What Is Needed Before Photosynthesis Can Happen

What Is Needed Before Photosynthesis Can Happen
What Is Needed Before Photosynthesis Can Happen Image link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-independent_reactions
C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Plants get the water needed for photosynthesis from their roots.(More…)
  • You can design an experiment to test some of these variables: for example, will photosynthesis happen faster or slower if you put the elodea in warm water?(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Photosynthesis is the process by which energy from the sun is used by plants and other organisms to split water and carbon dioxide molecules to make carbohydrates and oxygen. Manganese is required for water splitting to work, so when scientists began to wonder what evolutionary steps may have led up to an oxygenated atmosphere on Earth, they started to look for evidence of manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis prior to cyanobacteria.(More…)
  • To correct your initial word equation: During photosynthesis, a plant translates CO 2 and water into O 2 and carbon compounds using energy from light (photons).(More…)
  • Photosynthesis is a chemical process whereby plants and algae that contain chlorophyll capture radiant energy from the sun, and use carbon dioxide and water from the environment to then convert the sunlight to food (glucose), while at the same time creating oxygen and water as byproducts.(More…)

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KEY TOPICS

Plants get the water needed for photosynthesis from their roots. [1] Additional light-trapping pigments, enzymes (organic substances that speed up chemical reactions), and other molecules needed for photosynthesis are also located within the thylakoid membranes. [2]

You can design an experiment to test some of these variables: for example, will photosynthesis happen faster or slower if you put the elodea in warm water? Collect data by measuring how much oxygen is produced in a given amount of time when the elodea is submerged in warm water vs. cold water. [3] We want to reinforce that photosynthesis happens in the chloroplast. [4] It actually uses only certain colors to make photosynthesis happen. [4] Photosynthesis can happen in different ways, but there are some parts that are common. [5]

The temperature of the air, the strength of the sunlight, the wavelengths of the light, and the amount of carbon dioxide present around the plant are factors that determine the amount of photosynthesis that can happen in a plant. [6] A reaction happens when energy from the sun combines with these molecules, which makes photosynthesis possible. [6] Photosynthesis happens in chloroplasts within plants, which typically are found in the green parts. [6] The second product of photosynthesis is oxygen which comes in handy if your happen to be an aerobic organism that requires oxygen for survival. [7] Don’t you agree? Remember, it turns out that most photosynthesis on Earth is occurring in the oceans, & the organisms in the oceans doing the job happen to be classified into the Protist Kingdom algae (seaweeds), diatoms, etc. So let’s not forget them completely. [7] Photosynthesis needs special factors to exist for it to happen. [6] Now let’s do the same, except pay attention to what happens to the products of photosynthesis. [7]

If you take another look at the photosynthesis equation you will notice that six molecules of carbon dioxide (6CO2) are needed for the process of photosynthesis. [8] Photosynthesis makes the oxygen needed by humans and animals. [6] The rays needed for photosynthesis are the visible light rays, which contain every color of the rainbow. [6]

The chemical equation necessary for photosynthesis is complicated, requiring a specific mixture of molecules for the process to happen. [6]

Where does photosynthesis happen, you ask? Photosynthesis occurs within organelles called the chloroplasts that are abundant on the leaf of a plant, giving it its signature green pigment. [9] Leaves contain chloroplasts, so photosynthesis happens in plant leaves. [10]

Here we will go through the equation for photosynthesis, photosynthesis cycle, a diagram of photosynthesis and the exact sites where different parts of photosynthesis happen. [9]

Elaborate Ask students what would happen if they added another element to the process of photosynthesis? For example, what if they substituted ethanol (C2H5OH) for the water? Or what if they substituted coffee for water? Allow students to pick their own substitute for a part of the equation and create their own investigation where they can investigate the substitutions of different ingredients and form their own conclusions. [11] These potent biological reductants and oxidants provide all the energy needed to drive all subsequent reactions of photosynthesis : electron transport, ATP synthesis, and CO 2 fixation. [12] Photosynthesis happens in regions of a cell called chloroplasts. [13]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Photosynthesis is the process by which energy from the sun is used by plants and other organisms to split water and carbon dioxide molecules to make carbohydrates and oxygen. Manganese is required for water splitting to work, so when scientists began to wonder what evolutionary steps may have led up to an oxygenated atmosphere on Earth, they started to look for evidence of manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis prior to cyanobacteria. [14] INTRODUCTION Photosynthesis, process by which green plants and certain other organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose. [2] These archaebacteria do not carry out the complete process of photosynthesis; although they produce ATP in a process similar to the light-dependent reaction and use it for energy, they do not produce glucose. [2]

Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants create energy from sunlight. [15] Through the process of photosynthesis plants convert light energy into chemical energy. [1] Photosynthesis is the process by which the plant prepare its food. [1] HOW PHOTOSYNTHESIS WORKS Photosynthesis is a very complex process, and for the sake of convenience and ease of understanding, plant biologists divide it into two stages. [2] For these bacteria, the process of photosynthesis is similar to that of plants, algae, and seaweed. [2] WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS Plant photosynthesis occurs in leaves and green stems within specialized cell structures called chloroplasts. [2] The water travels up the stem of the plant through a complex transport system and arrives in the leaves, to be used as a raw material during photosynthesis. [15] Photosynthesis can take place in those many parts of a plant that have green coloured pigment named chlorophyll in them. [1] Certain red and blue wavelengths of light are the most effective in photosynthesis because they have exactly the right amount of energy to energize, or excite, chlorophyll electrons and boost them out of their orbits to a higher energy level. [2] Virtually all life on earth, directly or indirectly, depends on photosynthesis as a source of food, energy, and oxygen, making it one of the most important biochemical processes known. [2] Recently, there was a group at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm that managed to produce a catalyst that is able to use sunlight to split water into oxygen as photosynthesis does. [16] During this stage of photosynthesis, as the sunlight excites the chlorophyll, water is split into oxygen and hydrogen, and the oxygen is released into the atmosphere. [15]

