Functions Of Artificial Intelligence

Functions Of Artificial Intelligence
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C O N T E N T S:


  • According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.(More…)
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans.(More…)
  • AI (Artificial Intelligence) winter is a time period in which.(More…)
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks.(More…)


  • The development of AI started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans.(More…)
  • By using AI in business intelligence or analysis, startups can explore opportunities to develop a unique thought process, generating new solutions for business growth.(More…)
  • If humans can solve the problem of how to program machines and other devices to display advanced levels of intelligence, as well as address the many ethical issues raised by this technology, then AI may yet expand in astonishing new directions.(More…)



According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”. [1] Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think. [1] To the majority of people, Artificial Intelligence (AI) probably indicates sci-fi films with robots and computers performing inconceivable individual jobs. [2] Gopnik, Alison, “Making AI More Human: Artificial intelligence has staged a revival by starting to incorporate what we know about how children learn”, Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 6 (June 2017), pp.60-65. [3] Artificial intelligence ( AI ), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. [3] According to Forrester, Mental technologies such as robots, artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and automation may replace 7% of U.S. jobs by 2025. [2] According to Bloomberg’s Jack Clark, 2015 was a landmark year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects that use AI within Google increased from a “sporadic usage” in 2012 to more than 2,700 projects. [3] What Is AI? – An introduction to artificial intelligence by John McCarthy –a co-founder of the field, and the person who coined the term. [3] AI is relevant to any intellectual task. 271 Modern artificial intelligence techniques are pervasive and are too numerous to list here. [3] This approach to the philosophical problems associated with artificial intelligence forms the basis of the Turing test. 311 The Dartmouth proposal “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” [3] Onlookers commonly discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not “real” intelligence after all; thus “real” intelligence is whatever intelligent behavior people can do that machines still cannot. [3] A branch of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence pursues creating the computers or machines as intelligent as human beings. [1] McCorduck 2004, pp.100-101, who writes that there are “two major branches of artificial intelligence: one aimed at producing intelligent behavior regardless of how it was accomplished, and the other aimed at modeling intelligent processes found in nature, particularly human ones.” [3] Science fiction writer Vernor Vinge named this scenario ” singularity “. 361 Technological singularity is when accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing or even ending civilization. [3] The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. [3] Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. [3] “AlphaGo beats human Go champ in milestone for artificial intelligence”. [3] The team supervised the robot while it performed soft-tissue surgery, stitching together a pig’s bowel during open surgery, and doing so better than a human surgeon, the team claimed. 282 IBM has created its own artificial intelligence computer, the IBM Watson, which has beaten human intelligence (at some levels). [3] Artificial intelligence is a tool to handle the environment with answers, and in robotics with machines doing what only a machine cannot do anymore. [2] Note that they use the term “computational intelligence” as a synonym for artificial intelligence. [3] Banks use artificial intelligence systems today to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties. [3] Widespread use of artificial intelligence could have unintended consequences that are dangerous or undesirable. [3] “Content: Plug & Pray Film – Artificial Intelligence – Robots -“. [3] To get into the details of an Artificial Intelligence robot. [2] To give this “automatically itself component” we give artificial intelligence to a robot by applying sensors and all. [2] There can be different levels of artificial intelligence embedded and applied to a robot but it is a key part. [2] “Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence”. [3] “Comparing the expert survey and citation impact journal ranking methods: Example from the field of Artificial Intelligence” (PDF). [3] Artificial intelligence is a science and technology based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. [1] “The role of cognitive architectures in general artificial intelligence”. [3] Artificial Intelligence has inspired numerous creative applications including its usage to produce visual art. [3] Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents (2nd ed.). [3] Artificial intelligence has made its way into a number of areas. [4] “Bill Gates on dangers of artificial intelligence: ‘I don’t understand why some people are not concerned ‘ “. [3] “Commonsense reasoning and commonsense knowledge in artificial intelligence”. [3] Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving (5th ed.). [3] Strong AI, also known as artificial general intelligence, is an AI system with generalized human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, it has enough intelligence to find a solution. [4]

John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, coined the term “artificial intelligence” in 1956 at the Dartmouth Conference where the discipline was born. [4] McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the [email protected] conference where he said “Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence” ( Maker 2006 ). [3] “Artificial Intelligence: An Introduction, p. 37” (PDF). [3]

A major thrust of AI is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving. [1]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. [5] Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. [6] Originating in the work of the British mathematician and logician Alan Turing, artificial intelligence involves the effort to produce machines (in most cases, computers) that are capable of executing tasks formerly thought to require human intelligence and thus mind. [6] Turing was a founding father of artificial intelligence and of modern cognitive science, and he was a leading early exponent of the hypothesis that the human brain is in large part a digital computing machine. [6] Artificial intelligence, as the name suggests, describes the ability of machines to imitate human mental prowess. [7] That definition leans toward what experts consider “strong AI,” which focuses on artificial intelligence systems that are able to perform as flexibly as the human brain. [8] Artificial intelligence (AI) is typically defined as “a field of computer science dedicated to the study of computer software making intelligent decisions, reasoning, and problem solving.” [8] Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines. [5]

