Artificial Intelligence Development

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • These were among the concepts discussed by Amgen SVP Mike Nohaile on a panel devoted to artificial intelligence (AI) and drug development at the 2018 World Medical Innovation Forum, a recent event that Amgen has sponsored for the last four years.(More…)
  • This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity.(More…)
  • The document, titled ” Artificial Intelligence at Google: our principles,” does not directly reference this work, but makes clear that the company will not develop AI for use in weaponry.(More…)
  • “Artificial intelligence (AI) is poised to enhance productivity and innovation around the world.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • He grew up playing with household appliances, learning first-hand how they solve problems and wondering why technology was not more evenly distributed: “I was curious about robots and automation: Why are people farming?(More…)
  • As well as forbidding the development of AI for weapons, the principles say Google will not work on AI surveillance projects that violate “internationally accepted norms,” or projects which contravene “widely accepted principles of international law and human rights.”(More…)

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Artificial Intelligence Development
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link: http://phys.org/news/2018-06-ai-based-method-specialized-nanoparticles.html
author: phys.org
description: AI-based method could speed development of specialized nanoparticles

KEY TOPICS

These were among the concepts discussed by Amgen SVP Mike Nohaile on a panel devoted to artificial intelligence (AI) and drug development at the 2018 World Medical Innovation Forum, a recent event that Amgen has sponsored for the last four years. [1] The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. [2] Silicon Valley’s tech giants have near monopoly control over the world’s data–information that is often used as the foundation for machine learning and the development of artificial intelligence applications. [3] Assefa hopes to place artificial intelligence at the heart of Ethiopia’s rapid development, but he receives little backing from the government, which has been encouraging investment in the manufacturing sector. [3] This marked the completion of a significant milestone in the development of Artificial Intelligence as Go is an extremely complex game, more so than Chess. [2] A common concern about the development of artificial intelligence is the potential threat it could pose to humanity. [2]

Some argue that some kind of (currently-undiscovered) conceptually straightforward, but mathematically difficult, “Master Algorithm” could lead to AGI. Finally, a few “emergent” approaches look to simulating human intelligence extremely closely, and believe that anthropomorphic features like an artificial brain or simulated child development may someday reach a critical point where general intelligence emerges. [2]

