What Does A Country Need To Develop

What Does A Country Need To Develop
What Does A Country Need To Develop Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Costa_Rica
C O N T E N T S:


  • We’re writing about countries that need to develop better health care systems, better schools, better ways to bring water and electricity to people.(More…)
  • For now; what does Africa need to develop and prosper?(More…)
  • If you take a human capital view of economic development, it’s fairly straightforward: if you invest in people’s education, then incomes will develop. But that presupposes that people are going to get jobs and that there’s something that’s actually driving the development.(More…)
  • To build a balanced economy, provide consumer buying power, and develop arteries of commerce that will absorb the production of these industries, contractors and labor in those countries should be used.(More…)
  • As countries have strengthened their capital markets they have attracted more investment capital, which can enable a broader entrepreneurial class to develop, facilitate a more efficient allocation of capital, encourage international risk sharing, and foster economic growth.(More…)


  • In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data, considering the two-category distinction outdated. 11 Instead, the World Bank classifies countries into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita, re-set each year on July 1.(More…)
  • The African Development Bank argues as Africa offers a diverse range of exports, trade within the content can only be complimentary: for instance, resource-rich nations can trade them for the supplies of countries with more agricultural produce, whereas countries with more developed manufacturing sectors are primed for growth – if only they can access the larger African market.(More…)
  • Given that women?s contraceptive behaviors typically change over time, and that use has increased rapidly in countries with diverse cultures and levels of development, there is tremendous potential for helping all women meet their contraceptive needs. (More…)



We’re writing about countries that need to develop better health care systems, better schools, better ways to bring water and electricity to people. [1] It could assume a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow. 22 Alternative measurements such as gross national happiness have been suggested as important indicators. [2] Discussed below are five easy steps to help develop a country and guide the growth of future international trading partners. [3]

For now; what does Africa need to develop and prosper? It needs to rally against the exploitation of its resources by foreign powers, open itself up to more favourable trade and development programmes with Latin American allies and boost import and export opportunities to Africa, from Africa. [4] Unlike other colonial and slave trade powers Brazil has openly expressed a compulsion to develop Africa; in 2010, then-President Lula claimed that Brazil “would not be what it is today without the participation of millions of Africans who helped build our country” and that it could never repay its “historic debt” to Africa. [4] A country can never develop a sound economy if the government is corrupt. [5] It is wrong to think that a country cannot develop unless it has a state like that of Japan or Sweden. [6]

For instance, they may discuss and come to informal conclusions about oil consumption, the world’s environmental issues and their economic impact, how to help develop Africa and other regions, and so forth. [7] For Africa to truly develop and prosper, it must level the playing field. [4]

If you take a human capital view of economic development, it’s fairly straightforward: if you invest in people’s education, then incomes will develop. But that presupposes that people are going to get jobs and that there’s something that’s actually driving the development. [8] Collecting the statistics “can present a challenge because not every country does a good job of estimating GDP,” says Neil Fantom, who leads the World Bank’s Open Data initiative. [1]

To build a balanced economy, provide consumer buying power, and develop arteries of commerce that will absorb the production of these industries, contractors and labor in those countries should be used. [9] Both increasing and restructuring aid to truly provide developing countries the tools and means to develop for themselves, for example, would help recipients of aid, not just the donors. [9]

States need to learn from experience to develop new institutions (such as hybrid legal systems) that help them solve collective action problems. [10] The ability of the national economy to benefit from tourism depends on the availability of investment to develop the necessary infrastructure and on its ability to supply the needs of tourists. [11]

With more Internet and software firms operating visibly, more opportunities may develop to identify ways the government could save money and reduce corruption via the use of IT systems in government processes–perhaps even offering a return on investment of 41%, as achieved in the Public Finance Management System project. [12]

As countries have strengthened their capital markets they have attracted more investment capital, which can enable a broader entrepreneurial class to develop, facilitate a more efficient allocation of capital, encourage international risk sharing, and foster economic growth. [13] The following are the eight Millennium Development Goals: 1. to eliminate extreme poverty and hunger; 2. to achieve global primary education; 3. to empower women and promote gender equality; 4. to reduce child mortality; 5. to promote maternal health; 6. to fight malaria, HIV/AIDS, and other diseases; 7. to promote environmental sustainability; and 8. to develop a universal partnership for development. [14]


In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data, considering the two-category distinction outdated. 11 Instead, the World Bank classifies countries into four groups, based on Gross National Income per capita, re-set each year on July 1. [2] A developing country (or a low and middle income country ( LMIC ), less developed country, less economically developed country ( LEDC ), or underdeveloped country ) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. 2 However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. [2]

There is no established convention for the designation of “developed” and “developing” countries or areas in the United Nations system. [2] The classification of countries as “developing” implies that other countries are developed. [2]

This applies to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa or Small Island Developing States. [2]

The challenge at the Addis Ababa meeting is to deliver for both of these sorts of countries, with their very different needs. The conference needs true leadership to knock heads together until both wealthy and poor nations agree to take action. [15] Tanzania is a classic example of why the wealthiest countries need to prioritize aid to the poorest by committing to give 50 percent of their aid to the least-developed countries. [15] The youth need education to be academically and technically ready to explore the boundaries of knowledge and technology for their own benefit and that of their countries. [16]

The economic strategies of successful countries were influenced by leaders who were committed to rapid development. [16] There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development. [2] Some countries in Africa are well placed to follow the path of development pioneered by a number of Asian countries. [16] The poorer countries must agree to mobilize more public and private domestic revenues for national development. [15] Less-developed countries (LDCs) are low-income countries that face significant structural challenges to sustainable development. [17] The UN has developed the Human Development Index (HDI), a compound indicator of some of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available. [2] In recent years, economists have used the terms “developed countries” to denote First World and “emerging markets” to refer to Third World countries. [16] Examining the economic trajectory of some countries between 1960 and 2016 suggests that it can take about 25 years to turn a nation from Third World to First World. [16] Less-developed countries are highly vulnerable to economic and environmental shocks and have fewer human assets than other nations. [17]

By empowering women and equalizing academic opportunity, countries can increase incomes by an average of 23 percent. [3] About 892 million people, or 12 per cent of the global population, practiced open defecation instead of using toilets in 2016. 50 Seventy-six per cent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries. [2] There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. 3 A nation’s GDP per capita compared with other nations can also be a reference point. [2] These are the countries where international aid matters the most. [15] As Senegalese entrepreneur Magatte Wade recently explained, the bulk of taxpayer money filtering in from more affluent countries does not actually pay for African or Asian aid partly due to deep flaws in the regulations and in large part because of theft. [3]

The three-world model arose during the Cold War to define countries aligned with NATO (the First World ), the Communist Bloc (the Second World, although this term was less used), or neither (the Third World). [2] It is a debate of particular relevance in Africa, which is home to a large number of countries in the Third World category. [16] Third World countries are characterised by a big agrarian sector and a huge proportion of the population living in rural areas. [16]

First World countries are highly urbanised, and citizens enjoy universal access to health, education and housing. [16] Find out which countries have the most restrictive import tariffs on international products, based on data collected by the. [17] In the 47 years that the LDC category has existed, only five countries have graduated: Botswana, Cabo Verde, Equatorial Guinea, Maldives and Samoa. [17] Discover which countries have shown the most growth since 1980, and which have shown the more ignominious fizzle and pop. [17] Here are the territories and countries that use the U.S. dollar as their official or quasi official currency. [17] Some countries in Africa are well placed to make this transition. [16] We believe that these countries can emulate the “Asian miracle”, but only if governments take decisive steps to achieve certain outcomes. [16] In some cities, especially in countries in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan, slums are not just marginalized neighborhoods holding a small population; slums are widespread, and are home to a large part of urban population. [2] Within decades, many Asian countries made the transition from Third World status to First World status. [16]

To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word “developing”, international organizations have started to use the term less economically developed country for the poorest nations–which can, in no sense, be regarded as developing. [2] There is criticism for using the term “developing country”. [2]

Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social and political development of developing countries. [2] These outflows strip developing countries of an important source of revenue and finance for development. [18]

Three billion people in developing countries across the globe rely on biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, dung, and crop residue, as their domestic cooking fuel. 58 Because much of the cooking is carried out indoors in environments that lack proper ventilation, millions of people, primarily poor women and children face serious health risks. [2] “The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in developing countries: knowledge, gaps, and data needs”. [2] What does Addis Ababa hold for Nigeria? First, along with other developing countries, it needs to commit at the conference to a new compact with its citizens. [15]

Under the presidency of Robert McNamara, the World Bank adopted a “basic human needs” approach to its development lending. [19]

Another important indicator is the sectoral changes that have occurred since the stage of development of the country. [2] The term could imply inferiority of this kind of country compared with a developed country. [2] Use of the term “market” instead of “country” usually indicates specific focus on the characteristics of the countries’ capital markets as opposed to the overall economy. [2]

Over the past few decades since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has been used interchangeably with developing countries, but the concept has become outdated in recent years as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world. [2] Climate vulnerability in developing countries occurs in four impact areas: health, extreme weather, habitat loss, and economic stress. 67 5 A report by the Climate Vulnerability Monitor in 2012 estimated that climate change causes 400,000 deaths on average each year, mainly due to hunger and communicable diseases in developing countries. 69 : 17 These effects are most severe for the world?s poorest countries. [2] In 2012, the last year of recorded data, developing countries received a total of $1.3tn, including all aid, investment, and income from abroad. [18] In 2012, developing countries lost $700bn through trade misinvoicing, which outstripped aid receipts that year by a factor of five. [18]

Since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries. 4 Developing countries include, in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market: newly industrialized countries, emerging markets, frontier markets, least developed countries. [2] Over the last few decades, global population growth has largely been driven by developing countries, which often have higher birth rates (higher fertility rate) than developed countries. [2] People in developing countries usually have a lower life expectancy than people in developed countries. [2] In 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that “1 in 3 people, or 2.4 billion, are still without sanitation facilities” while 663 million people still lack access to safe and clean drinking water. 48 49 The estimate in 2017 by JMP states that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation. 50 The majority of these people live in developing countries. [2] Several forms of violence against women are more prevalent in developing countries than in other parts of the world. [2] Female genital mutilation is another form of violence against women which is still occurring in many developing countries. [2] The effects of global warming such as extreme weather events, droughts, floods, biodiversity loss, disease and sea level rise are dangerous for humans and the environment. 67 Developing countries are the least able to adapt to climate change (and are therefore called “highly climate vulnerable”) due to their relatively low levels of wealth, technology, education, infrastructure and access to resources. [2] The GFI report finds that increasingly large net outflows have caused economic growth rates in developing countries to decline, and are directly responsible for falling living standards. [18] The following, including the Four Asian Tigers and new Eurozone European countries, were considered developing countries and regions until the ’90s, and are now listed as advanced economies (developed countries and regions) by the IMF. [2] “The world is underinvesting in infrastructure, especially in developing countries where there are the largest unmet needs,” he wrote recently. [3] Climate stress is likely to add to existing migration patterns in developing countries and beyond but is not expected to generate entirely new flows of people. 73 : 110 A report by World Bank in 2018 estimated that around 143 million people in three regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America ) could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change. [2] Developing countries may not be able to afford electric or semi-electric cars, but their people can conserve both money and oxygen by carpooling, riding bikes and reusing grocery bags. [3] This is particularly relevant for people in developing countries. [2] Developing countries have forked out over $4.2tn in interest payments alone since 1980 – a direct cash transfer to big banks in New York and London, on a scale that dwarfs the aid that they received during the same period. [18] For every $1 of aid that developing countries receive, they lose $24 in net outflows. [18] Some of the very countries that so love to tout their foreign aid contributions are the ones enabling mass theft from developing countries. [18] Another big contributor is the income that foreigners make on their investments in developing countries and then repatriate back home. [18] Globally, 4.3 million deaths were attributed to exposure to IAP in developing countries in 2012, almost all in low and middle income countries. [2]

Rich countries aren?t developing poor countries; poor countries are developing rich ones. [18] They tallied up all of the financial resources that get transferred between rich countries and poor countries each year: not just aid, foreign investment and trade flows (as previous studies have done) but also non-financial transfers such as debt cancellation, unrequited transfers like workers? remittances, and unrecorded capital flight (more of this later). [18] Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries, underdeveloped nations, and non-industrialized nations. [2] Therefore, the least developed countries are the poorest of the developing countries. [2] Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard. 57 A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass. [2] “Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge”. [2] UNICEF. ^ “Environment and health in developing countries”. [2] Undernutrition is more common in developing countries. 42 Certain groups have higher rates of undernutrition, including women–in particular while pregnant or breastfeeding — children under five years of age, and the elderly. [2] Access to water, sanitation and hygiene ( WASH ) services is at very low levels in many developing countries. [2] Basically, corporations – foreign and domestic alike – report false prices on their trade invoices in order to spirit money out of developing countries directly into tax havens and secrecy jurisdictions, a practice known as ” trade misinvoicing “. [18] Multinational companies also steal money from developing countries through “same-invoice faking”, shifting profits illegally between their own subsidiaries by mutually faking trade invoice prices on both sides. [18] Developing countries are, in general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low standard of living. [2]

Instead of pouring money into resources, shipping and energy costs, she says, developed countries ought to invest in local African businesses so that the people can more effectively improve their own circumstances without having to resort to the whims of potentially corrupt and incompetent leaders. [3] Africans need to learn to direct effort and resources with a long-term goal. [16] The wealthy nations must agree to deliver more foreign assistance and send that assistance to those that need it most. [15] To meet basic needs in the short term, overseas assistance remains crucial. [15]

Terms of trade represent the ratio between a countrys export. [17] Aligning with people who have considerable political power and pathetically few scruples seldom benefits the poorer country. [3] Today, just 64 percent of primary-aged children are enrolled in school, and the country accounts for a quarter of all child deaths in Africa. [15] The country has vast oil reserves, which account for three-quarters of total government revenues. [15] An emerging market economy is one in which the country is becoming. [17] In the 1950s the country was an agrarian economy with the same living standard as Congo. [16]

It is no less important for the richer of the poor countries those approaching middle-income levels. [15] Developed countries, most economically developed countries, industrialized nations are the opposite end of the spectrum. [2] In many cases they started off equal or lower in GDP per capita when compared with a number of African countries. [16] W e have long been told a compelling story about the relationship between rich countries and poor countries. [18] What they discovered is that the flow of money from rich countries to poor countries pales in comparison to the flow that runs in the other direction. [18]

