How Is Crispr Being Used Today

How Is Crispr Being Used Today
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  • “No time to waste–the ethical challenges created by CRISPR: CRISPR/Cas, being an efficient, simple, and cheap technology to edit the genome of any organism, raises many ethical and regulatory issues beyond the use to manipulate human germ line cells”.(More…)
  • “In the CRISPR screen, we used human liver cells and knocked out every gene in the genome – about 19,000 genes – one at a time.(More…)
  • The majority of in vivo applications of the CRISPR system are used for genome engineering ( 18, 19 ).(More…)
  • Based on a naturally occurring process used by bacteria to fight viruses, the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) system provides scientists with a tool to make precise changes to the DNA of the genes, thereby modifying the function of cells in specific ways.(More…)


  • In April 2015, Chinese scientists reported results of an attempt to alter the DNA of non-viable human embryos using CRISPR to correct a mutation that causes beta thalassemia, a lethal heritable disorder. 256 257 The study had previously been rejected by both Nature and Science in part because of ethical concerns. 258 The experiments resulted in changing only some genes, and had off-target effects on other genes.(More…)
  • CRISPR, or Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, allows scientists to identify any gene sequence in any cell and cut it out — and sometimes even repair it.(More…)
  • Learn how to optimize CRISPR-Cas9 editing efficiencies in cell lines and primary cell types using modified synthetic sgRNA. Includes tips for achieving maximum knockout and knock-in efficiencies, experimental examples of how to optimize iPSC editing and a detailed explaination of CRISPR design and ICE analysis tools.(More…)


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“No time to waste–the ethical challenges created by CRISPR: CRISPR/Cas, being an efficient, simple, and cheap technology to edit the genome of any organism, raises many ethical and regulatory issues beyond the use to manipulate human germ line cells”. [1] Where many reference genomes are available, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to amplify CRISPR arrays and analyse spacer content. 98 107 136 137 138 However, this approach yields information only for specifically targeted CRISPRs and for organisms with sufficient representation in public databases to design reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. [1]

“DARPA is clearly thinking about CRISPR being used as a biological weapon,” says Karen Maxwell, a scientist who studies anti-CRISPRs at the University of Toronto. [2] CRISPR gene editing can be used for all manner of applications, from creating more efficient crops or heat-resistant cattle to coding GIFS into DNA. Now, scientists from the University of Texas Southwestern have showcased another potentially transformative use case for the technology: Using CRISPR to halt the progress of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in dogs. [3] Although there are many studies that are attempting to use CRISPR to treat disease, it can also be used to introduce specific mutations into human cells that grow in a dish, for the purposes of studying what effects these mutations have on the cell – for instance, whether or not they cause a gene to malfunction. [4] In our study, we used CRISPR genome editing to deliberately engineer some 4,000 different variants of the BRCA1 gene in human cells, nearly all possible variants in the most important regions of this gene. [4]

With the RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 and tailored guide RNAs that are used in CRISPR methods, transgenic mice can be easier to obtain. [5] Those first anti-CRISPRs weren?t helpful for halting gene editing because they didn?t work on the Cas enzymes that cut and edit DNA in the CRISPR methods widely used in labs. [2]

The CRISPR molecular scissors used in the study were designed to make a cut at exon 51 in the beagles with DMD. The expectation was that when attempting to repair the splice, the cell will induce errors to exon 51 that would lead dystrophin protein production mechanism to skip the exon entirely. [6] Chinese scientists used CRISPR gene therapy to correct a mutation that causes Marfan syndrome, an incurable connective tissue disorder that affects about 1 in 5,000 people. [7] CRISPR was developed in 2013, and it?s now a predominant technique used to knock in and knock out genes in mouse embryos and stem cells. [5] To assist in altering the billions of muscle cells in the dog models, the team used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the CRISPR components, to infect skeletal muscle and heart tissue. [6] Testing with human cells showed that all three could be used with CRISPR. Using the same basic approach, the second team found several candidates that also worked as hoped when tested with human cells. [8] “In our previous paper, we discovered a new CRISPR family that can be used to engineer RNA directly inside of human cells,” said Helmsley- Salk Fellow Patrick Hsu, who is the other corresponding author of the new work. [9] That study, which was published last year, used standard Crispr cut-and-paste technology. [7] It suggests that CRISPR can be used to treat an otherwise incurable, fatal genetic disorder known as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). [10] Maxwell says that even if the anti-CRISPRs are not used to deter an attack, they could still prove handy for making CRISPR therapies safer. [2]

With the help of CRISPR, transgenic mice of different types can be obtained, and the procedure is being further through developed newer advancements that are underway today. [5]

“In the CRISPR screen, we used human liver cells and knocked out every gene in the genome – about 19,000 genes – one at a time. [11] For the cells that did not resist infection – because they were missing a gene due to the CRISPR knockout – we used next-generation sequencing to figure out the identity of the relevant genes,” he said. [11] In a study published in Nature Microbiology, the team led by Dr. John Schoggins, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, used the cutting-edge CRISPR technology to identify the IFI6 gene as a potent antiviral gene targeting flaviviruses. [11] Dr. Schoggins said the team used recently developed genome-wide CRISPR screening technology to identify which of the interferon-induced genes played a major role in suppressing flavivirus infection. [11] “Other studies have used CRISPR genetic screens to identify cellular genes that are required for flavivirus infection. [11] They did this using CRISPR, a gene-editing tool used also to produce low-fat pigs and reprogram cells for cancer treatments. [12] Another study used a CRISPR array-acquisition system as a method to store data in living cells ( 31 ). [13] We envision that CRISPR-Cap can be used as an alternative to other widely used target-enrichment methods, which will broaden the scope of CRISPR applications to the field of target enrichment field. [13] By this stage, laboratories around the world were trying to uncover how CRISPR could be used to edit a gene. [14] Their seminal paper had shown that CRISPR was a programmable system that could be used to edit DNA in a lab. [14] Scientists in China have used a cutting-edge Crispr technique to repair a disease-causing mutation in viable human embryos. [15] CRISPR gene editing offers the potential to protect the transplanted cells from the patient?s immune system by ex vivo editing immune-modulatory genes within the stem cell line used to produce the pancreatic-lineage cells. [16] In the wrong hands, somewhere in the distant future, it could be used to develop superhumans, with superintelligence and superstrength–which stokes fears of a eugenics revival–not to mention a list of unintended consequences for humanity and the environment we can?t even begin to comprehend.That?s how powerful CRISPR is. [17] In those examples, the CRISPR system was used to increase the proportion of target DNA in the DNA libraries, but not to enrich small target regions within a large genome. [13] Other applications used the CRISPR system to remove non-target DNAs from DNA libraries. [13]

Ethicists worry about CRISPR being used too casually to “improve” humans by eliminating conditions that are not strictly pathological, and that altered DNA passing on to future generations–a situation that could be a boon or a eugenic nightmare. [18] CRISPR is a new gene editing tool that is being used to edit the genes that were previously difficult to reach. [19]

The majority of in vivo applications of the CRISPR system are used for genome engineering ( 18, 19 ). [13] Mitochondrial sequence-specific CRISPR systems were used to deplete mitochondrial DNAs from DNA sequencing libraries in RNA-seq ( 41 ) and ATAC-seq samples ( 42 ). [13] The CRISPR system has also been used to visualize target loci of genomic DNA in vivo. [13] The latter method was expanded to other CRISPR systems from Staphylococcus aureus and used to visualize multiple genomic loci simultaneously ( 29 ). [13] The CRISPR system has also been used as a molecular detection tool. [13] The CRISPR system has also been used for targeted sequencing. [13] “In the CRISPR screen, we used human liver cells and knocked out every gene in the genome — about 19,000 genes — one at a time. [20]

Bioinformatic tools are first used to identify putative CRISPR arrays and their associated genes, followed by a comprehensive characterization of the CRISPR-Cas system, encompassing predictions for guide and target sequences. [21] For the cells that did not resist infection — because they were missing a gene due to the CRISPR knockout — we used next-generation sequencing to figure out the identity of the relevant genes,” he said. [20] Genome editing by engineered sequence-specific nucleases, such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system is widely used for analysis of gene functions. [21] Few studies have successfully used CRISPR in amphibians, and currently there is no tissue-targeted knockout strategy described in Xenopus The goal of this study is to determine whether CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout can be targeted to the Xenopus kidney without perturbing essential early gene function. [21] This study used DMD beagles with a genetic mutation similar to the most common mutation in humans, making it an important model for the clinical translation of CRISPR gene editing. [22] To introduce CRISPR specifically into the beagle?s muscle cells, a harmless virus that preferentially infects muscles (adeno-associated virus serotype 9, AAV9) was used. [22] Weaponized CRISPR, or any gene editing tool, could be used to create a whole new form of bio-terror attacks and the ability to create embryos with specific traits could change the way of reproduction forever. [19] On a slightly darker note, CRISPR could be weaponized and used as a biological weapon. [19] CRISPR was previously used to restore dystrophin expression in mice with DMD. The next step in moving this treatment to the clinic involves testing it in a larger animal model, like dogs. [22]

