Artificial Intelligence Article

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is a push toward being able to accomplish things that require human intelligence without needing humans.(More…)
  • Many of the problems in this article may also require general intelligence, if machines are to solve the problems as well as people do.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Eva Schloss, a childhood friend of Anne Frank’s, meets her artificial counterpart for the first time.(More…)
  • The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring “intelligence” are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, “AI is whatever hasn’t been done yet.”(More…)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

Artificial Intelligence Article
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link: http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/71/23/2668
author: onlinejacc.org
description: Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology | JACC: Journal of the …

KEY TOPICS

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a push toward being able to accomplish things that require human intelligence without needing humans. [1] This is just one example of “mission-driven artificial intelligence”–the responsible application of artificial intelligence (AI) to solve societal and ecological challenges. [2] The key difference between a bot with AI versus one without is that bots with artificial intelligence are designed to learn and evolve over time. [1] The hysteria about the future of artificial intelligence (AI) is everywhere. [3]

A.I. Spinner – Rewrites article with Artificial Intelligence by imagets CodeCanyon no longer actively supports this version of Internet Explorer. [4] Artificial intelligence is the latest technology sweeping the world, and consultancy firm McKinsey predicts that up to 30 percent of the global workforce could be displaced by 2030 because of advances in AI, robotics, and digitization. [5] Artificial intelligence (AI) tools enable security teams to identify behavioral patterns that could point to insider threats more quickly. [6] He is founder and chief executive of iCog, the first artificial intelligence (AI) lab in Ethiopia, and a stone’s throw from the home of Lucy. iCog Labs launched in 2013 with $50,000 and just four programmers. [5] Like Seyoum’s family, most farmers in Ethiopia have no access to a tractor, let alone one outfitted with AI. More broadly though, as the price of computing power continues to plummet artificial intelligence is becoming accessible to Ethiopians. [5] Silicon Valley’s tech giants have near monopoly control over the world’s data — information that is often used as the foundation for machine learning and the development of artificial intelligence applications. [5] He’s hoping Ethiopia can use expertise in artificial intelligence as a springboard to development. [5] Assefa hopes to place artificial intelligence at the heart of Ethiopia’s rapid development, but he receives little backing from the government, which has been encouraging investment in the manufacturing sector. [5] Developments in artificial intelligence will mean strong demand not just for Micron and Xilinx, but also for chip makers that are just starting up or are still to be founded. [7] “We used to hear about the invention of artificial intelligence, how it would be useful for people, but there aren?t many products made with that here in Africa,” says 20-year-old Yonathan Amaniel, a student at Mekelle University in the far north of Ethiopia. [5] Artificial intelligence will transform the relationship between people and technology, charging our creativity and skills. [8] Artificial intelligence may be to blame – but could also help people sort out the truth from lies. [9] At TechEmergence, we?ve developed concrete definitions of both artificial intelligence and machine learning based on a panel of expert feedback. [10] TechEmergence conducts direct interviews and consensus analysis with leading experts in machine learning and artificial intelligence. [10]

The synergistic approach in the former shows that by pairing human intelligence with artificial intelligence, the overall grading system costs less and accomplishes more. [10] In early 2016, Wealthfront announced it was taking an AI-first approach, promising “an advice engine rooted in artificial intelligence and modern APIs, an engine that we believe will deliver more relevant and personalized advice than ever before.” [10] Thanks for staying in touch we’re glad to keep you ahead of the curve on the applications and implications of artificial intelligence. [10]