The African Development Bank argues as Africa offers a diverse range of exports, trade within the content can only be complimentary: for instance, resource-rich nations can trade them for the supplies of countries with more agricultural produce, whereas countries with more developed manufacturing sectors are primed for growth – if only they can access the larger African market. [4] Some countries have short circuited this problem because they have mineral wealth; for instance, OPEC countries have developed rapidly because their oil reserves are of great value to the rest of the world, and the oil companies (some of which have annual profits that rival the GDPs of third world countries!) are wealthy enough to move in and build the necessary infrastructure for their own use, giving the entire country a jump start on the development process. [5]

I have to say I respectfully disagree with 9’s statements; the U.S. has been around for less than 300 years, but is far more developed than many countries that have existed much longer, such as India, Turkey, Thailand, Russia, and Poland, all of which are on the IMF’s list of developing and emerging countries. [5] South Africa proves to be a significant regional power for its bilateral trade standings within the bloc, yet the continent?s strongest trade relations are dominated either by developed Western countries or rising superpowers of the developing world. [4]

There are countries like Mexico which are typically labeled as “developing” but which have income levels much higher than those of other “developing” countries such as Benin. [5] The second economic category is developing nations, which is a broad term that includes countries that are less industrialized and have lower per capita income levels. [20] The first economic category is developed nations, which can generally be categorized as countries that are more industrialized and have higher per capita income levels. [20] When discussing economic inequality on the global scale, it is important to know that countries are divided into two categories based on their per capita income, which is the average income per person. [20]

This creates a chicken-or-the-egg scenario, as only countries with a stable economic base can afford to build roads, bridges, railways, water treament plants, schools, hospitals, etc.; however a country lacking those things is unlikely to produce sufficient exportable goods to be able to pay for them. [5]

There are currently 47 countries on the list of LDCs which is reviewed every three years by the Committee for Development (CDP). [21] The HDR evenly assigns one quarter of all countries in the index to each of the four levels of development. [22] The rapid development of the BRIC countries from 1980 to 2011 is reflected in HDI increases of 70 percent for China, 59 percent for India and 30.8 percent for Brazil. [22] The development indicators of some very high HDI countries like Hungary and Argentina are closer to those of the group of high HDI countries. [22] The most recent version of the Prosperity Index covers 110 countries, whereas the HDI evaluates development indicators for 187 countries. [22] The development efforts by countries like Brazil and Mexico had some serious limitations. [6]

Countries of Africa and Latin America have called a series of meetings on drought and desertification on the basis that South-South cooperation “is an imperative element for combating desertification and poverty in developing countries?. [4] The countries listed as less developed are found in eastern, western, and central Africa, India, and other countries in southern Asia. [20] Of course, the problem is that they now have to compete with countries with very highly developed state capacity, which did not exist in the 19th century. [6] In light of this, perhaps we should regard such countries not as underdeveloped, but rather as appropriately developed. [23] Other European island countries, namely Ireland, Cyprus, and Malta, have developed economies as well. [7] Other countries formerly under Soviet influence that also have developed economies are Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Hungary. [7] Some of the most recognizable countries that are considered moderately developed include Mexico, China, Indonesia, Jordan, Thailand, Fiji, and Ecuador. [20]

In 2012, there were around 0.8 billion people who lived in these countries and survived on very little income. [20] In 2012, the combined populations of these countries accounted for around 1.3 billion people. [20] As various people have already pointed out, economically undeveloped countries tend to have in common a lack of economic development (hope that doesn’t sound tautological!). [5]

These are the world’s leading industrialized countries whose leaders meet informally and discuss important global economic issues. [7] Based on economics, the world has been divided into two types of countries. [20]

Despite the recent growth in ties, African and Latin American countries alike remain more disposed towards the global North, with bilateral trade between the two blocs making up small overall shares. [4] Countries by Gross National Income (GNI) A list of world countries and regions in comparison of their gross national income based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita in int’l Dollars. [24] In many of these countries, the average per capita income is even lower, at around $500. [20] Many countries have achieved similar life expectancy with a mere fraction of this income. [23]

The HDR classifies countries into four levels of development based on their HDIs: “very high human development,” “high human development,” “medium human development” and “low human development.” [22] For the lower levels of development, HDI losses due to inequality range from 12.2 to 43.5 percent for “medium human development” countries and 27.4 to 41.6 percent for “low human development” countries. [22] Even for so-called “very high human development” countries, inequality adjustments result in HDI losses ranging from a low of 5.0 percent for the Czech Republic to a high of 19.5 percent for Argentina. [22]

People in developing countries strive to move up the ladder of development in order both to meet basic needs and to have the opportunity to lead richer, more fulfilling lives. [22] The developing countries and development agencies take into consideration the status of the recipient countries for loan, grant etc. The LDCs or other low-income countries (LICs) get loans at easier terms and conditions compared to the loan provided under the same conditions to a middle-income country (MIC). [25] It is debatable whether a better approach to classifying developed and developing countries might consist of assigning a range of scores to each level of development. [22] The point at which developing countries become “developed” comes down to a judgment call or statistical line in the sand that is often based on a combination of development indicators. [22] The definition of development is fundamental to the comparison of developed and developing countries. [22] Development refers to developing countries working their up way up the ladder of economic performance, living standards, sustainability and equality that differentiates them from so-called developed countries. [22]

As of 2010, the list of developed nations included the United States, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Scandinavia, Singapore, Taiwan, Israel, countries of Western Europe, and some Arab states. [20] The reason why countries like Korea and Japan had to be so harsh with their workers was because the only thing they could export was cheap labor embodied in labor-intensive products. [6] Few countries are fortunate enough to maintain a high standard of living solely on the basis of natural resources, especially in the long term, when technological progress may come up with synthetic substitutes for their natural resources. [6] It is estimated that these countries are going to increase by 44% over the next 40 years. [20] The CDP reviews the list of LDCs every three years and makes recommendations on the inclusion and graduation of eligible countries. [25]

Even many middle-income countries can still use relatively high tariffs (30 percent or so). [6] These countries are found in eastern, western, and central Africa, India, and other countries in southern Asia. [20] Members of the Africa-South America Summit have further pledged to rally together against diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Several Latin American countries – most notably Cuba – have donated supplies, money and medical expertise to combat Ebola in West Africa. [4] What really sets Brazil apart from other Latin American countries is its shared cultural and historical ties with Africa. [4]

Successful countries are the ones whose firms and government have done these things well. [6]

This is a point that I emphasize in the book: allowing developing countries to use policies that suit them, rather than forcing them to adopt blanket pro-market policies, would promote economic growth in those countries, which in turn would bring more business to rich country corporations and employees in the long run. [6] Chang: When they were developing countries, today?s rich nations were grossly lacking in state capacity, even by today?s developing country standards. [6] Many developing countries have achieved quite impressive development records in the last half century without having such a state. [6]

If the South had won the Civil War and liberalized U.S. trade, manufacturing development would have been retarded and the country would today look more like Argentina than the economic force it has become. [6] In recent times Bangladesh has met the criteria for graduation from the status of least developed country (LDC) for the first time, according to the Bangladesh mission at the UN. The CDP measures the LDC category on the basis of per capita income, GNI, a human assets index (HAI) and an economic vulnerability index (EVI). [25] To achieve its growth aspiration of becoming upper-middle income country by 2021, the country needs urgently to implement structural reforms, expand investments in human capital, increase female labor force participation, and raise productivity through increased global value chain integration. [25] Just as Africa is a collection of different societies, landscapes and foreign relations, the developmental needs differ by the country. [4] Considering the country also has some of the world?s darkest rates of malnutrition and child mortality, the hope is that deals on such a scale could supercharge DRC?s ability to provide for its most basic needs. It?s sad to say then that the investigation estimated that the price paid for the mining rights was at least $1.36 billion below their market value. [4]

We should look at societies where people live long and happy lives at relatively low levels of income and consumption not as basket cases that need to be developed towards western models, but as exemplars of efficient living. [23] The development progress underlying graduation should, in principle, give rise to a progressive reduction in the need for ODA and other concessional financing during the course of the pre-graduation period. [25] Developing countries need pragmatic states that can think for themselves. [6] If they want to move forward, developing countries need to earn foreign exchange to pay for their imports of advanced technologies (e.g., machines, technology licensing royalties). [6]

Developed countries are characterized by comparatively high standards of living where many people have enough money to buy the things they need. [7]

As Bangladesh, a country of more than 160 million people and an economy worth $686.5 billion, enters a stipulated six-year graduation period to become a “developing country” by 2024, policymakers expect a few rough patches ahead. [25] People that live in a country with a high standard of living, a highly developed economy, an advanced infrastructure and industrial activity, and relatively low poverty rates can be said to be living in a developed country. [7] More often than not, when people think of a developed country they tend to think of those comprising the Group of Seven (G7). [7] In general, the per capita income of a developed country is above $12,000 and has an average of $38,000. [20] If a small country has a total national income of $800,000 and a population of 20 people, then the per capita income is $40,000. [20] The per capita income is calculated by taking the total national income for a country and dividing it by the number of people that live in the country. [20]

The transition process has to be smooth in a gradual and predictable manner so that it does not disrupt the development progress of the graduating country. [25] That’s likely because we live in a developed country, with a highly developed economy, advanced industrial activity and infrastructure, and a relatively low poverty rate. [7] As is Athens, the capital of another developed country, Greece. [7] To be considered a developed nation, a country generally has a per capita income around or above $12,000. [20] Do you know what a developed country is? This lesson offers a definition and gives a brief overview of the seven major developed countries, as well as other notable developed countries of the world. [7] Least developed countries (LDCs) are low-income countries confronting severe structural impediments to sustainable development. [21] Evans: In Bad Samaritans you make a strong, well-documented argument that the current policy prescriptions imposed by the developed countries of the North and the global institutions they control are not consistent with either the historical experience of developed countries themselves or with the experience of more contemporary cases of successful development, such as Korea or Taiwan. [6]

Countries of the First World Countries of the Second World Countries of the Third World Countries by GNI per capita and PPP Rich and poor countries Categories of development of countries in the world today. [24] What does this mean for our theory of development? Economist Peter Edward argues that instead of pushing poorer countries to “catch up” with rich ones, we should be thinking of ways to get rich countries to “catch down” to more appropriate levels of development. [23]

In addition to low income levels, developing countries are also characterized as having high population growth rates. [20] The table below presents HDI data from the 2011 HDR for a selection of developed and developing countries. [22] Some organizations have devised other approaches to evaluating the progress of developed and developing countries. [22]

One thing that developing countries usually have in common is their systematic oppression of women and girls. [5] Developing countries can impose trade restrictions of up to eight years on the grounds of balance of payments problems or for infant industry protection. [6] By 2050, it is predicted that over 86% of the human population will live in developing countries. [20]

Tragically, many poor countries that are least able to support more people in terms of resources, education and medical care also have the highest population growth rates. [5] In developed countries, people consume large amounts of natural resources per person and are estimated to consume almost 88% of the world’s resources. [20] Under WTO rules, the “least developed countries” (LDCs), roughly defined as countries with less than $1,000 per capita income, have no upper limits to their tariffs and can use export subsidies, which other countries cannot. [6] In general, less developed countries have a per capita income of less than $1,000 and an average of $500. [20] Moderately developed countries have an approximate per capita income of between $1,000 and $12,000. [20] The average per capita income for moderately developed countries is around $4,000. [20]

While it found that Sub-Saharan African countries in 2015 received $161.6 billion in loans, aid and payments for goods, they lost $203 billion due to tax avoidance by multinational corporations, debt payments and extraction of natural resources, creating a $41.4 billion deficit. In 2016, the IMF reported Africa as having the lowest GDP per capita ($1,809 USD) out of every continent: over three times less than the next lowest, Asia. [4] For African countries, it means shunning trade and investment from companies that pressure African nations into significantly lowering taxes or that totally avoid paying their dues through the use of havens. [4]

Brazil has one of the globe?s largest populations from African descent, a demographic born from dark history: out of the 11 million Africans brought to the Americas during the slave trade period an estimated 4.9 million went to Brazil, making it the country with the most slaves in the world. [4] When the Korean government applied for a loan to build a modern steel mill in the late 1960s, everyone thought it was a crazy thing to do for a country whose main exports were fi sh, seaweed and wigs made with human hair. [6] While country averages can indicate overall progress, they can also obscure large numbers of people who may have been left out of the gains enjoyed by others. [22] The point is that these natural resources benefit a country in the long run only insofar as the export earnings they bring in are used to diversify and upgrade the economy away from those very resources. [6] If the country maintains its position in all three categories for the next six years, it will eventually graduate from the LDC bloc by 2024. [25] Once you lose it and try to replicate (a highly idealized version of) what the rich country states do, it is not a big surprise that you do not succeed. [6] Take a couple of examples: South Africa?s potential mineral wealth is estimated to be about $2.5 trillion, while the largely untapped reserves of the Democratic Republic of the Congo – a country with a GDP per capita among the lowest in the world have been valued at a towering $24 trillion. [4] The country is at an important juncture, when with the right policies and timely action, it can move up within the middle-income bracket. [25]

More progressive types tell us that we need to shift some of the yields of growth from the richer segments of the population to the poorer ones, evening things out a bit. [23] To do so, Bangladesh will need to remove the barriers to higher growth posed by low access to reliable and affordable power, poor transportation infrastructure, limited availability of serviced land, uncertain and complex business regulation, rapid urbanization and vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters, among others. [25] Orthodox economists insist that all we need is yet more growth. [23]

How much do we really need to live long and happy lives? In the U.S., life expectancy is 79 years and GDP per capita is $53,000. [23] Bangladesh needs to create more and better jobs for the 2 million youths entering the job market every year. [25]

Governments need to be realistic about the industries they pick and not to try to “jump” too far. [6] Governments need to back these efforts up with policy measures — e.g., tax breaks or accelerated depreciation allowances for equipment investment, subsidies for R&D and training, mandatory training requirement for large firms and provision of training through public institutes for smaller firms. [6]

Maybe we need to start calling on rich countries to justify their excesses. [23]

You argue that many currently developing countries have more state capacity than the original industrializers did at the time they industrialized, but presumably state capacity still remains an important determinant of developmental success. [6] In comparison, today?s developing countries have relatively high state capacity. [6] In practice most developing countries do not even get to use up all the policy space they have. [6] It is kind of obvious, but developing countries lack the advantage that developed countries such as the U.S. and European countries have of being developed for a long period of time. [5] Developing countries lack this stability, and the instability that often characterises developing countries means that they face many more challenges than developed countries. [5]

One diverse thing is the government and religious systems that are in place in various developing countries. [5] The most common problem developing countries have is unstable or corrupt governments. [5] Chang: In my view, there are two important things that industrial policymakers in developing countries should bear in mind. [6] The UNDP?s Human Development Index (HDI) is probably the most widely recognized tool for measuring development and comparing the progress of developing countries. [22]