In the field of genome engineering, the term “CRISPR” or “CRISPR-Cas9” is often used frequently to refer to the various CRISPR-Cas9 and -CPF1, (and other) systems that can be programmed to target specific sequences of genetic code and to edit DNA at precise locations, as well as for other purposes, such as for new diagnostic tools. [23] We use whole genome sequencing to identify common genetic polymorphisms that can be used to selectively inactivate the disease allele with CRISPR nucleases. [24]

They used CRISPR to deliver engineered human BChE to the cells. [25] They then used CRISPR to paste those segments into the DNA of human cells. [26] A new gene-editing technology known as CRISPR could soon be used to alter the crops producing the food we eat — making tomatoes sweeter, for example, or vegetables more resistant to disease. [27]

Monsanto — now known as Bayer Crop Science after Bayer bought Monsanto for $63 billion this year — plans to do better with products made with CRISPR technology, which are being developed and still “years away,” he said. [27]

Based on a naturally occurring process used by bacteria to fight viruses, the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) system provides scientists with a tool to make precise changes to the DNA of the genes, thereby modifying the function of cells in specific ways. [28] CRISPR is a gene editing tool that can potentially be used for cancer treatments. [29] CRISPR gene editing may potentially protect the transplanted cells from the patient?s immune system by “ex vivo editing immune-modulatory genes within the stem cell line used to produce the pancreatic-lineage cells.” [30] Dr. Henry Greely of Stanford University says that CRISPR “might one day be used to engineer humans who are more intelligent, beautiful, or athletic.” [31] There are certainly ways in which CRISPR can be used that would help a wider variety of people. [32] In a paper just published in Science Advances, my colleagues and I created a plant variety to demonstrate how CRISPR can be used to help address the economic woes of farmers who work in some of the poorest parts of the globe. [32] Megafauna of all sorts is either extinct or endangered, and if CRISPR can be used to preserve or bring back species that performed important ecosystem services, such as removing trees like woolly mammoths did, or keeping kangaroo and other marsupial populations in check like the Thylacine did, then this may well be worth it to pursue. [33] What will CRISPR be used for – enormous good, or enormous evil ? The answer to that cannot come from science. [31]


In April 2015, Chinese scientists reported results of an attempt to alter the DNA of non-viable human embryos using CRISPR to correct a mutation that causes beta thalassemia, a lethal heritable disorder. 256 257 The study had previously been rejected by both Nature and Science in part because of ethical concerns. 258 The experiments resulted in changing only some genes, and had off-target effects on other genes. [1] CRISPR identification in raw reads has been achieved using purely de novo identification 139 or by using direct repeat sequences in partially assembled CRISPR arrays from contigs (overlapping DNA segments that together represent a consensus region of DNA) 130 and direct repeat sequences from published genomes 140 as a hook for identifying direct repeats in individual reads. [1] Each repetition is followed by short segments of spacer DNA from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g., a virus or plasmid ). 4 5 Small clusters of cas (CRISPR-associated) genes are located next to CRISPR sequences. [1] Whereas RNA interference (RNAi) does not fully suppress gene function, CRISPR, ZFNs and TALENs provide full irreversible gene knockout. 149 CRISPR can also target several DNA sites simultaneously by simply introducing different gRNAs. [1] It is the partial repeat sequence that prevents the CRISPR-Cas system from targeting the chromosome as base pairing beyond the spacer sequence signals self and prevents DNA cleavage. 124 RNA-guided CRISPR enzymes are classified as type V restriction enzymes. [1] The stages of CRISPR immunity for each of the three major types of adaptive immunity. (1) Acquisition begins by recognition of invading DNA by Cas1 and Cas2 and cleavage of a protospacer. (2) The protospacer is ligated to the direct repeat adjacent to the leader sequence and (3) single strand extension repairs the CRISPR and duplicates the direct repeat. [1]

To fight off a phage infection, the sequence of the CRISPR spacer must correspond perfectly to the sequence of the target phage gene. [1] “CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA”. [1] For instance, applied to human pluripotent stem cells CRISPR introduced targeted mutations in genes relevant to polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). 195 These CRISPR-modified pluripotent stem cells were subsequently grown into human kidney organoids that exhibited disease-specific phenotypes. [1] “CRISPR genome engineering and viral gene delivery: a case of mutual attraction”. [1] Analysis of CRISPR sequences revealed coevolution of host and viral genomes. 127 Cas9 proteins are highly enriched in pathogenic and commensal bacteria. [1] Cpf1 showed several key differences from Cas9 including: causing a’staggered’ cut in double stranded DNA as opposed to the ‘blunt’ cut produced by Cas9, relying on a ‘T rich’ PAM (providing alternative targeting sites to Cas9) and requiring only a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) for successful targeting. [1] By designing an anti-virus CRISPR, they demonstrated that two orientations of the crRNA (sense/antisense) provided immunity, indicating that the crRNA guides were targeting dsDNA. That year Marraffini and Sontheimer indeed confirmed that a CRISPR sequence of S. epidermidis targeted DNA and not RNA to prevent conjugation. [1] This characteristic makes CRISPRs easily identifiable in long sequences of DNA, since the number of repeats decreases the likelihood of a false positive match. [1] At that time the CRISPRs were described as segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short, repetitive base sequences. [1] The CRISPR array comprises an AT-rich leader sequence followed by short repeats that are separated by unique spacers. 62 CRISPR repeats typically range in size from 28 to 37 base pairs (bps), though there can be as few as 23 bp and as many as 55 bp. 63 Some show dyad symmetry, implying the formation of a secondary structure such as a stem-loop (‘hairpin’) in the RNA, while others are predicted to be unstructured. [1] Functional type II systems encode an extra small RNA that is complementary to the repeat sequence, known as a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA). 80 Transcription of the tracrRNA and the primary CRISPR transcript results in base pairing and the formation of dsRNA at the repeat sequence, which is subsequently targeted by RNaseIII to produce crRNAs. [1]

The three major components of a CRISPR locus are shown: cas genes, a leader sequence, and a repeat-spacer array. [1] They accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. [1] A major addition to the understanding of CRISPR came with Jansen’s observation that the prokaryote repeat cluster was accompanied by a set of homologous genes that make up CRISPR-associated systems or cas genes. [1] “CRISPR elements in Yersinia pestis acquire new repeats by preferential uptake of bacteriophage DNA, and provide additional tools for evolutionary studies”. [1] In 2007, the first experimental evidence that CRISPR was an adaptive immune system was published. 20 A CRISPR region in Streptococcus thermophilus acquired spacers from the DNA of an infecting bacteriophage. [1] When a microbe is invaded by a virus, the first stage of the immune response is to capture viral DNA and insert it into a CRISPR locus in the form of a spacer. [1]

“Proteins and DNA elements essential for the CRISPR adaptation process in Escherichia coli”. [1] “Structures of CRISPR Cas3 offer mechanistic insights into Cascade-activated DNA unwinding and degradation”. [1] “Structural basis for CRISPR RNA-guided DNA recognition by Cascade”. [1]

“CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) for sequence-specific control of gene expression”. [1] Multiple groups added various regulatory factors to dCas9s, enabling them to turn almost any gene on or off or adjust its level of activity. 186 Like RNAi, CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) turns off genes in a reversible fashion by targeting, but not cutting a site. [1] Small clusters of cas genes are often located next to CRISPR repeat-spacer arrays. [1] It had a group of genes that resembled CRISPR genes, but with important differences. [1]

Anti-herpesvirus CRISPRs have promising applications such as removing cancer-causing EBV from tumor cells, helping rid donated organs for immunocompromised patients of viral invaders, or preventing cold sore outbreaks and recurrent eye infections by blocking HSV-1 reactivation. [1] “Genome engineering of Drosophila with the CRISPR RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease”. [1] The basic model of CRISPR evolution is newly incorporated spacers driving phages to mutate their genomes to avoid the bacterial immune response, creating diversity in both the phage and host populations. [1] CRISPRs are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea 72 and show some sequence similarities. 113 Their most notable characteristic is their repeating spacers and direct repeats. [1] “Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin”. [1] “Short motif sequences determine the targets of the prokaryotic CRISPR defence system”. [1] CRISPR-RNA (crRNA), which later guides the Cas nuclease to the target during the interference step, must be generated from the CRISPR sequence. [1] It depends on two factors for its specificity: the target sequence and the PAM. The target sequence is 20 bases long as part of each CRISPR locus in the crRNA array. 154 A typical crRNA array has multiple unique target sequences. [1] “Analysis of streptococcal CRISPRs from human saliva reveals substantial sequence diversity within and between subjects over time”. [1] CRISPR can be utilized to create human cellular models of disease. [1]