“Manganese plays an essential role in modern biological water splitting as a necessary catalyst in the process, so manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis makes sense as a potential transitional photosystem,” says Jena Johnson, a graduate student in Fischer’s laboratory at Caltech and lead author of the study. [14] The sun starts the first reaction in photosynthesis, which is known as the light-dependent process. [15] Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy from the sun is absorbed and converted into organic compounds. [16] In the first stage, the light-dependent reaction, the chloroplast traps light energy and converts it into chemical energy contained in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), two molecules used in the second stage of photosynthesis. [2] Geobiologists writing in PNAS say they have found evidence of a precursor photosystem involving manganese that predates cyanobacteria, the first group of organisms to release oxygen into the environment via photosynthesis. [14] An extremely important byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen, on which most organisms depend. [2] In so doing, photosynthesis provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms. [2] A more thorough understanding of the details of photosynthesis may pave the way for development of crops that are more efficient at using the sun’s energy, producing food for increasingly bountiful harvests. [2] Plants also give us food and fibers to make clothes and without photosynthesis, we would not be able to sustain the life we are living. [16] PHOTOSYNTHESIS VARIATIONS A majority of plants use these steps in photosynthesis. [2] “Algae borrowed this photosynthetic system from cyanobacteria, and plants are just a group of algae that took photosynthesis on land, so we think with this finding we’re looking at the inception of the molecular machinery that would give rise to oxygen.” [14] Plants such as corn and crabgrass that have evolved in hot, dry environments, however, must overcome certain obstacles to photosynthesis. [2] With this system, these plants can continue photosynthesis on hot days, even with their pores almost completely closed. [2] This chemical is produced naturally by all green plants and its role in photosynthesis is to absorb light. [15] Once photosynthesis has taken place, the oxygen produced also leaves the cells via the stomata. [15] Humans are also dependent on ancient products of photosynthesis, known as fossil fuels, for supplying most of our modern industrial energy. [2] There is a still a major discovery to be made to find out exactly how the catalysis works, and now knowing where this machinery comes from may open new perspectives into its function–an understanding that could help target technologies for energy production from artificial photosynthesis [14] The mud-dwelling green sulfur and purple sulfur archaebacteria use hydrogen sulfide instead of water in photosynthesis. [2] Photosynthesis begins when light strikes Photosystem I pigments and excites their electrons. [2] These two stages reflect the literal meaning of the term photosynthesis, to build with light. [2] During the electron transfer, protons (i.e. hydrogen ions) are pumped across the membrane of chloroplasts, the specialized organelles where photosynthesis takes place. [16] AThe Light-Dependent Reaction Photosynthesis relies on flows of energy and electrons initiated by light energy. [2] That light energy triggers the chemical reaction we know as photosynthesis. [15] The oxygen humans and other animals breathe is the oxygen released during photosynthesis. [2] The sugars that are produced by photosynthesis are used to make glutamate and other amino acids. [16] Nitrogen metabolism is tightly linked to photosynthesis because one of the products of the assimilation of nitrogen, glutamate, is the source of chlorophyll. [16] “Water-oxidizing or water-splitting photosynthesis was invented by cyanobacteria approximately 2.4 billion years ago and then borrowed by other groups of organisms thereafter,” says Woodward Fischer, assistant professor of geobiology at Caltech and a co-author of the study. [14] These fossil fuels, including natural gas, coal, and petroleum, are composed of a complex mix of hydrocarbons, the remains of organisms that relied on photosynthesis millions of years ago. [2] Certain archaebacteria, members of a group of primitive bacteria-like organisms, carry out photosynthesis in a different manner. [2] Halobacteria are among the most ancient organisms, and may have been the starting point for the evolution of photosynthesis. [2] Photosynthesis occurs in green plants, seaweeds, algae, and certain bacteria. [2] In order to carry out photosynthesis, green plants need several ingredients. [15] If their current study results are truly an indication of manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis, they say, there should be evidence of the same processes in other parts of the world. [14] Photosynthesis is one of the great inventions of nature that we are trying first to understand, and then somehow to replicate. [16] The findings support the idea that manganese oxidation–which, despite the name, is a chemical reaction that does not have to involve oxygen–provided an evolutionary stepping-stone for the development of water-oxidizing photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. [14]

Before dawn, all the genes that are required for photosynthesis are turned on so as soon as there is light (sunrise) the process is ready to start. [16] Embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids are hundreds of molecules of chlorophyll, a light-trapping pigment required for photosynthesis. [2] Halobacteria, archaebacteria found in the salt flats of deserts, rely on the pigment bacteriorhodopsin instead of chlorophyll for photosynthesis. [2]

This happens in the little organelle, chloroplasts, in leaf cells and is what makes plants green. [1]

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food. 1 It is a chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. [5] Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the “fuel” used by all living things. [17]

In plant photosynthesis, the energy of light is used to drive the oxidation of water (H 2 O), producing oxygen gas (O 2 ), hydrogen ions (H + ), and electrons. [18] Animals are carbon dioxide producers that derive their energy from carbohydrates and other chemicals produced by plants by the process of photosynthesis. [17] Plants create their own energy food, called glucose, through a process called photosynthesis. [19] The carbohydrates they make in this process forms the foundation of the food chain plants (and some photosynthetic bacteria & algae) are the only ‘producers’ of food; all other living things are ‘consumers,’ feeding directly or indirectly on the food produced in photosynthesis. [3]

During the light independent reaction of photosynthesis, also called the Calvin cycle, plants use CO2 (carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere. [19] To carry out photosynthesis plants need four things: chloroplasts, light, water and carbon dioxide. [19] The rate of photosynthesis varies with several factors, including the intensity of sunlight and the temperature of the plant. (Other factors include the amount of water and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the air.) [3] Plants continually go through the process of photosynthesis during their life cycles and continue to create oxygen and filter carbon dioxide out of the air. [20] The little light that does make it here is enough for the plants of the world to survive and go through the process of photosynthesis. [4] Sugar molecules are produced by the process of photosynthesis in plants and certain bacteria. [18] Energy produced by photosynthesis carried out by plants millions of years ago is responsible for the fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and gas ) that power industrial society. [18] The role of NADPH in oxygen-producing photosynthesis is to ____. a) supply hydrogen to the carbohydrate; b) supply carbon to the carbohydrate; c) supply energy that can be used to form a carbohydrate; d) transfer oxygens from the third phosphate group to the carbohydrate molecule; e) convert RuBP into PGA. [17] C-4 photosynthesis is so named because _____. a) it produces a three carbon compound as the first stable product of photosynthesis; b) it produces a four carbon compound as the first stable produc of photosynthesis; c) it produces four ATP and four NADPH molecules for carbon fixation.; d) there are only four steps in this form of carbon fixation into carbohydrate. [17] The electrons produce ATP. The use of light is part of the photosynthesis process called the light dependent reaction. [19] Well, the rate of photosynthesis is usually faster than respiration, so a plant produces more oxygen than it needs for itself. [3] Plants also produce some carbon dioxide by their respiration, but this is quickly used by photosynthesis. [17]