The populations of developed countries are generally more stable, and it is estimated that they will grow at a steady rate of around 7% over the next 40 years. [20] In addition to these specific countries, many others from Central America, South America, northern and southern Africa, southeastern Asia, Eastern Europe, the former U.S.S.R., and many Arab states, are all considered moderately developed countries. [20] Other notable developed countries include the many nations of Europe, ranging from Ireland and Poland to Austria and Cyprus, to Denmark and Greece, to Norway and Romania, as well as the nations of Australia and New Zealand that are outside of Europe. [7] Developing nations can be divided further into moderately developed or less developed countries. [20] Less developed countries are the second type of developing nations. [20]

This category is divided into moderately developed and less developed countries. [20] Some common developed countries include the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, Israel, and countries of Western Europe. [20]

When multinational companies export commodities like oil and metals out of Africa, the ones that benefit the most tend not to be African countries. [4] Diplomatic relations are promising, yet with room to grow: 32 African countries have some kind of political representation in Latin America while 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries enjoy the same status in Africa. [4]

Given that women?s contraceptive behaviors typically change over time, and that use has increased rapidly in countries with diverse cultures and levels of development, there is tremendous potential for helping all women meet their contraceptive needs. [26] Unplanned births tell only part of the story, however; levels of unintended pregnancy are higher in all countries, to varying degrees, because some pregnancies end in abortion. 30 If all women who wanted to avoid a pregnancy were to use a modern contraceptive method, abortions as well as unplanned births would drop dramatically. 2 Reducing unmet need is also an important strategy to lower fertility rates in countries with rapid population growth. [26]

To set the stage for exploring the reasons underlying unmet need, this section and Tables 1-5 present levels of contraceptive use and unmet need in the 52 countries studied, along with some of the background characteristics of these women. [26] They said the phrase “developing country” in Swahili would be stated as “countries that are growing.” [1]

The populations of women surveyed in the 52 countries account for 66% of all women of reproductive age in the developing regions of the world excluding China. [26] Concerns about side effects and health risks have become more prevalent reasons for nonuse in the majority of countries in this analysis, possibly because more women have been exposed to the real side effects of contraceptive methods or to misinformation about the problems associated with use. 11,17,34,39 There are some exceptions in each region where the prevalence of this reason has remained the same or declined. [26] Prior contraceptive use among women who cite opposition ranges widely among the 48 countries with data on this question–from 4% in Burkina Faso to 82% in Colombia ( Table 9 ) Compared with married women with unmet need who cite any reason for nonuse, those who cite opposition are less likely to have ever used a method in nearly all countries. [26] In 21 of the 52 countries studied, side effects, health risks and inconvenience are the most commonly cited group of reasons given by married women with unmet need for not using contraception. (Among these reasons, inconvenience of methods accounts for only a small minority of responses.) [26] In most countries, 20-33% of married women with unmet need report not using contraception because they are concerned about side effects and health risks associated with use. [26]

In most of the 39 countries with data allowing assessment of trends, growing proportions of married women with unmet need cite infrequent or no sex as a reason for not using contraception. [26] Fewer than 10% of married women with unmet need cite the high cost of contraception as their reason for not using a method in all countries except Benin, Burkina Faso, Comoros and Congo, where 10-15% of respondents cite this reason. [26]

Prior use of contraception among women giving this reason ranges widely, from a low of 8% in Haiti to a high of 93% in Colombia, and it does not differ greatly from the levels of prior use among all never-married women with unmet need in these countries. [26] With regard to individual countries, the reason is especially prevalent in Nepal (where it is cited by 73% of women with unmet need), Bangladesh (57%) and Peru (53%– Figure 10 ). [26] In the 31 countries having adequate data on this population, 17-59% of these women have an unmet need. [26] Unmet need among single sexually active women, especially in countries where survey data are lacking. [26] In the Latin American and the Caribbean countries with surveys, unmet need is highest among women aged 15-19, and it declines for each subsequent five-year age-group. (Regional averages are not shown for Latin America because the data represent too few countries in the region.) [26] Across all regions, the only countries in which levels of unmet need are at least five percentage points higher among more educated women are Armenia and Nepal. [26] The relative importance of spacing versus limiting varies across countries; still, as a general rule, those with higher fertility, such as in Sub-Saharan Africa, have higher proportions of women with unmet need for spacing births compared with those with lower fertility. [26] In nearly all countries, women who are poor (in the bottom two wealth quintiles) experience greater unmet need than those who are nonpoor (in the other quintiles). [26]

Chandra-Mouli V et al., Contraception for adolescents in low and middle income countries: needs, barriers, and access, Reproductive Health, 2014, 11(1):1. [26]

In countries where government safety nets are practically nonexistent, people step forward to help out, says Mead Over, who studies the economics of health interventions at the Center for Global Development. [1] If the underdeveloped countries are merely low-income countries, why call them underdeveloped? The use of the term underdeveloped in fact rests on a general hypothesis on which the whole subject matter of development economics is based. [27]

The countries where more than 10% of women cite any of these reasons are in Western Africa and Middle Africa, where services are weak and contraceptive use is very low. [26] The prevalence of infrequent or no sex as a reason for nonuse is greater in countries with higher levels of contraceptive use (and lower unmet need)–presumably because other reasons have been resolved or are no longer relevant. [26] In countries that have had multiple surveys since 2004, larger proportions of women now cite side effects or health risks, and infrequent or no sex as reasons for nonuse. [26] In the majority of countries, married women who cite concerns about contraceptive side effects and health risks are more likely to have used a method in the past than are women who cite other reasons for nonuse. [26] In this section, we explore trends in reasons for unmet need among married women in 39 countries having more than one DHS during 2000-2014. (Trends are not shown for sexually active never-married women because the sample sizes of those citing specific reasons for nonuse are very small.) [26] In countries where the proportion of married women with unmet need has declined, the proportions citing specific reasons for nonuse are based on a smaller pool of women, relatively speaking. [26] In this analysis, however, we exclude formerly married women because, in many countries, there are too few of them to examine on their own, and because preliminary analyses indicated that their reasons for unmet need often differ from those of never-married women. [26] Consistent with previous findings, in the majority of countries, the subset of women citing concerns about side effects have higher levels of prior use than do all married women with unmet need. [26] To provide background and context, we start this report by describing women?s desire for children, contraceptive use and levels of unmet need in 52 countries that had surveys between 2005 and 2014 and for which data were available at the time of this analysis. [26] In most countries, only 0-4% of married women with unmet need are unable to identify a contraceptive method; the proportion reaches 5% or more in eight countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Timor-Leste and Bolivia ( Table 6 ). [26] In the 52 countries studied, the proportion of married women aged 15-49 with an unmet need for a method of contraception (either modern or traditional) ranges from 8% in Colombia to 38% in Sao Tome & Principe ( Table 2 ). [26] In the 52 countries in this study, 8-38% of married women aged 15-49 have an unmet need for contraception–that is, they want to avoid a pregnancy but are not using either a traditional or a modern method. [26] If only the sexually active married women were included in the calculation of unmet need, the levels of unmet need would adjust downward slightly, by 1-3 percentage points in most countries ( Table 2 ). [26] Although sexually active never-married women represent a small minority of all women aged 15-49 in most countries with surveys, they have high levels of unmet need for contraception. [26] This reason is cited in all countries, with a prevalence ranging from 5% of never-married women with an unmet need in Liberia to 61% in Malawi ( Figure 16 ). [26] The only countries in which this reason is rare (cited by fewer than 10% of those with unmet need) are Timor-Leste, Burundi and Ethiopia. [26] Unmet need is highest in countries such as Haiti, Ghana and Uganda, where the use of contraception is still very low. [26] A few countries, such as Niger and Nigeria, have relatively low unmet need along with low contraceptive use because the desired family size is still relatively high. [26] In 24 countries, at least a quarter of married women have unmet need; 20 of these countries are in Africa. [26] It is 2% or less in nearly all of the 52 countries; the only exceptions are Haiti, Nepal and Comoros, where 3-4% of married women have an unmet need to postpone a first birth. [26] Across the 52 countries, 23% of married women with unmet need, on average, report not being sexually active in the past three months, with a range of 4-55% in individual countries ( Figure 11 ). [26] Never-married women generally account for fewer than half of all women with unmet need in most of the countries with data, from 3% in Comoros and Ethiopia up to 51% in Namibia ( Appendix Table 1 ). [26]

Africa presents a different picture, however: In 23 of the 26 countries with data, sexually active never-married women are more likely to use contraception than their married counterparts. [26] Very few countries have sufficient data on prior method use among never-married women who cite side effects as a reason for nonuse. [26] Women increasingly cite infrequent or no sex as a reason for nonuse in all of the Asian countries shown. [26] The countries where more than 10% of women cite any of these reasons are in West and Middle Africa. [26] It was the most commonly cited reason in 12 countries–11 in Africa plus Kyrgyz Republic–and was cited by 20-49% of women in another 10 countries. [26]

So long as capitalism remains the dominant world economic system, there is no reason for the situation of developed and underdeveloped countries to change. [28] When you think about it, “developing countries” are quite developed in some respects. [1] According to this hypothesis, the existing differences in the per capita income levels between the developed and the underdeveloped countries cannot be accounted for purely in terms of differences in natural conditions beyond the control of man and society. [27] At the other end of the spectrum, the five countries with the lowest levels of unmet need–Colombia, Peru, Honduras, Dominican Republic and Indonesia–have the highest levels of contraceptive use. [26] As a backup, informing women about emergency contraception (contraception used in the first few days after unprotected intercourse) and increasing access to it in countries where it has been approved for use. [26] In nearly all of the countries in which women cite opposition, more women say that they are opposed to contraception than say that their partners or others are opposed. [26] Given that contraceptive prevalence is low in these countries, the results could indicate that fewer younger women have tried a method and experienced side effects themselves. [26] In the analysis presented here, small countries carry the same weight as large countries; therefore, the reasons expressed by women in small countries are not “lost” in the averages. [26] In five countries–Colombia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Jordan and Pakistan–10% or more of women cited this reason; in all other countries, the proportions are in the single digits. [26]

Demographic and Health Surveys in 52 countries between 2005 and 2014 reveal the most common reasons that married women cite for not using contraception despite wanting to avoid a pregnancy. [26] Thirty-one of the 52 countries have information about reasons for nonuse of contraception among sexually active never-married women. [26] In six countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and in the Philippines, a smaller proportion of sexually active never-married women currently use contraception compared with married women ( Tables 1 and 4 ). [26] Generally speaking, the majority of married women in Latin American and the Caribbean and in Asia currently use contraception, and most of these users rely on a modern method ( Figure 1 ), except in a few countries in Central Asia. [26]

International trade is an important part of the economic growth story for most countries. [29] That is to say, the underdeveloped countries are underdeveloped because, in some way or another, they have not yet succeeded in making full use of their potential for economic growth. [27] For the narrower purpose of economic policy there is no choice but to fall back on the interpretation of the low per capita incomes of the underdeveloped countries as an index of their poverty in a material sense. [27] Some of the apparently most discontented countries are to be found in Latin America, where the per capita incomes are generally higher than in Asia and Africa. [27] In spite of many years of family planning program efforts in Africa, opposition to family planning as a reason for nonuse increased or stayed roughly the same since 2000 in 23 of the 24 countries in this analysis. (Malawi is the exception.) [26] It remains one of the most important reasons for nonuse of contraception in all countries over the 14-year period. [26] We examine trends in reasons for nonuse of contraception for 39 countries having more than one survey between 1994 and 2014. [26] We also discuss trends in the proportions of married women giving specific reasons for nonuse, by examining countries that have had multiple surveys since 2000 with comparable data on reasons for nonuse. [26] In most countries, fewer than half of the married women who cite postpartum amenorrhea, breast-feeding or both as reasons for nonuse are within six months of giving birth and are not menstruating. [26]

“Development is actually deeply contextualized, it’s deeply based in particular sectors, in particular skillsets, in particular firms, in particular countries,” said Dr. McGrath. [8] Other countries where two-thirds or more of these women say their husbands are away include Dominican Republic, Bangladesh, Lesotho, Rwanda and Senegal–possibly reflecting high levels of men leaving home for work in these countries. [26] Regional averages are shown where the combined populations of women aged 15-49 in the surveyed countries accounts for 50% or more of the region?s population of women that age. [26] In all of the 21 countries with sufficient data on this question, most of these women had not had sex in the prior month–only 26% did on average; thus 74% last had sex 2-3 months before the survey ( Table 12 ). [26] In 11 of the 21 countries, between 25% and 46% of women were sexually active in the prior month, indicating that a sizable share of women citing infrequent or no sex may underestimate their risk of becoming pregnant. [26] As a rule we aim for specificity: naming the country in question or saying low-income countries, for example. [1]

“Developing countries” sounds like it might be a better choice. [1] Third World countries were poor while “developed” countries were rich. [28] In all countries, the surveys use a standardized, core questionnaire, which the DHS program has developed and refined over the past three decades. [26] Even in countries where such data are collected, never-married women may underreport sexual activity and contraceptive use because of social and cultural taboos surrounding premarital sex, although there are scant empirical data to confirm this expectation. [26] This report examines 31 countries with at least one DHS in the last decade that collected information about the reasons for contraceptive nonuse among sexually active never-married women. [26] Not being married is the most frequently cited reason in the Philippines (51%) and eight countries in Africa. [26] The prevalence of each reason differs greatly among individual countries and varies somewhat between the Africa and Asia regions ( Figure 9 ). [26] Thirty-one countries have sufficient data on these women?s reasons for nonuse. [26] In 12 countries, infrequent or no sex is the most commonly cited reason for nonuse. [26]

Levels of unmet need are generally higher in rural areas than in urban areas, but in many countries, the rural-urban divide is narrow ( Table 3 ). [26] In Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ghana, Lesotho and Sierra Leone, unmet need would drop by 4-5 percentage points, which represents a sizable proportion of all unmet need in those countries. [26] Sexually active women in developing countries who have an unmet need for contraception, meaning they wish to avoid pregnancy but are not using any contraceptive (traditional or modern), generally cite one of several key reasons for not using a method. [26] Sedgh G and Hussain R, Reasons for contraceptive nonuse among women having unmet need for contraception in developing countries, Studies in Family Planning, 2014, 45(2):151-169. [26]