Artificial intelligence ( AI, also machine intelligence, MI ) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence ( NI ) displayed by humans and other animals. [11] Gopnik, Alison, “Making AI More Human: Artificial intelligence has staged a revival by starting to incorporate what we know about how children learn”, Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 6 (June 2017), pp.60-65. [11] With social media sites overtaking TV as a source for news for young people and news organisations increasingly reliant on social media platforms for generating distribution, major publishers now use artificial intelligence (AI) technology to post stories more effectively and generate higher volumes of traffic. [11] According to Bloomberg’s Jack Clark, 2015 was a landmark year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects that use AI within Google increased from a “sporadic usage” in 2012 to more than 2,700 projects. [11] Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI effect. [11] Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an ” AI winter “), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. [11] Artificial Intelligence (AI) is having a clear impact on databases. [12] What Is AI? – An introduction to artificial intelligence by John McCarthy –a co-founder of the field, and the person who coined the term. [11] Unlike previous waves of automation, many middle-class jobs may be eliminated by artificial intelligence; The Economist states that “the worry that AI could do to white-collar jobs what steam power did to blue-collar ones during the Industrial Revolution” is “worth taking seriously”. [11] The opinion of experts within the field of artificial intelligence is mixed, with sizable fractions both concerned and unconcerned by risk from eventual superhumanly-capable AI. [11] “Comparing the expert survey and citation impact journal ranking methods: Example from the field of Artificial Intelligence” (PDF). [11] Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein considers a key issue in the ethics of artificial intelligence : if a machine can be created that has intelligence, could it also feel ? If it can feel, does it have the same rights as a human? The idea also appears in modern science fiction, such as the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, in which humanoid machines have the ability to feel emotions. [11] Onlookers commonly discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not “real” intelligence after all; thus “real” intelligence is whatever intelligent behavior people can do that machines still cannot. [11] McCorduck 2004, pp.100-101, who writes that there are “two major branches of artificial intelligence: one aimed at producing intelligent behavior regardless of how it was accomplished, and the other aimed at modeling intelligent processes found in nature, particularly human ones.” [11] Throughout the novel, Dick portrays the idea that human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence. [11] The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. [11] Other counterarguments revolve around humans being either intrinsically or convergently valuable from the perspective of an artificial intelligence. [11] Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. [11] Technological singularity is when accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing or even ending civilization. [11] “AlphaGo beats human Go champ in milestone for artificial intelligence”. latimes.com. [11] One in every four schools in China is quietly testing a powerful machine that uses artificial intelligence to mark pupils? work, according to scientists involved in the government programme. [13] The implications of a constructed machine exhibiting artificial intelligence have been a persistent theme in science fiction since the twentieth century. [11] Note that they use the term “computational intelligence” as a synonym for artificial intelligence. [11] Banks use artificial intelligence systems today to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties. [11] Widespread use of artificial intelligence could have unintended consequences that are dangerous or undesirable. [11] One of his main strategies is to get more app developers to use artificial intelligence tools such as recognizing objects in front of an iPhone’s camera. [14] One high-profile example is that DeepMind in the 2010s developed a “generalized artificial intelligence” that could learn many diverse Atari games on its own, and later developed a variant of the system which succeeds at sequential learning. [11] Deep learning has transformed many important subfields of artificial intelligence, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing and others. [11] IBM has created its own artificial intelligence computer, the IBM Watson, which has beaten human intelligence (at some levels). [11] This approach to the philosophical problems associated with artificial intelligence forms the basis of the Turing test. [11] Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving (5th ed.). [11] “Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence”. [11] Artificial intelligence is developing rapidly in China with strong support from the government and the technology is used in many areas of everyday life. [13] In video games, artificial intelligence is routinely used to generate dynamic purposeful behavior in non-player characters (NPCs). [11] SAN FRANCISCO, June 7 (Reuters) – Google will not allow its artificial intelligence software to be used in weapons or unreasonable surveillance efforts, the Alphabet Inc unit said Thursday in standards for its business decisions in the nascent field. [15] IBM’s Watson is, perhaps, the most well-known artificial intelligence engine applied to business purposes. [16] “The role of cognitive architectures in general artificial intelligence”. [11] A common concern about the development of artificial intelligence is the potential threat it could pose to humanity. [11] This marked the completion of a significant milestone in the development of Artificial Intelligence as Go is an extremely complex game, more so than Chess. [11] Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents (2nd ed.). [11] Artificial Intelligence and Law. 25 (3): 341-363. doi : 10.1007/s10506-017-9210-0. [11] “Content: Plug & Pray Film – Artificial Intelligence – Robots -“. plugandpray-film.de. [11] “ACM Computing Classification System: Artificial intelligence”. [11] “Bill Gates on dangers of artificial intelligence: ‘I don’t understand why some people are not concerned ‘ “. [11] Terms such as chatbot, artificial intelligence and others are becoming part of our daily conversations. [16] After a half-decade of quiet breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, 2015 has been a landmark year. [11] These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence. [11] In his book Superintelligence, Nick Bostrom provides an argument that artificial intelligence will pose a threat to mankind. [11] “Elon Musk: artificial intelligence is our biggest existential threat”. the Guardian. [11]

This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. [11] In 2017, Vladimir Putin stated that “Whoever becomes the leader in (artificial intelligence) will become the ruler of the world”. [11] Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. [11] Edward Fredkin argues that “artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution”, an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler’s ” Darwin among the Machines ” (1863), and expanded upon by George Dyson in his book of the same name in 1998. [11] For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from “artificial intelligence”, having become a routine technology. [11] McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the [email protected] conference where he said “Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence” ( Maker 2006 ). [11] Some argue that some kind of (currently-undiscovered) conceptually straightforward, but mathematically difficult, “Master Algorithm” could lead to AGI. Finally, a few “emergent” approaches look to simulating human intelligence extremely closely, and believe that anthropomorphic features like an artificial brain or simulated child development may someday reach a critical point where general intelligence emerges. [11]