Photosynthesis comes from Greek and means ‘putting together with light.’ While we humans are trying hard these days to harness the sun’s energy to power our homes and vehicles, every green leaf in the world is making the most of solar energy to ‘put together’ food from water and carbon dioxide. [3] The raw materials of photosynthesis, water and carbon dioxide, enter the cells of the leaf, and the products of photosynthesis, sugar and oxygen, leave the leaf. [17] During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. [18] Carbon dioxide from the air and water, which the plant takes from the soil, are utilized during photosynthesis, which occurs mostly in green plant parts–especially the leaves. [18] The stomata can close at night when no photosynthesis is taking place, or during the heat of the day when the plant is in danger of too much water evaporating from its leaves. [3] Without light, a plant can’t make its food by photosynthesis. [3] Oxygen diffuses out of the plant as a waste product of photosynthesis, and ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate. [5] Plants have a secret! Inside that calm exterior they are busily working at a complex process that fuels the whole planet: photosynthesis. [3] Without them performing photosynthesis, you wouldn’t have oxygen to breathe or food to eatyou wouldn’t be here, in fact! Next time you look at a leaf, think of the amazing, complex process going on in its microscopic cells, helping keep you alive. [3] Almost all the oxygen in the atmosphere is due to the process of photosynthesis. [18] Dolai, U (2017) “Chemical Scheme of Water -Splitting Process during Photosynthesis by the way of Experimental Analysis “. [5] In chemical terms, photosynthesis is a light-energized oxidation-reduction process. (Oxidation refers to the removal of electrons from a molecule; reduction refers to the gain of electrons by a molecule.) [18] Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. [18] Light is the most important ingredient in photosynthesis and where the process gets its name. [19] This equation is merely a summary statement, for the process of photosynthesis actually involves numerous reactions catalyzed by enzymes (organic catalysts ). [18] All plants use photosynthesis, so they all need some sunlight. [21] The chloroplast is where photosynthesis takes place, and the plant already has it. [19] Absorption spectrum of several plant pigments (left) and action spectrum of elodea (right), a common aquarium plant used in lab experiments about photosynthesis. [17] If factors that aid in photosynthesis are absent or less, it can negatively affect the fruits of the plant. [22] Explain how C-4 photosynthesis provides an advantage for plants in certain environments. [17] Requirements for food, materials, and energy in a world where human population is rapidly growing have created a need to increase both the amount of photosynthesis and the efficiency of converting photosynthetic output into products useful to people. [18] If photosynthesis ceased, there would soon be little food or other organic matter on Earth, most organisms would disappear, and Earth?s atmosphere would eventually become nearly devoid of gaseous oxygen. [18] These results provided definitive support for van Niel?s theory that the oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis is derived from water. [18] Oxygen produced during photosynthesis can only pass out of the leaf through the opened stomata. [17] Sulfur bacteria use hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) as a source of hydrogen atoms and produce sulfur instead of oxygen during photosynthesis. [18] Each year, photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide and releases 100,000 megatons of oxygen to the atmosphere. [18] The rate of photosynthesis will vary depending on the intensity of the sunlight and other factors, but slowly the oxygen will collect in the test tube. [3] The carbon dioxide that has been removed from the air to make carbohydrates in photosynthesis over millions of years is being returned at an incredibly rapid rate. [18] In most green cells, carbohydrates –especially starch and the sugar sucrose –are the major direct organic products of photosynthesis. [18] No animals are thought to be independently capable of photosynthesis, though the emerald green sea slug can temporarily incorporate algae chloroplasts in its body for food production. [18] The process of taking these three key ingredients and making them into food is called photosynthesis. [21] The process of photosynthesis is divided into two main parts. [4] The process of photosynthesis is commonly written as: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O ? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. [18] In the future such genetic engineering may result in improvements in the process of photosynthesis, but by the first decades of the 21st century, it had yet to demonstrate that it could dramatically increase crop yields. [18] There are two main phases to the process of photosynthesis. [21] Energy may trigger a chemical reaction, as in photosynthesis. [17] The action spectrum of photosynthesis is the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of light at generating electrons. [17] There are two stages to photosynthesis: light reactions and dark reactions. [20] List the two major processes of photosynthesis and state what occurs in those sets of reactions. [17] By 1940 chemists were using heavy isotopes to follow the reactions of photosynthesis. [18] That’s not all photosynthesis is also the main source of oxygen that most living creatures need in order to breathe. [3] Almost half a century passed before the concept of chemical energy had developed sufficiently to permit the discovery (in 1845) that light energy from the sun is stored as chemical energy in products formed during photosynthesis. [18] ?weight is a consequence of photosynthesis, in which light energy is converted into chemical energy used to synthesize organic substances. [18] Another intriguing area in the study of photosynthesis has been the discovery that certain animals are able to convert light energy into chemical energy. [18]

Using carbon-14, available in plenty from Hanford reactors, and the new techniques of ion exchange, paper chromatography, and radioautography, Calvin and his many associates mapped the complete path of carbon in photosynthesis. [17] Describe the phenomenon of acid rain, and how photosynthesis relates to acid rain and the carbon cycle. [17] There are two parts of the chloroplast that are the most important to photosynthesis. [19] If photosynthesis ceased, there would soon be little food or other organic matter on Earth. [18] It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in the maintenance of life on Earth. [18] Photosynthesis is critical for the existence of the vast majority of life on Earth. [18]

Cross section of a leaf, showing the anatomical features important to the study of photosynthesis: stoma, guard cell, mesophyll cells, and vein. [17] Both “active” forms of chlorophyll a function in photosynthesis due to their association with proteins in the thylakoid membrane. [17] The average global rate of photosynthesis is 130 TW (1 TW 1 terawatt 10 12 watt). [5] The stroma is where photosynthesis ends and glucose is made. [19] Interestingly, respiration is almost exactly the opposite of photosynthesis. [3]