When thinking about how to grow your business using AI or how artificial intelligence can make an impact on your business, ask if you can integrate with or enhance your current product and services with AI features or technology. [9] According to the survey, 31 percent of respondents viewed Internet of Things (IoT) technology as the emerging technology with the most potential to transform their workplace environment in the next five years, with 27 percent citing artificial intelligence (AI) as a close second. [10] Note : Robotics is not the only area of application for artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. [7] In recent years, there has been a lot of buzz around artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT). [7] As artificial intelligence becomes increasingly advanced, AI systems will be more widely adopted by businesses. [8] Applications will need artificial intelligence techniques to augment the human interface and provide high-level decision support. [11] From kindergarten to graduate school, one of the key ways artificial intelligence will impact education is through the application of greater levels of individualized learning. [12] The earliest substantial work in the field of artificial intelligence was done in the mid-20th century by the British logician and computer pioneer Alan Mathison Turing. [6] This hypothesis states that processing structures of symbols is sufficient, in principle, to produce artificial intelligence in a digital computer and that, moreover, human intelligence is the result of the same type of symbolic manipulations. [6] Many diverse problems have been solved by artificial intelligence programs. [6] Artificial intelligence offers a way to solve that problem. [12] Artificial intelligence is changing the business world in very significant ways. [9] Another way that artificial intelligence is playing a role in business is behind the scenes. [9] Using artificial intelligence in business information can be a huge benefit. [9] The first thing to think about when considering the impact of artificial intelligence in business is to consider your customer. [9] According to a study by Gartner, artificial intelligence will lower the cost of ownership for business operations by 30 percent by 2019. [8] Most artificial intelligence systems have the ability to learn, which allows people to improve their performance over time. [13] Rather than stealing jobs, artificial intelligence is helping people do their jobs better. [9] Artificial intelligence is supposed to be about intelligent decisions, reasoning, and problem solving. [8] From the intelligent sensors that help us take perfect pictures, to the automatic parking features in cars, to the sometimes frustrating personal assistants in smartphones, artificial intelligence of one kind of another is all around us, all the time. [12] There are a number of different forms of learning as applied to artificial intelligence. [6] This further leads into the exciting world of artificial intelligence, machine learning, cybernetics, neural networks, and deep learning. [7] Machine learning is often defined by experts as a subset of artificial intelligence. [7] Artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques are also applied heuristically. [7] By classifying information processing tasks which are suitable for artificial intelligence approaches we determine an architectural structure for large systems. [11] Wiederhold, Gio, The Roles of Artifical Intelligence in Information Systems, Ras, Z. (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Artificial intelligence, Springer-Verlag, pp. 38-51, 1991. [11] Some tutoring programs based on artificial intelligence already exist and can help students through basic mathematics, writing, and other subjects. [12] As James Paine points out, “It wasn’t so long ago that artificial intelligence was reserved to the realm of science fiction according to the public.” [14] For decades, science fiction authors, futurists, and movie makers alike have been predicting the amazing (and sometimes catastrophic) changes that will arise with the advent of widespread artificial intelligence. [12] Data mining systems are already playing an integral role in today?s higher-ed landscape, but artificial intelligence could further alter higher education. [12] Artificial intelligence will improve the productivity and accuracy of knowledge workers. [8] Artificial intelligence must have access to objects, categories, properties and relations between all of them to implement knowledge engineering. [5] Artificial intelligence can automate basic activities in education, like grading. [12]

Artificial Intelligence ( AI ) and Machine to Machine ( M2M ) Technology are changing the world as we know it and as this type of technology progresses it will revolutionise how many industries and business functions work. [15] Machines that calculate basic functions or recognize text through methods such as optimal character recognition are no longer said to have artificial intelligence, since this function is now taken for granted as an inherent computer function. [16] Would you believe that your word processor?s autocorrect function is your day-to-day encounter with artificial intelligence? As simplistic as it may sound, autocorrect is indeed an artificial intelligence function: it traces patterns, understands trends, learns from past errors, and predicts what you meant. [17]

Automation via Artificial Intelligence or Machine to Machine technology can simplify and remove time consuming & repetitive manual tasks, enabling Marketing & Insight professionals to concentrate more on aspects such as decision making and customer & user experience, using the intelligent insight based on data learning and algorithms from AI. [15] Artificial intelligence (AI) is the subfield of computer science which is exhibited by machines or software and becoming a popular as it has enhanced the human life in many areas. [18] The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalize and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specific goal, although the term can be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind, such as learning and solving problems. [16] Artificial intelligence (AI) is a term for simulated intelligence in machines. [16] Artificial Intelligence (AI), commonly defined as the science of making machines do things that would require human intelligence, is often confused with robotics, especially humanoid robotics, as they are the closest to “human? intelligence. [17] As we first defined in our Artificial Intelligence in Drugstore Retail report, AI, or machine intelligence, is human-like or intelligent behavior exhibited by computers and machines. [19] The modern definition of artificial intelligence (or AI) is “the study and design of intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximizes its chances of success. [20] Artificial intelligence is the process of transforming human predictions into a mechanical route with the help of parameters and algorithms, through performing tasks of decision-making, problem-solving and learning by encapsulating intelligent behaviour of computational process. [21] Other arguments debate the ethics of artificial intelligence, and whether or not intelligent systems such as robots should be treated with the same rights as humans. [16]

Some examples of machines with artificial intelligence include computers that play chess, which have been around for years, and self-driving cars, which are a relatively new development. [16] The goals of artificial intelligence include learning, reasoning and perception, and machines are wired using a cross-disciplinary approach based in mathematics, computer science, linguistics, psychology and more. [16] The term artificial intelligence is also used to describe a property of machines or programs: the intelligence that the system demonstrates. [20] Artificial intelligence is based around the idea that human intelligence can be defined in such exact terms that a machine can mimic it. [16]

This report is the first in a short series looking at the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in retail. [19] Application of artificial intelligence (AI) to this incurable disease may help in early detection. [18] The application of Artificial intelligence (AI) in diagnosis or monitoring of diabetes and its complication may improve the patient’s quality of life. [18] Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a field getting more and more attention today. [22] New technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI) have changed the nature of leadership. [23] The purpose of artificial intelligence is to make computers more useful in solving problematic healthcare challenges and by using computers we can interpret data which is obtained by diagnosis of various chronic diseases. [18] The purpose of Artificial Intelligence is to make computers more useful and to understand the principles. [18] June 28, 2017 – One of the greatest challenges facing artificial intelligence development is understanding the human brain and figuring out how to mimic it. [20] Artificial neural network (ANN) is one of the best artificial intelligence techniques for common data mining tasks nonlinear statistical data modeling tools. [18] To streamline the process of diagnosis artificial intelligence methods specifically artificial neural networks (ANN), Fuzzy approach can be implemented to handle diverse type of medical data. [18] Artificial intelligence has already started to help many organisations collaborate a whole host of different insight and data management tools and software platforms, to provide an overall big picture for marketing& insight professionals, to make educated decisions about consumer behaviour based on intelligent insight. [15] Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science which has the potential to analyzing complex data. [18] Artificial intelligence systems, stemming from social computing technology, can be applied to understand various measures of social networks online. [21] As technology advances, previous benchmarks that defined artificial intelligence become outdated. [16] Artificial intelligence is the most trending term in the business domain, with its major benefits catering to the decision-making process, according to Gartner analysts. [21] This review will explore how artificial intelligence and machine learning can save lives by helping individual patients beat the odds. [18] Some examples of artificial intelligence assisted diagnosis of various diseases are given below. [18]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is that division of science, particularly of computer science, which attempts to emulate and extend with programmed and fabricated elements the cognitive and affective functions of animals and human beings. [24] An intelligent automation system functions using these three components of artificial intelligence. [25] Artificial intelligence within CRM systems enable its many automated functions, such as contact management, data recording and analyses and lead ranking. [26] Artificial intelligence in automation can help in a wide range of functions. [25]