“Artificial intelligence technology” is too often just a hot buzzword for marketing, a thing one sticks on product labels, like “new and improved.” [7]

Many of the problems in this article may also require general intelligence, if machines are to solve the problems as well as people do. [11] Artificial Intelligence articles involving programming, software engineering, neural engineering, artificial neural networks, artificial life, a-life, floyds, boids, emergence, computers, machine learning, neuralbots, neuralrobotics, engineering, computational neuroscience and much more. [17] As a few companies race to monetize the kind of machine learning that focuses on teaching robots to behave more like humans, many companies are grappling with how to leverage artificial intelligence and smart machines. [18] Through this process, artificial intelligence develops an ability previously thought to be reserved for human beings. [19] The revelation went against the conventional wisdom that artificial intelligence doesn’t suffer from the gender, racial, and cultural prejudices that we humans do. [20] The U.S. has a significant credit in the regional trends with over 65% of investments (including M&As, private equity, and venture capital) in artificial intelligence technology. [21] The International Data Corporation (IDC) predicts that investment in cognitive and artificial intelligence systems will grow to over $52 million by 2021. [18] T hree years ago, at a conference on transatlantic issues, the subject of artificial intelligence appeared on the agenda. [19] U ltimately, the term artificial intelligence may be a misnomer. [19] Sixty years after the term “artificial intelligence” was coined, AI is starting to take its place alongside people. [22]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Eva Schloss, a childhood friend of Anne Frank’s, meets her artificial counterpart for the first time. [23] In this article, we refer to AI to intentionally focus on the broader picture. [2] Instead of supporting AI progress, it actually jeopardises the value of machine intelligence by disregarding important AI safety principles and setting unrealistic expectations about what AI can really do for humanity. [3] To be clear, AI is a broad term that captures the constantly evolving advances in machines’ capabilities to perform tasks that would ordinarily require human intelligence. [2]

The public sector typically lacks the human talent with the right technological capabilities to fully reap the benefits of machine intelligence. [3] Not every problem is best addressed by applying machine intelligence to it. [3]

Collaborative defense connects an organization’s people, processes and technology to deliver improved security through open integrations, threat intelligence sharing and digital transformation. [6] The timeline for some of these changes is unclear, as predictions vary about when self-driving cars will become a reality: BI Intelligence predicts fully-autonomous vehicles will debut in 2019; Uber CEO Travis Kalanick says the timeline for self-driving cars is “a years thing, not a decades thing”; Andrew Ng, Chief Scientist at Baidu and Stanford faculty member, predicted in early 2016 that self-driving cars will be mass produced by 2021. [10]

To simplify the discussion, think of AI as the broader goal of autonomous machine intelligence, and machine learning as the specific scientific methods currently in vogue for building AI. All machine learning is AI, but not all AI is machine learning. [10] A 2017 report by the World Wide Web Foundation suggested that Ethiopian “intelligence services are using machine intelligence techniques to break encryption and find patterns in social media posts that can be used to identify dissidents.” [5]

Amazon uses artificial neural networks to generate these product recommendations. [10] We distinguish between AI and machine learning (ML) throughout this article when appropriate. [10] Specific industries and hobbies have habitual interaction with AI far beyond what’s explored in this article. [10]

The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring “intelligence” are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, “AI is whatever hasn’t been done yet.” [11] Proposed “universal intelligence” tests aim to compare how well machines, humans, and even non-human animals perform on problem sets that are generic as possible. [11] Moravec’s paradox generalizes that low-level sensorimotor skills that humans take for granted are, counterintuitively, difficult to program into a robot; the paradox is named after Hans Moravec, who stated in 1988 that “it is comparatively easy to make computers exhibit adult level performance on intelligence tests or playing checkers, and difficult or impossible to give them the skills of a one-year-old when it comes to perception and mobility”. [11] Are there limits to how intelligent machines- or human-machine hybrids- can be? A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that would possess intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human mind [11] Ronald, E. M. A. and Sipper, M. Intelligence is not enough: On the socialization of talking machines, Minds and Machines, vol. 11, no. 4, pp.567-576, November 2001. [11] Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to make ethical decisions. [11] Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence, such as W. Grey Walter’s turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. [11] Even specific straightforward tasks, like machine translation, require that a machine read and write in both languages ( NLP ), follow the author’s argument ( reason ), know what is being talked about ( knowledge ), and faithfully reproduce the author’s original intent ( social intelligence ). [11] The Dartmouth proposal “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” [11] The new intelligence could thus increase exponentially and dramatically surpass humans. [11] The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. [11] Turing, Alan (October 1950), “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, LIX (236): 433-460, doi : 10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423. [11] Emergent behavior such as this is used by evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. [11] Sub-symbolic methods manage to approach intelligence without specific representations of knowledge. [11] “?Superintelligence?? may also refer to the form or degree of intelligence possessed by such an agent. [11] Moravec’s paradox can be extended to many forms of social intelligence. [11]