Below are things that plants need for photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide (A colorless, naturally occurring odorless gas found in the air we breathe. [22] Study the general equation for photosynthesis and be able to indicate in which process each reactant is used and each product is produced. [17]

This reaction happens when the light energy is captured and pushed into a chemical called ATP. The second part of the process happens when the ATP is used to make glucose (the Calvin Cycle ). [4] The first phase of the process must have sunlight, but the second phase can happen without sunlight and even at night. [21]

The electron is passed again through a series of redox reactions, eventually being attached to NADP + and H + to form NADPH, an energy carrier needed in the Light Independent Reaction. [17] This shortage of NADPH and ATP will lead to the light-independent reactions not working as NADPH and ATP are needed for the light-independent reactions to work. [5]

Leaves are ideal for photosynthesis because they are usually broad and flat, giving plenty of surface area for light to be absorbed. [3] They are also thin, which means diffusion of gases such as carbon dioxide can happen quickly. [3] Photolysis will not happen quickly, and therefore little NADPH and ATP will be made. [5] Respiration happens all the time, not just in the daylight. [3] Therefore, the light-independent reaction cannot happen without the light-dependent reaction. [5]

To correct your initial word equation: During photosynthesis, a plant translates CO 2 and water into O 2 and carbon compounds using energy from light (photons). [23] By taking in water (H2O) through the roots, carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, and light energy from the Sun, plants can perform photosynthesis to make glucose (sugars) and oxygen (O2). [24] The first overall principle of photosynthesis is that the light energy from the sun is transformed into chemical energy and stored in the bonds of glucose (the sugar carbohydrate) for later use by the plant and/or organism that eats the plant. [25]

The whole process of photosynthesis is a transfer of energy from the Sun to a plant. [24] Photosynthesis in plants is an extremely useful process whereby green plants take up carbon dioxide (a toxin) from the air and produce rich oxygen. Green plants are the only living thing on earth that are capable of converting the sun’s energy into food. [26] Photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide into organic molecules – the water is broken up during the process and the oxygen from it released and light also doesn’t really belong in the equation. [23] The second overall principle of photosynthesis is that carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms are taken from carbon dioxide and water molecules and are broken up and rearranged into new substances: carbohydrate (specifically glucose) and oxygen gas (so we can breathe, whew!). [25] We now believe that all the oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from the water molecules and all oxygen atoms that form the carbohydrates come from the carbon dioxide molecules. [25]

For plants to perform photosynthesis they require light energy from the sun, water and carbon dioxide. [8] To perform photosynthesis, plants need three things: carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. [24] Whether the culprit were too much sunlight or not enough, if photosynthesis stopped, plants would stop converting carbon dioxide — an air pollutant — to organic material. [27]

Plants perform photosynthesis because it generates the food and energy they need for growth and cellular respiration. [8] Photosynthesis in plants can be compared with the digestive system in that they both break down vital elements to produce energy that is used for nourishment and growth. [26] During photosynthesis, chlorophyll captures the sun’s rays and creates sugary carbohydrates or energy, which allows the plant to grow. [26] Clover, like all plants with chlorophyll, creates energy through photosynthesis. [27]

Plants use some of the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis as fuel for the respiration process. [6] The process where plants make their own food is known as photosynthesis. [26] Essentially, photosynthesis is the fueling process that allows plants and even algae to survive and grow. [27] This process is called photosynthesis and is performed by all plants, algae, and even some microorganisms. [24] Not only does photosynthesis keep plants alive, which produces oxygen for humans and animals, photosynthesis has other far-reaching effects on life. [6] All of the “black dots” in the picture represent chloroplasts, which are the cell organelles in plant cells where the chemical reactions of photosynthesis take place. [7] For the most part, when thinking of organisms that carry-out photosynthesis, it is safe to picture plants. [7] Remember that during hours of darkness, plants cannot perform photosynthesis so they do cellular respiration in the mitochondria just as all living organisms do. [25] On the multicellular level, photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of plants. [7] I wonder how the plant grows before the time where photosynthesis is possible, i.e. before there are even leaves, in which photosynthesis occurs. [23]