These groups help ensure that lifesaving immunizations and AIDS education reach remote villages in local languages, cost-efficiently and according to local customs and needs. In Angola, for example, a group of volunteers called Pastoral da Criança talk to women about prenatal care, breastfeeding, nutrition, child development and health care. [30] The message of the paper is the need to think about higher education for development in economic development terms in important ways, that higher education is a key element of developing innovation, that higher education would be important to any kind of success at those upper ends of the economy. [8] As of 2014, an estimated 225 million women in developing regions had an unmet need for modern contraception. 2 (Of this total, 160 million were using no method and 65 million were using a traditional method.) [26] Our approach therefore differs from that of other studies that classify this need as part of unmet need for spacing births. 22 The tendency to begin contraceptive use only after a first child is born is widespread throughout the developing world, especially in cultures where women are expected to have a child soon after marriage. [26] The data also indicate that, regardless of the level of unmet need or contraceptive use in a country, concerns about side effects and health risks of methods are common. [26] The general presumption is that the development of this organizational framework would enable an underdeveloped country to make a fuller use not only of its domestic resources but also of its external economic opportunities, in the form of international trade, foreign investment, and technological and organizational innovations. [27] Increasing access to international trade can provide markets for the goods produced by less-developed countries and also increase productivity by increasing the access to capital resources. [29] It is possible to argue that in many cases the internal gap in incomes within individual underdeveloped countries may be a more potent source of the subjective level of discontent than the international gap in income. [27]

Within the world political and economic system there is a tremendous amount of interaction among core countries and peoples, and between the core and the periphery. [28] The governments of the underdeveloped countries may wish to pursue other, nonmaterial goals, but they could make clearer decisions if they knew the economic cost of their decisions. [27] Economic ties and relationships between core and periphery countries are particularly important. [28] Political and economic events in the First World have a huge impact on the politics and economics of Third World countries, but Third World political and economic events usually have little impact on the First World. [28] Third World countries share many common economic and trading problems in their relations with the industrialized core. [28] Because many countries in the Third World were impoverished, the term came to be used to refer to the poor world. [1] It uses the term “low- and lower-middle-income countries,” or LMIC for short. [1]

The proportion of married women aged 15-49 using contraception varies widely in the countries included in this analysis. [26] Growth depends on countries producing more and more goods, often using natural resources to do so. [31] Plus, the “global south” is “tinged with politics” in a world where there are tensions between the West and the other countries, says Leo Horn-Phathanothai, director for international cooperation at the World Resources Institute. [1] The subjective problem of discontent in the underdeveloped countries is a genuine and important problem in international relations. [27] The findings presented in this report are based primarily on data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 52 countries between 2005 and 2014. [26] Third World countries had bad health conditions, while other countries had good health conditions. [28] Third World countries had little military power, while other countries had tremendous military resources. [28] Developed nations are actively underdeveloping Third World countries as a result of the systems of interactions between them. [28] Third World countries faced starvation, while citizens of other countries had to worry about losing weight. [28] By almost any conventional socioeconomic measure, Third World countries were at the bottom of the scale. [28] Relations between First and Third World countries are asymmetrical. [28] The worldwide system of relationships is duplicated within individual Third World countries. [28]

The proportion of married women who rely on traditional methods varies widely, from 0-1% of users in many countries to 37% in Azerbaijan. [26] In the 52 countries studied, between 3% and 38% of married women are not sexually active, defined as not having had sexual intercourse in the preceding three months ( Table 1 ). [26] In most of these countries, between 10% and 40% of never-married women are sexually active, defined as having had sex in the past three months ( Table 4 and Figure 5 ). [26] Prohibitions on surveying never-married women about sexual activity and fertility limit the number of countries with available data, and in those countries with available data, the samples of never-married women who report sexual activity are small. [26] Where this region is mentioned in the report, we refer to only seven countries with survey data from 2004 to 2014. [26] The regional average for Latin America and the Caribbean is not shown because data are available for too few countries in that region. [26] Across the countries where such data are available, the proportions vary widely, from 2% in Peru to 42% in Ghana ( Figure 18 ). [26] They may believe that they have sex too infrequently to warrant protection, but the data show that in most countries, one-fourth to one-half of them had sex in the past month, indicating that many could be underestimating the risk of unintended pregnancy. [26]

This can be defended by explicitly adopting the humanitarian value judgment that the underdeveloped countries ought to give priority to improving the material standards of living of the mass of their people. [27] The LMIC category is based on World Bank statistics that divide up countries by gross domestic product: There are low income, lower middle income, middle income and high income. [1] Across this region, concern about side effects or health risks is fairly common, but trends have been mixed: its prevalence has declined in Armenia, Indonesia and Nepal, but has remained the same or increased in the other four Asian countries. [26] That’s how the World Health Organization categorizes countries. [1]

Their levels fluctuate, however, and may merit further investigation in some countries. [26] The case studies highlighted the importance of geography: for the automotive industry, South Africa’s location is not conducive to rapid growth, since surrounding countries are not well equipped for the market. [8] The growing frequency of this response could reflect increases in migration in some countries: For example, in Nepal, 32% of all married women reported that their husbands were away in 2011, compared with 17% in 1996. 37 In India, nearly 10% of married women lived without their husbands in 2006, compared with only 5% in 1999. [26] Six of these countries are in Latin America and the Caribbean, eight are in Asia and 25 are in Africa. [26] Trends for the 24 countries in Africa are shown in Appendix Figures 3a-e. [26]

The number and population size of the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are too small to make generalizations about the whole region. [26] In an email exchange, she took aim and fired: “I dislike the term ‘developing world’ because it assumes a hierarchy between countries. [1] In the majority of countries (41 out of 52), fewer than 10% rely on such methods. [26] Countries could also redesign the way they fund pension programs so they?re not as dependent on a constantly expanding economy. [31] These five countries have high contraceptive prevalence rates compared with others in their respective regions. [26] They argue that Third World countries can take steps to improve their situation. [28] In most countries, the majority of births among never-married women are unplanned. [26]

Although there was once in development economics a debate as to whether raising living standards or reducing the relative gap in living standards was the true desideratum of policy, experience during the 1960-80 period convinced most observers that developing countries could, with appropriate policies, achieve sufficiently high rates of growth both to raise their living standards fairly rapidly and to begin closing the gap. [27] Economic trade causes a widening of the gap between developed and developing countries, rather than a narrowing of that gap. [28] We’ve also had a very powerful human rights argument that education is a fundamental right, and therefore we need to do something in developing countries about getting children into schooling. [8] Suggested citation: Hussain R et al., Unmet Need for Contraception in Developing Countries: Examining Women?s Reasons for Not Using a Method, New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2016, http://www.guttmacher.org/report/unmet-need-for-contraception-in-develop. [26]

Policies and programs should also be informed by evidence on the specific reasons cited by women with unmet need in a given country, and should work to address them. [26] We present the proportions of women with unmet need for contraception in each country and the percentage distributions of women according to whether they have an unmet need to postpone a first birth or to space or limit higher-order births. [26]

Mainstream economists also say that a nation?s economy needs to grow in order to provide more public services to its population, such as universal pre-K. Without growth, said Gordon, the Northwestern economist, if the country wanted to add those programs within its existing budget, it would have to cut something else or raise taxes. [31]

Demographers and public health experts have debated over the years how it should be defined and what it reveals about women?s intentions and motivations. 7 The DHS does not ask women directly whether they need contraception. [26] Chief among these are concerns about the side effects and health risks of methods; women?s perceptions that they have sex too infrequently to warrant contraceptive use; a belief that they do not need or should not use contraception if they haven?t resumed menstruation after a birth, are breast-feeding, or both; and their own or someone else’s opposition to family planning. [26] It is not clear whether these women do not know about family planning, or whether they need to know more about specific methods before deciding to use one. [26] All sexually active women, whether married or not, need information about their risk of becoming pregnant and about the choices of methods that could meet their needs. [26] All young women need correct information about their risk of becoming pregnant and about the choices of contraceptive methods that are most suited to their circumstances. [26] These women need better information and counseling about contraceptive methods that would be appropriate and effective in their situations. [26] If the majority of women who need contraceptives would like to have a child in the future, then programs focusing mainly on sterilization would not be appropriate, and some women might be reluctant to use IUDs and implants in settings where removal could be difficult. [26] These data can help programs focus on the barriers to be overcome for the women who are most in need of contraceptives. [26] The appendix contains supplemental tables on specific groups of women with unmet need and trend data on women?s reasons for not using a method. [26] These women face a greater risk of unintended pregnancy than peers using modern methods because traditional methods have comparatively higher failure rates. 26 This report, however, looks at women having unmet need for any method–that is, those using neither a traditional nor a modern method–because these women are asked to give a reason for nonuse. [26] The higher proportion of women citing infrequent or no sex could indicate that programs and services have addressed other reasons for nonuse of contraception; the women who remain with an unmet need are those who are less sexually active and do not believe they need contraception. [26] This finding is consistent with an earlier analysis showing that women who cite infrequent sex as a reason for nonuse are less likely to have been sexually active in the prior three months than all women with unmet need. 31 Whether these women should be defined to have unmet need is discussed in Box 1. [26]

Next, we present proportions of women with unmet need in various population subgroups, defined by social and demographic characteristics: age-group (in five-year increments), residence (urban versus rural), wealth (poor versus nonpoor) ? and education (less than seven years versus more). [26] Differences in levels of unmet need are somewhat more pronounced between poor and better-off women, and between less and more educated women. [26] Because a key objective of measuring unmet need is to identify women at risk for unintended pregnancy, some reports focus on levels of unmet need for modern contraception, 2,25 which classifies women using traditional methods (such as withdrawal and periodic abstinence) as having unmet need. [26] Recent initiatives have called for satisfying the unmet need for modern contraception, which arises when women want to avoid a pregnancy but are using no method or a traditional one. [26] The pool of women defined to have unmet need and those who are asked reasons for not using contraception are not identical. [26] Women with unmet need who are pregnant, or who say they are not sure whether or when they want to have a child, are not asked about their reasons for not using contraception. ? Therefore, we are examining reasons given by a large subset of women with unmet need, rather than all of them. [26] The reasons why women do not use contraception despite wanting to avoid a pregnancy can inform policies and programs to reduce unmet need and the incidence of unwanted pregnancy. [26] The fact that many women with unmet need have previously used contraception provides evidence that these women could be willing to use a method, and that it is not impossible for them to do so. [26] The DHS uses an algorithm for determining unmet need that draws from 15 survey questions. 24 First, women are categorized according to whether or not they are using a contraceptive method. [26] The analysis of unmet need in this report is limited to women not using any contraceptive method. [26] The psychosocial and sexual dimensions of unmet need, in particular among women citing specific reasons for not using a method. [26] Because women with unmet need are allowed to provide more than one reason for not using a method, the proportions citing various reasons may add to more than 100%. [26] Among married women with unmet need in all regions, the four most common reasons women cite for not using contraception are that they have sex infrequently or not at all; that they have concerns about the side effects, health risks or inconvenience of methods; that they have not resumed menstruation after a birth, are breast-feeding or both; and that they or someone close to them opposes family planning ( Table 6 and Figure 8 ). [26] Concern about the side effects and health risks of contraceptives has been and remains the most common reason for nonuse in this region, and it is highest in Haiti, where about half of married women with unmet need cite this reason. [26]

To design effective programs, planners and decision makers need to understand the reasons why women with unmet need are not using contraceptives. [26] Generally speaking, women are considered to have an unmet need if they are sexually active and want to avoid becoming pregnant but are not using contraception. [26] Some women are more motivated than others to use contraception in the future because they are absolutely certain that they do not want a(nother) child, while others classified as having unmet need are uncertain. [26]

“As we start working towards the new Sustainable Development Goals, we will need professionals across all sectors – doctors, teachers and engineers will be vital to our future success, and education is central to producing those professionals.” [8] Overall, the proportion of women with “no need” is higher in Africa than in the other two regions because fertility is much higher in Africa–that is, women spend more time pregnant, postpartum amenorrheic or wanting to become pregnant. [26] Many women do not immediately find a method that suits them, 46 and alternatives need to be readily available. [26] Having a separate indicator denoting the need to delay a first birth helps gauge the extent to which young women who want to postpone starting a family are able to do so. [26]

Married women who are fecund and want to avoid a pregnancy are classified as having a need for contraception: That need is considered to be met for those who are using contraception (modern or traditional in this analysis) and unmet for the rest. [26] Faster economic growth may help to reduce the internal economic disparities in a less painful way, but it must be remembered that faster economic growth also tends to introduce greater disruption and the need for making bigger readjustments in previous ways of life and may thus increase the subjective sense of frustration and discontent. [27] An economy not focused on growth may be a place where people don?t need to work as many hours, according to Victor. [31] As the population ages and more people receive Social Security, the economy needs to grow so their benefits can be paid for, he said. [31] The survey data provide a snapshot of all women?s exposure to pregnancy and contraceptive needs at one point in time–at a population level. [26]

In nearly every country with available data, the youngest age-group of never-married women, those aged 15-19, have the highest unmet need ( Table 5 ), reflecting the challenge of being young and single and in need of contraception. [26] When poorer nations use trade to access capital goods (such as advanced technology and equipment), they can increase their TFP, resulting in a higher rate of economic growth. 7 Also, trade provides a broader market for a country to sell the goods and services it produces. [29] When considering nations, economists often use gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as an indicator of average economic well-being within a country. [29]

An underdeveloped country with a per capita income of $100 and a developed country with a per capita income of $1,000 may be considered. [27] After one year, the income of the underdeveloped country is $105, and the income of the developed country is $1,050. [27]

SKA South Africa is the world’s largest science project in a developing country. [8] A credit manager at Punjab National Bank, he says, “Being called a developing country gives me a chance to improve.” [1]

Substantial proportions of married women who cite sexual inactivity as a reason for not using contraception also report that their husbands are away or staying elsewhere — 46% overall, but with much variation by country: Proportions range from 16% in Tanzania to 79% in Haiti and Armenia and 87% in Nepal. [26] The regional averages are thus more likely to reflect a typical country than the women of the largest country in a region. [26] Not surprisingly, the proportions of women citing infrequent or no sex would drop in nearly every country. [26]

It is they (the military, government officials, and commercial and financial leaders) who act as links between the Third World country and the world political and economic system. [28] For a country, higher TFP will result in a higher rate of economic growth. [29] These national leaders may actually have more in common with their counterparts in London or New York than they do with interior citizens of their own country. (style of dress, food, literature, housing, travel, economic interests, etc.) [28] Standard of living: A measure of the goods and services available to each person in a country; a measure of economic well- being. [29] It helped determine economic policy during World War II and in its aftermath, when policymakers were convinced that a country that kept making things and then buying more goods was one where all residents prospered. [31]