“RNA-guided RNA cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex”. [1] “Essential features and rational design of CRISPR RNAs that function with the Cas RAMP module complex to cleave RNAs”. [1]

“Spacer capture and integration by a type I-F Cas1-Cas2-3 CRISPR adaptation complex”. [1] “The CRISPRdb database and tools to display CRISPRs and to generate dictionaries of spacers and repeats”. [1] “Evolutionary conservation of sequence and secondary structures in CRISPR repeats”. [1] New spacers are added to a CRISPR array in a directional manner, 30 occurring preferentially, 64 98 99 106 107 but not exclusively, adjacent 101 104 to the leader sequence. [1] CRISPR evolution was studied in chemostats using S. thermophilus to directly examine spacer acquisition rates. [1]

Ahmed N, ed. “Germ warfare in a microbial mat community: CRISPRs provide insights into the co-evolution of host and viral genomes”. [1] “CRISPR targeting reveals a reservoir of common phages associated with the human gut microbiome”. [1] CRISPRs were analysed from the metagenomes produced for the human microbiome project. 130 Although most were body-site specific, some within a body site are widely shared among individuals. [1]

“CRISPR recognition tool (CRT): a tool for automatic detection of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats”. [1] In 2015, it was the winner of that award. 186 CRISPR was named as one of MIT Technology Review ‘ s 10 breakthrough technologies in 2014 and 2016. 269 270 In 2016, Jennifer Doudna, Emmanuelle Charpentier, along with Rudolph Barrangou, Philippe Horvath, and Feng Zhang won the Gairdner International award. [1] The CRISPR genetic locus provides bacteria with a defense mechanism to protect them from repeated phage infections. [1] “CRISPR interference: RNA-directed adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea”. [1]

In a paper released Nov. 10, 2017, in the journal Nature Communications, a team of scientists led by Mikihiro Shibata of Kanazawa University and Hiroshi Nishimasu of the University of Tokyo revealed what it looks like when a CRISPR was in action for the first time. [1] The Cas proteins showed helicase and nuclease motifs, suggesting a role in the dynamic structure of the CRISPR loci. 28 In this publication the acronym CRISPR was coined as the universal name of this pattern. [1] The crRNA is initially transcribed as part of a single long transcript encompassing much of the CRISPR array. 4 This transcript is then cleaved by Cas proteins to form crRNAs. [1]

CRISPR is an abbreviation of C lustered R egularly I nterspaced S hort P alindromic R epeats. 3 The name was minted at a time when the origin and use of the interspacing subsequences were not known. [1] A study of 124 S. thermophilus strains showed that 26% of all spacers were unique and that different CRISPR loci showed different rates of spacer acquisition. 98 Some CRISPR loci evolve more rapidly than others, which allowed the strains’ phylogenetic relationships to be determined. [1] This CRISPR added 3 spacers over 17 months, 107 suggesting that even in an environment with significant CRISPR diversity some loci evolve slowly. [1] “CRISPR interference directs strand specific spacer acquisition”. [1] “Distribution of CRISPR spacer matches in viruses and plasmids of crenarchaeal acidothermophiles and implications for their inhibitory mechanism”. [1]

“Small molecules enhance CRISPR genome editing in pluripotent stem cells”. [1] “Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes”. [1] “Recognition and maturation of effector RNAs in a CRISPR interference pathway”. [1] “An RNA-induced conformational change required for CRISPR RNA cleavage by the endoribonuclease Cse3”. [1] “Sequence- and structure-specific RNA processing by a CRISPR endonuclease”. [1] “Interaction of the Cas6 riboendonuclease with CRISPR RNAs: recognition and cleavage”. [1] “Evolution of CRISPR RNA recognition and processing by Cas6 endonucleases”. [1] “The CRISPR-associated DNA-cleaving enzyme Cpf1 also processes precursor CRISPR RNA”. [1]

“PILER-CR: fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats”. [1] “A mouse geneticist’s practical guide to CRISPR applications”. review. [1] “First CRISPR clinical trial gets green light from U.S. panel”. [1]

Cas9 was used to carry synthetic transcription factors that activated specific human genes. [1] CRISPR/Cas-based “RNA-guided nucleases” can be used to target virulence factors, genes encoding antibiotic resistance and other medically relevant sequences of interest. [1]

These snippets are used by the prokaryote to detect and destroy DNA from similar viruses during subsequent attacks. [1] The sticky 5′ overhangs left by Cpf1 can be used for DNA assembly that is much more target-specific than traditional Restriction Enzyme cloning. 60 Finally, Cpf1 cleaves DNA 18-23 base pairs downstream from the PAM site. [1] CRISPR/Cas-9 can be used to edit the DNA of organisms in vivo and entire chromosomes can be eliminated from an organism at any point in its development. [1]

The crRNA processing and interference stages occur differently in each of the three major CRISPR systems. (4) The primary CRISPR transcript is cleaved by cas genes to produce crRNAs. (5) In type I systems Cas6e/Cas6f cleave at the junction of ssRNA and dsRNA formed by hairpin loops in the direct repeat. [1] “A Candida albicans CRISPR system permits genetic engineering of essential genes and gene families”. [1]

Using “dead” versions of Cas9 ( dCas9 ) eliminates CRISPR’s DNA-cutting ability, while preserving its ability to target desirable sequences. [1] From the same environment a single strain was tracked using PCR primers specific to its CRISPR system. [1] CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is carried out with a Type II CRISPR system. [1] “Prespacer processing and specific integration in a Type I-A CRISPR system”. [1]

“The CRISPR system: small RNA-guided defense in bacteria and archaea”. [1]

How does CRISPR work exactly? The gene editing technology uses an RNA strand to guide Cas9 (an enzyme) to cut a specified potion of DNA. The logic behind using a canine model, specifically beagles, is that they exhibit many of the pathological features (muscle degeneration, weakness, and fibrosis) of human DMD. [6] As scientists march closer to using CRISPR gene editing to treat diseases, the U.S. Department of Defense is prepping for the possibility of a more nefarious use of CRISPR: its weaponization to harm humans, animals, or crops. [2]

Through the use of CRISPR based methods, scientists maybe able to answer complex questions involving the expression of specific genes within an organism, and how that can impact health. [5] In order to perform its duties, CRISPR uses a protein nuclease to serve as a guide or template, outlining which genes are to be cut and/or replaced. [8] With CRISPR, transgenic mice featuring their own version of human genes can also be developed for the purpose of further studying human diseases, without the use of actual human cells. [5] DARPA also wants to develop more controllable versions of gene drive, a technology that uses CRISPR to propagate a gene throughout a population of animals or plants. [2] Two groups, one led by Jennifer Doudna from the University of California, Berkeley ( Science 2018, DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5138 ), and another led by Joseph Bondy-Denomy at the University of California, San Francisco ( Science 2018, DOI: 10.1126/science.aau5174 ), discovered several new CRISPR inhibitors, including one for CRISPR/Cas12a, an increasingly popular alternative to the standard CRISPR/Cas9 gene editor. [2] For the first time Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) progression was halted in a mammal as large as a dog using the CRISPR gene editor. [6] The first U.S. human trial using CRISPR to treat disease could kick off any day now. [10] The first U.S. trial using CRISPR to treat disease in people is imminent, a significant step in testing the true power of gene editing in the clinic. [10]

Scientists developing CRISPR gene editing systems to treat a disease don?t want Cas enzymes to hang around long after they?ve made the desired edits to DNA. The longer that Cas lingers, the more likely it is to make unintended and cell-damaging breaks in DNA. [2] CRISPR is a gene editing technique that can identify DNA segments and snip them out of a genome. [8] CRISPR allows us to make very specific changes, “edits” to our DNA – thus the phrase, “genome editing.” [4] CRISPR ( Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) + DNA fragment, E.Coli. [8]

CRISPR evolved in bacteria as a primitive immune system that the cells use to chop up their viral enemies. [2] CRISPR allows us, for the first time, to create and test the mutations in the human genome itself. [4] CRISPR contributes to the the most efficient methods in creating transgenic mouse models, such as mice that are genetically modified to carry various human diseases for the purpose of studying disease progression and treatment methods. [5] When the gene-editing technology CRISPR first made a splash back in 2012, it foretold a future in which curing diseases might simply involve snipping out problematic bits of genetic code. [10] Now, a smattering of recent studies have redeemed the technology by showing how CRISPR can more precisely target disease. [10] Among the most significant scientific advances in recent years are the discovery and development of new ways to genetically modify living things using a fast and affordable technology called CRISPR. Now scientists at The. [8] CRISPR is at this point well-known for it?s powerful ability to genetically engineer DNA, but more and more often scientists are turning to CRISPR for other tasks as well. [10] The genetic tool adept at line-by-line gene editing, CRISPR, has revolutionized the ability of scientists to manipulate genes for experimental, and perhaps someday therapeutic, purposes. [8] Since muscle damage is irreversible, treatment will only be effective in early life? Also will the CRISPR treatment induce cancer-causing mutations? Is there a way for the treatment to reach stem cells? Will normal muscle function result with shortened dystrophin? Regardless, the further exploration of CRISPR as a medical tool is essential to treating genetic illness to improve the quality of life and overall life expectancy of afflicted patients. [6]