Most of the reactions involved in the process of photosynthesis take place in the leaves. [8] Where did the rabbit?s energy come from? Consider the process of photosynthesis. [24] Because all life is dependent on photosynthesis and its byproduct (oxygen), all life is dependent on the sun and the energy it provides. [6] Watch “Photosynthesis: Blinded by the Light” to explore student misconceptions about matter and energy in photosynthesis and strategies for eliciting student ideas to address or build on them. [24] Although levels of starch fall significantly at night i.e. low light intensity – when photosynthesis ceases – all the starch in the leaf is typically not all used up by dawn. [28] Water is used as the electron donor in oxygenic photosynthesis and is split into electrons (e-), hydrogen ions (H+, protons) and oxygen (O2). [8] Damaging the ecosystems where photosynthesis occurs (i.e. the rainforests, the oceans) reduces the amount of oxygen being pumped into the air (that’s a bad thing) & slows the rate at which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere (which also appears to be a bad thing). [7] To help kids gain a better understanding of the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis in plants, keep reading. [26] The light-dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle are the two main stages of photosynthesis in plants. [8] These differences in climatic conditions and ecosystems have resulted in different types of photosynthesis in plants. [8] Alright, that is “the big picture” what photosynthesis is, why it’s important, & how plants are adapted to carry it out. [7] Not only do plants depend on photosynthesis for survival and growth, humans depend on plants and photosynthesis, also. [6] Other fossil fuels such as coal are a direct result of ancient plants that existed thanks to photosynthesis. [6] If photosynthesis came to an abrupt end, most plants would die within short order. [27] Our goal is to educate people about photosynthesis, a chemical process that fuels life on earth. [8] Teaching children about the process of photosynthesis and the importance of chlorophyll is an integral part of most elementary and middle school science curriculums. [26] Green plants use the process of photosynthesis to make carbohydrates. [6] These compounds move through the chloroplast to finish the process of photosynthesis. [6] Photosynthesis requires two stages for completion — the light dependent process and the dark reaction process. [6] Various topics on the subject highlight the history, importance, process and future of photosynthesis. [8] An artificial photosynthesis process being developed by scientists could just become the world’s biggest problem-solver. [27] Almost all living things are dependent upon the process of photosynthesis for life. [26] Hands-on activities are the best way to teach kids how the process of photosynthesis works. [26] In terms of organisms, photosynthesis occurs in autotrophes that contain the green pigment chlorophyll. [7] Organisms that carry-out photosynthesis are like oxygen factories. [7] Oxygen is later released into the atmosphere as a by-product of photosynthesis. [8] After ATP is formed in the first part of photosynthesis, for living things to grow, reproduce and repair themselves, the inorganic form of CO 2 must be transformed into carbohydrate. [25] The first stage of photosynthesis is the light dependent reactions. [8] What is chlorophyll and what is photosynthesis? Most of us already know the answers to these questions but for kids, this can be unchartered waters. [26] One product of photosynthesis is glucose (sugar), which provides the basis for most food chains. [7] Glucose – the product of photosynthesis – is rapidly converted into starch for storage in the chloroplast and cytoplasm. [28] Even more specifically, the palisade layer has the most chloroplasts, so the greatest amount of photosynthesis occurs in that leaf layer. [7] Using an artificial “leaf,” scientists have successfully harnessed sunlight and recreated photosynthesis. [27] Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction in which light energy is converted to chemical energy in glucose. [7] It’s a concept most children learn in science class: Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy. [27] Light energy from the sun is the driving force behind photosynthesis. [6] Too much light energy would damage plants’ biological structure and prevent photosynthesis from happening. [27] Humans, other animals, fungi, and some microorganisms cannot make food in their own bodies like autotrophs, but they still rely on photosynthesis. [24] ‘De-starch (or Destarch) the leaves of a potted plant’ is one of the preliminary steps in a photosynthesis experiment. [28] We test for the presence of starch in leaves in order to determine that photosynthesis has occurred. [28] Ironically, if the sun burned too bright, it could cause photosynthesis to stop occurring. [27] If you need a longer review, check out our lesson on photosynthesis before reading on. [25] On the planetary level, most photosynthesis occurs in the oceans, because the oceans occupy the vast majority (70%) of the earth’s surface. [7] Anyhoo. our topic right now, namely photosynthesis, is arguably one of the most important chemical reactions occurring on the planet. [7] Explains the connection between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. [29] Covers relationship between cellular respiration and photosynthesis. [29]

Plants use a special mixture of the molecules in carbon dioxide and water, along with energy from the sun, to make the carbohydrates needed for life and growth. [6] As a result of the proton gradient in the lumen, hydrogen ions are transferred to ATP synthase and provide the energy needed for combining ADP and Pi to produce ATP. [8]

The first part of the process happens in the thylakoids of the chloroplasts and are the “light-dependent” reactions: The photosystems I and II absorb the photons from the sunlight and process them through the membranes of the thylakoids simultaneously. [25] The light dependent process happens first, and then the dark reaction process follows. [6] The “light-independent” or dark reactions happen in the stroma of the chloroplasts. [25] This happens during the Calvin Cycle in the stroma (the fluid filled interior of the chloroplast). [25]

As the cycle continues, humans and animals will also provide the carbon dioxide that plants need for photosynthesis. [6] The blue and red wavelengths are the most important for photosynthesis, because these wavelengths absorb into plant leaves most effectively. [6] Having said that, let’s take a look at plants & how they are adapted for photosynthesis. [7] On the cellular level, the reactions for photosynthesis occur in organelles called chloroplasts (in eukaryotic cells). [7] The last requirement for photosynthesis is an important one because it provides the energy to make sugar. [24] The xylem ( colored blue ) transport water & minerals from the roots, through the stem, & into the leaves (remember. we need water for photosynthesis). [7] When investigating whether a condition (or a factor) is necessary for photosynthesis is to occur we need to remove all traces of starch in leaves so that we can provide evidence that photosynthesis takes place during the experiment i.e. in the presence of this factor and not in its absence. [28]

This should not be confused with investigating whether carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis. [28] Now let’s revisit the summary equation for photosynthesis & note how each of the raw materials end up in the chloroplasts so that the whole photosynthesis deal can go down. [7] Demonstrate how the sun is necessary for photosynthesis by placing one bean sprout in a sunny location and one in a dark location. [26] That’s because for photosynthesis to cease to exist, Earth would have to plunge into darkness. [27]

Two Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules are needed to make one molecule of glucose. [8]

Photosynthesis is a chemical process whereby plants and algae that contain chlorophyll capture radiant energy from the sun, and use carbon dioxide and water from the environment to then convert the sunlight to food (glucose), while at the same time creating oxygen and water as byproducts. [30] What is photosynthesis, you ask? Photosynthesis is a process by which plants use carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun to make their food in the form of sugars (Figure 1). [9] In photosynthesis, plants use energy from the sun, water, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the air to store carbon and energy in the form of glucose molecules. [31]

Plants occupy a fundamental part of the food chain and the carbon cycle due to their ability to carry out photosynthesis, the biochemical process of capturing and storing energy from the sun and matter from the air. [31] To use the energy stored by photosynthesis, plants (like all other organisms with mitochondria) use the process of respiration, which is basically the reverse of photosynthesis. [31] Photosynthetic and Chemosynthetic Organisms : Photoautotrophs, including (a) plants, (b) algae, and (c) cyanobacteria, synthesize their organic compounds via photosynthesis using sunlight as an energy source. [32] In general, plants are only able to harness about one percent of solar energy and use it to produce organic compounds during photosynthesis. [33] Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis uses solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water to produce energy-storing carbohydrates. [32] Photosynthesis is the combination of carbon dioxide and water, with solar energy, to create carbohydrates, giving off oxygen to the atmosphere as a by-product. [34] During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy transfers electrons from water (H 2 O) to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), to produce carbohydrates. [33] When sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide combine inside plants, photosynthesis can begin. [10] Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and certain bacteria to harness energy from sunlight and turn it into chemical energy. [33] The process of photosynthesis gives plants, algae, and some types of bacteria the nutrients they need to grow, while at the same time providing important oxygen for life on earth. [10] In plants, the process of photosynthesis takes place in the mesophyll of the leaves, inside the chloroplasts. [32] Although all the green parts of a plant can carry out photosynthesis, it mainly occurs in the leaves due to the high abundance of chloroplasts. [9]