There can be large differences in the incomes of people within a country. [29] Sao Tome & Principe is the only country with unmet need that is 10 percentage points higher in urban areas compared with rural ones. [26] Women aged 15-19 years, whether they are married or not, consistently have higher unmet need than women aged 20-24. [26] Because these women experience greater unmet need than do their married peers, their share of unmet need is disproportionate to their population size. [26] Two factors determine the absolute number of women experiencing the barriers cited: the proportion with unmet need and the total population of women, which has increased over time because of population growth. [26] In Africa, unmet need is roughly equally high across all age-groups except for women aged 45-49, who have the lowest level. [26] MacQuarrie K, Unmet need for family planning among young women: levels and trends, DHS Comparative Reports, 2014, No. 34. [26] Among women classified as having an unmet need for contraception, some have a greater risk of unintended pregnancy than others, because their levels of sexual activity, age and fecundity vary. [26] Even though they do not have an immediate need for contraception, these women are included because they previously had an unmet need or a method failure, and might want to avoid another pregnancy when they are fecund again. [26] As other studies have done, we look at unmet need for contraception both to space births and to limit births, which can help identify the proportions of women in need of temporary, long-term or permanent methods. [26] It also requires understanding why women with an unmet need are not using a method, so that programs and services can respond effectively. [26] The unmet need definition classifies women who are currently married (in a legal or consensual union) as currently sexually active. [26] Unmet need would ideally refer to all sexually active women of reproductive age who want to avoid a pregnancy, whether or not they are married. [26] Because some women with unmet need are not sexually active, it might not be possible for contraceptive services to satisfy all unmet need as it is currently defined. [26] Fewer younger women with unmet need cite concerns about side effects and health risks compared with older women–21% versus 29%, respectively. [26] Women who are pregnant, or who are experiencing postpartum amenorrhea (have not resumed menstruation after a birth in the two years preceding the survey), are classified as having unmet need if they indicated that their current or recent pregnancy was unintended. [26] Women who are not pregnant or experiencing postpartum amenorrhea are further classified according to whether they are fecund; fecund women who want to avoid a pregnancy for at least two years are classified as having an unmet need. [26] By contrast, in Burkina Faso, Burundi, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Swaziland and Tanzania, unmet need is highest among women 35-39 or 40-49 years old–groups who most likely have reached their desired family size. [26] Some analyses of unmet need among unmarried women have combined women who have never married with formerly married women–those who are separated, divorced or widowed. [26] Never-married women with an unmet need for contraception give a range of reasons that are similar to those of married counterparts, except that many say that they are not using contraception because they are “not married” ( Table 11 ). [26] About one-third of married women with unmet need in Asia and in Latin America and the Caribbean cite infrequent or no sex as a reason for not using contraception ( Table 6 ). [26] A small minority of married women with unmet need cite their inability to become pregnant as a reason for not using contraception ( Table 6 ). [26]

On average, married women with unmet need who cite opposition to family planning are less likely to have ever used any method than those who cite other reasons for nonuse. [26] Postpartum amenorrhea or breast-feeding is comparatively less frequently cited as a reason for nonuse, and it declined in Nepal in particular, from 28% to 9% of married women with unmet need. [26] Among the married women who cite infrequent or no sex as a reason for nonuse, about half (47%) report being sexually active in the past three months, compared with 77% among all women with unmet need ( Table 7 ). [26] Women aged 15-24 cite “infrequent or no sex” as a reason for nonuse slightly more often than do older women (29% compared with 25%, respectively– Appendix Table 8 ), most likely reflecting the fact that some of the young women with unmet need are unmarried and have more sporadic sexual relationships than married women. [26] A major reason for nonuse among married women with unmet need pertains to women?s perceptions about the risk of pregnancy. [26] At the low end of the spectrum, only 4-8% of married women with unmet need cited opposition as a reason for nonuse in Colombia, Peru, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nepal. [26] In Asia, infrequent or no sexual activity is now the most common reason for nonuse among married women with an unmet need. [26]

Addressing their reasons for nonuse should inform family planning programs? efforts to satisfy this need. [26]

For decades, information about unmet need for contraception has enabled health advocates and professionals, policymakers and funding agencies to identify the investments needed in family planning programs in developing countries. [26] High levels of unmet need are sometimes interpreted as evidence of a lack of access to contraceptive supplies and services in developing countries. [26]

Rising levels of contraceptive use in developing countries have played a major role in enabling couples to have smaller families than in previous generations, and in improving women?s and children?s health. [26]

It would also be necessary to collect information from unmarried women who are sexually active, which is currently not feasible in many developing countries. [26] This largely reflects the fact that in developing countries, women often want, or are expected to have, a child soon after marriage. [26] Since World War II many industrial countries have extended foreign aid to developing countries for a combination of humanitarian and political reasons. [27] There are those who are concerned with economic development either because they believe it is what people in developing countries want or because they believe that political stability can be assured only with satisfactory rates of economic growth. [27] There are those who are concerned with the developing countries on humanitarian grounds; that is, with the problem of helping the people of these countries to attain certain minimum material standards of living in terms of such factors as food, clothing, shelter, and nutrition. [27] Some people in these so-called developing countries are fine with the term. [1]

Raising per capita incomes is also a stated objective of policy of the governments of all developing countries. [27] The general trends suggest that family planning programs have had a considerable impact in raising women?s awareness about contraception and where and how to obtain it. 38 Public support for family planning, whether from national governments or external donors, might have kept the cost acceptable for users in developing countries. [26] Sexually active never-married women are a much smaller population than married women in the developing countries included in this analysis, because most women marry, and social norms often discourage sexual activity before marriage. [26]

The idea of development is a way for rich countries to control and exploit the poor. [1] This reason is most frequently cited in African countries, but it is not the most commonly cited reason for nonuse in any country. [26] Offsetting these increases, lack of a source of contraception or access to one as a reason for nonuse has declined or remained at a low level in all 24 African countries. [26] Infrequent or no sex is increasingly cited as a reason for nonuse in some African countries, but levels have not reached those of other regions. [26]

Infrequent or no sex was the most common reason cited by never-married women with unmet need in six out of seven Latin American and Caribbean countries and in 10 out of 23 African countries. [26] In Latin America and the Caribbean, 36-88% of never-married women with unmet need cited this reason, and in Africa, somewhat lower proportions did, 15-62% ( Figure 15 ). [26] A total of 31 countries–23 in Sub-Saharan Africa, seven in Latin America and the Caribbean, and one in Asia (Philippines)–have sufficient data on never-married women to analyze unmet need. [26]

Both side effects and opposition to contraception are less frequently cited by never-married women than by married women with unmet need. [26] As noted for married women, and almost without exception, unmet need is higher among the never-married women who live in rural areas, are from poorer households and have fewer than seven years of education. [26] As expected, married women with fewer than seven years of education generally have higher levels of unmet need than counterparts with more years of schooling. [26]

Married women with no need include those who are infecund, pregnant with an intended pregnancy, or postpartum amenorrheic after an intended pregnancy, or would like to have a birth in the next two years. [26] For the purpose of measuring the need for contraception, all married women are considered sexually active, as are unmarried women who report recent sexual activity. [26]

It infers need based on a woman?s current sexual and reproductive status (sexual activity, fecundity, pregnancy and contraceptive use) and whether she wishes to have a child (or another child) soon or ever. [26] Through these analyses, this report can inform policymakers, program managers and donor agencies on how programs can respond most effectively to meet women?s contraceptive needs. The implications of the report?s findings and recommendations are outlined in the last section. [26]

Information, education and communication efforts have proven effective in the past and could continue to be deployed in the future. 38 Another condition is provision of a range of short-term, long-term and permanent methods that meet women?s needs at different stages of their lives and in different personal circumstances, and mechanisms to allow them to switch methods when appropriate. [26] Does it have a potential to really take an industry a long way forward? It’s an analysis in which the specifics will vary according to different contexts, but the general argument that you need to look at a range of different factors rather than just say invest in more education. [8]

Merely sitting in traffic can cause GDP to go up, since people need to buy all that gas, but it has no societal benefit whatsoever, and additionally has negative consequences, such as pollution and frustration, that don?t show up in GDP at all. [31] They would need services and methods that suit these circumstances. [26] The data are not meant to predict how any individual woman?s sexual behavior or needs might change over time. [26] For comparability, data from all survey years use the 2012 definition of unmet need. [26] Women with unmet need for contraception rarely say that they are unaware of contraception, that they do not have access to a source of supply, or that it costs too much. [26] Women with an unmet need for contraception may wish to delay, space or limit their births ( Figure 3 ). [26] Women with unmet need are grouped according to whether they have unmet need for spacing births (delaying a first birth or postponing higher-order births) or limiting births (stopping childbearing altogether). [26] Among nonusers, women who are pregnant or have postpartum amenorrhea are classified as having unmet need if their current or recent pregnancy was unintended. [26] Our analysis includes a third category: unmet need for postponing motherhood among women who have yet to start childbearing. [26] Attention must also be paid to the women citing infrequent or no sex who are sexually active–from 22% of those with unmet need in Armenia to 79% in Cambodia. [26] The DHS does not include women who are permanently infecund–those who are menopausal or who have had a hysterectomy–among the group defined to have unmet need. [26]

They cite this reason less often than do married women with unmet need. [26] It is highest in Cambodia, where about half of married women with unmet need cite this reason. [26] In all three world regions, married women with unmet need are on average more likely to cite their own opposition to contraception than to cite someone else?s opposition ( Table 6 ). [26] In Cameroon and Cote d?Ivoire, 10% and 12% of married women with unmet need, respectively, lack knowledge about contraception. [26]

Fairly small proportions of never-married women with unmet need, between 1% and 22%, report they are not using contraception because they are subfecund or infecund ( Table 11 ). [26] Some never-married women with unmet need report that they or someone close to them opposes contraception. [26] Their levels of unmet need could be even higher than shown in the survey results because never-married women in conservative societies may be reluctant to admit being sexually active. [26] Some of the difference in unmet need between younger and older women is due to the fact that sexually active never-married women fall predominantly in the younger group, and they have much higher unmet need than do older, married women. [26] In contrast with married women, the vast majority of never-married women have an unmet need to delay their first birth ( Figure 7 ), reflecting that they are predominantly young and plan to have a child in the future. [26] Figure 2 shows the distribution of married women according to whether they have an unmet need, a met need or no need for contraception. [26] Married women across all age-groups have an unmet need for contraception ( Table 3 and Figure 4 ). [26] Even married women aged 15-24 have somewhat higher unmet need for contraception than their older counterparts. [26]

A range of intensity of need for contraception likely exists. [26] Most economists are united around the idea that the economy needs to grow, always. [31]

Westoff CF, Unmet need for modern contraceptive methods, DHS Analytical Studies 28, Calverton, MD, USA: ICF International, 2012. [26] Bradley SEK et al., Revising unmet need for family planning, DHS Analytical Studies No. 25, Calverton, MD, USA: ICF International, 2012. [26] Alkema L et al., National, regional, and global rates and trends in contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning between 1990 and 2015: a systematic and comprehensive analysis, Lancet, 2013, 81(9878):1642-1652. [26] Cleland J, Harbison S and Shah IH, Unmet need for contraception: issues and challenges, Studies in Family Planning, 2014, 45(2):105-122. [26] Bongaarts J, The impact of family planning programs on unmet need and demand for contraception, Studies in Family Planning, 2014, 45(2):247-262. [26]

This group has a comparatively higher level of unmet need for contraception overall ( Table 2 ). [26] Satisfying women?s unmet need for contraception requires identifying populations where such need is high, increasing or failing to decline. [26] Their share of unmet need is disproportionate to their share of the population. [26]

The health implications of such a large unmet need are profound. [26] The remaining 21 countries–12 in Asia and nine in Africa–have insufficient information, either because never-married women were excluded from the DHS, or because the size of the sample of sexually active never-married women is too small to produce reliable estimates of unmet need. [26] By definition, all never-married women with unmet need had sex in the three months preceding the survey. [26]

Among married women, unmet need to delay a first birth is relatively rare. [26] In Egypt and Indonesia, unmet need is lowest among married women aged 15-19 and increases in each subsequent age-group. [26] Such a refinement would mean excluding sexually inactive married women from the standard measure of unmet need. [26] Adjusting the estimates for married women without adjusting them for unmarried women could result in underestimates of unmet need regionally and worldwide. [26]

As shown in Figure 6, between 17% and 59% of sexually active never-married women–in Congo and Haiti, respectively–have an unmet need. [26] It has pioneered efforts to define and measure unmet need for family planning. [26] Bradley SE and Casterline JB, Understanding unmet need: history, theory, and measurement, Studies in Family Planning, 2014, 45(2):123-150. [26] Casterline JB, Perez AE and Biddlecom AE, Factors underlying unmet need for family planning in the Philippines, Studies in Family Planning, 1997, 28(3):173-191. [26] Machiyama K and Cleland J, Unmet need for family planning in Ghana: the shifting contributions of lack of access and attitudinal resistance, Studies in Family Planning, 2014, 45(2):203-226. [26]

Dividing a particular country’s GDP by its population is an estimate of how much income, on average, the economy produces per person (per capita) per year. [29] A skeptic can turn the whole approach to a reductio ad absurdum by pointing out that even the developed countries with their high and rising levels of per capita income have not been able to solve the subjective problem of discontent and frustration among various sections of their population. [27] Rather than “catching up” to the developed countries, most currently underdeveloped countries will fall farther behind. (In a limited number of cases, where exceptional circumstances exist, it may be possible for an underdeveloped country to move from the periphery to the core.) [28]

In a sense what we’re saying is it’s not a simple universal model – invest more in education, good things will come out – but if you take a particular country, you can look at what capacity it already has in terms of education and training systems, its industrial system, the existing network between firms and the capacity of the state to support them, but also what positions it could possibly take up within the global capitalist system. [8] By forming groups or cartels the periphery nations will have more power than any individual Third World country has in its relations with the core. [28] A second suggestion for improving the situation is to force Third World country elites to confront their country’s condition of dependency, and take voluntary steps to alter it. [28] Who is to say which part of the world is “first”? And how can an affluent country like Saudi Arabia, neither Western nor communist, be part of the Third World? Plus, the Soviet Union doesn’t even exist anymore. [1]

Even in a country with relatively low GDP, some people will be better off than others. [29] At a high rate, for the good of the country and its people. [31] Of course, this assumes that the country has a political system that can adequately tax people. [31] Corporations have joined forces with National Committees and Country Offices to raise awareness and funds for UNICEF. Check Out for Children, a partnership with Starwood Hotels and Resorts, has helped UNICEF immunize over 500,000 young people with donations of $10 million since 1995. [30]

The income of the underdeveloped country would have to grow by 50 percent to maintain the same absolute gap of $900.) [27] A country could focus on measuring the health or happiness of its residents, rather than what they are producing. [31] That may mean the country may have to reckon with an economy that doesn?t grow quickly, or at all, whether economists want to or not. [31] How can a country increase its production? Well, an economy’s production is a function of its inputs, or factors of production (natural resources, labor resources, and capital resourc es ), and the productivity of those factors (specifically the productivity of labor and capital resources), which is called total factor productivity (TFP). [29] Kuznets was skeptical about using his system to gauge the success of a country. [31] They direct the country’s contacts with the world, and they direct those contacts in such a way that the world core benefits more than their own country, although they themselves clearly benefit at a personal level. [28]