Positive results of the study include CRISPR induced restoration of dystrophin protein in major body muscles (i.e. the heart). [6]

Then they injected the embryos with a Crispr construct known as a base editor, which swaps out a single DNA nucleotide for another–in this case, removing an “A” and replacing it with a “G”. [7] We also find a widespread connection between CRISPR self-targeting and inhibitor prevalence in prokaryotic genomes, suggesting a straightforward path to the discovery of many more anti-CRISPRs from the microbial world. [8] “It is always a good sign when two independent studies converge on the same picture,” says Erik Sontheimer, a CRISPR scientist at the University of Massachusetts Medical School whose lab helped discover Cas9 inhibitors. [2] CRISPR gene editing technology is revolutionising medicine and biology. [8] A new study of dogs published this week in Science offers a tantalizing glimpse of how life-changing the gene-editing technology CRISPR could be for some people in the near future. [10] In a study, we set out to apply CRISPR genome editing to solve the challenge posed by these variants of uncertain significance. [4] In the U.S., the first planned clinical trials of CRISPR gene editing in people are about to kick off. [10] By using CRISPR, transgenic mice can be produced more easily today. [5] In these two new efforts, both teams have found several inhibitors that they claim are suitable for use with CRISPR. [8] Last summer, a letter appeared in a scientific journal that challenged how truly ” revolutionary ” and world-changing CRISPR gene-editing technology really might be. [10] The paper caused a bit of turmoil in the biotech world, which is looking to CRISPR as a major disease-fighting tool of the future. [10] Even though many bacteria have CRISPR, it actually fails to protect a lot of them because of the viral countermeasures. [2] Last May, a journal published results suggesting that the revolutionary gene-editing technique CRISPR might actually be quite dangerous. [10] Last summer, a study claiming that the gene-editing technique CRISPR might actually be dangerous whipped labs around the biotech world into a frenzy. [10]

They then used different methods to scan the bacteria?s genome for a lurking bacteriophage gene that halted Cas12a activity. [2] Importantly, the survival of the human cells that we used is dependent on intact function of the BRCA1 gene. [4]

UC has a policy of openly licensing technologies to non-profits and educational institutions and has licensed CRISPR-Cas9 technology so that it now is used by multiple companies currently working to accelerate breakthroughs in human therapies. [34]

China, meanwhile, has been racing ahead, having already used the gene-altering tool to change the DNA of dozens of people in several clinical trials. [10] Both used bioinformatics tools to scan bacterial genomes for possible inhibitors and both have published their results in the journal Science. [8] Because of this strong agreement with “gold standard” data derived from human studies, we predict our results can be used to provide better answers to women with challenging-to-interpret variants in BRCA1. [4]

In response to criticism regarding the amount of animals used Olson replied “We’re very mindful of ethical concerns and have done our best to keep our use of dogs to an absolute minimum”. [6] Cas9, often used for this purpose in many early studies, came to be associated with the technique. [8] Although scientists have used laboratory assays to test variants in BRCA1 for many years, our work is different for three reasons. [4]

Here we report the discovery of 12 acr genes, including inhibitors of type V-A and I-C CRISPR systems. [8] The CRISPR system offers a simple, one-step process for getting to those results faster, and can make it possible to bypass the sometimes problematic and difficult procedure of creating modified mouse ES cells. [5] To date, Acr proteins have been discovered for type I (subtypes I-D, I-E, and I-F) and type II (II-A and II-C) but not other CRISPR systems. [8]

Emmanuelle Charpentier (left) and Jennifer Doudna have a case for being the inventors of CRISPR-cas9, a transformative tool for gene editing. [6]

CRISPR, or Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, allows scientists to identify any gene sequence in any cell and cut it out — and sometimes even repair it. [35] Scientists in other countries (notably China, Sweden and the U.K.) have already begun using CRISPR to edit genes in human embryos to repair genetic diseases and study infertility and miscarriage. [17] Many other scientists interested in CRISPR were experts on DNA – the genetic code in every cell. [14] A federal appeals court has rejected arguments that UC Berkeley has exclusive rights to patents for the powerful CRISPR gene-editing tool, casting a pall over the university?s future earnings from a technique which gives scientists near godlike power: altering the genetic sequences of cells. [35]

CRISPR technology has identified the IFI6 as a gene that helps cells resist flaviviruses. [11]

We report a dsDNA target-enrichment method called CRISPR system-assisted dsDNA capture (CRISPR-Cap), which uses SpCas9 and a sgRNA library to enrich multiple small target regions from whole-genome DNA in less than 2 hours. [13] CRISPR, which stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, uses bacterial enzymes to edit targeted DNA sequences. [36] His laboratory had treated CRISPR like an app, showing how its DNA sequence could be taken from one bacteria and “installed” in another, where it worked perfectly to protect the organism. [14]

In mid-2012, while studying the inner workings of bacteria, UC?s Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier, now at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, created a way to use CRISPR in simple cells. [35] In cancer, scientists are attempting to harness CRISPR to edit a patient?s T-cells (immune cells) arming them with the capabilities to target a particular type of tumor. [17] In late 2012, an American scientist called Feng Zhang, from MIT and Harvard?s Broad Institute, paid $70 to the U.S. patent office to expedite his claim for ownership of the use of CRISPR in mammalian cells. [14] The use of CRISPR in plant and animal cells is separately patentable, it concluded. [35] Celgene is working with Editas to use CRISPR to edit immune cells for treating cancer. [36]

Other means of editing DNA already existed, but CRISPR was better and faster. [14] This step is likely to be part of a complicated journey, though, since we are still building out our understand- ing of the human genome, diseases such as cancer, and the capabilities of CRISPR. [17] Given our increased understanding of how CRISPR can alleviate human suffering, the discussion now is whether we have a duty to explore germline editing. [17] This will be the first study in humans of CRISPR gene editing outside of China. [36]

“2012 Jennifer Doudna co-develops CRISPR, a new way to fix defective genes”, reads the flag. [14] In 2011, at a conference in Puerto Rico, Doudna met Emmanuelle Charpentier, a French scientist who was looking at a CRISPR protein called Cas9 that Doudna hadn?t yet considered. [14] Another plus for Editas is that the company has two CRISPR platforms, one using the Cas9 protein and one using the Cpf1 protein. [36] Several in vivo or in vitro applications were introduced using the wild-type CRISPR protein, catalytic dead CRISPR protein (e.g. dCas9), or various chimeric CRISPR proteins. [13]

Questions still to be answered include whether CRISPR screens in other cell types would give different results. [11] Zika is known to affect cells in the brain but CRISPR genetic screening in neurons presents logistical challenges, he explained. [11] In their rush to place the final jigsaw piece of CRISPR ?s genetic editing and broadcast it, Doudna and Charpentier forgot something important. [14] They, not Doudna, were the first to design and use CRISPR tools in living organisms. [14] In the race to discover how to use CRISPR to alter the genome, his laboratory and Doudna?s would eventually come near to a dead heat. [14]

We investigated the potential of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system as a rapid and low-cost method for target enrichment. [13] Jill Banfield was unusual among CRISPR scientists because she wasn?t interested in its application to humans. [14] The first trials of CRISPR to cure cancer and inherited disorders in humans are reportedly starting this year. [17] The first breakthrough in establishing the importance of CRISPR came when scientists identified the code that lies between the repeats. [14]

Editas Medicine’s lead candidate is EDIT-101, which uses CRISPR gene editing to treat Leber congenital amaurosis type 10 (LCA10). [36] Organizations like the Innovative Genomics Institute focus on using CRISPR to make the world a better place–not a scarier one. [17] The company has partnered with Vertex on using CRISPR to treat cystic fibrosis. [36]

If we?re able to harness and correctly apply the full potential of CRISPR, we can positively impact the human condition. [17] They also improved the guidance system, CRISPR ?s efficiency and developed the genetic tools to evaluate how well it operates. [14] Therefore, our initial CRISPR-Cap attempts were hampered by the wide variation in CRISPR activity and the uneven cleavage rates of multiple target regions. [13] Dr. Schoggins explained that the CRISPR gene-editing technology made such a study extremely efficient, uncovering the prominent flavivirus-inhibiting role of IFI6. [11] Even if the technology is not quite there yet, CRISPR could eventually do plenty else besides. [14]

