Risks Posed By Artificial Intelligence

Risks Posed By Artificial Intelligence
Risks Posed By Artificial Intelligence Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence_arms_race
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  • Illustration by Alex Castro / The Verge When we talk about the dangers posed by artificial intelligence, the emphasis is usually on the un intended side effects.(More…)

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  • Existential risk from artificial general intelligence is the hypothesis that substantial progress in artificial general intelligence (AGI) could someday result in human extinction or some other unrecoverable global catastrophe. 1 2 3 For instance, the human species currently dominates other species because the human brain has some distinctive capabilities that other animals lack.(More…)

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Illustration by Alex Castro / The Verge When we talk about the dangers posed by artificial intelligence, the emphasis is usually on the un intended side effects. [1] The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF), a Washington, D.C. think-tank, awarded its Annual Luddite Award to “alarmists touting an artificial intelligence apocalypse”; its president, Robert D. Atkinson, complained that Musk, Hawking and AI experts say AI is the largest existential threat to humanity. [2] From SIRI to self-driving cars, artificial intelligence (AI) is progressing rapidly. [3] The AI is programmed to do something devastating: Autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence systems that are programmed to kill. [3] There are some goals that almost any artificial intelligence might rationally pursue, like acquiring additional resources or self-preservation. 31 This could prove problematic because it might put an artificial intelligence in direct competition with humans. [2] Our final invention: artificial intelligence and the end of the human era (First ed.). [2] Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence (1st ed.). [2] In 2009, experts attended a private conference hosted by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) to discuss whether computers and robots might be able to acquire any sort of autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard. [2] Future progress in artificial intelligence: A survey of expert opinion. [2] A captivating conversation is taking place about the future of artificial intelligence and what it will/should mean for humanity. [3] Artificial Intelligence, Automation, and the Economy : White House report that discusses AI’s potential impact on jobs and the economy, and strategies for increasing the benefits of this transition. [3] Potential risks from advanced artificial intelligence (Report). [2] IEEE Special Report: Artificial Intelligence : Report that explains deep learning, in which neural networks teach themselves and make decisions on their own. [3] Technologists. have warned that artificial intelligence could one day pose an existential security threat. [2] At FLI we recognize both of these possibilities, but also recognize the potential for an artificial intelligence system to intentionally or unintentionally cause great harm. [3] Some sources argue that the ongoing weaponization of artificial intelligence could constitute a catastrophic risk. [2] Artificial Intelligence is not a robot that follows the programmer?s code, but the life. [3] Then I read about the enormous engagement of the global software industry in the areas of Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience. [3] One rare dissenting voice calling for some sort of regulation on artificial intelligence is Elon Musk. [2]

A few relatively small nonprofit/academic institutes work on potential future risks from advanced artificial intelligence. [4] A “narrower” artificial intelligence might, for example, simply analyze scientific papers and propose further experiments, without having intelligence in other domains such as strategic planning, social influence, cybersecurity, etc. Narrower artificial intelligence might change the world significantly, to the point where the nature of the risks change dramatically from the current picture, before fully general artificial intelligence is ever developed. [4] FRANKFURT (Reuters) – Rapid advances in artificial intelligence are raising risks that malicious users will soon exploit the technology to mount automated hacking attacks, cause driverless car crashes or turn commercial drones into targeted weapons, a new report warns. [5] People have been talking about the risks of artificial intelligence for some time. [6] Developments in artificial intelligence ( AI ) have the potential to enable people around the world to flourish in hitherto unimagined ways. [7] The paper, titled “The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation,” calls this the “dual-use” attribute of AI, meaning the technology?s ability to make thousands of complex decisions every second could be used to both help or harm people, depending on the person designing the system. [8] A 100-page report written by artificial intelligence experts from industry and academia has a clear message: Every AI advance by the good guys is an advance for the bad guys, too. [8] The 100-page report, titled ” The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation,” boasts 26 experts from 14 different institutions and organizations, including Oxford University?s Future of Humanity Institute, Cambridge University?s Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, Elon Musk?s OpenAI, and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. [9]