Economic growth of less-developed economies is key to closing the gap between rich and poor countries. [29] These findings indicate that misperceptions of risk will likely continue in the future in developing countries even as contraceptive prevalence increases. [26] The underdeveloped countries? sense of dissatisfaction and grievance arises not only from measurable differences in national incomes but also from the less easily measurable factors, such as their reaction against the colonial past and their complex drives to raise their national prestige and achieve equality in the broadest sense with the developed countries. [27] Third World economies were monoproductive and agriculturally based, while economies in developed countries were diversified and industrialized. [28]

Although the prevalence of postpartum amenorrhea/breast-feeding as a reason for nonuse might be expected to decline over time with reductions in both fertility and the duration of breast-feeding, it has remained the same or increased in 20 of the 24 African countries (exceptions are Egypt, Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania). [26] Concern about side effects or health risks has increased by five percentage points or more in all but six African countries. [26]

In the 241 years since the book’s publication, the gap between rich countries and poor countries has grown even larger. [29] In 2014, the OCED noted that Development aid rose by 6.1% in real terms in 2013 to reach the highest level ever recorded, despite continued pressure on budgets in OECD countries since the global economic crisis. [9] All the developed world’s efforts to increase aid to these countries may not matter if the local personnel required to implement development programs are absent. [32] In 2011, the OECD noted a 6.5% increase in official development aid in 2010 over the previous year to $129 billion, but it still averaged only 0.32% of the combined GNI of donor countries — less than half of what had been promised long ago. [9] Foreign aid or (development assistance) is often regarded as being too much, or wasted on corrupt recipient governments despite any good intentions from donor countries. [9] A new report compiled by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) reminded policy-makers that low shipping connectivity makes weaker economies more vulnerable, and the world is experiencing “a growing rift between the best and worst connected countries”. [33] There was also a sharp decline in aid for agricultural development, and a rising share in total aid outlays of humanitarian aid in response to emergencies as opposed to long-term development and aid to the poorest countries. [9] In the year 2000, subsidies through ECAs added up to 64 billion dollars of exports from industrialised countries, well above the official development assistance granted last year of 51.4 billion dollars. [9] The official development assistance which is one way to support the countries of the South to find a sustainable path to development and progress is being reduced. [9] One-size-fits-all measures aimed at limiting mobility from particular regions or countries could end up inhibiting development, not to mention curbing the rights of would-be migrants. [32] A regional approach involves an agreement among a group of countries to connect their networks and financing is generally available from other operators or development partners to finance the project. [12]

In order to help the people in third world countries, we need to start truly appreciating what we have in america and start taking advantage of it. [34] Some LLDCs are ahead of many non-landlocked countries in trade efficiency illustrating that having to pass through transit countries need not be a barrier. [12] Not facing the sea need not be a barrier as there are three landlocked countries on the list (Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovak Republic). [12] No. Sadly, some of these countries would need billions for full revival. [34] Donor countries, the OCED said, will need to make unprecedented increases to meet the targets they have set for 2010. [9]

Tied Aid is one of the types of foreign aid that must be spent in the country providing the support (the donor country) or in a group of selected countries. [35] If the whole country could get involved, just think. if every American were to donate even just a dollar or two, hundreds of millions of dollars could be used to assist challenging countries. [34]

The most prominent objection is that donor countries interfere with the economic and political activities of the recipient country. [35] What Palast is hinting towards is the unequal rules of trade and economics that are part of the world system, that has contributed to countries such as most in Africa being unable to address the scourge of AIDS and other problems, even when they want to. [9] IPS was citing a UN Economic Council for Africa study which also noted that just four countries (Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) were breaking away from the idea of tied aid with more than 90 percent of their aid untied. [9] While the amount of aid from some countries such as the U.S. might look very generous in sheer dollar terms (ignoring the percentage issue for the moment), the World Bank also pointed out that at the World Economic Forum in New York, February 2002, Leahy noted that two-thirds of U.S. government aid goes to only two countries: Israel and Egypt. [9] While Third World countries are now making strides in terms of economic growth, there are still others that are not catching up. [34]

During hard times, increasing aid for poorer countries is important to help them weather the coming economic storm. [9] For the OECD countries to meet their obligations for aid to the poorer countries is not an economic problem. [9] It may be too early to tell for sure, but in the context of the financial crisis that has hurt donor countries particularly, some of the increase in aid may be to help with domestic economic concerns. [9] There have been reports of Tajikistan?s interest in joining Russia and the four other countries that make up the Eurasian Economic Union; one major reason may be to make it easier for Tajiks to work in Russia. [12] There are currently 48 countries (including four partially recognised states) that are completely surrounded by at least one other country. [33] As with agriculture, the wealthier countries have long held up barriers to prevent being out-competed by poorer country products. [9]

If you look at western countries, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and increasingly, China, they largely developed through manufacturing, initially low cost, low value add manufacturing, moving up the chain, and ended up with vibrant, well-educated, and diverse economies (even though Japan has demographic challenges, it will still be the #3 economy in the world in 2030). [36] That’s not to say that natural resource endowment hasn’t helped some countries (like the US), but natural resource economies in the absence of local value creation don’t tend to lead to well developed societies. [36] The backbone has been well developed and a choice of transit countries is available, even if reliance is primarily on Kazakhstan. [12]

As the data shows, whether it has been recent years, or throughout the history of DAC aid, the poorest countries have received only a quarter of all aid. [9] Evan Osbourne, writing for the Cato Institute, also questioning the effectiveness of foreign aid and noted the interests of a number of other donor countries, as well as the U.S., in their aid strategies in past years. [9] IPS noted that aid tied with conditions cut the value of aid to recipient countries by some 25-40 percent, because it obliges them to purchase uncompetitively priced imports from the richer nations. [9] As the rest of this article has shown, for decades, much foreign aid has been less about helping the recipient, but furthering agendas of donor countries, for example to gain favorable access to resources or markets in recipient countries. [9] To further their interests, smaller, poorer countries don?t have aid to bribe and trade muscle to threaten countries. [9] Increased aid is vital for the world?s poorest countries if they are to grasp the opportunities provided through trade. [9] While the U.S. provided large amounts of military aid to countries deemed strategically important, others noted that the U.S. ranked low among developed nations in the amount of humanitarian aid it provided poorer countries. [9] Combining the above mentioned reversal of flows with the subsidies and other distorting mechanisms, this all amounts to a lot of money being transferred to the richer countries (also known as the global North), compared to the total aid amounts that goes to the poor (or South). [9]

For the 46 countries of Subsaharan Africa, foreign debt service was four times their combined governmental health and education budgets in 1996. [9] It will rely as much on econometric methods for isolating migration’s impacts — for instance, within the context of sub-Saharan Africa’s HIV pandemic and health care systems — as on a broad understanding of the obstacles to economic development in the countries in question. [32]

The case of Rwanda illustrates that it is possible for landlocked nations to have cheaper international wholesale connectivity prices than sea facing countries. [12] There are 44 landlocked countries in the world, of which 32 are classified as middle- or low-income by the United Nations. [12]

This approach presents an immense challenge: how to tap into the immense economic and other benefits migration can deliver for individuals and receiving countries, while simultaneously ensuring that sending countries also benefit. [32] As such, a number of landlocked countries around the world have chosen not to pass on the economic opportunities that a maritime industry can offer. [33]

I always had a feeling that third world countries were not as bad as some people want younger individuals to believe. [34] With the record of corruption within impoverished countries, people will question giving them money. [9]

The finding that secondary school enrolment is most closely linked to Internet use reflects the youth impact, as well as the fact that there is an even higher link between a secondary education and Internet use as well as that in most of the countries computers and Internet access is available in secondary schools. [12] The best customs software in the world will be of little use if it cannot interoperate with that of border countries, a high capacity national fiber optic backbone will be underutilized if it is under monopoly control with high wholesale prices and a state of the art online shopping platform will have few users if e-payments are not allowed. [12] There is a big gap between the three African case study countries and the others in both secondary school enrolment and Internet use. [12] The IT specialists, who reportedly wrote 90% of the code for the project, have in turn advised other countries on the use of the software. [12] The European Union is linking aid to fighting terrorism as well, with European ministers warning countries that their relations with the economically powerful bloc will suffer if they fail to cooperate in the fight against terrorism. [9] Unlike smaller countries, they have been able to exert their influence on other countries to push for bilateral agreements conditioned with aid, in a way that some would describe as a bribe. [9] All too often, aid is wasted on overpriced goods and services from donor countries. [9] As before, poorest countries were not necessarily recipients of most aid. [9] They also warned about worrying trends for the future; donor countries are expecting to reduce the rate of increased official aid. [9] It was also noted that assistance to the neediest countries continued to fall, which raises worries about the purpose of the increased aid. [9] Aid for the poorest countries remained at a steady dollar amount in this period. [9] Given overall wealth of donors had increased, this in effect meant that they reduced their aid to the poorest countries. [9] At around 0.3% of GNI, if all DAC countries had given their full 0.7%, 2010?s aid alone would have been almost $284 billion (at 2010 prices), or an increase of almost $159 billion. [9] Some 40 years ago, rich country governments agreed to give 0.7% of their GNI (Gross National Income) as official aid to poor countries for development assistance. [9] Each economically advanced country will progressively increase its official development assistance to the developing countries and will exert its best efforts to reach a minimum net amount of 0.7 per cent of its gross national product at market prices by the middle of the Decade. [9]

Despite the obvious importance of the textile and clothing sectors in terms of development opportunities, the North has consistently and systematically repressed developing country production to protect its own domestic clothing industries. [9]

On the last point above, South Centre notes that the broader interpretation include categories which bear little relationship to the need of the developing countries for long term development capital. (Emphasis Added.) [9]

In terms of access to undersea submarine cables, some LLDCs are well provisioned with capacity and pay prices less than many sea-facing countries. [12] Given that all LLDCs rely on transit countries, it is imperative that customs systems be linked through regional single windows using open protocols and international standards to minimize problems caused by proprietary systems. [12] In 1995, severely indebted low-income countries paid one billion dollars more in debt and interest to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) than they received from it. [9]

It is also worth remembering that, while brain drain may aggravate the shortage of skilled workers in some sectors in some countries, emigration may not be the fundamental reason for actual or anticipated shortages in the first place. [32] It increases the gap in living standards between the rich and the poor in Third World countries. [35] Here are the 10 poorest Third World countries with the biggest economies, ranked by their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. [34]

More than half is spent in middle income countries in the Middle East. [9] ?the most significant.which has faced the world?s poorest countries for over 20 years. [9] Although the MFA has been replaced by the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) which phases out support over a further ten year period–albeit through a process which in itself is highly inequitable–developing countries are still suffering the consequences. [9]

In one of these countries live members of what Temin calls the “FTE sector” (named for finance, technology, and electronics, the industries which largely support its growth). [37] Since the 1970s the textile and clothing trade has been controlled through the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) which sets bilateral quotas between importing and exporting countries. [9] The key factor that sets LLDCs apart from other countries is access to the sea and the consequent trade obstacles that presents in respect to transport and transaction costs. [12] LLDCs are on a more equivalent footing with non-landlocked countries in services trade. [12] The World Bank finds that countries that support electronic submission of trade documents have shorter border compliance times compared to paper only or hybrid systems. [12] Similar to the transport of goods trade, landlocked countries are dependent on transit countries for access to submarine cables. [12] Trade with Kazakhstan dominates from a regional perspective, although gold, making up 43% of exports, typically heads to European countries. [12] That is a good point however most of these countries were doomed from the start, mostly because of the lack of trade and and transport. [34]

Even in the poorest of countries (Cuba may well be a good example), the prospect of being able to emigrate may increase incentives to acquire education and skills and induce additional investment in education. [32] Education in many Muslim countries consists primarily of religious rather than scientific programs, and those who do get quality educations in the west tend to remain overseas. [36]

The GMS Information Highway Project includes cross?border links between Lao PDR and Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam – all countries where government is involved in the telecommunications sector and therefore may have facilitated regional connections. [12] On the one end of the spectrum are the countries in which the government formally or informally chooses to exclude civil society (and often other third parties such as the private sector or multinational companies) from discussions and decisions around the Internet. [12] On the opposite end of the spectrum are those countries in which government actively engages and sometimes defers to feedback from external stakeholders. [12]

The end result will include different elements of state, local, and religious legal regimes, and differ to some extent by region, but must be coherent enough to eliminate the contradictions that currently plague countries. [10] The Islamic world isn’t monolithic, and it’s probably worthwhile to address relatively stable oil-rich states separately from Iraq, Iran, and Libya, again separately from other Islamic states without much oil separately from Asian Islamic countries like Malaysia and Indonesia. [36]

Recent OECD data suggest that around two-thirds of all highly skilled workers from countries such as Guyana, Jamaica, Haiti, Trinidad & Tobago, and Fiji have also left these countries. [32] While migration could have adverse impacts on some countries and on some migrants, the overall policy stance should not undermine the rationale of, or resist the pressures for, greater human mobility. [32] For many regions and countries it is the most important source of welfare. [11]

Aid cuts at this point in time would place a dangerous additional burden on developing countries already faced with restricted sources of income and increased poverty, and perhaps undo some of the progress already made towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals, says the OECD. [9] Funds that should be promoting investment and growth in developing countries, or building schools and hospitals, or supporting other steps towards the Millennium Development Goals, are, instead, being transferred abroad. [9] In recognition of the special importance of the role which can be fulfilled only by official development assistance, a major part of financial resource transfers to the developing countries should be provided in the form of official development assistance. [9]

Adult literacy is estimated at 99.2% in 2015, and Kyrgyz people receive nearly 11 years of schooling on average, which means that the country is well positioned to encourage both use of Internet and development of technology. [12] Njehu cited the example of Eritrea, which discovered it would be cheaper to build its network of railways with local expertise and resources rather than be forced to spend aid money on foreign consultants, experts, architects and engineers imposed on the country as a condition of development assistance. [9] Tourism has become an important sector that has an impact on development of country economy. [11]

A developed country will provide a bilateral loan or grant to a developing country, but mandate that the government spends the money on goods or services produced in the selected country. [35] They continue to use technical assistance as a soft lever to police and direct the policy agendas of developing country governments, or to create ownership of the kinds of reforms donors deem suitable. [9] Some of those who move from a developing country have received education elsewhere, subsidized by the host country or private means. [32]

The approach which J.W. Smith hints to–and which has often been argued by progressive and developing world activists and experts–is that aid needs to empower local people. [9] Hardly ever in the mainstream discourse is the quality of rich country aid an issue or problem that needs urgent addressing. [9] “As a country with over 100 million people and exceptional educational standards, Ethiopia is well positioned to meet the manpower needs of the maritime industry,” the company?s website reads. [33]