The sequence gained its awkward name: Clustered Regularly Interspersed Palindromic Repeats, or CRISPR (pronounced “crisper”). [14] Understanding the function of each protein was the key to developing CRISPR into a deployable device. [14] CRISPR programmes a number of mechanisms, each named after the protein involved: Cas1, Cas2, Cas3, and so on. [14] The type II CRISPR system from Streptococcus pyogenes requires Cas9 protein (SpCas9) and two RNAs–the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA)–to recognize and cleave both strands of the target DNA. The crRNA and tracrRNA retain their activities when fused into a single chimeric form, referred to as the single-guide RNA (sgRNA) ( 15 ). [13] Duhee Bang, Jeewon Lee and Hyeonseob Lim are authors of a patent application for the method described in this paper (METHOD FOR TARGET DNA ENRICHMENT USING CRISPR SYSTEM, U.S.15/053,859, KR.10-2016-0022810). [13]

To perform early-release CRISPR-Cap, we mixed a 20% volume of 0.2% SDS solution directly with the product of the CRISPR-Cap cleavage step and incubated the mixture for 20 min at 37C to promote the release of the cleaved target DNA. After SDS treatment, we purified the product using the MinElute PCR Purification Kit (QIAGEN) and used the purified DNA for NGS sample preparation. [13] We used that concentration of Cas9 complex to validate both CRISPR-Cap procedures using a single linear DNA. [13]

CRISPR-Cap can also be used to quantify gene copy numbers in small genomic DNA both from purified genomic DNA samples and from whole cell lysates. [13] We used CRISPR-Cap to enrich 10 target genes 355.7-fold on average from Escherichia coli genomic DNA with a maximum on-target ratio of 81% and high enrichment uniformity. [13]

Cpf1 can be used to edit more parts of the genome than Cas9 can and has a higher level of accuracy for some types of gene repair. [36] We therefore used that procedure to enrich multiple genes at the genome scale. [13]

To find the lower limit of the initial amount of genomic DNA that could be used, we performed CRISPR-Cap starting with 100 ng or 10 ng NA12878 genomic DNA and a 10 000-fold excess of Cas9 complex composed of the human 20-bp sgRNA library and the SpCas9 protein ( n 6). [13] We also found that CRISPR-Cap can be used to quantify gene copy numbers from both purified genomic DNA and whole-cell lysates. [13] Because CRISPR-Cap enriched the target region with high uniformity, we hypothesized that the technique could be used to enrich target genes without affecting the allele ratio. [13] We also used CRISPR-Cap to measure gene copy numbers and detect rare alleles with frequencies as low as 1%. [13]

In the cleavage step, SpCas9 is pre-complexed with biotinylated sgRNAs and used to cleave the target DNA regions. [13] The most widely used methods to enrich target regions of DNA are multiplexed PCR ( 2, 3 ), microdroplet PCR ( 4, 5 ), target circularization using molecular inversion probes (MIPs) ( 6-8 ), and hybridization capture using nucleic acid baits ( 9-11 ). [13] We used three independently amplified sets of microarray oligonucleotides as template DNAs for in vitro transcription to produce three 20-bp sgRNA libraries, which we called human 20-bp sgRNA library batch 1, human 20-bp sgRNA library batch 2, and human 20-bp sgRNA library batch 3. [13] Separately, in different labs across the world, groups of scientists started to think about whether this tool could be used to manipulate DNA of all kinds. [14] Just before Doudna and Charpentier realised how Cas9 could be used to edit the genome, scientists in Siksnys?s Lithuanian laboratory had also uncovered its potential. [14]

Jennifer Doudna says the next generation of biologists will be our first line of defense against Crispr gone wild. [15] That phone call marked the first time Doudna had ever heard of CRISPR (later she admitted that she thought it was spelt “crisper”). [14] Since CRISPR went public, Doudna is suddenly, deservedly, a very big deal. [17] Over the next year, separated by a continent, Doudna and Charpentier worked on cracking CRISPR ?s codes. [14] Charpentier and Doudna are the ones who finally got to the top, the Hillary and Tenzing of CRISPR. [14]

When the final history is told, the use CRISPR is put to will be far more important. [14] CRISPR gene editing has been hailed by some people as “the biotech discovery of the century.” [36] Gene editing by CRISPR will change some people?s world more than others. [14]

Some CRISPR scientists think that too much weight has been attributed to her flash of inspiration in 2012. [14] This is clearly the point at which her magnanimity to her fellow CRISPR scientists runs out. [14] A few days before we meet, a scientist causes a minor sensation in the brewing world by developing hopless CRISPR craft beer, modifying yeast to produce the oils made by hops. [14]

“We also believe that this approach may have many other applications which we and CRISPR may explore in the future.” [16] Doudna?s first intimation of the CRISPR mushroom cloud on the horizon came in 2014. [14]

Some methods use the CRISPR system to cleave and isolate target regions of DNA. Cas9-assisted targeting of chromosome segment (CATCH) ( 43 ) and CRISPR-mediated isolation of specific megabase-sized regions of the genome (CISMR) ( 44 ) are methods to analyze the sequences of large fragments of DNA. In both methods, the target region is cleaved from genomic DNA and purified by pulse field gel electrophoresis. [13] CRISPR/Cas9 is a revolutionary gene editing technology that allows for precise, directed changes to genomic DNA. CRISPR Therapeutics has established a portfolio of therapeutic programs across a broad range of disease areas including hemoglobinopathies, oncology and rare diseases. [16] CRISPR Therapeutics is a leading gene editing company focused on developing transformative gene-based medicines for serious diseases using its proprietary CRISPR/Cas9 platform. [16]

CRISPR Therapeutics expects to submit an IND application by the end of this year for approval to begin a phase 1 study of CTX110, an allogeneic chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy. [36]

Because the amount of genomic DNA in a cell lysate is difficult to quantify, we used a 100-fold molar excess of sgRNA library and SpCas9 with 1 ?g genomic DNA. [13] With human genomic DNA, we used 1 ?g or 100 ng NA12878 genomic DNA and a 10 000-fold excess molar ratio of refolded sgRNA library and SpCas9. [13]

We used the column-purified DNA or heat-released DNA for NGS sample preparation. [13] To sort out the Cas9-DNA complexes containing the cleaved DNA, we used magnet-coated streptavidin C1 beads (Thermo Fisher Scientific). [13]

We prepared cell lysates from the three strains used to quantify the bla copy number (i.e. E. coli EcHB3, EcHB3-pBR322 and EcHB3-pUC19). [13] We subsequently eluted the protein five times with elution buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 300 mM NaCl, 250 mM imidazole), using the same volume used for the Ni-NTA resin purification. [13] We used the Burrows-Wheeler alignment (BWA) tool ( 50 ) to align the data to the reference sequence. [13] We used the AdapterRemoval ( 49 ) software to remove the adapter sequences from the sequencing data. [13] Therefore, we used gel-based size selection after attaching the index sequence, and we processed the sequencing data with AdapterRemoval, an adapter trimming program, before proceeding to the alignment. [13]

The 20-bp sgRNA library provided maximal uniformity and on-target ratio, so we used that library for all subsequent analysis of CRISPR-Cap. [13] As long as a large amount of starting sample is used for CRISPR-Cap, PCR amplification during the library preparation step is not required. [13]

We visualized the enrichment results of one of the trials that used the 1:10 000 ratio (1:10 000_5, Supplementary Table S10 ) and confirmed that only the target regions were enriched (Figure 5 ). [13] With E. coli genomic DNA, we used 1 ?g genomic DNA and a 100-fold excess molar ratio of refolded-sgRNA library and SpCas9. [13] The PCR conditions were: 3 min at 95C, followed by 40 cycles of 20 s at 98C, 15 s at 60C, and 30 s at 72C. We used E. coli EcHB3 samples as a control. [13]

The PEC-Encap? (also known as VC-01) product candidate delivers the same pancreatic progenitor cells in an immunoprotective device and is being developed for all patients with diabetes, type 1 and type 2, who use insulin. [16] PEC-Direct, ViaCyte?s lead product candidate currently being evaluated in the clinic, uses a non-immunoprotective delivery device that permits direct vascularization of the cell therapy. [16]

The PEC-Direct? product candidate delivers the pancreatic progenitor cells in a non-immunoprotective device and is being developed for type 1 diabetes patients who have hypoglycemia unawareness, extreme glycemic lability, and/or recurrent severe hypoglycemic episodes. [16]

Guided nuclease ( 20 ), transcriptional regulation ( 21, 22 ), epigenetic modification ( 23, 24 ), and target-base editing ( 25, 26 ) are well-known examples of in vivo applications of the CRISPR system. [13] Short tandem repeats (STR)-seq uses the CRISPR system to analyze short tandem repeats ( 45 ). [13] The CRISPR system has been utilized in various in vivo and in vitro applications. [13] CRISPR Therapeutics is the ideal partner for this program given their leading gene editing technology and expertise and focus on immune-evasive editing. [16] CRISPR Therapeutics is also exploring CRISPR treatments for rare genetic diseases glycogen storage disease Ia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [36] ZUG, Switzerland and CAMBRIDGE, Mass. and SAN DIEGO, Sept. 17, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — CRISPR Therapeutics (NASDAQ: CRSP), a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing transformative gene-based medicines for serious diseases, and ViaCyte, Inc., a privately held regenerative medicine company, today announced a collaboration focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of gene-edited allogeneic stem cell therapies for the treatment of diabetes. [16]