Because the leaf disks are living plant material that still require energy, they are simultaneously using O 2 gas during respiration and producing O 2 gas during photosynthesis. [31] When a top predator, such as a wolf, preys on a deer, the wolf is at the end of an energy path that went from nuclear reactions on the surface of the sun, to light, to photosynthesis, to vegetation, to deer, and finally to wolf. [32] Photosystems are functional protein units tasked with the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis; absorbing light and transferring electrons and energy. [9] Photosynthesis is vital because it evolved as a way to store the energy in solar radiation (the “photo-” part) as high-energy electrons in the carbon-carbon bonds of carbohydrate molecules (the “-synthesis” part). [32] The rate of consumption of CO 2 by photosynthesis is mainly a function of water availability, temperature, the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere, and key nutrients such as nitrogen. The importance of water in plant growth is obvious from looking at the equation above. [34] Therefore, photosynthesis is the basic process underlying plant growth and food production. [35] Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water as substrates. [32] Then, how do autotrophs contribute oxygen and reduce carbon dioxide? Well, through the process of photosynthesis. [9] Oxygenic photosynthesis functions as a counterbalance to respiration by taking in the carbon dioxide produced by all breathing organisms and reintroducing oxygen to the atmosphere. [33] In this Snack, oxygen produced during photosynthesis makes leaf bits float like bubbles in water. [31] As plants grow in the ground, they supply the people and living creatures on the earth with oxygen through photosynthesis. [10] The reactions of plant photosynthesis are divided into those that require the presence of sunlight and those that do not. [33] In plants, photosynthesis generally takes place in leaves, which consist of several layers of cells. [32] Plant growth rates are not simply determined by rates of photosynthesis and respiration at the single-leaf level, but are determined by rates of photosynthesis and respiration at the canopy level. [35] Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, known as photoautotrophs, are the only organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. [32] Plants, algae, and a group of bacteria called cyanobacteria are the only organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. [32] The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy, which can be used by organisms for different metabolic processes. [32] Photosynthesis, the use of light energy to drive carbon fixation and the synthesis of organic compounds, is a central process in the biosphere. [35] By looking at the meanings of these two words, you can learn that photosynthesis describes a process that uses light to join things together. [10] We describe the general principles of photosynthesis and highlight how scientists are studying this natural process to help develop clean fuels and sources of renewable energy. [33] Photosynthesis is the process that provides the energy to run most ecosystems. [35] Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria, the energy centers of cells, in that they have their own genome, or collection of genes, contained within circular DNA. These genes encode proteins essential to the organelle and to photosynthesis. [33] At the next step, anoxygenic photosynthesis provided a ready way for harnessing the energy of the Sun into the accumulation of bacterial biomass ( Sleep, 2010 ; Sleep & Bird, 2007, 2008 ), which ultimately allowed the gradual emergence of complex multicellular organisms. [35] How long lasting and stable are those covalent bonds? The energy extracted today by the burning of coal and petroleum products represents sunlight energy captured and stored by photosynthesis almost 200 million years ago. [32] This starts when photons from sunlight strike the leaf, excite the chlorophyll (the light absorbing pigment that drives photosynthesis) and activate electrons. [36] During photosynthesis, molecules in leaves capture sunlight and energize electrons, which are then stored in the covalent bonds of carbohydrate molecules. [32] A may represent sulfur in the electron donor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), explained Govindjee and John Whitmarsh, plant biologists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in the book ” Concepts in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis ” (Narosa Publishers and Kluwer Academic, 1999). [33] According to Eugene Rabinowitch and Govindjee in their book ” Photosynthesis “(Wiley, 1969), chlorophyll a is found in all photosynthesizing plants. [33] These results suggest that frost may influence both CO 2 diffusion capacity and mesophyll components of photosynthesis depending on its severity and duration, and the physiological condition of the affected plants. [35] One way to learn about photosynthesis is to compare two plants. [10] This is unfortunate because nonphotosynthetic plants and algae represent some of the most diverse and interesting (and even deadly) species on the planet, and they can teach us a lot about photosynthesis and biology as a whole. [35] Of course, we humans get the benefit of all that food, water, and yummy oxygen that photosynthesis creates. [30] Photosynthesis can be defined as the synthesis of organic compounds (primarily sugars) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water using light energy. [35] Anoxygenic photosynthesis uses electron donors other than water. [33] The more they let in, the faster the rate of photosynthesis and the faster the growth — but if they open their stomata wide to let in a lot of CO 2, they can lose a lot of water, which is not so good. [34] Separating net from gross photosynthetic rate with 14 CO 2 techniques is difficult because some of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis can be respired immediately. [35] The carbon source used in photosynthesis is the 0.04% CO 2 contained in the air (about 8 10 14 kg carbon) and the CO 2 or HCO 3 ? dissolved in lakes and oceans (about 400 10 14 kg carbon). [35] The production and consumption of CO 2 can be used to measure respiration and photosynthesis, respectively, in a fashion similar to that outlined previously for O 2. [35] More oxygen is given off during photosynthesis than is used up in respiration. [34] In addition to the organic compounds, another product of photosynthesis essential for all respiring organisms is oxygen, O 2. [35] Net photosynthetic rate refers to the photosynthesis that occurs in excess of respiratory demand and is calculated by the increase in O 2 in the light bottles compared to the initial O 2 concentration. [35] Photosynthesis -irradiance (P-I) relationships describe the effects of light on photosynthetic rate. [35] Photosynthesis fundamentally has two phases, the light-dependent and light independent reactions. [9] You can try to identify the range of wavelengths of light used in photosynthesis by wrapping and covering the beaker with colored gel filters that remove certain wavelengths. [31] Photosynthesis allows autotrophs to produce their food, which is then used to sustain other organisms in the food webs. [9] “Anoxygenic photosynthesis does not produce oxygen — hence the name,” said David Baum, professor of botany at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. [33] So you might think, evolutionarily why would this have even evolved? Well remember photosynthesis shows up first and then oxygen in the atmosphere shows up much later, and so it wasn’t a problem initially, but it became a problem. [34] The genetics of photosynthesis addresses, first of all, the structural genes for the apoproteins of macromolecular complexes and enzymes that are required in the process. [35] Though both types of photosynthesis are complex, multistep affairs, the overall process can be neatly summarized as a chemical equation. [33] Photosynthesis is the largest-scale synthetic process on earth. [35] Photosynthesis is a key biological process that may have emerged even before the origin of life on the Earth and played a key role in shaping the planet and its atmosphere. [35] The process of photosynthesis occurs in a middle layer called the mesophyll. [32] A better approach to really mastering the material is to go over the general process in your head and be very comfortable with what photosynthesis and cellular respiration actually are. [36] Photosynthesis involves some special words that you will probably hear when people talk about this process. [10] Hearing descriptions and reading information about photosynthesis can help you learn about this process. [10] The importance of photosynthesis is not just that it can capture sunlight’s energy. [32] Photosynthesis is not entirely light dependent, occurs in different parts of the chloroplast and completes the photosynthesis cycle by recycling its own products to power its processes. [9] Light-dependent and light-independent reactions are two successive reactions that occur during photosynthesis. [32] In this chapter, the basic reactions of photosynthesis and respiration at the single-leaf level as well as the canopy level are summarized. [35] During respiration, carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere, but this is roughly half of what is taken up from the atmosphere in photosynthesis. [34] Note that when respiration is calculated in the same way as net photosynthesis, a negative flux rate (negative rate of O 2 production) is obtained. [35] The rate of production of O 2 can be affected by the intensity of the light source, but there is a maximum rate after which more light energy will not increase photosynthesis. [31] Without light energy, no photosynthesis will occur, so no more O 2 gas will be produced. [31] Gross primary production is the total amount of photosynthesis that occurs before the losses to respiration are accounted for. [35] Two general classes of methods are available–those that make use of chemical tracers and those that measure bulk change in dissolved products or substrates of photosynthesis. [35] Leaves have air in the spaces between cells, which helps them collect CO 2 gas from their environment to use in photosynthesis. [31] Photosynthesis in rice leaves increased significantly by 30-78% under, but, when subjected to an increase in temperature under ambient CO 2, leaf photosynthesis resulted in inconsistent responses ranging from ?16% to +30% while the interaction of high temperature and increased leaf photosynthesis by up to 63% ( Table 3.4 ). [35] If we were to grind up a leaf, what we would find is that there’s not only one pigment, chlorophyll A, that does photosynthesis, but there’s a number of them that are working together. [34] In multicellular autotrophs, the main cellular structures that allow photosynthesis to take place include chloroplasts, thylakoids, and chlorophyll. [32] Let’s start with the site in eukaryotic cells of photosynthesis, and that’s the chloroplast. [34] Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts; specifically, in the grana and stroma regions. [33] Structure of the Chloroplast : Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts, which have an outer membrane and an inner membrane. [32] In all autotrophic eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes place inside an organelle called a chloroplast. [32] In eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes place in a specialized organelle, the chloroplast, which has its own genetic system. [35] Now, let?s talk chloroplast (Figure 2)–the center of photosynthesis (Figure 1). [9] The palisade layer contains most of the chloroplast and principal region in which photosynthesis is carried out. [32] The genetic analysis also deals with genes for the synthesis of pigments and other cofactors, for the import of polypeptides in the chloroplast and targeting within the organelle, for the assembly and repair of the complexes, for the adaptation of photosynthesis to environmental conditions, and for many other facets. [35]