Artificial intelligence, or AI, involves using computers to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as taking decisions or recognizing text, speech or visual images. [5] Sophia, a robot integrating the latest technologies and artificial intelligence developed by Hanson Robotics is pictured during a presentation at the “AI for Good” Global Summit at the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in Geneva, Switzerland June 7, 2017. [5] The capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms are evolving rapidly. [10] Virtually every “AI” article is about this type of AI which will be referenced here as “VAI” for Vertical Artificial Intelligence. [11] AI needs to enter the public and political discourse with real-world discussion between tech gurus and policymakers about the applications, implications and ethics of artificial intelligence. [12] While Silicon Valley enthusiasts hail the potential gains from artificial intelligence for human efficiency and the social good, Hollywood has hyped its threats. [12] Antoine Blondeau, CEO at Sentient Technologies Holdings, recently told Wired that in five years he expects “massive gains” for human efficiency as a result of artificial intelligence, especially in the fields of health care, finance, logistics and retail. [12] The capabilities of the Atlas robot are demonstrated during the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory’s Demo Day on April 6, 2013 in Boston, Massachusetts. [12] “Stuart Russell, Berkeley, Professor of Computer Science, director of the Center for Intelligent Systems, and co-author of the standard textbook Artificial Intelligence: a Modern Approach. [4]

A new report authored by over two-dozen experts on the implications of emerging technologies is sounding the alarm bells on the ways artificial intelligence could enable new forms of cybercrime, physical attacks, and political disruption over the next five to ten years. [9] TechEmergence conducts direct interviews and consensus analysis with leading experts in machine learning and artificial intelligence. [13] Potential risks from advanced artificial intelligence: the philanthropic opportunity. [7] For the purposes of this article, AGI will be used to mean a “true” artificial intelligence. [11] Apple’s recent acquisition of Vocal IQ, an artificial intelligence company that specializes in voice programs, should not on its face lead to much fanfare: It appears to be a smart business move to enhance Siri’s capabilities. [12]

As artificial intelligence systems are introduced into our core infrastructures, from hospitals to the power grid, the risks posed by errors and blind spots increase. [14] Prominent scientists and technologists like the late Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk have voiced concern for the risks associated with the accelerating development of artificial intelligence (AI). [15] Accidental risk An artificial intelligence working with incomplete data is capable of misjudging, just like a human. [16] Today, artificial intelligence (AI), which was once thought to live purely in the realm of the human imagination, is a very real and looming prospect. [17] Artificial intelligence (AI) is now a very real prospect that companies are focusing on. [16] Others, such as Margaret A. Boden of the University of Sussex and Oren Etzioni of the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, argue that human-level AI may be possible in the distant future, but that it is far too early to start worrying about it now. [18] This essay is the winner of The Economist ?s Open Future essay competition in the category of Open Progress, responding to the question: “Do the benefits of artificial intelligence outweigh the risks?” The winner is Frank L. Ruta, 24 years old, from America. [15] Artificial intelligence and machine learning promise to radically transform many industries, but they also pose significant risks — many of which are yet to be discovered, given that the technology is only now beginning to be rolled out in force. [19] Unknowable risk The real danger of well designed artificial intelligence is in its ability to reprogram and upgrade itself. [16] This isn’t the very first time Microsoft is acknowledging that it could run into some problems in connection with AI. In its most recent quarterly earnings report, the company said its actual results could differ from guidance because of “issues about the use of artificial intelligence in our offerings that may result in competitive harm, legal liability, or reputational harm,” as VentureBeat reported. [20] We will discuss all these issues and more at the first International Workshop on AI and Ethics, also being held in the U.S. within the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. [21] When we think about artificial intelligence, we tend to think of the humanized representations of machine learning like Siri or Alexa, but the truth is that AI is all around us, mostly running as a background process. [22] Bad data is big issue for artificial intelligence, and as businesses increasingly embrace AI, the stakes will only get higher. [19] Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming nearly every sector of society, from transportation to medicine to defense. [18] Today, artificial intelligence, which was once thought to live purely in the human imagination, is very real. [16] The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. [21] Once an artificial intelligence exists which is smarter than any human it will be literally impossible for any human to fully understand it. [16] ” Everything we love about civilization is a product of intelligence, so amplifying our human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the potential of helping civilization flourish like never before – as long as we manage to keep the technology beneficial [23] In a case of life imitating art, we’re faced with the question of whether artificial intelligence is dangerous and if its benefits far outweigh its potential for very serious consequences to all of humanity. [17] From pocket computers, to self-driving cars, space tourism, virtual reality, and now, artificial intelligence, humanity has blurred the lines of fantasy and fiction through innovation and curiosity. [16] From pocket computers, to self-driving cars, space tourism, virtual reality, and now, artificial intelligence, we have blurred the lines of both fantasy and fiction through wild-eyed innovators that have focused wholeheartedly on their dreams, ultimately bringing them to fruition. [17]