CRISPR Therapeutics is pursuing a similar approach for its allogeneic CAR-T programs and has established significant expertise in immune-evasive gene editing. [16]

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) is an array of short DNA repeat sequences separated by unique spacer sequences that is flanked by associated (Cas) genes. [21] The fruit of their joint effort was their epic paper in Science in August 2012, which showed that the stored viral sequence in a mature CRISPR RNA duplex does indeed direct its associated Cas9 enzyme to slice up the corresponding viral DNA whenever and wherever it manifests in a cell. [18] The advantage of CRISPR which made it an easy and flexible tool for diverse genome editing purposes is that a single protein (Cas9) complex with 2 short RNA sequences, function as a site-specific endonuclease. [21] In this study, we provide an experimental demonstration that multiplexing of guide RNAs can both significantly increase the drive conversion efficiency and reduce germline resistance rates of a CRISPR homing gene drive in Drosophila melanogaster We further show that an autosomal drive can achieve drive conversion in the male germline, with no subsequent formation of resistance alleles in embryos through paternal carryover of Cas9. [21] Once an endogenous CRISPR-Cas system is characterized as functional, they can be readily repurposed by delivering an engineered synthetic CRISPR array or a small RNA guide for targeted gene manipulation. [21]

With CRISPR, scientists can introduce programmable transcription factors to cells? DNA. With those, they can reversibly silence or deactivate specific genes without altering them. [18] Some of these can be ameliorated by adopting genome editing technologies such as CRISPR. This technology is considered better than its predecessors, Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), because it is cheaper, easy to use, has high gene modification efficiency and is less time consuming. [21] In London, Kathy Niakan, a developmental biologist, received permission from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to perform experiments that use CRISPR to edit the genes of human embryos. [19] “CRISPR screen identifies gene that helps cells resist West Nile, Zika viruses.” [20] CRISPR homing gene drives can convert heterozygous cells with one copy of the drive allele into homozygotes, thereby enabling super-Mendelian inheritance. [21] We also establish a control for CRISPR in Xenopus by editing a gene (slc45a2) that when knocked out results in albinism without altering kidney development. [21] CRISPR has also been brought into the conversation of editing the human genome. [19] The cyanobacterial host contains a CRISPR-Cas system with CRISPR spacers matching protospacers within the inverted duplication of the CrV-01T genome. [21] CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. [21]

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. [21] Particularly, the very recent descriptions of novel CRISPR associated enzymes with different target specificities and activities, including Cas13a (C2c2), Cas12a (Cpf1) and Csm6, have subsided the development of methods such as the DNA Endonuclease-Targeted CRISPR Trans Reporter (DETECTR) and the Specific High-Sensitivity Enzymatic Reporter UnLOCKing (SHERLOCK). [37] The recent discovery of that secret, and its development into a dazzlingly superior method of genome engineering generally known as CRISPR, has electrified the life sciences in less than a decade–and challenged the scientific community to use it wisely. [18] Scientists Broad Institute at MIT and Harvard will be allowed to hold a patent on the use of CRISPR to edit mammalian cells. [38] In 2014, while the UC patent was pending, biochemist Feng Zhang and his team at the Broad Institute, a collaboration between MIT and Harvard, filed a rushed patent on the use of the Crispr gene-editing technique on more complex cells, like those that make up plants and animals. [38] The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit agreed to uphold a patent filed by the Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University on Crispr Cas-9 gene-editing in organisms with complex cells. [38]

CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), as an emerging technology, has been applied for specifically repressing genes of interest. [21] Domain-focused CRISPR screen identifies HRI as a fetal hemoglobin regulator in human erythroid cells. [21] Design of sgRNA for CRISPR-Cas targeting, and to promote CRISPR adaptation, uses a regulatory mechanism that ensures maximum CRISPR-Cas9 system functions when a bacterial population is at highest risk of phage infection. [21] CRISPR genome editing utilizes Cas9 nuclease and single guide RNA (sgRNA), which directs the nuclease to a specific site in the genome and makes a double-stranded break (DSB). [21] She showed that when CRISPR RNA containing viral sequences is transcribed, it matures by forming a duplex with another bit of RNA (called tracrRNA) and then binding to Cas9. [18]

In an exciting step forward, dogs with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) were treated with the CRISPR genome editor to restore production of the missing protein responsible for the disease. [22] All CRISPR homing gene drives studied in insects thus far have produced significant quantities of resistance alleles that would limit their spread. [21] Source: Shutterstock ? Emerging synthetic biology tools (e.g., CRISPR, Talon, and ZFN) present an opportunity to engineer Soldiers? DNA and enhance their performance, providing greater speed, strength, endurance, and resilience. [39] Doudna J. How CRISPR lets us edit our DNA. TED Talk transcript. 2015. [18]

Targeted genome editing technology such as CRISPR will enable adversarial threats to employ super-empowered Soldiers on the battlefield and target specific populations with bioweapons. [39] In the decision issued today, the appeals court upheld that decision, stating that the Broad team?s use of Crispr is non-obvious–a requirement for patents–and that there was a reasonable expectation that it wouldn?t work in larger animals from the get-go–proving its unique application of the technology. [38] CRISPR technology has wide applications in the African context ranging from crop and animal improvement to disease diagnosis and treatment as well as improving food shelf life, organoleptic properties and food safety. [21] Crispr has huge potential for application in the biotech industry, and several companies have licensed technology from both groups, Bloomberg reports. [38] For that reason, Doudna has helped to spearhead a movement among scientists to discuss and govern CRISPR technology. [18] The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS’s choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015. [21] We developed a Transient CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 coupled with Electroporation (TRACE) system for targeted genetic manipulations in the C. neoformans species complex. [21] To test if III-B CRISPR-Cas systems could mediate a similar CRISPR signaling pathway, the Sulfolobus islandicus Cmr-? ribonucleoprotein complex (Cmr-?-RNP) was purified from the native host and tested for cOA synthesis. [21]

CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. [21] Its genome contains unique features that include an intact CRISPR array and a 12-kb inverted duplication. [21]

Therefore, targeting of CRISPR to the kidney may not be necessary to bypass the early developmental defects reported upon disruption of Lhx1 protein expression or function by morpholinos, antisense RNA, or dominant negative constructs. [21] They identified specific small RNA molecules associated with CRISPR that interacted with a DNA-slicing enzyme called Cas9. [18] Assembly of CRISPR ribonucleoproteins with biotinylated oligonucleotides via an RNA aptamer for precise gene editing. [21]

The Doudna/Charpentier application stated claims covering the use of CRISPR in a bacterial system, while The Broad’s patents focus on the use of CRISPR in eukaryotic systems, such as plants and higher animals. [40] The paper did more than explain how bacteria use CRISPR to defend themselves against viruses. [18] For the bacteria, CRISPR was like a wall of genetic wanted posters for known viral threats. [18] Acclaim and prestigious honors for Charpentier and Doudna have been abundant because of CRISPR. In addition to the Janssen Award, they shared the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, the 2015 Gruber Prize in Genetics, and the 2016 Canada Gairdner International Award (along with Feng Zhang), among many others. [18] UC Berkeley, Dr. Doudna, and Dr. Charpentier challenged The Broad patents, contending that the application of CRISPR to eukaryotic systems represented an obvious rather than an inventive invention, and was thus nonpatentable. [40] The intellectual property rights surrounding CRISPR are currently in dispute: a U.S. patent on the technique was initially granted to Feng Zhang and the Broad Institute, but Doudna and Charpentier objected that they had filed for a patent first; an investigation into who should hold the rights is now pending with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. [18]

Humans will be augmented in many ways: physically, via exoskeletons; perceptionally, via direct sensor inputs; genetically, via AI-enabled gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR; and cognitively via AI “COGs” and “Cogni-ceuticals.” [39] In November 2015, an international assembly of them met and over three days worked out a set of accords that declared a temporary, voluntary moratorium on most potential CRISPR experiments on humans. [18] In silico sgRNA tool design for CRISPR control of quorum sensing in Acinetobacter species. [21]

To investigate the influence of DNA methylation on splicing of individual genes, we developed a method to manipulate DNA methylation in vivo in a site-specific manner using the deactivated endonuclease Cas9 fused to enzymes that methylate or demethylate DNA. We used this system to directly change the DNA methylation pattern of selected exons and introns. [21] First discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans, RNAi can be used to silence the expression of genes through introduction of exogenous double-stranded RNA into cells. [21] METHODS: We first applied CRISPR/Cas9 technique to silence BMI1 in EOC cells; thereafter we accomplished various in vivo and in vitro experiments to detect biological behaviors of ovarian cancer cells, including MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays, etc.; eventually, we used RNA sequencing to reveal the underlying molecular traits driven by BMI1 in EOC. [21]