AI (Artificial Intelligence) winter is a time period in which. [16] AI?s assistance in allowing the marketing function to take a step back and focus on other areas such as content marketing, advertising and user experience rather than solely focusing on consumer insight and intelligence highlights that Marketing and Insight professionals need to recognise that their job roles are changing and being moulded around AI. [15] The next time you are annoyed with your autocorrect function, think of it as a little robot that is still learning – intelligence is what you make of it. [17] Basically, artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a machine or a computer program to think and learn. [27] The study of artificial intelligence, referred to as AI, has accelerated in recent years as advancements in computer technology have made it possible to create more and more sophisticated machines and software programs. [24]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a scientific field whose goal is to understand intelligent thought processes and behavior and to develop methods for building computer systems that act as if they are “thinking” and can learn from themselves. [24] Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to computer software that exhibits intelligent behavior. [24]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a subfield of computer science that focuses on creating computer software that imitates human learning and reasoning. [24] One such effort is Steven Spielberg’s 2001 movie Artificial Intelligence: AI. The story revolves around David, a human-like robot, and his desire to experience real love and emotions, like other humans. [24] Roboticists are nowhere near achieving this level of artificial intelligence, but they have made a lot of progress with more limited AI. Today’s AI machines can replicate some specific elements of intellectual ability. [28] A simple definition for machine learning could be that it “is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience (without explicitly being programmed to do so). [29] Artificial intelligence is a broader concept, while machine learning is the most common application of AI. [27]

Artificial Intelligence (AI) tries to enable computers to do the things that minds can do. [24] Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a field of study based on the premise that intelligent thought can be regarded as a form of computation — one that can be formalized and ultimately mechanized. [24] Artificial intelligence (AI) is arguably the most exciting field in robotics. [28] When you come across short news stories on the Associated Press or Yahoo!, chances are good they were written by AI. The current state of artificial intelligence already allows for some basic robot writing. [27] Natural-language-processing programs use artificial intelligence to allow a user to communicate with a computer in the user ’ s natural language. [24]

In The Age of Spiritual Machines (1999), Kurzweil predicts that by the end of the twenty-first century artificial intelligence will have resulted in effective immortality for humans. [24] A more nuanced definition is that artificial Intelligence is an interdisciplinary concept that studies the possibility of creating machines capable of interacting with their environment and acting upon the received data in the a manner considered intelligent. [27] At this point, there is nothing – neither human nor artificial intelligence – that can sift through this amount of data, in order to make it useable for business. [26] Though it?s not new to use software to reduce human effort, artificial intelligence has added whole new possibilities. [25] Kismet, a robot at M.I.T’s Artificial Intelligence Lab, recognizes human body language and voice inflection and responds appropriately. [28] For ongoing developments cf. AI Magazine, a serial publication of AAAI, The American Association for Artificial Intelligence, founded in late 1979 (first annual conference 1980) and the major professional society of the discipline, as well as Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal (Amsterdam: North-Holland). [24] Some people joked that AI stood for artificial insects, not artificial intelligence. [24] In simplest terms, artificial intelligence (AI) is manufactured thinking. [24] Before digging deeper into the topic of AI, let’s briefly discuss what artificial intelligence is and how it works. [27] From The Terminator to Blade Runner, pop culture has always leaned towards a chilling depiction of artificial intelligence (AI) and our future with AI at the helm. [26] Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, Artificial Intelligence, edited by John Haugeland, 2d ed. (Cambridge, Mass., 1997) is a compilation of a variety of seminal papers on AI, including Turing’s 1950 paper and John Searle’s famous “Chinese Room” paper. [24] Artificial Intelligence and machine learning have long been associated with science fiction movies, with no better example than 2001: A Space Odyssey and Hal the computer (“I?m sorry Dave, I am afraid I can?t do that”). [30] Artificial intelligence systems provide a key component in many computer applications that serve the world of business. [24] Artificial intelligence systems are computer programs that exhibit one or more of these behaviors. [24] The phrase ” artificial intelligence ” first gained general acceptance after John McCarthy used it as the title of a summer 1956 Dartmouth College computer conference. [24] Just like computer brought a whole new type of jobs so will artificial intelligence. [25] The tester sends questions to the machine via teletype and reads its answers; if the subject cannot discern whether the conversation is being held with another person or a machine, then the machine is deemed to have artificial intelligence. [24] Marvin Minsky, a scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, states that the hardest thing of all in the creation of artificial intelligence is building a machine with common sense. [24] Films and stories since the 1980s, such as Blade Runner (1982), The Terminator series (1984 – 2002), and A.I.: Artificial Intelligence (2001), depict machines with both mechanical and biological parts that are, at least superficially, practically indistinguishable from human beings. [24] Bibliography: s. b. torrance, ed., The Mind and the Machine: Philosophical Aspects of Artificial Intelligence ( New York 1984). s. shapiro, Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence ( New York 1992). j. changeux and p. ricoeur, What Makes Us Think? (Princeton 2000). [24]