The application of soft computing to AI is studied collectively by the emerging discipline of computational intelligence. [11] IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. 5 (4): 293-311. doi : 10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2286295. [11] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. [11]

Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. 2012 : 1-20. doi : 10.1155/2012/850160. [11] IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine. 9 (2): 48-57. doi : 10.1109/MCI.2014.2307227. [11]

The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence “can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it”. [11]

These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. “robotics” or “machine learning”), the use of particular tools (“logic” or artificial neural networks ), or deep philosophical differences. [11] An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works – some agents are symbolic and logical, some are sub-symbolic artificial neural networks and others may use new approaches. [11] Artificial neural networks are an example of soft computing they are solutions to problems which cannot be solved with complete logical certainty, and where an approximate solution is often sufficient. [11] Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation. [11] Deep learning is any artificial neural network that can learn a long chain of causal links. [11] According to one overview, the expression “Deep Learning” was introduced to the Machine Learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986 and gained traction after Igor Aizenberg and colleagues introduced it to Artificial Neural Networks in 2000. [11] Approaches based on cybernetics or artificial neural networks were abandoned or pushed into the background. [11] Similar to shallow artificial neural networks, deep neural networks can model complex non-linear relationships. [11]

Many people concerned about risk from superintelligent AI also want to limit the use of artificial soldiers. [11] The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts ‘ 1943 formal design for Turing-complete “artificial neurons”. [11] An evolutionary system can induce goals by using a ” fitness function ” to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems; this is similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food, or how dogs can be bred via artificial selection to possess desired traits. [11]

The artificial brain argument The brain can be simulated by machines and because brains are intelligent, simulated brains must also be intelligent; thus machines can be intelligent. [11] This issue was addressed by Wendell Wallach in his book titled Moral Machines in which he introduced the concept of artificial moral agents (AMA). [11]

Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, and have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or Karel ?apek’s R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots). [11] “A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part II: Biologically inspired cognitive architectures”. [11]

Some cognitive architectures are custom-built to solve a narrow problem; others, such as Soar, are designed to mimic human cognition and to provide insight into general intelligence. [11] The main areas of competition include general machine intelligence, conversational behavior, data-mining, robotic cars, and robot soccer as well as conventional games. [11]

She said some machines have written articles that went viral on social media, attracting more than 10 million views, but did not provide further details. [13] The definition used in this article, in terms of goals, actions, perception and environment, is due to Russell & Norvig (2003). [11] Poole, Mackworth & Goebel 1998, p. 1, which provides the version that is used in this article. [11]

Users can also rank how useful an article was in solving an issue, suggest new articles or edits. [16]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(23 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (91) Artificial intelligence – Wikipedia

2. (10) Everyday Examples of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

3. (8) In Artificial Intelligence, Young Ethiopians Eye a Fertile Future

4. (4) Here’s Why AI Can’t Solve Everything

5. (3) China’s schools are quietly using AI to mark students? essays . but do the robots make the grade? | South China Morning Post

6. (3) The Power of Artificial Intelligence | International Franchise Association

7. (3) How the Enlightenment Ends – The Atlantic

8. (3) Artificial Intelligence as a Force for Good

9. (2) 5 Innovative Ways Artificial Intelligence Is Advancing Technology

10. (2) What can machine learning do for your business right now? | CIO

11. (2) Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Security Intelligence

12. (2) AI Technology Revolution Is Just Getting Started – Barron’s

13. (1) Artificial Intelligence Takes on Large-Scale Database Management – DATAVERSITY

14. (1) Apple’s Plans to Bring Artificial Intelligence to Your Phone | WIRED

15. (1) Google bars uses of its artificial intelligence tech in weapons | Reuters

16. (1) Artificial Intelligence Archives – Neuroscience News

17. (1) Artificial Intelligence Has a Bias Problem, and It’s Our Fault | PCMag.com

18. (1) How Much will the Retail Sector Benefit from Artificial Intelligence?

19. (1) Artificial intelligence (AI) – CNET

20. (1) Artificial Intelligence | The New Yorker

21. (1) A.I. Spinner – Rewrites article with Artificial Intelligence by imagets

22. (1) Artificial Intelligence | Accenture

23. (1) Artificial intelligence – News, Research and Analysis – The Conversation – page 1