This is where the oxygen generated during photosynthesis comes from. [36] The subsequent emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis dramatically changed the conditions on the planet by providing the readily available acceptor of electrons for the electron-transport chains of the increasingly complex organisms, and by creating the ozone shield that protected these organisms from the damaging short-wave UV radiation ( Garcia-Pichel, 1998 ). [35] We check to what extent our predictions on the photosynthetic function of 35 uncharacterized enzymes were correct, briefly address the tentative nature of the first photosynthetic organisms, and review the evidence for an early origin of abiogenic photosynthesis. [35] The sun shines down on the earth, which begins the first steps of photosynthesis. [10] How do we get access to the life-sustaining nourishment from the sun? That’s where photosynthesis comes in. [30] Chemicals designed to control macrophytes often act by interfering with photosynthesis (Murphy and Barrett, 1990). [35] Nutrient-starved cells will lower their rates of photosynthesis when nutrients become available so cellular metabolism can be directed toward acquisition of nutrients ( Lean and Pick, 1981 ), but ultimately (after a day or two), nutrients will stimulate photosynthetic rate as cells synthesize the required molecular machinery from the newly available nutrients. [35] At any given point in this experiment, the number of floating leaf disks is an indirect measurement of the net rate of photosynthesis. [31] At the current rate, the entire atmospheric content of O 2 is replenished by photosynthesis every 2000 years. [35] This figure shows how the rate of photosynthesis increases as the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere increases — this is known as the CO 2 -fertilization effect. [34] This is due to the decreasing Rubisco specificity (ratio of carboxylation to oxygenation equals CO 2 and O 2 concentrations) with increasing temperatures, thereby increasing the response of photosynthesis to. [35] The fact that photosynthesis depends on the concentration of CO 2 is not obvious, but it is very important. [34] Canopy photosynthesis showed an increase of only 21% under and a decline of 61% under increased temperature with ambient CO 2. [35]