In these stories the initial impulses for creating an artificial intelligence are noble: to preserve the wisdom of a race ( Forbidden Planet ), to avoid nuclear war ( Colossus: The Forbin Project, 1970), or to advance human knowledge ( 2001: A Space Odyssey ). [24] Powered by artificial intelligence, StopAd detects ads nearly as well as a human and blocks them on all browsers without multiple downloads. [27] With the combination of artificial intelligence and automation, we can not just reduce human effort but also remove the need for intervention altogether. [25] Artificial Intelligence is routinely used by enterprises in supply chain management through the use of a set of intelligent software agents that are responsible for one or more aspects of the supply chain. [24] Future Workplace has created the first online course to train HR leaders in how to use artificial intelligence for HR, called Using A. [31] Kraft Heinz, the fifth largest food and beverage company in the world, is using artificial intelligence and crafting new HR roles in people analytics and data analysis, traditionally found in IT. Melissa Werneck, senior VP, global HR, performance, and IT is re-examining the entire employee experience from recruiting to exiting the organization. [31] When decision-makers and business executives have reliable data analyses, recommendations and follow-ups through artificial intelligence systems, they can make better choices for their business and employees. [26] Through a Decision Support System, your artificial intelligence system is able to support decisions through real-time and up-to-date data gathering, forecasting, and trend analysis. [26] The gap lies in developing artificial intelligence systems that could deal with the enormous amount of data currently available. [26] Other examples of artificial intelligence in use today include smart home devices like Google’s NEST, self-driving cars like those produced by Tesla, and online games like Alien: Isolation. [27] Like the term “robot” itself, artificial intelligence is hard to define. [28] Artificial intelligence, in its turn, is a bunch of technologies that include machine learning and some other technologies like natural language processing, inference algorithms, neural networks, etc. [27] ATIS recently released a new report Evolution to an Artificial Intelligence Enabled Network (ATIS-I-0000067 ), to help the industry further understand how the power of increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence and machine learning can be leveraged to address some of the ICT industry’s leading challenges. [30] Artificial intelligence has many other applications, including problem solving in mathematics and other fields, expert systems in medicine, simple natural language processing, robotics, and education. [24] The definition and history of artificial intelligence, the principal divisions of the field, its tools, influential persons and overall significance, along with sources for further information, are considered in this article. [24] The above is a general description of the field; there is no agreed upon definition of artificial intelligence, primarily because there is little agreement as to what constitutes intelligence. [24] George Boole, Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, Gottlob Frege, and Alfred Tarski have all significantly contributed to the advancement of the field of artificial intelligence. [24] This combination of artificial intelligence in automation is popularly called automation continuum (or intelligent Robotic Process Automation ). [25] Customer Relationship Management uses artificial intelligence to connect product offers and promotions with consumer desires. [24] The use of artificial intelligence in automation makes it a lot easier for businesses to execute routine operations and scale fast. [25] With so many fearful articles out there, questions like “is artificial intelligence safe?” or “is artificial intelligence bad for people?” should come as no surprise. [27] The quest for artificial intelligence reveals much about how people view themselves as human beings and the spiritual values they hold. [24] These new IBM HR initiatives are made possible not just by deploying artificial intelligence but by also adopting a new mindset within the HR professional, moving from focusing on HR processes to adapting a consumer grade lens to people practices and delivering outcome-oriented solutions which personalize the employee experience at scale. [31] Artificial intelligence can also assist with problems in planning. [24] Artificial intelligence has become the buzzword in the business community. [25] Michael Zammuto is the CEO of Cloud Commerce Consulting which focuses on business and technical transformation through artificial intelligence. [32] The automation efficiency lent by artificial intelligence to today?s business processes has gone beyond the assembly lines of the past. [26] They incorrectly believe that despite all the buzz around artificial intelligence, the technology is not likely to become a part of their lives anytime soon. [27] What is considered artificial intelligence has shifted as the technology develops. [26] What You Need to Know About Artificial Intelligence When someone mentions “artificial intelligence”(AI), what is the first thing that comes to your mind? Most of u. [27] Artificial intelligence has tried to replicate the knowledge and reasoning methodologies of experts through Expert System, a type of problem-solving software. [26] For instance, artificial intelligence has led to the design of smarter (even driverless) cars, equipped with multiple sensors that learn and identify patterns. [26] John McCarthy coined the term artificial intelligence six years later at a summer conference at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. [24] It is actually just in recent years when a good number of scientists and innovators began to devote their work to artificial intelligence. [26]

Artificial Intelligence Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people interested in conceptual questions about life and challenges in a world where “cognitive” functions can be mimicked in purely digital environment. [33] … the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. [34]

Although computer scientists have thus far failed to create machines that can function with the complex intelligence of human beings, they have succeeded in creating a wide range of AI applications that make people’s lives simpler and more convenient. [24] For a functional approach to result in a full human-like intelligence it would be necessary not only to specify which functions make up intelligence, but also to make sure those functions are suitably congruent with one another. [24] AI refers to machine intelligence or a machine?s ability to replicate the cognitive functions of a human being. [26] In “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1997), Turing addresses the question of which functions are essential for intelligence with a proposal for what has come to be the generally accepted test for machine intelligence. [24] In its simplest form it is the automation of tasks or functions which otherwise require human intelligence to execute. [30]

Artificial intelligence (AI) makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. [35] The Internet of Things (IoT) and sensors have the ability to harness large volumes of data, while artificial intelligence (AI) can learn patterns in the data to automate tasks for a variety of business benefits. [35]

Back in the 1950s, the fathers of the field Minsky and McCarthy, described artificial intelligence as any task performed by a program or a machine that, if a human carried out the same activity, we would say the human had to apply intelligence to accomplish the task. [36] People refer to machines that can do tasks that we thought humans could only do as artificial intelligence. [34] Over time, as we become used to machines performing a particular task it is no longer surprising and we stop calling it artificial intelligence. [34]

We will use our definition to break down modern artificial intelligence applications into their constituitive parts and make it clear how the computer represents knowledge learned from data examples and then applies that knowledge. [34] The term artificial intelligence was coined in 1956, but AI has become more popular today thanks to increased data volumes, advanced algorithms, and improvements in computing power and storage. [35] An executive guide to artificial intelligence, from machine learning and general AI to neural networks. [36] Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) can offer IT security professionals a way to enforce good cybersecurity practices and shrink the attack surface instead of constantly chasing after malicious activity. [37] At a very high level artificial intelligence can be split into two broad types: narrow AI and general AI. [36] Businesses (and their investors) are atwitter about artificial intelligence (AI) in the enterprise these days. [38] To achieve robust artificial intelligences we need new approaches to both the design of the individual components, and the combination of components within our AI systems. [39] When asked about artificial intelligence, most people’s imagination leaps immediately to images of robots that can act like and interact with humans. [34] The type of artificial intelligence that can think and act like a human is something that experts call artificial general intelligence (Wikipedia contributors 2017a). [34] Artificial Intelligence enhances the speed, precision and effectiveness of human efforts. [35] Even if an artificial intelligence can emulate humans to a high degree of accuracy it is a different type of intelligence. [39] The common result is that the interface allows the computer to perform a human-like action and makes it look like artificial intelligence to the person on the other side. [34] Subtler forms of near-human robots with artificial intelligence have played roles in movies like Her and Ex machina. [34] The software may be eating the world but there are advancements like artificial intelligence will eat up software. [40] The first definition describes a technology that we are not currently faced with – fully functional general purpose artificial intelligence. [34] Neither of these definitions is satisfactory to help demystify the current state of artificial intelligence applications. [34] This definition of artificial intelligence in three components will allow us to demystify artificial intelligence applications from self driving cars to facial recognition. [34] At TechEmergence, we?ve developed concrete definitions of both artificial intelligence and machine learning based on a panel of expert feedback. [41] Machine learning and artificial intelligence advances in five areas will ease data prep, discovery, analysis, prediction, and data-driven decision making. [36] Recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence are being driven by advances in machine learning. [39] TechEmergence conducts direct interviews and consensus analysis with leading experts in machine learning and artificial intelligence. [41] The company’s Micron 5210 ION enterprise SATA SSD is now generally available and aimed at artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning and other intensive workloads. [36] In many respects I object to the use of the term Artificial Intelligence. [39] Drug discovery is by far one of the best advances in the use of artificial intelligence in biotechnology. [40] The synergistic approach in the former shows that by pairing human intelligence with artificial intelligence, the overall grading system costs less and accomplishes more. [41] In early 2016, Wealthfront announced it was taking an AI-first approach, promising “an advice engine rooted in artificial intelligence and modern APIs, an engine that we believe will deliver more relevant and personalized advice than ever before.” [41] This historical context means that when people say artificial intelligence the term is loaded with one of many potential different meanings. [34] There is also an artificial intelligence diagnostic tool invention by a Boston based MYNdYou program, which tracks down any subtle changes in speech patterns in Alzheimer?s patients. [40] There are extremely effective artificial intelligence applications for translating between languages (Wu et al. 2016), for recognizing faces in images (Taigman et al. 2014), and even for driving cars (Santana and Hotz 2016). [34] Thanks for staying in touch we’re glad to keep you ahead of the curve on the applications and implications of artificial intelligence. [41] The most common type of algorithms used in modern artificial intelligence are something called “deep neural networks”. [34] Artificial intelligence could very well be the future of biotechnology, and it has become a crucial part of life sciences. [40] In contrast the artificial intelligences we produce are designed to be efficient at one specific task: control, computation, playing chess. [39] It is common knowledge that artificial intelligence plays a crucial role in shaping the future. [40] Plus, this is a great video to share with friends and family to explain artificial intelligence in a way that anyone will understand. [35] Editor’s note: This is the first chapter of a book I’m working on called Demystifying Artificial Intelligence. [34] Keep reading for modern examples of artificial intelligence in health care, retail and more. [35] When we talk about artificial intelligence we are not talking about a general purpose humanoid replacement. [34]