With the ability to self-renew and the potential to differentiate into different types of cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have already been used as a promising tool for understanding disease pathophysiology and evaluating the effect of drug and gene therapeutics. iPSCs are also a cell source for autologous transplantation. [21] HVT is also widely used as a vector platform for generation of recombinant vaccines against a number of avian diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) using conventional recombination methods or recombineering tools on cloned viral genomes. [21]

Crispr-Cas9 is a gene-editing technology enabling scientists to cut and paste snippets of genetic information in strands of DNA. This ruling comes down to splitting the licensing rights on what the technique is used for. [38] The allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis, is commonly used to study developmental processes, but because of the presence of two homeologs for many genes, it has been difficult to use as a genetic model. [21] Ten gRNAs that bound to different regions of gfp gene were designed and the results indicated that there was no clear correlation between the repression efficiency and targeting sites no matter which repressor protein was used. [21] We used Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) to introduce a loss-of-function mutation into the Waxy gene in two widely cultivated elite japonica varieties. [21] Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is an excellent genome-editing tool and is scarcely used in EOC studies. [21]

“There is certainly evidence in the record that could support this position,” CAFC acknowledged–such as numerous techniques found in prior art that were used for adapting prokaryotic systems for use in eukaryotic cells, and the surmounting of obstacles adopting other prokaryotic systems–techniques that UC Berkeley’s expert witness Dana Carroll, Ph.D., of University of Utah School of Medicine, suggested could be used to implement CRISPR-Cas9 in eukaryotes. [40] We used cell manipulations and genetic experiments to determine which cells harbor key localized proteins and which signals direct these localizations in vivo We found that Dishevelled and adenomatous polyposis coli homologs are polarized during this oriented cell division in response to a Wnt signal, but two proteins typically associated with mitotic spindle positioning, homologs of NuMA and Dynein, were not detectably polarized. [21] The insert was initially tagged with reporter green fluorescence protein (GFP), and a Cre-Lox system was later used to remove the GFP gene insert. [21] Currently, there are two commonly used methods for gene insertion: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR). [21]

CRISPR-Cas9 technology has been widely used for genome engineering. [21] We will discuss the two genomes targeted for editing in plants, the toolbox used to make edits, along with strategies for future editing approaches to transform crop production and sustainability. [21]

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been used as host cells for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. [21]

We showed that ORNs that hybridize to a CRISPR target site in the THYN1 locus inhibited amplification across the target site, but no longer inhibited amplification after the target site was edited, resulting in mismatches. [21] The Berkeley team appealed the legitimacy of the Broad patent, claiming its use of Crispr infringed on their own patent. [38] Bacterial geneticists called them clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–or more conversationally, CRISPR. [18] Microbiologists? hypothesis in the early 2000s was that CRISPR was a piece of something like an immune system in bacteria that defended them against viruses to which they (or their ancestors) had been exposed. [18] Unlocking the potential of CRISPR technology for improving livelihoods in Africa. [21] He also classifies gene editing (like CRISPR) to be a weapon of mass destruction. [19] We demonstrate that targeting CRISPR gene editing to the kidney and the eye of F0 embryos is feasible. [21] Acknowledgements: Thank you to Jason Nomburg for his commentary on the limitations and implications of this CRISPR gene editing therapy. [22]

I think that CRISPR should continue to be developed, but I also think that it should be not as available to scientists as it is now. [19] This paper explores possible applications of CRISPR towards improvement of African livelihoods. [21] In this study, four 1-month-old beagles were treated with dystrophin-targeted CRISPR either directly in a leg muscle (2 dogs) or intravenously at either a low or high dose (the other 2 dogs). [22] Although CRISPR is not without controversies, none can dispute the singular importance of biologists Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna in bringing it to light. [18] Doudna, meanwhile, has become extremely involved in the ongoing international discussion about how to apply CRISPR wisely. [18]

Details of how CRISPR enables this defense were a mystery when Charpentier first began to think about it. [18]

These advances and technologies are now being applied to plants, for which there are a growing number of software and wetware tools for the design, construction and delivery of DNA molecules and for the engineering of endogenous genes. [21] BATTLING A SUPERBUG A new approach to fighting antibiotic-resistance Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (purple spheres, shown in this scanning electron microscope image being ingested by a white blood cell) co-opts genes that normally make the bacteria more dangerous. [41] Doudna herself had stated that experiments that work in bacteria rarely work in more complex cells, according to STAT. The fact that Crispr-Cas9 was being applied to two completely different scenarios–one in a test tube, and one in living creatures–was deemed to be a different enough to merit two separate patents. [38]

We investigated whether ORNi-PCR can be used to detect genome-edited cells. [21] These studies provide proof of principle for the hypothesis that CRISPR/Cas has the potential to be used to selectively treat HPV-induced tumors in humans. [21] Hepatic artery ligation (HAL) was used to mimic human transarterial chemoembolization in mice. [21]

We show that MultiPrime can be used for reprogramming, and for genome editing and engineering by CRISPR/Cas9. [21] We have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to mutate CTCF-binding sites at the putative start site of TERRA transcripts for a class of subtelomeres. [21] RESULTS: We used CRISPR/Cas9 in rice (Oryza sativa) for targeted disruption of CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (CCD7), which controls a key step in SL biosynthesis. [21]

If the approach is used clinically — and that?s still a long way away — a patient would probably receive multiple kinds of drones that target the bacteria in different ways, Novick says. [41] Such a mechanism could be used, for example, to rapidly disseminate a genetic payload in a population, promising effective strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. [21] Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as live vaccine against Marek’s disease (MD) worldwide for more than 40 years either alone or in combination with other serotypes. [21]

The European Food Safety Authority recommends testing resistance using microdilution culture techniques previously used to establish inhibitory thresholds for the Bifidobacterium genus. [21] The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is widely used for the production of both bulk and fine chemicals, including organic acids, fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, single-cell proteins, terpenoids, and other valuable products. [21] Phage therapy, often used against multidrug resistant infections, isn?t currently approved for use in the United States, but is common in Eastern Europe. [41] We also employ this technology to probe the functionality of an entire MRE network under cellular homeostasis, and show that high-resolution analysis of the GenERA dataset can be used to extract functional features of MREs. [21] This technology can also be used to clone disease-associated EBV strains and test the hypothesis that they have special features that distinguish them from strains that infect asymptomatically. [21]

While a new methodology for most organisms, genome editing capabilities have been used in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for decades. [21] Targeted PCR amplification combined with Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) or enzymatic digestion, while broadly used in the genome editing field, has critical limitations for detecting and quantifying structural variants such as large deletions (greater than approximately 100 base pairs), inversions, and translocations. [21]

BV3L6 (dAsCpf1) has been used to construct effective transcriptional repressors in bacteria and plants. [21]

We report a combinatorial metabolic engineering strategy based on an orthogonal tri-functional CRISPR system that combines transcriptional activation, transcriptional interference, and gene deletion (CRISPR-AID) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [21] Type VI-D CRISPR systems contain the smallest known family of single effector Cas enzymes, and their signature Cas13d ribonuclease employs guide RNAs to cleave matching target RNAs. [21] Doudna, too, had been studying RNAs involved in the CRISPR system for several years. [18]

Today, in her Berlin laboratory as a director at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Charpentier continues to study bacterial CRISPR systems and to work on further refinements of the gene editing technology that sprang from it. [18] Several biotech start-ups have jumped in to commercialize applications of CRISPR technology, including CRISPR Therapeutics (co-founded by Charpentier), Caribou Biosciences and Intellia Therapeutics (both co-founded by Doudna), and Editas Medicine (co-founded by Doudna, Zhang and others. [18] Charpentier?s company, Crispr Therapeutics AG, is licensing technology from Berkeley for use in developing new drugs. [38]

Combinatorial metabolic engineering using an orthogonal tri-functional CRISPR system. [21] Ledford H. Alternative CRISPR system could improve genome editing. [18]

Specifically, CRISPR-Cas types I-E and II-C were found, with I-E being the most common. [21]

Learn how to optimize CRISPR-Cas9 editing efficiencies in cell lines and primary cell types using modified synthetic sgRNA. Includes tips for achieving maximum knockout and knock-in efficiencies, experimental examples of how to optimize iPSC editing and a detailed explaination of CRISPR design and ICE analysis tools. [24] “We had CRISPR, a genetic tool that enabled us to introduce a gene of interest inside the cell without affecting other genes. [25] The “CRISPR associated sequence” (as in Cas-9) is a nearby gene in the bacterium associated with the CRISPR cluster directs the deployment of the scalpel, a DNA cutting enzyme known as a nuclease. [42] During infection, host cells adapt by storing short segments of foreign DNA in CRISPR arrays, providing heritable molecular memories of the infection. [24] In bacteria and archaea, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) arrays and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins provide adaptive immunity against invading DNA from bacteriophages and plasmids. [24] Gilbertson was in Chicago last week to talk CRISPR — which stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, a description of DNA sequences — at the Foodscape conference on emerging food trends. [27]