For those of you who are still new to this concept, artificial intelligence is a field of science which focuses on how hardware and software components of a machine can exhibit intelligent behavior. [16] When Tesla CEO, Elon Musk was asked about artificial intelligence, he said it was like “summoning a demon” who shouldn?t be called unless you can control it. [16] It?s about how we create artificial intelligence and how we keep it under control. [16] Artificial Intelligence is at the top of the technology discussions today. [16] Issues in the use of artificial intelligence in our offerings may result in reputational harm or liability. [20] All of these smart people have suggested that artificial intelligence is something to be watched carefully. [16] When Stephen Hawking was asked this same question, he cautioned the public by saying that any further advancement to artificial intelligence could be a fatal mistake. [16]

The rise of robots: forget evil AI – the real risk is far more insidious “When we look at the rise of artificial intelligence, it?s easy to get carried away with dystopian visions of sentient machines that rebel against their human creators.” [24] The Real Risks of Artificial Intelligence In the last few years, several high-profile voices, from Stephen Hawking to Elon Musk and Bill Gates, have warned that we should be more concerned about possible dangerous outcomes of super-smart AI. But for many, such fears are overblown. [24] Elon Musk warns: Artificial Intelligence is highly likely to destroy humans Is humanity headed towards the war against machines? Elon Musk, founder of Tesla and SpaceX, argues that AI is likely to become a threat to mankind. [24] Artificial Intelligence: the next digital frontier? AI and the future of business: how technology will continue to disrupt future business models. [24] Google’s AI Makes Its Own AI Children – And They’re Awesome The future is here: Google is betting big on artificial intelligence, and it?s clearly paying off. [24] Artificial Intelligence Market by Technology A global forecast to 2022 estimates the AI market could grow to more than $16 billion. [24] The Deloitte article is relevant because of the growing use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in various business processes. [25] The Rise of Artificial Intelligence in 6 Charts AI received $974M of funding as of June 2016 – a year that saw more AI patent applications than ever before. [24] The smart application of artificial intelligence (AI) offers underwriters a great opportunity to capitalize on the fast-growing array of new data sources. [26] Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionising business opportunities and is expected to have an even greater transformative effect on the world than the steam engine once did. [27] Applications Of Artificial Intelligence in B2B Marketing AI is being used more and more in B2B marketing applications. [24] Artificial Intelligence Startups list A comprehensive list of AI startups. [24] AI concept/process historical perspective A brief history of artificial intelligence from ancient history to today. [24] To some, the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) in today’s modern society stirs up memories of the film adaptation of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, eliciting both awe and horror. [28] Artificial intelligence will create new kinds of work Machine-assisted work has always been cause for anxiety when it comes to the shape and future of the labor market. [24] Artificial intelligence and robots are transforming how we work and live. [29] Wanton proliferation of artificial intelligence technologies could enable new forms of cybercrime, political disruption and even physical attacks within five years, a group of 26 experts from around the world have warned. [30] Artificial intelligence systems “learn? based on the data they are given. [14] Artificial Intelligence is on the cusp of transforming our world in ways many of us can barely imagine. [31] Reinhard Stolle, Vice President of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning for BMW, has stated (HS 15.9.2017) that industry standards, practices and legislation should be clarified to avoid unclear liability issues relating to both manufacturers and consumers. [27] Certain cautionary tales have served as a wake-up call, promoting a more comprehensive examination of the development and application of artificial intelligence. [27] He writes, “It is no part of the argument in this book that we are on the threshold of a big breakthrough in artificial intelligence, or that we can predict with any precision when such a development might occur.” [29]