One of the biggest mistakes the development community makes is to confuse the needs. [10] There may be some form of aid that is best delivered to (and via) governments, but there are many types of assistance that can be given directly to the people who need it, thus also avoiding the risk of governments withholding, diverting or delaying those funds. [9] In parallel, the OECD stresses that OECD countries must do more to promote economic growth in poor countries through coherent economic policies that take account of these countries? needs. [9] The OECD admitted this was still not enough, and it underlines the need for developing countries to make efforts on a range of fronts, including by creating an environment where the private sector can thrive. [9] Easterly?s call to promote the private sector is not as much about foreign private corporation going into a country (as the problems of foreign private sector involvement has been well known in developing countries, e.g. privatizing water services where the poor often can no longer get access to water ). [9] A developing country usually does not have a robust industrial base and is characterized by a low Human Development Index (HDI). [35] It is when the capital flows from a developed nation to a developing country. [35]

It is hard to find many things wrong with the Kyrgyz Republic?s approach to digital development, as a landlocked country. [12] There does not appear to have been much further development of domestic fibre until 2009, so the country was heavily reliant on microwave backhaul until then. [12] The government?s National Development Strategy (NDS) 2030 (GoT, 2016) includes as one of its three goals “exit from communication dead end and turn country into a transit country”. [12]

Jose Antonio Ocampo, Under-Secretary-General for the United Nations Economic and Social Affairs said that debt, commodities, official development assistance and, in some cases, the risk of conflict is hampering development in the least developed countries. [9] Mark Malloch Brown, the head of the United Nations Development Program, estimates that these farm subsidies cost poor countries about $50 billion a year in lost agricultural exports. [9] As discussed further on this site?s section on water issues, the World Development Movement campaign organization reported in early 2005 that the British government has been using aid money to pay British companies to push privatization of water services to poor countries, even though it may not be in their best interests. [9] In 1970, the world?s rich countries agreed to give 0.7% of their GNI (Gross National Income) as official international development aid, annually. [9] There are many sources of general advice regarding digital development in developing countries. [12] As noted by the development organization, the South Centre, developing countries found themselves competing with a number of countries in transition for scarce official assistance. [9] As private flows to developing countries from multinational companies and investment funds reflect the interests of investors, the importance of Overseas Development Assistance cannot be ignored. [9] Promises of more money were tied to more conditions, which for many developing countries is another barrier to real development, as the conditions are sometimes favorable to the donor, not necessarily the recipient. [9]

That new sucking sound is being made by highly skilled people leaving developing countries and heading to the developed world. [32] The total cost to developing countries of restrictions on textile imports into the developed world has been estimated to be some $50 billion a year. [9] Most of them actively used “bad? trade and industrial policies, such as infant industry protection and export subsidies–practices that these days are frowned upon, if not actively banned, by the WTO. Until they were quite developed (that is, until the late nineteenth to early twentieth century), they had very few of the institutions deemed essential by developing countries today, including such “basic? institution as central banks and limited liability companies. [9]

LLDCs vary more than other international groupings based of specific conditions such as Small Island Developing States (SIDS) or Least Developed Countries (LDCs). [12]

As the largest landlocked country in the world, Mongolia has developed a maritime industry whose legitimacy is often disputed by international bodies. [33] Arabella Fraser, policy advisor for the international humanitarian organization Oxfam, is equally guarded noting that Rich country self-congratulation is unwarranted, because Aid levels are still pitiful ? way below the promise of 0.7 percent, which was made 35 years ago. [9] Other reasons to give foreign aid include to reward a government for behavior desired by the donor, to extend the donor’s cultural influence, to provide the infrastructure needed by the donor for resource extraction from the recipient country, or to gain other kinds of commercial access. [35] The problem, the media and government spin implied, was that rich country aid often gets wasted and will only be delivered to poor countries if they meet certain conditions and demands. [9] Assistance given by a government directly to the government of another country is Bilateral Aid. [35] The Government of Rwanda recognizes digital literacy is a major obstacle to its aspirations of the country becoming a Smart Nation. [12] It is said that the government is aware of these practices but employ little to less opposition to stop the drug trade in the country. [34] There has been a clear recognition that trade in services is important for the country?s economic development and to substitute for the logistics-heavy raw material exports that have supported the country to date. [12] The latter are cases in which the net outflow of highly skilled workers from a particular sector in a particular country is actually hampering or is very likely to hamper economic development or the pursuit of important socioeconomic goals. [32]

The civil war, which started in the early 1990s, devastated the country, and the collapse of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR) left Tajikistan as the least economically developed of the Soviet republics. [12] Why is the country among the poorest in the world? Blame it on rulers who governed the country with an autocratic mindset, which contributed to widespread corruption and poorly developed infrastructure. [34]

In a new book, The Vanishing Middle Class: Prejudice and Power in a Dual Economy, Peter Temin, Professor Emeritus of Economics at MIT, draws a portrait of the new reality in a way that is frighteningly, indelibly clear: America is not one country anymore. [37] The scope of the paper is to present the impact of tourism on economy and especially on income. paper treats why Albania is an attractive country for investors, and which are the possibilities to invest. [11]

Foreign aid is defined as the voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another country. [35] If the aid given is concerned with unproductive fields or old technology, it will have the effect of increasing the inflation in the country. [35]

Taxation has become an issue for all sectors–not only electronic communications–due to the ongoing economic challenges in the country. [12] Tourism and agriculture is Madagascar’s top industries, but the country is still looking for more investors to help alleviate their citizens’ economic plight. [34] Having a successful animated film series named after the country may have boosted Madagascar’s image as a tourist destination, but this particular island nation lives way below the poverty line. [34] The party?s leader Emomali Rahmon has been actual or de facto President of the country since 1992 and was designated “Leader of the Nation” by the Tajik parliament in 2015. [12] Although considered by many as a dangerous country, Afghanistan is a beautiful nation smacked in the middle of Central Asia. [34] While Ethiopia prides itself as an agricultural nation, with 85% of its work force working the agriculture sector, the country is consistently plagued with droughts. [34]

There is also the issue of poor sanitation, which causes serious health problems in the country. [34] Do World Bank Country Classifications Hurt the Poor? Although Robert Zoellick pushed the World Bank to open its much-prized treasure chest. [10]

There are no carrier neutral data centers in the country, and no data centers with international certification (Internet Society, 2017). [12] Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) are of particular relevance to LLDCs since they keep locally destined data traffic within the country, helping reduce costly Internet Protocol (IP) transit traffic. [12]

Under AGOA?s so-called rules-of-origin provisions, the yarn and fabric used to make apparel exports must be made either in the United States or an eligible African country. [9] Russia, France, and the United States maintain regular military presence in the country, largely due to its proximity to the current conflict in Afghanistan. [12]

While members of the first country act, these people are acted upon. [37]

While economist Maurice Schiff and others have shown that Stark’s thesis is by no means proven beyond doubt, it is important to note that brain drain need not have negative impacts on a sending country’s stock of education and skills. [32] Recommendation 5: Given the close link between secondary school enrolment and Internet use governments need to invest the necessary resources to boost secondary school participation. [12] There’s probably a necessary government role in starting the process, but the state needs to get out of the way after giving an initial push. [36] Recommendation 8: LLDC governments need to ensure continuity of political and civil service leadership on ICT issues, and ideally for such leadership to be visible and accessible to industry and civil society. [12] LLDCs need to leverage digital tools such as IoT, tracking systems and big data that make trade more efficient. [12] Just as LLDCs need access to the sea for goods trade, they also need it for access to fiber optic submarine cables. [12] LLDCs need to implement automated single windows that provide access over the Internet to the entire universe of institutions and companies involved in trade with facilities for e-payments. [12] Internet-enabled services could be attractive for LLDCs since unlike goods trade, there is no need to physically cross borders. [12] It can be argued that LLDCs have better prospects for services exports since trade in services does not need to physically cross borders. [12] Another challenge is that customs software needs to continually upgraded and actively managed not only to take advantage of changes in hardware and software but also to reflect the widening trade community. [12]

There is a need to devise measures that recognize that greater mobility, not less mobility, is likely to be the most sustainable and efficient response over the long term. [32] The project may still need additional time to take hold as OECD continues to rank Kyrgyzstan poorly compared to non-OECD European and Central Asian peers in terms of harmonisation of documents, and automation. [12]

These people always appreciate help, but I am not sure how my “help” is actually going to the people who need it. [34] While this is positive, it needs to be sustained for many years. [9] The needs of the poor don?t get met because the poor have little money or political power with which to make their needs known and they cannot hold anyone accountable to meet those needs. They are stuck with Planners. [9] The evolution of the Internet needs to be more balanced across infrastructure, skills, digital economy and governance for the full impacts to be felt. [12] Training of officials to run state institutions–such as lawyers and judges and law clerks–will need to be matched by training of local actors who play a role in shaping and implementing local systems. [10] It has to begin in early childhood, and you need parents who can afford to spend time and resources all along the long journey. [37] It will also need to be comparative and look at progress towards achieving key public policy targets, such as reducing mortality or increasing literacy in comparable cases where emigration has not been as important. [32] Economic Development Is Destabilizing: The Need for Universal Prevention Conflict and contentious politics are a natural, even healthy, part of any society,. [10]

Some positive long-term trends were also noted, for example towards more support for governments that were delivering results, more untied aid, more support for policies owned by developing countries rather than imposed upon them through conditionality, and a greater emphasis on governance and health. [9] The estimated annual cost of Northern trade barriers to Southern economies is over U.S. $100 billion, much more than what developing countries receive in aid. [9] Many in the first world imagine the amount of money spent on aid to developing countries is massive. [9] While aid to the wealthier developing countries has reduced somewhat, the portion going to the poorest countries has hardly changed. [9] For most developing countries, private philanthropy and investment flows are much larger than official aid. [9] It is likely we will never know which views are correct, and there is perhaps a mixture of reasons; a mixture of bumbling mistakes, calculated statecraft, poor execution by some developing countries, and lack of opportunities for the poor, etc. [9] The U.S., for example, has also held back dues to the United Nations, which is the largest body trying to provide assistance in such a variety of ways to the developing countries. [9] The United Nations notes that effectiveness of aid to poor countries requires a focus on economic infrastructure. [9] The U.S., Europe and Japan spend $350 billion each year on agricultural subsidies (seven times as much as global aid to poor countries), and this money creates gluts that lower commodity prices and erode the living standard of the world?s poorest people. [9] While aid amounts to around $70 to 100 billion per year, the poor countries pay some $200 billion to the rich each year. [9] This year we estimate that $37 billion–roughly half of global aid–is phantom aid, that is, it is not genuinely available to poor countries to fight poverty. [9]

According to the African Capacity Building Foundation, African countries lose 20,000 skilled personnel to the developed world every year. [32] Measures aimed at reducing the recruitment of developing-country professionals in several sectors (notably health care but also in education) in some developed countries may only be a band-aid solution — and a bad one at that — for several reasons. [32] Funds should be moving from developed countries to developing countries, but these numbers tell us the opposite is happening?. [9] The short answer to this question is that the developed countries did not get to where they are now through the policies and the institutions that they recommend to developing countries today. [9] While it may not be possible to untie assistance in all cases, developed countries will rapidly and progressively take what measures they can ? to reduce the extent of tying of assistance and to mitigate any harmful effects available for utilization by the recipient countries for the purpose of buying goods and services from other developing countries. [9]

In the developing countries Lewis studied, people try to move from the low-wage sector to the affluent sector by transplanting from rural areas to the city to get a job. [37] During recent years, some developing countries have been advancing (think China, India, Brazil, etc). [9] Looking beyond agriculture, it is difficult to avoid being struck by the discrepancy between the picture of U.S. trade policy painted by Zoellick and the realities facing developing countries. [9] Developing countries have no such handle for Northern markets, even in sectors like agriculture and textiles, where they have an advantage but continue to face trade barriers and subsidies. [9] Rich countries like the U.S. continue to have a financial lever to dictate what good governance means and to pry open markets of developing countries for multinational corporations. [9]

The reforms that rich countries forced on Africa were supposed to boost economic growth. [9] In the context of international obligations, it is also criticized by many as an excuse for rich countries to cut back aid that has been agreed and promised at the United Nations. [9] To make things even worse, aid bureaucrats have incentives to satisfy the rich countries doing the funding as well as (or instead of) the poor. [9]

While the financial crisis does show the reliance on aid is not a good strategy for poor countries at any time, some have little choice in the short term. [9] By coincidence, that?s about the same as the total of rich countries’ aid to poor countries, so we take back with our left hand every cent we give with our right. [9] At the same time that is not the only aid going to poor countries. [9] In that context then, and given the problems mentioned further above about agricultural and textiles/clothing subsidies, etc. the current amount of aid given to poor countries doesn?t compare to aid given to wealthier countries? corporations and industries and hardly compensates for what is lost. [9]

The double standards that Oxfam mentions above, and that countless others have highlighted has a huge impact on poor countries, who are pressured to follow liberalization and reducing government interference while rich nations are able to subsidize some of their industries. [9] (and detailed below) these total flows are less than the subsidies many of the rich nations give to some of their industries, such as agriculture, which has a direct impact on the poor nations (due to flooding the market with–or dumping –excess products, protecting their own markets from the products of the poor countries, etc.) [9]

Given the grand scope and scale of the Taza Koom project that extends to more than 20 years, there will be many implementation challenges–but the vision appears big enough that any progress will deliver major benefits to the country. [12] For a country supposedly leading a crusade for open, non-discriminatory global markets, it?s a curiously anachronistic approach to trade policy. [9] Although commercial farming and fishing are Guinea-Bissau’s bread and butter on paper, many view the illegal narcotics trade as the most lucrative line of work in the country. [34]

Botswana appears to be a particular case where increased stakeholder involvement may speed up decision-making and lead to the better outcomes that would be expected from a country with its wealth and education. [12] IXPs keep local Internet sites running if a country experiences disruptions to its international bandwidth. [12] Its maritime administration (Commissariat aux affaires maritimes) became the country?s first governmental agency to earn an ISO 9001 quality certification and in 2011, Luxembourg became the fifth EU country to ratify the International Labour Organization?s Maritime Labour Convention. [33]

At this stage, the country has no broadband plan that has been made available to the general public, and it is not clear which agency would lead on ICT. A national ICT council established in 2006 to promote dialogue between industry and government has met rarely, the last time reportedly in 2012. [12] A dual economy has separated America from the idea of what most of us thought the country was meant to be. [37] The Mongolian Ship Registry was first established under then Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar in February 2003, as “one of the many projects the country has undertaken to improve the investment and economy of the country,” according to its mission statement. [33] The cost of their departure, at least in terms of the public purse in the sending country, may not have been large. [32] Satellite is also important for parts of the country that are not within reach of fiber backbones. [12] If a parent is away working in another country, for a child, the loss of their most important role models, nurturers and caregivers, ? has a significant psychosocial impact that can translate into feelings of abandonment, vulnerability, and loss of self-esteem, among others. [9]