Through acquisition of cyanobacterial symbionts, the ability to conduct photosynthesis was conferred to several lineages of eukaryotic cells, which led to the emergence of apicomplexans, diatoms, red and brown algae, and green plants ( Green, 2011 ; Keeling, 2009, 2010 ). [35] The Calvin Cycle is the stage of photosynthesis that involves making glucose. [10] The two stages of photosynthesis : Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions). [32] Structure of a leaf (cross-section) : Photosynthesis takes place in the mesophyll. [32] In sorghum, however, the increase in leaf photosynthesis was nonsignificant. [35] Complete recovery of photosynthesis did not occur before the temperature increased in the spring. [35] Net primary production is the photosynthesis that occurs in excess of the respiratory demand. [35] Strand et al. (2002) observed that both stomatal conductance and ci of Scotch pine leaves were reduced the day after night frost, a result that suggests that stomatal limitation of photosynthesis was more important than mesophyll inhibition. [35] ATP is generated as a result of the electrochemical gradient of protons as the H+ moves across the thylakoid membrane during photosynthesis. [9] This experiment is extremely amenable to manipulations, making it possible for students to design investigations that will quantify the effects of different variables on the rate of photosynthesis. [31] Notice that at high concentrations (right hand side of the graph), the red curve flattens out, meaning that the photosynthesis rate does not increase forever — it has a limit. [34] Helms (1965) reported appreciable winter photosynthesis of 35-year-old Douglas-fir trees near Seattle, Washington as well as large variations in rates between years. [35] Schaberg et al. (1995) noted that rates of photosynthesis of red spruce in Vermont generally were low during the winter but increased substantially during thaws, and on some days the rates of individual trees were as high as those during the growing season. [35] The rate of net photosynthesis of Norway spruce and Swiss stone pine in Austria was appreciable until late autumn ( Pisek and Winkler, 1958 ). [35] When temperatures fluctuated in the spring, the rate of photosynthesis did also. [35] As with other metabolic rates, the rate of photosynthesis approximately doubles with each 10C increase in temperature up to a species-specific threshold (DeNicola, 1996). [35] The word “photosynthesis” has two parts that help decode its meaning. [10] I love photosynthesis because it gives me two things that I need. [34] Therefore, an understanding of the physiological processes of photosynthesis and respiration is necessary for a basic understanding of maximizing crop yield. [35] Since it’s origin over 3 billion years ago, photosynthesis has been one of the most important processes on Earth, helping to make our planet habitable, in stark contrast to the other planets. [34] Accordingly, the problem of origin and evolution of photosynthesis is a core element in any concept of the origin and evolution of life on Earth. [35] Over the years, I have tutored many students studying for the AP biology exam and I have noticed that the majority of them find photosynthesis and cellular respiration very difficult and confusing. [36]

Plants need energy from sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. [33] We expel lots of carbon dioxide into the environment in the process of breathing, which provides some of the necessary components for photosynthesis to create more food, oxygen, and water. [30] The chloroplast genome contains only a small part of the genes required for photosynthesis, the others are encoded in the nuclear genome. [35] Chemical equation for photosynthesis : The basic equation for photosynthesis is deceptively simple. [32] This is due to the lack of sunlight, which is a necessary ingredient for photosynthesis to take place. [10]

The result of the light reaction is the production of oxygen (released from the leaves), and ATP and NADPH, which will be needed for the later steps. [36] The released electron manages to escape by traveling through an electron transport chain, which generates the energy needed to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate, a source of chemical energy for cells) and NADPH. The “electron hole” in the original chlorophyll pigment is filled by taking an electron from water. [33] The NADPH provides the electrons needed to reduce carbon dioxide to glucose. [9]

Here’s a trick question: Name the single most important thing needed for life on earth. (And no, the answer is not “Wii.”) [30]

Of course, the leaf is not the only photosynthetic part of the plant; it?s just where most of it happen most of the time. [9] The light-dependent reaction (light reaction) happens in the thylakoids of the chloroplast. [9] We used to call this the dark reactions, which is a silly term, doesn’t happen during the dark, it happens during the light. [34] Stage 2: Light-independent or dark reaction (this reaction can proceed in the absence of light, but calling it a dark reaction might be misleading as it doesn?t happen only in the dark–it can just as well happen in the light). [36] What this essentially means is that the former happens during the day when there is a constant supply of light and the latter that happens at night in the absence of light. [9]

Okay, what happens to the water then? So the water is going to be split right away. [34] These two phases happen in different parts of the chloroplast. [9] In eukaryotes, the dark reaction happens in the stroma of the chloroplast. [9]

If we don’t have enough carbon dioxide (let me cross that out), well we certainly can’t make our G3P, but something worse happens. [34] Photosystem II replenishes the lost electrons from an external source, but the remaining electrons still do not return to PSII as it happens in the cyclic pathway. [9] Most plants, on the other hand, convert sunlight and carbon dioxide into energy through a process known as photosynthesis, which consumes CO 2 and releases O 2 into the atmosphere. [37]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(37 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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2. (27) encarta.htm

3. (26) photosynthesis | Importance, Process, & Reactions | Britannica.com

4. (22) Overview of Photosynthesis | Boundless Biology

5. (20) Discovering Photosynthesis | Avas Flowers

6. (19) Photosynthesis

7. (18) PHOTOSYNTHESIS

8. (18) What is the Site of Photosynthesis? | Albert.io

9. (16) Photosynthesis | EARTH 103: Earth in the Future

10. (15) Photosynthesis: The Greenest Energy Projects + Lesson

11. (15) What Is Photosynthesis?

12. (13) Photosynthesis in Plants

13. (12) Kids Guide to Photosynthesis | Pollen Nation

14. (11) Photosynthetic Floatation: Biology & Physics Science Activity | Exploratorium Teacher Institute Project

15. (10) Photosynthesis In Plants: The Role Of Chlorophyll In Photosynthesis

16. (10) What if photosynthesis stopped happening? | HowStuffWorks

17. (9) Light & Dark Reactions in Photosynthesis | Wyzant Resources

18. (8) Before Photosynthesis: The Precursor Photosystem That First Released Oxygen Into The Environment | Science 2.0

19. (8) Materials Needed for Photosynthesis | Sciencing

20. (8) The Power of Photosynthesis | Helix Magazine

21. (8) What Do Plants Need to Carry Out Photosynthesis? | Hunker

22. (8) What is Photosynthesis | Smithsonian Science Education Center

23. (8) Photosynthesis – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

24. (6) Destarching the leaves of a plant in Photosynthesis Experiments – Brilliant Biology Student

25. (6) Biology Tutor: How to Remember the Steps of Photosynthesis

26. (5) What does photosynthesis need to take place? – Quora

27. (5) How is photosynthesis essential to life on earth?

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29. (4) Biology for Kids: Photosynthesis

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31. (2) What Is Needed for Photosynthesis to Occur? | Reference.com

32. (2) What are the conditions for photosynthesis

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34. (1) Lesson_Photosynthesis.doc

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36. (1) The important role of photosynthesis – MSU Extension

37. (1) Did respiration evolve before photosynthesis? haqqmisra.net