These discussions span academia, business, and governments, from Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom?s concern about the existential risk to humanity posed by artificial intelligence to Tesla founder Elon Musk?s concern that artificial intelligence could trigger World War III to Vladimir Putin?s statement that leadership in AI will be essential to global power in the 21st century. [32] A key lawmaker wants to prepare the country for threats posed by artificial intelligence. [33]

The report, titled “The Rise of Artificial Intelligence: Future Outlook and Emerging Risks”, identifies both the benefits and risks associated with the increasing integration of AI in society and industry, including the insurance sector. [34] The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) and automation brings many benefits to businesses but, in the wrong hands, the technology can introduce potential risks that could counterbalance its positive impact, a report by Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty (AGCS) said. [34] The quote is one that UC Berkeley computer science professor Stuart Russell likes to share when giving talks about the future of artificial intelligence (AI). [35] What follows are key issues for thinking about the military consequences of artificial intelligence, including principles for evaluating what artificial intelligence “is” and how it compares to technological changes in the past, what militaries might use artificial intelligence for, potential limitations to the use of artificial intelligence, and then the impact of AI military applications for international politics. [32] What could artificial intelligence mean for militaries? What might militaries do with artificial intelligence, though, and why is this important for international politics? Put another way, what challenges of modern warfare might some militaries believe that artificial intelligence can help them solve? Three potential application areas of AI illustrate why militaries have interest. [32] When will militaries use artificial intelligence? A key aspect often lost in the public dialogue over AI and weapons is that militaries will not generally want to use AI-based systems unless they are appreciably better than existing systems at achieving a particular task, whether it is interpreting an image, bombing a target, or planning a battle. [32] The effect of artificial intelligence on military power and international conflict will depend on particular applications of AI for militaries and policymakers. [32] This article focuses on “narrow” artificial intelligence, or the application of AI to solve specific problems, such as AlphaGo Zero, an AI system designed to defeat the game “Go.” [32] USA TODAY reached out to a number of artificial intelligence stakeholders to get their view on AI, friend or foe. [36] Artificial intelligence (AI) is having a moment in the national security space. [32] Marketers are in a quandary when it comes to navigating the rapid rise in hype and promise surrounding artificial intelligence (AI) applications for marketing. [37] More specifically, artificial intelligence would be dangerous if humans became over-reliant on it and started embedding it in everyday life before sufficient testing had worked out the kinks. [38] “the community is starting to understand that we need to take ourselves more seriously and recognize that artificial intelligence can have a big impact on the human race.” [35] “Everything we love about civilization is a product of intelligence, so amplifying our human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the potential of helping civilization flourish like never before – as long as we manage to keep the technology beneficial.” [39] What does this really mean, especially when you move beyond the rhetoric of revolutionary change and think about the real world consequences of potential applications of artificial intelligence to militaries? Artificial intelligence is not a weapon. [32] At FLI we recognize both of these possibilities, but also the potential for an artificial intelligence system to intentionally or unintentionally cause great harm. [39] As Musk has warned, people are far more likely to be killed by artificial intelligence than nuclear war with North Korea. [39] “I think most people would be very uncomfortable with the idea that you would launch a fully autonomous system that would decide when and if to kill someone,” says Oren Etzioni, CEO of the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence and a signatory to the 2015 letter. [39] Some people who have helped build up machine learning and artificial intelligence certainly are worried, as mentioned earlier. [39] “Building up a new breed of military equipment using artificial intelligence is one thing–deciding what uses of this new power are acceptable is another.” [39] In my previous blogpost, I discussed the developments in artificial intelligence and how it really works. [39] Artificial intelligence, from a military perspective, is an enabler, much like electricity and the combustion engine. [32] Want to learn more about Artificial Intelligence and other emerging technologies like Blockchain, Cloud, and Robotic Process Automation? Check out our online training. [40] Its mission is to promote the “realization, acceptance and worship of a Godhead based on Artificial Intelligence developed through computer hardware and software.” [36] Last year, two artificial intelligence programs developed by Facebook started chatting to each other in their own language following which Facebook shut down the experiment. [38] “Some technologies are so powerful as to be irresistible,” says Greg Allen, a fellow at the Center for New American Security and co-author of a new report on the effect of artificial intelligence on national security produced by Harvard?s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. [39] If we do account for all the variables when introducing artificial intelligence to a new industry, then it will have the most beneficial effect possible. [40] While the public may still equate the notion of artificial intelligence in the military context with the humanoid robots of the Terminator franchise, there has been a significant growth in discussions about the national security consequences of artificial intelligence. [32] Artificial intelligence has the ability to change our lives for the better. [40] Artificial intelligence pits Elon Musk vs. Mark Zuckerberg. [36] Artificial intelligence today is properly known as narrow AI (or weak AI ) in so far as it is designed to perform a narrow task. [39]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Existential risk from artificial general intelligence is the hypothesis that substantial progress in artificial general intelligence (AGI) could someday result in human extinction or some other unrecoverable global catastrophe. 1 2 3 For instance, the human species currently dominates other species because the human brain has some distinctive capabilities that other animals lack. [2] Complex value systems in friendly AI. In International Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (pp. 388-393). [2]

