned selective breeding, along with fertilization, pest control, soil health enhancement, and other techniques have enhanced crop production, just as livestock breeding successes have been augmented by improved animal nutrition, disease prevention and husbandry skills. [35] You will explore topics and issues in animal biology, companion and production animal diseases, and animal management. [33] Students in this specialization have the opportunity to study things like the development of new feed additives that improve animal performance, innovations in grazing practices that optimize ruminant production, the development of feasible approaches for sustainable agriculture, and more. [33] There's a new trend on to clone parts of chicken or beef so that we don't have to feed the animals or slaughter them. [34] The rumor on the street says that they cloned thousands of various animals in China. [34] In animals, DNA methylation plays an important part in the early stages of sex chromosome evolution and, degeneration of the Y chromosome is linked to epigenetic regulation. [36] More crops and livestock on fewer acres: Available arable crop and pasture is declining as urban areas expand and industries take over farmland, so crop yields have to rise, and animals produce more meat, milk and such from available forage and feed. [35] Gain experience working directly with livestock and learn how to run a successful animal production business. [33] The animal and dairy science emphasis provides students with practical, hands-on learning in the science of animal production. [33] By completing coursework in production cost and profitability, animal health and well-being, animal nutrition, environmental stewardship and bioethics, you will develop the ability to manage a successful animal production operation. [33] Students graduating from this program are prepared for careers in animal and dairy production and management, state and federal government agricultural agencies, marketing and sales or animal product processing. [33] We just need to remember that 15th-17th century artists depicted animals like this for a reason. [34] In the early 1990s, recombinant chymosin - an enzyme with a role in digestion in some animals -- was approved for use in several countries. [35] A former journalist, current lobbyist, and accidental animal welfare policy expert are a couple of the ways one could describe Steve Kopperud. [35] As with their crops, farmers around the world also selectively bred animals, adapting them to their needs for food and clothing and breeding them to flourish in new climates when, for example, they migrated to the Americas and Australia and brought cattle to those continents. [35]

Importantly, from the results of the MeDIP, only the promoters of genes from stratum I were differently methylated for male and female plants, suggesting a gene regulation difference between the strata. [36] A new cassava plant, engineered to be resistant to brown streak disease, could make the difference between small farmers in Africa having a crop to eat and having no crop at all. [35]

Fig. 2 Schematic representation of gene expression and DNA methylation among S. vulgaris and S. latifolia male and female plants. [36] Fig. 3 Schematic representation of gene expression and DNA methylation forn X and Y alleles in male plants. [36] Niederhuth C, Schmitz R. Putting DNA methylation in context: from genomes to gene expression in plants. [36] Bewick AJ, Niederhuth CE, Ji L, Rohr NA, Griffin PT, Leebens-Mack J, Schmitz RJ. The evolution of CHROMOMETHYLASES and gene body DNA methylation in plants. [36] Blavet N, Blavet H, Muyle A, Ker J, Cegan R, Deschamps C, Zemp N, Mousset S, Aubourg S, Bergero R. Identifying new sex-linked genes through BAC sequencing in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia. [36] Bergero R, Forrest A, Kamau E, Charlesworth D. Evolutionary strata on the X chromosomes of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia : evidence from new sex-linked genes. [36] In S. latifolia male plants, there was only enrichment in genes from stratum I ( SlAP3, Sl4 and Sl7 ) and no enrichment in genes belonging to the stratum II. Regarding the X and Y alleles in S. latifolia males, the methylation enrichment on the stratum I genes, was only in the Y allele. [36] Strikingly, only two genes were enriched in their intron region in S. vulgaris Sv7 and in S. latifolia female plants SlAP3. [36]

The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. [35] Sigman MJ, Slotkin RK. The first rule of plant transposable element silencing: location, location, location. [36]

S. latifolia is a model organism for the study of sex chromosome evolution in plants. [36] Whenever the topic of plant reproduction come up I find myself with no lack of enthusiasm to participate. [12] Genomic DNA was isolated from young leaves using DNAeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Dusseldorf, Germany). [36] Takuno S, Ran J-H, Gaut BS. Evolutionary patterns of genic DNA methylation vary across land plants. [36] Hobza R, Kubat Z, ?egan R, Jesionek W, Vyskot B, Kejnovsky E. Impact of repetitive DNA on sex chromosome evolution in plants. [36] Kovacova V, Janousek B. Bisprimer--a program for the design of primers for bisulfite-based genomic sequencing of both plant and mammalian DNA samples. [36]