Today, it is easy to make a fool of an artificial intelligent agent, technology needs to address the challenge of the uncertain environment to achieve robust intelligences. [39] AGI stands for artificial general intelligence, a term intended to emphasize the ambitious goal of building general-purpose intelligent systems, whose breadth of applicability is at least comparable to the range of tasks that humans can address. [42] Artificial general intelligence is very different, and is the type of adaptable intellect found in humans, a flexible form of intelligence capable of learning how to carry out vastly different tasks, anything from haircutting to building spreadsheets, or to reason about a wide variety of topics based on its accumulated experience. [36]

The term “artificial intelligence” or “AI” has a long and convoluted history (Cohen and Feigenbaum 2014). [34] ASI stands for artificial superintelligence: AI that is substantially beyond human intelligence. [42] It did the job that an intelligent operator used to have to do, but few today would describe it as “artificial intelligence”. [39] This task used to be considered “artificial intelligence” (Pavlidis, n.d.). [34] Since this type of algorithm has become so common it is no longer called “artificial intelligence”. [34]

The intelligence we?ve created is just a (complex) mathematical function. [39] Our artificial systems are often given a single objective (in machine learning it is encoded in a mathematical function) and they aim to achieve that objective efficiently. [39]


The development of AI started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans. [1] Proposed “universal intelligence” tests aim to compare how well machines, humans, and even non-human animals perform on problem sets that are generic as possible. [3] Even specific straightforward tasks, like machine translation, require that a machine read and write in both languages ( NLP ), follow the author’s argument ( reason ), know what is being talked about ( knowledge ), and faithfully reproduce the author’s original intent ( social intelligence ). [3] Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to prevent harm and minimize the risks; they may have the ability to use ethical reasoning to better choose their actions in the world. [3] Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence, such as W. Grey Walter’s turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. [3] Ronald, E. M. A. and Sipper, M. Intelligence is not enough: On the socialization of talking machines, Minds and Machines, vol. 11, no. 4, pp.567-576, November 2001. [3]

Are there limits to how intelligent machines- or human-machine hybrids- can be? A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that would possess intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human mind [3] The improved software would be even better at improving itself, leading to recursive self-improvement. 360 The new intelligence could thus increase exponentially and dramatically surpass humans. [3]

Several works use AI to force us to confront the fundamental of question of what makes us human, showing us artificial beings that have the ability to feel, and thus to suffer. [3] An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works – some agents are symbolic and logical, some are sub-symbolic artificial neural networks and others may use new approaches. [3] In 2006, a publication by Geoffrey Hinton and Ruslan Salakhutdinov introduced another way of pre-training many-layered feedforward neural networks (FNNs) one layer at a time, treating each layer in turn as an unsupervised restricted Boltzmann machine, then using supervised backpropagation for fine-tuning. 236 Similar to shallow artificial neural networks, deep neural networks can model complex non-linear relationships. [3] Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation. [3]

While AI tools present a range of new functionality for businesses, artificial intellignce also raises some ethical questions. [4] Deep learning is any artificial neural network that can learn a long chain of causal links. [3] Interest in neural networks and ” connectionism ” was revived by David Rumelhart and others in the middle of the 1980s. 162 Artificial neural networks are an example of soft computing they are solutions to problems which cannot be solved with complete logical certainty, and where an approximate solution is often sufficient. [3] According to one overview, 231 the expression “Deep Learning” was introduced to the Machine Learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986 232 and gained traction after Igor Aizenberg and colleagues introduced it to Artificial Neural Networks in 2000. 233 The first functional Deep Learning networks were published by Alexey Grigorevich Ivakhnenko and V. G. Lapa in 1965. 234 pageneeded These networks are trained one layer at a time. [3]

Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices since antiquity, 24 and have been a persistent theme in science fiction. [3]

While robotic senses of touch, sight and hearing are already being tested in labs at human-equivalent or better levels of sensitivity, thats worthless without intelligence guiding the robot. [2] Increased intelligence – Robots were originally only suited for unskilled tasks. [2]

The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. [3] Turing, Alan (October 1950), “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, LIX (236): 433-460, doi : 10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423. [3] Alan Turing introduced Turing Test for evaluation of intelligence and published Computing Machinery and Intelligence. [1]

AI assists enable machines to accumulate and extract knowledge, identify patterns, and learn and adjust to fresh situations or environments through learning, machine intelligence, and voice recognition. [2] To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines − Creating systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans. [1] Many of the problems in this article may also require general intelligence, if machines are to solve the problems as well as people do. [3]

Together with the world changing at an unprecedented speed, restructure and businesses need to update how machines and humans function. [2] This in turn can make the AI tools biased in their function. [4] A typical AI perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. 1 An AI’s intended goal function can be simple (“1 if the AI wins a game of Go, 0 otherwise”) or complex (“Do actions mathematically similar to the actions that got you rewards in the past”). [3] In the long-term, the scientists have proposed to continue optimizing function while minimizing possible security risks that come along with new technologies. 321 In some domains, AI can be equally supportive and damaging. [3] Operating Conditions: With a few bad luck happening on the shop floor, a change towards AI indicates fewer folks have to carry too laborious and hazardous function out. [2]