Preparing for the Future of Intelligence : White House report that discusses the current state of AI and future applications, as well as recommendations for the government’s role in supporting AI development. [3] There are fascinating controversies where the world’s leading experts disagree, such as: AI’s future impact on the job market; if/when human-level AI will be developed; whether this will lead to an intelligence explosion; and whether this is something we should welcome or fear. [3] In dissent, evolutionary psychologist Steven Pinker argues that “AI dystopias project a parochial alpha-male psychology onto the concept of intelligence. [2] This risk is one that’s present even with narrow AI, but grows as levels of AI intelligence and autonomy increase. [3] One source of concern is that a sudden and unexpected ” intelligence explosion ” might take an unprepared human race by surprise. [2] Intelligence enables control: humans control tigers not because we are stronger, but because we are smarter. [3] Such a system could potentially undergo recursive self-improvement, triggering an intelligence explosion leaving human intellect far behind. [3]

The first myth regards the timeline: how long will it take until machines greatly supersede human-level intelligence? A common misconception is that we know the answer with great certainty. [3] Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an ‘intelligence explosion’, and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. [2] At an extreme, if morality is part of the definition of intelligence, then by definition a superintelligent machine would behave morally. [2]

The main concern of the beneficial-AI movement isn’t with robots but with intelligence itself: specifically, intelligence whose goals are misaligned with ours. [3] Nick Bostrom’s “orthogonality thesis” argues against this, and instead states that, with some technical caveats, more or less any level of “intelligence” or “optimization power” can be combined with more or less any ultimate goal. [2]

“General purpose intelligence: arguing the orthogonality thesis.” [2] “Terminal-goaled intelligences are short-lived but mono-maniacally dangerous and a correct basis for concern if anyone is smart enough to program high-intelligence and unwise enough to want a paperclip-maximizer. [2] The Open Philanthropy Project summarizes arguments to the effect that misspecified goals will become a much larger concern if AI systems achieve general intelligence or superintelligence. [2] If AI surpasses humanity in general intelligence and becomes ” superintelligent “, then this new superintelligence could become powerful and difficult to control. [2]