It becomes easier to understand if we think about CRISPR as basically two functions wrapped into one package: a function that identifies and locates a specific DNA sequence, and a function that cuts DNA at the identified location – essentially, a mug shot and a scalpel. [42]

He is part of a team responsible for integrating synthetic biology workflows, such as CRISPR genome engineering, into novel automation platforms for cell engineering. [24] We invite you to join this new series, featuring applications of CRISPR in cell therapy and agriculture, next generation drug discovery with bispecific antibody, structure-based vaccine development, and more. [43]

A: What CRISPR allows you to do is to choose any place, any position, any gene and make a very precise change in that gene. [27]

The bacteria collect “protospacers” from foreign DNA sequences (e.g., from bacteriophages), incorporate them into their genomes, and use them to express short guide RNAs, which can then be used by a CRISPR-Cas system to destruct any DNA sequences matching the protospacers. [23] PCR was used to verify proper gene tagging by amplifying the genomic sequence upstream and downstream of the homology arms in the targeting vector with additional primers within the integrated DNA sequence. [44]

Therefore, our gene tagging strategy, which has now been verified in cultured human proximal tubule cells, could be used to modify the KIM-1 locus in iPSCs. [44] We subsequently used TransfeX to transfect our gene targeting vector ( Fig 1 ) and active Cas9 into RPTEC/TERT1 cells. [44] Our gene targeting strategy could be used in other cell lines to evaluate the biology of KIM-1 in vitro or in vivo. [44] We used CRISRP/Cas9 to genome engineer KIM-1-reporter human proximal tubular cell lines responsive to various stimuli. [44] We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock-in reporter transgenes at the kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) locus and isolated human proximal tubule cell (HK-2) clones. [44]

Learn some key experimental parameters for optimizing CRISPR in cell lines and primary cells. [24] Topics of discussion include the distinctions and abilities of CRISPR-based editing, next-gen editing tools, precision in gene editing and using CRISPR for drug discovery. [24] The recent discovery of bacterial adaptive immune systems known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have a way to another set of genome-editing tools. [23] As with word processing there are a variety of tools, though the names are more exotic, and they have their own alphabet soup of acronyms: zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), meganucleases, transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENS), oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis (ODM), and the technique of the moment, clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats, or CRISPR. [42]

By developing CRISPR genome surgery in human cells, we hope to devise improved cellular models as well as human therapies. [24] It?s made possible by CRISPR, a gene-editing tool that allowed them to engineer all 3,893 mutations essentially at once. [26]

Other systems are now available, such as CRISPR-Cas13’s, that target RNA provide alternate avenues for use, and with unique characteristics that have been used as an advantage for sensitive diagnostic tools. [23] Cutaneous gene therapy can be used as a “safe and effective way for treatment of non-skin diseases, including drug abuse, a scenario that has not been explored before,” the authors note. [25] In order to verify proper gene targeting, we used PCR to amplify the genomic DNA segment both upstream and downstream of our targeting cassette (primers, Table 1 ). [44]

Therefore, we used bioluminescent imaging to evaluate and quantitate KIM-1 response to hypoxia using our genome-engineered cells that express luciferase in response to upregulation of the KIM-1 locus. [44] DNA sequencing was used to confirm the sequence of all DNA vectors. [44] HK-2 clone 5 (HK-2-5) was used as a positive control. (-), untransfected cells. [44] These KIM-1 reporter cells could subsequently be used to further elucidate the response of KIM-1 to hypoxia, cisplatin, or glucose, and perhaps even be used in drug discovery for interventions which block KIM-1 upregulation. [44]

The most widely used homologs of the Cas9 protein are derived from the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). [24] Primers binding human ribonuclease P protein subunit p30 (a ubiquitous protein expressed in human cells) were used to confirm the integrity of genomic DNA when the absence of PCR products was the defining criteria for insertion or deletion. [44] The Edit-R HDR Donor Designer can be used to efficiently design and order custom ssDNA donor oligos for insertion, removal, or replacement of genomic DNA with the CRISPR-Cas9 system. [45]

About five percent of young adults in the United States (1.7 million people aged 18 to 25) have used cocaine at least once, according to the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. [25] “Our study demonstrates that transplantation of genome-edited skin stem cells can be used to deliver an active cocaine hydrolase long-term in vivo,” the authors concluded. [25]

Mugshots (guide sequences, from known bacteria or newly made) could be combined with scalpels (nucleases encoded by Cas sequences, of which many are now known and more being constantly discovered) to make precise changes to DNA sequences at specific locations with very little potential for non target effects. [42] Experts will share case studies and experiences regarding best practices to guide RNA design, effects associated with CRISPR/Cas and address appropriate alternatives that are currently being developed. [24]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(45 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (87) CRISPR – Wikipedia

2. (66) ESP CRISPR-Cas

3. (46) CRISPR-Cap: multiplexed double-stranded DNA enrichment based on the CRISPR system | Nucleic Acids Research | Oxford Academic

4. (29) How to edit a human | 1843

5. (22) Emmanuelle Charpentier, Ph.D. and Jennifer Doudna, Ph.D. | Dr. Paul Janssen Award

6. (13)

7. (13) Two unrelated studies result in discovery of CRISPR-Cas12a inhibitors

8. (12) CRISPR/Cas9 engineering of a KIM-1 reporter human proximal tubule cell line

9. (11) New CRISPR inhibitors found with help from U.S. Department of Defense funding

10. (10) CRISPR Therapeutics and ViaCyte Announce Strategic Collaboration to Develop Gene-Edited Stem Cell-Derived Therapy for Diabetes | CRISPR Therapeutics

11. (10) Educational Virtual Event: CRISPR 2018 | LabRoots

12. (10) Better Buy: Editas Medicine, Inc. vs. CRISPR Therapeutics — The Motley Fool

13. (9) CRISPR screen identifies gene that helps cells resist West Nile, Zika viruses – Newsroom, UT Southwestern

14. (9) The National Conversation: Jennifer Doudna

15. (9) Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Broad Institute gets to keep its Crispr patent, says US appeals court — Quartz

16. (8) Gene-editing technique CRISPR identifies dangerous breast cancer mutations –

17. (8) The Simplicity of Using CRISPR: Transgenic Mice and Genetic Research

18. (8) Advancements in CRISPR gene editing — The Daily Campus

19. (7) CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing: Where Is It Going And What Could It Do?

20. (6) Dogs with muscular dystrophy receive CRISPR treatment: What does this mean for humans? – Science in the News

21. (5) CRISPR used to deliver BChE into cells to protect from lethal cocaine doses

22. (4) CRISPR Conferences 2019: Genome Editing, Genome Engineering & Gene Therapy | Cas9 & Cpf1 Meetings

23. (4) Move over, GMOs: More precise form of genetic engineering could make tomatoes sweeter, corn bigger | Consumer & Retail |

24. (4) UC Berkeley loses legal fight over CRISPR gene editing patents

25. (4) What CRISPR gene editing has taught us about the GMO debate | Genetic Literacy Project

26. (3) CRISPR screen identifies gene that helps cells resist West Nile, Zika viruses — ScienceDaily

27. (3) CRISPR | Mad Scientist Laboratory

28. (3) CAFC Upholds Broad Institute CRISPR Patents | GEN

29. (3) Smuggling a CRISPR gene editor into staph bacteria can kill the pathogen | Science News

30. (3) Crispr gene therapy fixes disease in a human embryo

31. (2) Crispr | Latest News, Photos & Videos | WIRED

32. (2) Breast Cancer: CRISPR Is Supercharging BRCA1 Research – The Atlantic

33. (2) Eugenics and CRISPR – Does God Exist? Today

34. (2) Gene-edited cassava could help millions of farmers – Alliance for Science

35. (1) Groundcherry fruit aided by CRISPR could hit grocery stores

36. (1) Genome editing pioneer and Hilo High graduate Jennifer Doudna speaks at UH Hilo about her discovery: CRISPR technology – UH Hilo Stories

37. (1) Safety of gene editing tool unlikely to affect WSU researchers The Daily Evergreen

38. (1) CRISPR halts fatal genetic disease in dogs, could soon do the sa – KXXV Central Texas News Now

39. (1) CRISPR Therapeutics and ViaCyte Collaborate to Tackle Type 1 Diabetes | BioSpace

40. (1) Inching Toward De-Extinction: Can CRISPR Resurrect Passenger Pigeons? – D-brief

41. (1) UC vows to protect groundbreaking CRISPR invention despite court decision | Berkeley News

42. (1) Detecting pathogens with Zinc-Finger, TALE and CRISPR- based programmable nucleic acid binding proteins – ScienceDirect

43. (1) 2018 Webinar Series

44. (1) Video: Edit-R HDR Donor Designer: tutorial for DNA removal

45. (1) Scientists have moved one step closer to RNA editing, which could be the next stage of CRISPR TechCrunch