Learn to manage and produce the plants that are critical to the success of the agricultural industry. [33] USU?s plant science programs focus on regional issues pertaining to the West and current environmental issues, such as the management of invasive weed species, specifically the weed problems of the Intermountain West, and the challenges of organic and sustainable agriculture in the West?s arid climate. [33] The Methylation levels in each context differ between plant species, with mCG varying ~ 3 mCHG ~ 9 and mCHH ~ 16 [36] Depending on the emphasis you choose, you will study biology, chemistry, plant production and management, soil science and biotechnology. [33] Aug. 28, 2018 - A new study shows that plant evolutionary history plays a critical role in regulating year-to-year variation of biomass production in grasslands. [37] Studying the interactions between soils, plants and the atmosphere will equip you with the skills to evaluate urban and rural land use questions, understand agricultural ecology, manage soil and water resources, and understand issues of climate change and soil nutrient cycling. [33] Since 1995, scientists have sequenced the genomes of dozens of plants, including the major commercial crops. [35] In the early 20 th Century, other scientists, trying to better understand inherited traits, reproduced Mendel's plant experiments and bought into his theories. [35] She adds a suggestion: "What about ways to clean extra nutrients out of the dead zones such as the one ? You could develop plants to do that." [35] Especially with countries in South and Southeast Asia facing severe and chronic food shortages and starvation in the 1950s, governments and plant breeders joined in the 1960s in aggressive rice and wheat breeding of hybrid and selective strains, plus improving farming practices to boost crop yields and feed more people. [35]

As far as cloned people go, if you can't tell the difference between clones and non-clones then why treat them differently? As long as they're not a-holes, I don't care. [34] Besides slight size differences, according to Milly?s family, her first 12 clones have similar looks and personalities. [38]

To determine whether these differences are caused by genetic degeneration or methylation spread by transposons and repetitive sequences, we selected several sex-linked genes with varying degrees of degeneration and from different evolutionary strata. [36] The gene regions with significant differences in methylated DNA immunoprecipitation were selected for further analysis by bisulfite sequencing. [36] The latter found no significant differences in gene degeneration between evolutionary strata I and II. We need to bear in mind that these analyses were done on the coding sequence. [36] Even though we predicted that using the most divergent regions of the genes, there would be differences between strata I and II genes, no differences were found (Additional file 2 ). [36] By comparing the Y-linked genes analysed in the presented study with the corresponding X-linked copies (Fig. 1 ), gene arrangement differences are evident. [36] Expression data for the the vegetative stage revealed statistically significant differences between S. latifolia (male and female) and S. vulgaris on genes Sl3 and Sl7. [36]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(38 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (94) Journal of Dairy and Veterinary Sciences (JDVS)

2. (68) argumentation_cloning_ursula_adams_student.doc

3. (59) Plant and animal aquaporins crosstalk: what can be revealed from distinct perspectives

4. (49) How does plant cloning compare to animal cloning

5. (44) Cloning - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary

6. (35) Cloning and stem cells - Biology LibreTexts

7. (28) DNA methylation and genetic degeneration of the Y chromosome in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia | BMC Genomics | Full Text

8. (26) A new leap along the age-old crop and livestock breeding path | 2018-01-07 | Agri-Pulse

9. (24) Myths about Cloning

10. (22) Difference Between Clone and Asexual Reproduction | Clone vs Asexual Reproduction

11. (21) Issues With Cloning: Applications for Agriculture & Horticulture | Study.com

12. (21) Top 7 Pros and Cons of Cloning | Reproductive Cloning | Biology Explorer

13. (18) Cloning: Types, Technique, Animals and More

14. (18) Difference Between Cloning and Genetic Engineering | Definition, Types, Process, Role and Differences

15. (18) Cloning

16. (16) Work With Plants and Animals as a Professional | CAAS | USU

17. (15) A Brief Introduction to the Different Aspects of Animal Cloning

18. (15) The Limits of Cloning - OpenMind

19. (15) Reproduction of Plants & Animals | Sciencing

20. (14) How Genetic Engineering Differs from Traditional Plant Breeding

21. (13) Cloning Machines

22. (10) Parthenogenesis - Wikipedia

23. (10) Cloning and Stem Cells | Biology 1511 Biological Principles

24. (9) Meet The Worlds First Cloned Monkey - Will Humans Be Next? | Science Trends

25. (9) Blurring the Line Between Plants and Animals | Ask A Biologist

26. (8) Pet cloning is not just for celebrities anymore

27. (8) Learn About Gene Cloning and Vectors

28. (8) Cloning has only ever been a moral issue | Alternate History of the World

29. (5) What is the 4 differences between animal tissue and plant tissue? - Blurtit

30. (5) Clone | genetics | Britannica.com

31. (4) These monkey twins are the first primate clones made by the method that developed Dolly | Science | AAAS

32. (4) Being a Molecular Biologist: RobDeSalle | OLogy, Science for Kids

33. (3) Why is the offspring of an individual different from a clone of the same individual? - Quora

34. (2) Solved: Question 1 (6 Pts) Animal Cloning Is Now A Reality. | Chegg.com

35. (1) Difference Between Hybrid and Heirloom Vegetables

36. (1) The Complete IB Biology Syllabus: SL and HL

37. (1) Plants & Animals News -- ScienceDaily

38. (1) Earth.com -

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