I am an American currently living in a third world country. [34]

The World Economic Forum’s Network Readiness Index includes a survey question on the perception of the extent to which governments have a clear implementation plan for using ICTs to improve the country’s competitiveness (Figure 3). [12] On top of that, many agricultural companies do not implement effective agricultural practices, which contribute to the country’s poor economic performance. [34] Mozambique relies heavily, almost solely, on small-scale agriculture and tourism, which contributes to the country’s poor economy. [34]

Developed countries will provide, to the greatest extent possible, an increased flow of aid on a long-term and continuing basis. [9] As described in a special chapter in the OECD’s 2004 Trends in International Migration, the classic case of this domino effect is of South African doctors moving to developed countries while being replaced by Cuban doctors. [32] Whereas in developed countries, one single system exists and is effectively enforced, in fragile states multiple systems work side-by-side, each weakly enforced, and often operating in contradiction with each other. [10]

Adelman, further above noted that the U.S. is clearly the most generous on earth in public–but especially in private–giving, yet the CGD suggests otherwise, saying that the U.S. does not close the gap with most other rich countries ; The U.S. gives 13c/day/person in government aid?.American?s private giving–another 5c/day–is high by international standards but does not close the gap with most other rich countries. [9] Rich countries have failed to open their markets to poor countries. [9]

The departure of large numbers and proportions of health care workers from some sub-Saharan African countries comes to mind. [32]

It is probably no mere coincidence that over the past 20 years, as a number of countries have become more open to global economic forces, the percentage of the developing world living in extreme povertydefined as living on less than $1 per dayhas been cut in half. [13] They found that in “globalizing” countries in the developing world, income per person grew three-and-a-half times faster than in “non-globalizing” countries, during the 1990s. [13] The risks are not a reason to reverse direction, but for all concernedin developing and advanced countries, among both investors and recipientsto embrace policy changes to build strong economies and a stronger world financial system that will produce more rapid growth and ensure that poverty is reduced. [13] In the 1990s, many former Eastern bloc countries integrated into the global trading system and developing Asiaone of the most closed regions to trade in 1980progressively dismantled barriers to trade. [13]

Net official development assistance (ODA) from member countries of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) increased by 66 percent between 2000 and 2014, reaching a peak of $135.2 billion in 2013. [14] They felt that the refugee aid and development concept was being used as a means of mobilizing additional development funds for some hard-pressed countries, rather than as a genuine effort to find lasting solutions to refugee problems. [38] President Kennedy recognized the need to unite development into a single agency responsible for administering aid to foreign countries to promote social and economic development. [39] Countries need other attractions: Tirana’s Mr Rama points out that his city did not even have a cinema until two years ago, and donors could not grasp why the lack of one was important. [40] People and businesses, particularly in less-developed countries, are not getting the access they need to clean water, sanitation, and other essential services. [41] Countries must be prepared to embrace the policies needed, and, in the case of the poorest countries, may need the support of the international community as they do so. [13]

While it is recognized that there may be some “positive” aspects to the impact of a refugee influx on the economic life of a host country, the large-scale presence of refugees invariably constitutes a heavy burden for receiving countries, particularly LDCs. [38]

As developments took place over time in relation to each of these three components, so did the emphasis on readdressing the impact of refugees on host countries also change. [38] In the 1990s, USAID?s top priority became sustainable development, or helping countries improve their own quality of life. [39] Rural areas in most developing countries have been neglected – agriculture does not allow for a fair standard of living, other sources of income have not been developed, and accessibility to basic human needs – education, health, potable water and sanitation – is poor. [42]

Diaz JR, de las Cagigas A, Rodriguez R. Micronutrient deficiencies in developing and affluent countries. [43] This massive flow of migrants has benefits for all involved: the migrant women, as well as the origin and receiving countries. [42] There has also been an increase in aid from non-DAC nations, though precise figures for all 2014 countries are not yet available. [14] There are also signs that international trade flourishes between countries that export people and countries that import them. [40] More usefully, they could put more money into tertiary education in poorer countries, aiming specifically to pay to train the people whom they are going to employ. [40] With the Afghanistan and Iraq wars in full swing, USAID was called on to help those two countries rebuild government, infrastructure, civil society and basic services such as health care and education. [39] Additional programs may include providing adequate income support to cushion, but not obstruct, the process of change, and also making health care less dependent on continued employment and increasing the portability of pension benefits in some countries. [13]

Countries should still weigh the possible risks involved in opening up to capital flows against the efficiency costs associated with controls, but under certain conditions (such as good institutions, sound domestic and foreign policies, and developed financial markets) the benefits from financial globalization are likely to outweigh the risks. [13] A perennial challenge facing all of the world’s countries, regardless of their level of economic development, is achieving financial stability, economic growth, and higher living standards. [13] Do you trust your government? The OECD’s How’s life 2017 report finds that only 38% of people in OECD countries trust their government. [41] By helping to break down barriersranging from the regulatory to the culturalmore countries can be integrated into the global economy, and more people can seize more of the benefits of globalization. [13] America, the world’s biggest skills-magnet, absorbs large proportions of the most educated people from neighbouring countries. [40]

Along these lines, the currently-developed countries have widely-differing urban systems, in spite of their broad convergence in many areas of economic structure and performance. [44] The presence of refugees compounds the already prevailing economic, environmental, social and, at times, political difficulties in these countries. [38] While such returns lifted a burden from the countries which had hosted them, it still left largely unresolved the damage caused to the social, economic and environmental systems of those countries. [38]

They also find, to their irritation, that the most skilled immigrants use them as entrepot countries, acquiring citizenship and education before moving on to the largest and richest job market in the world. [40] This suspicion was reinforced by their perception of the somewhat grandiose scale of the projects which they were asked to finance and the limited capacity of the countries concerned to make effective use of such large resource allocations. [38]

The UK, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Luxembourg continued to exceed the UN?s ODA target of 0.7 percent of GNI. In 2014, the 7 industrialized nations contributed 71 percent of the net ODA from all DAC members, while European Union countries contributed 55 percent of the total. [14] Contributing to these hardships is that many of these countries were recently territories or protectorates of European nations. [45]

Eighteen of the poorest countries by GDP per capita are in Africa. [45] The response of the international community to the impact of large refugee populations on host countries has been uneven, and characterized by different conceptual underpinnings and motivations. [38] The rhetoric of international solidarity, however, is not always matched by support in addressing the negative impacts that large scale refugee movements have on these countries. [38] The underdevelopment of a mining infrastructure, as well as a general lack of industrialization, is largely due to large-scale civil unrest and international conflict with neighboring countries, including this list’s number one: the Democratic Republic of Congo. [45]

The gender portal monitors the progress made by governments to promote gender equality in both OECD and non-OECD countries and provides good practices based on analytical tools and reliable data. [41] Among OECD countries, government tax revenue as a percentage of GDP increased from 25.5 percent in 1965 to 36.6percent in 2006. [13]

Well-structured systems that can offer services and counseling to children affected by HIV/AIDS are lacking in many countries where AIDS is rampant. [42] For this reason, as well as to safeguard the institution of asylum, the support to host countries must be additional. [38] As some countries have embraced globalization, and experienced significant income increases, other countries that have rejected globalization, or embraced it only tepidly, have fallen behind. [13] Over the past two decades, income inequality has risen in most regions and countries. [13]

The ingredients contributing to China’s high growth rate over the past two decades have, for example, been very different from those that have contributed to high growth in countries as varied as Malaysia and Malta. [13] There is substantial evidence, from countries of different sizes and different regions, that as countries “globalize” their citizens benefit, in the form of access to a wider variety of goods and services, lower prices, more and better-paying jobs, improved health, and higher overall living standards. [13] In some countries, the education system is adapting to teach skills needed abroad: in Mexico, for example, the Monterrey Technological Institute has offered for two decades a curriculum and style of teaching designed to meet the demands of American multinationals. [40] Examples of the devastating impact of large refugee populations on the eco-systems and on the infra-structure of a host countries can be found in the experiences of the Islamic Republics of Iran and Pakistan in hosting Afghan refugees. [38] Progress is highly uneven among regions, countries, and population groups. [14]

Nor is it true that multinational corporations make a consistent practice of operating sweatshops in low-wage countries, with poor working conditions and substandard wages. [13] A common denominator which appears to link nearly all high-growth countries together is their participation in, and integration with, the global economy. [13] As individuals and institutions work to raise living standards throughout the world, it will be critically important to create a climate that enables these countries to realize maximum benefits from globalization. [13]

Poverty is the main development challenge facing both developing and developed countries. [42] Even in the developed countries that are used as templates for theorizing causes, urban and regional development patterns are changing through various combinations of deindustrialization and population loss, growth, sunbelts and frostbelts, metropolitan expansion, and stimulated by changing patterns of specialization and employment, while generating new patterns of incomes. [44]

Focusing on socio-economic development as a tool for poverty eradication, MASHAV stresses the importance of bottom-up development, concentrating on the contribution of women to the development of their country. [42] No government of a low income country is prepared to contract loans or reallocate its previous development funds to programmes designed for, or required because of, large numbers of refugees on their land. [38] The important difference for UNHCR with this strategy, in its dealings with national governments and development and financial institutions, was that the beneficiaries were nationals of the country where development initiatives were being promoted. [38] Leaders of the 192 UN member states present at the summit agreed to start designing development goals which are easy to communicate, concise, action-oriented, aspirational, global in nature and applicable to every single country in the world, while keeping in mind the existence of different national situations, capacities and development levels and respecting national priorities and policies. [14] The focus of such discussions is how, inter-alia, to mitigate the effects of emergencies and, consequently, relief aid, on the development process of a country. [38] It also recognized that it had a catalytic role in enlisting the assistance of the international community and development agencies to help with environmental rehabilitation in the host country after the departure of refugees. [38]

Israel is in the almost unique position of combining elements of developed and developing societies within a single country and small and diverse geographical areas. [42]

It is the people of developing economies who have the greatest need for globalization, as it provides them with the opportunities that come with being part of the world economy. [13] It also helps to define the needs of the community in relation to the establishment of a Small Business Development Center, including the setting up of municipal economic units. [42] It revolved around the same three components of refugee aid, development assistance and solutions, except that now the focus was on returnee aid and the need to involve development assistance in support of reintegration programmes to anchor the durable solution of voluntary repatriation. [38] All in all, then, some pieces of the “where? puzzle are in place, but geographers need to relate them more strongly to the NEG and NNUE frameworks of open-economy spatial development; at the same time, economists would do well to try and incorporate the dispersion of growth processes in their frameworks and the causes of such dispersion through selection and matching of places and activities, rather than through largely vacuous statistical control strategies. [44] Programs address the connection between gender, poverty reduction and sustainable development, and the need for gender-sensitive policymaking. [42] Therefore, a holistic and crossfunctioning approach needs to be promoted in order for rural development to be successful. [42] Decision-makers need to be well informed if they are to push for short-term infusions of funds into water infrastructure and support longer-term investments in sustainable development. [41]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(45 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (235) Unmet Need for Contraception in Developing Countries: Examining Women?s Reasons for Not Using a Method | Guttmacher Institute

2. (101) Foreign Aid for Development Assistance — Global Issues

3. (52) Internet Crossing Borders: Boosting the Internet in Landlocked Developing Countries | Internet Society

4. (42) Developing country – Wikipedia

5. (28) Economic Inequality: Differences in Developed and Developing Nations – Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

6. (25) DEVELOPMENT: Develop as We Say, Not as We Did | Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS)

7. (22) depend.html

8. (21) Economic development – Economic development as an objective of policy | Britannica.com

9. (19) Issues Brief – Globalization: A Brief Overview

10. (19) Reassessing the Impacts of Brain Drain on Developing Countries | migrationpolicy.org

11. (19) A List of Third World Countries: 10 Poorest Nations With Rising Economies – Financesonline.com

12. (17) If You Shouldn’t Call It The Third World, What Should You Call It? : Goats and Soda : NPR

13. (17) The paradox of plenty: what does Africa need to develop and prosper? – WaystoCap

14. (16) Development and Developing Countries – Global Sherpa

15. (15) UNHCR – Social and economic impact of large refugee populations on host developing countries

16. (14) What’s needed to take Africa from Third to First World in 25 years

17. (14) Aid in reverse: how poor countries develop rich countries | Jason Hickel | Working in development | The Guardian

18. (13) Does the Economy Really Need to Keep Growing? – The Atlantic

19. (12) Why Are Some Countries Rich and Others Poor? | St. Louis Fed

20. (12) What do developing countries have in common, and how are they diverse?What do developing countries have in common, and how are they diverse? | eNotes

21. (11) What Waits for Bangladesh as it Becomes a Developing Country?

22. (11) Developed Countries: Definition & Examples – Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

23. (10) How to make sure developing countries can develop | World Economic Forum

24. (10) Foreign Aid | Intelligent Economist

25. (9) Community and Socio-Economic Development – Consulate General of Israel In Shanghai

26. (9) Higher education is key to economic development (but it’s not as simple as you think)

27. (8) Lesser-Developed Country – LDC

28. (8) Forget ‘developing’ poor countries, it’s time to ‘de-develop’ rich countries | Global Development Professionals Network | The Guardian

29. (7) Strengthening the Rule of Law in Developing CountriesStrengthening the Rule of Law in Developing CountriesFragile States Forum

30. (7) Five Easy Steps to Develop a Country Sustainably | The Borgen Project

31. (7) Can landlocked countries develop a blue economy? – Ship Technology

32. (6) MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development | MDG Monitor

33. (6) America is Regressing into a Developing Nation for Most People

34. (6) Outward bound – Emigration

35. (5) Why Have The Islamic Countries Failed To Develop Even With Resources Like Oil, While Countries With No Resources Like Switzerland Have Flourished?

36. (4) Tourism an Important Sector of Economy Development

37. (4) Water and the economic crisis – OECD Observer

38. (3) USAID History | U.S. Agency for International Development

39. (3) Why do regions develop and change? The challenge for geography and economics | Journal of Economic Geography | Oxford Academic

40. (3) Here Are The 20 Poorest Nations In The World – Business Insider

41. (2) Least Developed Countries (LDCs) | Economic Analysis & Policy Division

42. (2) List of least developed countries

43. (2) UNICEF – Goal: Develop a global partnership for development

44. (1) Basic Needs in Developing Countries | Foreign Affairs

45. (1) Malnutrition and health in developing countries