Some of the “learners” described below, including Bayesian networks, decision trees, and nearest-neighbor, could theoretically, if given infinite data, time, and memory, learn to approximate any function, including whatever combination of mathematical functions would best describe the entire world. [3] Regression is the attempt to produce a function that describes the relationship between inputs and outputs and predicts how the outputs should change as the inputs change. 106 Both classifiers and regression learners can be viewed as “function approximators” trying to learn an unknown (possibly implicit) function; for example, a spam classifier can be viewed as learning a function that maps from the text of an email to one of two categories, “spam” or “not spam”. [3] Modern neural nets can learn both continuous functions and, surprisingly, digital logical operations. [3] Classifiers are functions that use pattern matching to determine a closest match. [3] One main factor that influences the ability for a driver-less automobile to function is mapping. [3] Some of the decision-making functions in self-driving cars are designed this way. [4] The blue line could be an example of overfitting a linear function due to random noise. [3]

“A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part II: Biologically inspired cognitive architectures”. [3] IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. 5 (4): 293-311. doi : 10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2286295. [3]

That being said, adding AI to the digital workplace should not be about swapping humans for bots, but rather about creating a balance between the efficiency of a bot with the emotional intelligence of a human connection. [10] The problem, according to Katrin Ribant, chief solutions officer and co-founder of New York City-based marketing intelligence company Datorama, is that AI is still in its nascent stages of development. [10]

Turing gave quite possibly the earliest public lecture (London, 1947) to mention computer intelligence, saying, “What we want is a machine that can learn from experience,” and that the “possibility of letting the machine alter its own instructions provides the mechanism for this.” [6] This intelligence is not restricted to machines — it also applies to software systems; hence, the differentiation of demarcation between robotics and machine learning (or AI). [7] All but the simplest human behaviour is ascribed to intelligence, while even the most complicated insect behaviour is never taken as an indication of intelligence. [6] In 1950 Turing sidestepped the traditional debate concerning the definition of intelligence, introducing a practical test for computer intelligence that is now known simply as the Turing test. [6] One criticism of GPS, and similar programs that lack any learning capability, is that the program?s intelligence is entirely secondhand, coming from whatever information the programmer explicitly includes. [6] This simple form of learning, as is pointed out in the introductory section What is intelligence?, is called rote learning. [6]

Machine learning also liberates business intelligence and administrative decision-making into a higher realm. [7] Predictive analytics help in sharpening business intelligence. [7] For instance, one of Turing?s original ideas was to train a network of artificial neurons to perform specific tasks, an approach described in the section Connectionism. [6] The bottom-up approach, on the other hand, involves creating artificial neural networks in imitation of the brain?s structure–whence the connectionist label. [6] A bottom-up approach typically involves training an artificial neural network by presenting letters to it one by one, gradually improving performance by “tuning” the network. (Tuning adjusts the responsiveness of different neural pathways to different stimuli.) [6]

At present, artificial perception is sufficiently well advanced to enable optical sensors to identify individuals, autonomous vehicles to drive at moderate speeds on the open road, and robots to roam through buildings collecting empty soda cans. [6]

In this paper, we will explain the modern AI basics and various representative applications of AI. In the context of the modern digitalized world, AI is the property of machines, computer programs, and systems to perform the intellectual and creative functions of a person, independently find ways to solve problems, be able to draw conclusions and make decisions. [13] Weak AI functions within a tightly focused area of ability, performing either one or a few simple tasks more efficiently than humans can perform them. [8] AI can be rolled out to handle, manage, or assist with regular aspects and functions of the business. [9]

The machines are not programmed for deterministic functions alone. [7] Classification determines the category an object belongs to and regression deals with obtaining a set of numerical input or output examples, thereby discovering functions enabling the generation of suitable outputs from respective inputs. [5]

We critically analyze what AI of today is capable of doing, why it still cannot reach human intelligence and what are the open challenges existing in front of AI to reach and outperform human level of intelligence. [13] The idea of building a machine that can perform tasks perceived as requiring human intelligence is an attractive one. [6]

One of Turing?s colleagues at Bletchley Park, Donald Michie (who later founded the Department of Machine Intelligence and Perception at the University of Edinburgh), later recalled that Turing often discussed how computers could learn from experience as well as solve new problems through the use of guiding principles–a process now known as heuristic problem solving. [6] At Bletchley Park, Turing illustrated his ideas on machine intelligence by reference to chess –a useful source of challenging and clearly defined problems against which proposed methods for problem solving could be tested. [6]

By using AI in business intelligence or analysis, startups can explore opportunities to develop a unique thought process, generating new solutions for business growth. [21] Jan. 25, 2017 – The classic Turing test evaluates a machine’s ability to mimic human behavior and intelligence. [20] Read about some common methods of acquiring competitive business intelligence, and discover what a good intelligence analysis. [16] Other vendors in this space include Singular Intelligence (which has developed a system called Si-DAX), Market Track (which acquired 360pi), Revionics and First Insight. [19]

Leadership itself has not changed in the age of robots, machine learning, and AI. Although the use of AI has advanced fast, no computer or robot can replace the critical human functions that define organizational leadership. [23]

It is enabled by a computer program or set of programs that help machines make autonomous decisions through cognitive functions similar to those typically exhibited by human beings, such as learning, decision making and problem solving. [19] Developers continue to find AI applications across business functions, and we think the sooner retailers adopt the technology, the greater the edge they will have versus their peers. [19] We explore AI applications across the customer-facing functions of retail. [19] We look at the context and use cases for AI in functions that are primarily customer-facing. [19] Greater adoption of AI across customer-facing functions will enable retailers to broaden their reach and capture data that can help them at other points along the retail value chain. [19] In our next report in the series, we will examine how retailers are using AI across various functions within their businesses, and in our third report, we will look more closely at AI startups that are particularly relevant to retail. [19] Our proprietary CORE (communication, optimization of pricing, rationalization of inventory and experiential retail) framework demonstrates the applicability of AI in customer-facing functions. [19] Given the expanse of functions within the logistics industry, it is no doubt that there is a lot that AI could do and to a great extent is already doing. [43] AI plays a significant role in decision making beyond robot-aided functions; most effectively in financial management. [17]