Nick Bostrom was the first person to suggest that an artificial general intelligence might deliberately exterminate humankind, and invention of artificial general intelligence is the explanation for the Fermi paradox. [2] Bostrom’s 2014 book om the artificial general intelligence question stimulated discussion. [2] Opinions vary both on whether and when artificial general intelligence will arrive. [2] “Artificial intelligence will not turn into a Frankenstein’s monster”. [2]

The danger exist because that kind of the artificial systems will not perceive humans as members of their society, and human moral rules will be for them. [3] The real danger could be connected to use of independent artificial subjective systems. [3] That approach to design of the artificial systems is subject of second-order cybernetics, but I am already know how to chose these goals and operational space to satisfy these requirements. [3]

Why do we assume that AI will require more and more physical space and more power when human intelligence continuously manages to miniaturize and reduce power consumption of its devices. [3] James Barrat, documentary filmmaker and author of Our Final Invention, says in a Smithsonian interview, “Imagine: in as little as a decade, a half-dozen companies and nations field computers that rival or surpass human intelligence. [2] This type of AI is also sometimes called “HLI” for Human Level Intelligence, which helps further frame what it is and of what it might be capable. [11] An AI is an example of an alien intelligence, so to speak.” [11]

This self-modification is the precursor to an intelligence explosion creating an Artificial Super Intelligence or “ASI.” [11] This type of AI is more accurately called an “AGI,” for Artificial General Intelligence. [11]

If this turns out to be the case, the fundamental AGI risks associated with the artificial problem will be much lower. [11] A more direct way to think of this AGI is that it is alien rather than artificial. [11]

We erroneously assume that we will be able to recognize artificial general intelligence as such. [11]

“First of all, we should clearly distinguish between Strong AI–artificial intelligence, which is capable of replacing the human brain–and the generally misused “AI? term that has become amorphous and ambiguous,” explained Kolochenko in a statement emailed to Gizmodo. [9] This ability would allow us to improve exponentially?–?effectively achieving a super intelligence for humans. [11] This requires an increasingly detailed understanding of our own intelligence, and the ability to likewise self-modify. [11] Blondeau further envisions the rise of “evolutionary intelligence agents,” that is, computers which “evolve by themselves – trained to survive and thrive by writing their own code–spawning trillions of computer programs to solve incredibly complex problems.” [12] The most impactful thing we can do to increase the likelihood of this best case scenario is to have developed a much more fundamental understanding of our own intelligence as a prerequisite. [11]

“An ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an “intelligence explosion,? and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. [11] He?s also founder and Chief Product Officer of Conversable, a conversational intelligence platform that facilitates commerce and customer care for companies like Whole Foods, Pizza Hut and Sam?s Club. [11] It isn’t a given that superior intelligence, coupled with a problematic goal, would lead to domination of the biosphere. [4] Musk also mentioned something similar at last week’s Vox Code Conference, noting that we should begin working on a “neural lace” that allows us add a layer of digital intelligence to our brains. [6] An AGI will, by definition, be very smart and may choose to conceal itself by intentionally failing these types of tests or by hiding itself (perhaps by just performing its mundane VAI tasks) until such a time as it is ready to reveal itself?–?most likely after an intelligence explosion. [11]

Prof. Bostrom has argued that the transition from high-level machine intelligence to AI much more intelligent than humans could potentially happen very quickly, 9 and could result in the creation of an extremely powerful agent whose objectives are misaligned with human interests. [4]

Can the risks posed by AI be completely eliminated? The short answer is no, but they are manageable, and need not be cause for alarm. [12] The risks posed by intelligent devices will soon surpass the magnitude of those associated with natural disasters. [10] Since insurers cannot completely mitigate the outsized risks posed by extreme weather events, governments of many developed countries and international organizations provide natural catastrophe relief through government agencies like the Federal Emergency Management Agency and public flood insurance programs. [10] The risk posed by VAI is not significant, but it does exist. [11]

The potential benefits are huge, since everything that civilization has to offer is a product of human intelligence; we cannot predict what we might achieve when this intelligence is magnified by the tools AI may provide, but the eradication of disease and poverty are not unfathomable. [4] We should also be as focused on understanding human intelligence as we are on AI. [11]

Such a machine intelligence might use its intellectual superiority to develop a decisive strategic advantage, and if its behaviour was for some reason incompatible with human well-being, it could then pose an existential risk. [7] Whereas today it would be relatively easy to increase the computing power available to a small project by spending a thousand times more computing power or by waiting a few years for the price of computers to fall, it is possible that the first machine intelligence to reach the human baseline will result from a large project involving pricey supercomputers, which cannot be cheaply scaled, and that Moore’s law will by then have expired. [4] If people designed a machine intelligence which was a sufficiently good general reasoner, or even better at general reasoning than people are, it might become difficult for human agents to interfere with its functioning. [7] “We put this definition in the preamble of the questionnaire: “Define a ” high-level machine intelligence ? (HLMI) as one that can carry out most human professions at least as well as a typical human.” [4] Oli Scarff/Getty Images “We want to make sure we have thought about the issues around how we partner with machines and what kind of relationship we want with them, and how to have models that are enhancing human self-esteem as we build machine intelligence,” Jacobstein said. [6]

There is a capability beyond learning, adapting, curiosity, and even general intelligence that humans do not currently have. [11]

An ASI, perhaps thousands of times smarter than any human and with instant access to all of humanity?s accrued knowledge, creates the real potential of an existential risk for us, especially if human intelligence doesn?t keep pace. [11] By understanding what makes human intelligence uniquely valuable, we help ensure our future. [11] The best argument for why we will not be able understand AGI is quite simple: we don?t understand human intelligence. [11]

Note that this does not depend on the machine intelligence gaining consciousness, or having any ill will towards   humanity. [7]

Replicating the sort of intelligence that humans display will likely require significant advances in AI. [21] There are fascinating controversies where the world?s leading experts disagree, such as: AI?s future impact on the job market; if/when human-level AI will be developed; whether this will lead to an intelligence explosion; and whether this is something we should welcome or fear. [23] This risk is one that?s present even with narrow AI, but grows as levels of AI intelligence and autonomy increase. [23]

To understand what is at stake, consider the distinction between “narrow AI” and “artificial general intelligence” (AGI). [18] At a high level, a distinction is made between narrow AI and artificial general intelligence (AGI). [15]

Most “artificial intelligence? today is quite stupid when compared to a human–a machine learning algorithm might be able to wallop a human at a specific task, such as playing a game of Go, and still struggle at far more mundane tasks like telling a turtle apart from a gun. [22]

The result of this two-day conference was a sweeping 100-page report published today that delves into the risks posed by AI in the wrong hands, and strategies for mitigating these risks. [22] Looking ahead, some efforts to address the risks posed by AGI can piggyback on policy initiatives already put in place for narrow AI, such as the new bipartisan AI Caucus launched by John Delaney, a Democratic congressman from Maryland. [18]

These include intelligence amplification, strategising, social manipulation, hacking, technology development and economic productivity. [15] Cori Crider, a U.S. lawyer, investigates the national security state and the ethics of technology in intelligence. [41]

In another interview during Vanity Fair’s New Establishment Summit, Musk voiced other opinions about AI, saying that “most people don’t understand how quickly machine intelligence is advancing. [17] Any AI capable of self-improvement is likely to eventually surpass the constraints of human intelligence. [16] The U.S. doesn?t have deep human intelligence sources in Yemen, so it relies heavily on massive sweeps of signals data. [41]

Not only had machines taken over, but they traveled back in time with the intention of wiping out those who posed an existential threat to their existence. [17]