M Saghiri, K Asgar, K Boukani, et al. A new approach for locating the minor apicalforamen using an artificial neural network. [18] Saritas I. Prediction of breast cancer using artificial neural networks. [18] Er O, Temurtas F, Tanr?kulu A. Tuberculosis disease diagnosis using artificial neural networks. [18] Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a mathematical or computational model which inspired by the structural and functional characteristics of biological neural networks. [18] Fernandez CJ, Gonzalez-Perez S, Ramos-Diaz JC. Artificial neural networks for closed loop control of in silico and ad hoc type 1 diabetes. [18] Nakajima K, Matsuo S, Wakabayashi H, et al. Diagnostic performance of artificial neural network for detecting Ischemia in myocardial perfusion imaging. [18]

A recent report from Narrative Science highlights that 44% of executives believe artificial intelligence?s most important benefit is ” automated communications that provide data that can be used to make decisions.” [15] This can be an important artificial intelligent technique to early breast cancer detection. [18] Artificial Intelligent system has been recently promoted as one of the key features leading to a real step forward in health care. [18]

Strong AI is a type of machine intelligence that is equivalent. [16] Computational intelligence Computational intelligence involves iterative development or learning (e.g., parameter tuning in connectionist systems). [20] Subjects in computational intelligence as defined by IEEE Computational Intelligence Society mainly include: Neural networks: trainable systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities. [20] Other names for the field have been proposed, such as computational intelligence, synthetic intelligence or computational rationality. [20]

There are several AI-based apps and conversational bots that are helping startups to bolster their workflow, allowing owners to spend less time on menial functions and more time on business expansion. [21] Transport being a rather physical function, most logistics companies address it as such and consider it quite a priority and with good reason. [43] AD is the leading cause of dementia, characterized by substantial memory loss, impairment of multiple cognitive function and behavioral changes which affects a large population worldwide. [18]

If humans can solve the problem of how to program machines and other devices to display advanced levels of intelligence, as well as address the many ethical issues raised by this technology, then AI may yet expand in astonishing new directions. [24] In 1980, John Searle, in the paper “Minds, Brains, and Programs,” introduced a division of the field of AI into “strong” and “weak” AI. Strong AI denoted the attempt to develop a full human-like intelligence, while weak AI denoted the use of AI techniques to either better understand human reasoning or to solve more limited problems. [24]

To qualify as intelligent, an AI system must use knowledge (whether acquired from databases, sensory devices, trial and error, or all of the above) to make effective choices when confronted with data that are to some extent unpredictable Insofar as a computer can do this, it may be said, for the purposes of AI, to display intelligence. [24] Philosophers have long been interested in the question, “can a computer think?” There are two schools of thought: weak AI, which is the proposition that computers can at least simulate thought and intelligence; and strong AI, which argues that a machine that can perform cognitive tasks is actually thinking. [24] For a functional AI, there need be no quality labeled “intelligence” that is shared by humans and computers. [24] Autonomous intelligence – This is AI with humans out of the loop. Think self-driving cars and autonomous robots. [26] The early definition of AI as programming computers to do things that involve intelligence when done by people was recognized as misleading, and eventually dropped. [24] The goal of AI is to create computers that can handle such complex, flexible situations with intelligence. [24] Insofar as a computer can do this, it may be said, for the purposes of AI, to display intelligence. [24] One major criticism is that traditional AI focused too much on intelligence as a process that can be completely replicated in software, and ignored the role played by the lived body that all natural intelligent beings possess (Dreyfus 1994). [24] A third approach to AI builds on the assumption that intelligence is acquired, held, and demonstrated only through relationships with other intelligent agents. [24] Each of these understandings of intelligence has been used as the basis of an approach to developing computer programs with intelligent characteristics. [24] In 1950, Alan Turing published “Computer Machinery and Intelligence,” where he explored the question of whether machines can think. [24] He expects that the merger of human and machine-based intelligences will have progressed to the point where most conscious entities will no longer have a permanent physical presence, but will move between mechanically enhanced bodies and machines in such a way that one’s life expectancy will be indefinitely extended. [24] If the interrogator fails as often as he or she succeeds in determining which is the human and which the machine, the machine could be considered as having intelligence. [24] All computers need do is perform a task that requires intelligence for a human to perform. [24] Brooks and his team focus on humanoid robots because they feel that being able to experience the world like a human is essential to developing human-like intelligence. [28] The second category comprises tales of wish fulfillment ( Star Wars ; I, Robot ) in which the robots are not noted for their superior intelligence or capabilities but for the cheerful assistance and companionship they give their human masters. [24] Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary field that studies the human mind and intelligence. [24] Terms such as cybernetics and robotics were used to describe collective intelligence approaches and led to the development of AI as an experimental field in the 1950s. [24] It eventually replaced other terms such as “machine intelligence,” “complex information processing,” and “heuristic programming,” each of which indicated a particular emphasis or approach to the field. [24] Although the study of intelligence is the subject of other disciplines such as philosophy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience, people in those disciplines have begun to work with computational scientists to build intelligent machines. [24] At what point does the behavior of a machine display intelligence? The answer to this question has raised considerable debate over the definition of intelligence itself. [24]

Crude examples of such models existed in the early 1960s, and emotion was recognized by a high priest of AI, Herbert Simon, as being essential to any complex intelligence. [24] The field of AI is considered to have its origin in the publication of British mathematician Alan Turing’s (1912 – 1954) paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1950). [24] The term intelligence is normally understood to cover only a subset of what AI workers are trying to do. [24] The real challenge of AI is to understand how natural intelligence works. [28] Intelligence is often supposed to be distinct from emotion, so that AI is assumed to exclude work on that. [24] “ Intelligence ” has proved a far tougher nut to crack than the pioneers of AI believed half a century ago. [24]

Intelligence can be thought of as a quality, an individually held property that is separable from all other properties of the human person. [24] Instead of trying to create a machine that mimics or replicates exactly human-like intelligence, scientists may instead try to imbed smaller, subtler levels of intelligence and automation into all day-to-day technologies. [24] One answer is that while intelligence, as defined above, requires knowledge, computers are only good at handling information, which is not the same thing. [24] The ability of computers to interact flexibly with the real world — their “ intelligence ” — remains slight. [24] He also proposed the Turing Test as an operational measure of intelligence for computers. [24] The computers offer a vehicle for testing theories of intelligence, which in turn enable further exploration and understanding of the concept of intelligence. [24] The goal of the conference was to explore whether intelligence can be precisely defined and specified in order for a computer system to simulate it. [24]

In 1950 British mathematician Alan Turing proposed a test for intelligence that has, to some extent, withstood the test of time and still serves as a litmus test for intelligent behavior. [24] Turing also notes the importance of being in relationship for the acquisition of knowledge or intelligence. [24] One possible definition of intelligence is the acquisition and application of knowledge. [24] Intelligence includes the capacity to learn, maintain a large storehouse of knowledge, utilize commonsense reasoning, apply analytical abilities, discern relationships between facts, communicate ideas to others and understand communications from others, and perceive and make sense of the world around us. [24]

A third approach is to consider intelligence as acquired, held, and demonstrated only through relationships with other intelligent agents. [24] As for the first point, people do not normally regard vision or locomotion as examples of intelligence. [24] Many people would say that speaking one’s native language is not a case of intelligence either, except in comparison with nonhuman species; and common sense is sometimes contrasted with intelligence. [24]

The Turing Test uses relational discourse to demonstrate intelligence. [24] Use of these systems has been driven by the recognition that intelligence may be reflected by the collective behaviors of large numbers of very simple interacting members of a community of agents. [24]

Cognate disciplines such as cognitive and animal psychologies, neurology, various kinds of material or semantic logics as well as “fuzzy set” and other theories in mathematics and philosophy are increasingly being drawn upon for the light they might cast on the generalized problematic of intelligence. [24] Good general overview of the attempt to add intelligence to everyday technology. [24] They may even ask how intelligence in general is possible, exploring the space of possible minds. [24]

As Business Week reports, the project will attempt to “not only coax silicon circuits into giving birth to innate intelligence but imbue them with the power to design themselves — to control their own destiny by spawning new generations of ever improving brains at electronic speeds.” [24] Assisted intelligence – This refers to the automation of basic tasks. [26] The term “ intelligence ” is difficult to define and has been the subject of heated debate by philosophers, educators, and psychologists for ages. [24] However Brooks’s work represents a movement toward Turing’s opinion that intelligence is socially acquired and demonstrated. [24]

Developing AI isn’t like building an artificial heart — scientists don’t have a simple, concrete model to work from. [28] Other recent advances in AI have been the creation of artificial neural systems (ANS) which has been described as “an artificial-intelligence tool that attempts to simulate the physical process upon which intuition is based — that is, by simulating the process of adaptive biological learning.” [24]

The first attempt to create intelligent machines was made by Warren McCulloh and Walter Pitts in 1943 when they proposed a model of artificial networked neurons and claimed that properly defined networks could learn, thus laying the foundation for neural networks. [24] Deep learning pertains to the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to facilitate learning at multiple layers. [26]

AI can be viewed as a division of “artificial life” (AL) whose principal findings come from biology, psychology, and sociology. [24] This process is deemed “artificial” because once it is programmed it occurs without human intervention. [24] Computer languages are artificial languages, invented for the sake of communicating instructions to computers and enabling them to communicate with each other. [24] An artificial neural network simulates synaptic connection strength by increasing or decreasing the weight of input lines into neurons. [24]

Although there was little progress in developing a strong AI through symbolic programming methods, the attempt to program computers to carry out limited human functions has been quite successful. [24] This special ability of AI programs — to reach a solution based on facts rather than on a preset series of steps — is what most closely resembles the thinking function of the human brain. [24] A definition of AI that includes any program that accomplishes some function normally done by a human being would encompass virtually all computer programs. [24] Another problem is that computers, even those employing “ fuzzy logic ” and autonomous learning, function by processing symbols (e.g., 1s and 0s) according to rules (e.g., those of Boolean algebra ) — yet human beings do not usually think by processing symbols according to rules. [24]

It is worth mentioning that the AI concept relates both to Weak AI and General AI that has cognitive functions. [27] In several business functions, such as marketing and distribution, AI has been able to hasten processes and provide decision-makers with reliable insight. [26]

Nowadays machine learning already does some repetitive and time-consuming HR functions, that can save us a lot of time to allocate, for example in human interactions or on projects that need a more strategic approach. [29] McCarthy labels symbolic programs as brittle because they crack or break down at the edges; they cannot function outside or near the edges of their domain of expertise since they lack knowledge outside of that domain, knowledge that most human “experts” possess in the form of what is known as common sense. [24] The first comprises cautionary tales that explore the consequences of creating technology for the purposes of taking over human functions. [24] Programs written for robots perform functions such as trajectory calculation, interpretation of sensor data, executions of adaptive control, and access to databases of geometric models. [24] Most robots in use today perform various functions in an industrial setting. [24] Having a combined responsibility for the people and IT functions allows us to compliment the people function with activities that are traditionally exclusive to IT – like leveraging machine learning techniques and using sophisticated algorithms to automate work. [31] A production may function wholly within computer memory (to set a goal, for instance, or to record a partial parsing) or outside it (via input/output devices such as cameras or keyboards). [24] Intelligent project coaches (IPCs) could function as coworkers, assisting and collaborating with design or operations teams for complex systems. [24] Genetic algorithms serve logistics planning functions in airports, factories, and even military operations, where they are used to help solve incredibly complex resource-allocation problems. [24] Software: Set of programs or instructions controlling a computer’s functions. [24] Scheduling of HR functions such as interviews, performance appraisals, group meetings and a host of other regular HR tasks. [29]

In this entry, the use of AI to replicate human intelligence in a machine will be called strong AI, and any other use of AI will be referred to as weak AI. [24] Functional AI programs are rarely designed to be compatible with other programs; each uses different techniques and methods, the sum of which is unlikely to capture the whole of human intelligence. [24] Human intelligence is not the sole focus of AI. Even terrestrial psychology is not the sole focus, because some people use AI to explore the range of all possible minds. [24] Another critique of symbolic AI, advanced by Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores in their 1986 book Understanding Computers and Cognition is that human intelligence may not be a process of symbol manipulation; humans do not carry mental models around in their heads. [24] Turning from the history of the field to prognostications of its future, Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence (Cambridge, Mass., 1988) by Hans Moravec suggests that computers will be the next stage in human evolution, while Raymond Kurzweil, in The Age of Spiritual Machines (New York, 1999), posits a future in which human beings and computers merge. [24]

They claim that human intelligence is not completely captured by AI technology and give numerous examples to illustrate their claims. [24] This is a famous counter argument to the very possibility of achieving any results in strong AI. Largely dismissed by the AI community, it is still useful as an example of how one might argue that AI misses the important insights into human intelligence and consciousness that phenomenological psychology and Heideggerian philosophy might add. [24]

The ability to understand a natural language such as English is one of the most fundamental aspects of human intelligence, and presents one of the core challenges for the AI community. [24]

The computers in these stories are rooted in a relational rather than a functional view of human intelligence. [24] Opponents of this definition of intelligence argue that the Turing Test defines intelligence solely in terms of human intelligence. [24]

Linguistic robots called Chatterbots (such as Jabberwacky) are very popular programs that allow an individual to converse with a machine and demonstrate machine intelligence and reasoning. [24]

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