The real risk posed by AI – at least in the near term – is much more insidious. [24] As Bostrom?s data would have already predicted, somewhat more than half (67.5 percent) of Etzioni?s respondents plumped for “more than 25 years” to achieve superintelligence–after all, more than half of Bostrom?s respondents gave dates beyond 25 years for a mere 50 percent probability of achieving mere human-level intelligence. [29] There?s a reason why I selected the quote that appears on top. One of the appeals of AI, in addition to its ability to simulate human intelligence, is that it may be less prone to errors and flaws than human reasoning. [25] More than half of the respondents said they believe there is a substantial (at least 15 percent) chance that the effect of human-level machine intelligence on humanity will be “on balance bad” or “extremely bad (existential catastrophe).” [29]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(41 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (26) Existential risk from artificial general intelligence – Wikipedia

2. (21) Newco Shift | The Real Risks of AI

3. (19) Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence – Future of Life Institute

4. (13) How Dangerous is Artificial Intelligence? | Ricks Cloud

5. (12) The 2018 Ultimate Guide to Artificial Intelligence | OpenView Labs

6. (10) The promise and peril of military applications of artificial intelligence – Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

7. (9) What are the risks in developing AI and how should we contain them?

8. (8) Potential Risks from Advanced Artificial Intelligence | Open Philanthropy Project

9. (7) How We Can Overcome Risks Posed by Artificial Intelligence | Time

10. (5) Is Artificial Intelligence Dangerous?

11. (5) Existential risks from artificial intelligence – Effective Altruism Concepts

12. (4) Do the benefits of artificial intelligence outweigh the risks? – Open Progress: Essay competition winner

13. (4) How to prevent artificial-intelligence-driven machines from taking over the world – MarketWatch

14. (4) Yes, We Are Worried About the Existential Risk of Artificial Intelligence – MIT Technology Review

15. (3) We Need to Approach AI Risks Like We Do Natural Disasters

16. (3) What risks does artificial intelligence pose? | World Economic Forum

17. (3) Top Researchers Write 100-Page Report Warning About AI Threat to Humanity – Motherboard

18. (3) The Benefits of Artificial Intelligence | Udacity

19. (3) Ethical artificial intelligence as a competitive advantage VTT

20. (3) Artificial intelligence pits Elon Musk vs. Mark Zuckerberg. Who’s right?

21. (3) Artificial Intelligence Could Vastly Improve Our Work Lives

22. (3) Artificial intelligence poses risks of misuse by hackers, researchers say | Reuters

23. (3) 4 AI risks and potential solutions – Business Insider

24. (3) https://gizmodo.com/new-report-on-ai-risks-paints-a-grim-future-1823191087

25. (2) AI Now Institute

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27. (2) Microsoft warns about risks related to A.I., web-connected devices

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29. (2) AI and automation can be a pro and con for businesses – Allianz | Insurance Business

30. (2) Robots With Us, Or Against Us? Rethinking the Risks Posed by Artificial Intelligence | California Magazine

31. (2) What are the dangers of artificial intelligence? – Quora

32. (2) Weaponised AI is a clear and present danger | analysis | Hindustan Times

33. (2) AI experts list the real dangers of artificial intelligence — Quartz

34. (1) Here are some of the ways experts think AI might screw with us in the next five years – The Verge

35. (1) Risks of AI – What Researchers Think is Worth Worrying About –

36. (1) Poor data can undermine insurers? AI projects – Accenture Insurance Blog

37. (1) Do the Benefits of Artificial Intelligence Outweigh the Risks? | IEEE Innovation at Work

38. (1) Growth of AI could boost cybercrime and security threats, report warns | Technology | The Guardian

39. (1) Artificial Intelligence Poses Big Threat to Society, Warn Leading Scientists

40. (1) GOP rep introduces bill to address national security risks of artificial intelligence | TheHill

41. (1) Simple Questions to Assess AI Risks and Benefits – Smarter With Gartner