With social media sites overtaking TV as a source for news for young people and news organisations increasingly reliant on social media platforms for generating distribution, major publishers now use artificial intelligence (AI) technology to post stories more effectively and generate higher volumes of traffic. [2] According to Bloomberg’s Jack Clark, 2015 was a landmark year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects that use AI within Google increased from a “sporadic usage” in 2012 to more than 2,700 projects. [2] Recent advances in computing power, algorithms, and sensor technology in recent years have combined to rapidly expand the capabilities of artificial intelligence (AI). [4] Artificial intelligence is the latest technology sweeping the world, and consultancy firm McKinsey predicts that up to 30% of the global workforce could be displaced by 2030 because of advances in AI, robotics, and digitization. [3] Artificial intelligence ( AI, also machine intelligence, MI ) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence ( NI ) displayed by humans and other animals. [2] Gopnik, Alison, “Making AI More Human: Artificial intelligence has staged a revival by starting to incorporate what we know about how children learn”, Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 6 (June 2017), pp.60-65. [2] Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI effect. [2] Next: The CX Center! This webinar will explore the strategies and technologies required to deliver truly differentiated experiences, using customer listening, agent assistance, and self-service powered by artificial intelligence (AI). [5] This is just one example of “mission-driven artificial intelligence”–the responsible application of artificial intelligence (AI) to solve societal and ecological challenges. [6] Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an ” AI winter “), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. [2] She is literally the face of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for much of the world. [7] Like Seyoum’s family, most farmers in Ethiopia have no access to a tractor, let alone one outfitted with AI. More broadly though, as the price of computing power continues to plummet artificial intelligence is becoming accessible to Ethiopians. [3] He is founder and chief executive of iCog, the first artificial intelligence (AI) lab in Ethiopia, and a stone’s throw from the home of Lucy. iCog Labs launched in 2013 with $50,000 and just four programmers. [3] What Is AI? – An introduction to artificial intelligence by John McCarthy –a co-founder of the field, and the person who coined the term. [2] Unlike previous waves of automation, many middle-class jobs may be eliminated by artificial intelligence; The Economist states that “the worry that AI could do to white-collar jobs what steam power did to blue-collar ones during the Industrial Revolution” is “worth taking seriously”. [2] The opinion of experts within the field of artificial intelligence is mixed, with sizable fractions both concerned and unconcerned by risk from eventual superhumanly-capable AI. [2] Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein considers a key issue in the ethics of artificial intelligence : if a machine can be created that has intelligence, could it also feel ? If it can feel, does it have the same rights as a human? The idea also appears in modern science fiction, such as the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, in which humanoid machines have the ability to feel emotions. [2] Onlookers commonly discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not “real” intelligence after all; thus “real” intelligence is whatever intelligent behavior people can do that machines still cannot. [2] The implications of a constructed machine exhibiting artificial intelligence have been a persistent theme in science fiction since the twentieth century. [2] Throughout the novel, Dick portrays the idea that human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence. [2] McCorduck 2004, pp.100-101, who writes that there are “two major branches of artificial intelligence: one aimed at producing intelligent behavior regardless of how it was accomplished, and the other aimed at modeling intelligent processes found in nature, particularly human ones.” [2] Other counterarguments revolve around humans being either intrinsically or convergently valuable from the perspective of an artificial intelligence. [2] Technological singularity is when accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing or even ending civilization. [2] “AlphaGo beats human Go champ in milestone for artificial intelligence”. latimes.com. [2] Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. [2] One high-profile example is that DeepMind in the 2010s developed a “generalized artificial intelligence” that could learn many diverse Atari games on its own, and later developed a variant of the system which succeeds at sequential learning. [2] Around the world, tech startups are partnering with NGOs to bring machine learning and artificial intelligence to bear on problems that the international aid sector has wrestled with for decades. [8] At TechEmergence, we?ve developed concrete definitions of both artificial intelligence and machine learning based on a panel of expert feedback. [9] Another study is using artificial intelligence to try and monitor multiple high-risk patients, and this is done by asking each patient numerous questions based on data acquired from live doctor to patient interactions. [2] Banks use artificial intelligence systems today to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties. [2] Widespread use of artificial intelligence could have unintended consequences that are dangerous or undesirable. [2] Note that they use the term “computational intelligence” as a synonym for artificial intelligence. [2] Artificial intelligence is generally defined as computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, which could include visual perception, speech recognition or decision-making. [1] Deep learning has transformed many important subfields of artificial intelligence, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing and others. [2] IBM has created its own artificial intelligence computer, the IBM Watson, which has beaten human intelligence (at some levels). [2] The synergistic approach in the former shows that by pairing human intelligence with artificial intelligence, the overall grading system costs less and accomplishes more. [9] “The role of cognitive architectures in general artificial intelligence”. [2] Artificial Intelligence and Law. 25 (3): 341-363. doi : 10.1007/s10506-017-9210-0. [2] Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving (5th ed.). [2] “Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence”. [2] Recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence offer enormous benefits for mission-driven organizations and could eventually revolutionize how they work. [6] TechEmergence conducts direct interviews and consensus analysis with leading experts in machine learning and artificial intelligence. [9] “We used to hear about the invention of artificial intelligence, how it would be useful for people, but there aren’t many products made with that here in Africa,” says 20-year-old Yonathan Amaniel, a student at Mekelle University in the far north of Ethiopia. [3] “Bill Gates on dangers of artificial intelligence: ‘I don’t understand why some people are not concerned ‘ “. [2] Thanks for staying in touch we’re glad to keep you ahead of the curve on the applications and implications of artificial intelligence. [9] “Content: Plug & Pray Film – Artificial Intelligence – Robots -“. plugandpray-film.de. [2] The World Bank has been helping countries harness the power of Artificial Intelligence and disruptive technologies. [7] I believe that it has transformed the way we deal with our activities whether it is online shopping, entertainment etc. The emergence of Artificial Intelligence is equally having a greater impact on our interactions with our gadgets along with mobile apps. [5] Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents (2nd ed.). [2] These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence. [2] Musk also funds companies developing artificial intelligence such as Google DeepMind and Vicarious to “just keep an eye on what’s going on with artificial intelligence. [2] After a half-decade of quiet breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, 2015 has been a landmark year. [2] Though yet to become a standard in schools, artificial intelligence in education has been “a thing” since AI’s uptick in the 1980s. [9] Although it is hard to predict what the future will look like, it is safe to say that artificial intelligence and automation will play a central part in it. [7]

In its ” Three-Year Action Plan for Promoting Development of a New Generation Artificial Intelligence Industry (2018-2020),” the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology pointed out that it is necessary to establish an AI industry standard specification system and establish and improve technical standards such as common foundations, interoperability, safety and privacy, and industrial applications, and at the same time, to build AI product evaluation systems. [10] China attaches great importance to the standardization of AI. The State Council’s ” New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan ” (AIDP), for which AI standardization serves as an important support guarantee, proposed “strengthening the AI standards framework system. [10] At the same time, as artificial intelligence (AI) is still in the early phrase of development, the policies, laws, and standards for safety, ethics, and privacy in this area are worthy of attention. [10]

Artificial intelligence has been around since the late 1950s, but today, AI’s capacities are rapidly improving thanks to several factors: the vast amounts of data being collected by sensors (in appliances, vehicles, clothing, etc.), satellites and the Internet; the development of more powerful and faster computers; the availability of open source software and data; and the increase in abundant, cheap storage. [11] Google’s new guidelines could set the tone for the way the tech industry handles the development of artificial intelligence going forward. [12]

This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. [2] In 2017, Vladimir Putin stated that “Whoever becomes the leader in (artificial intelligence) will become the ruler of the world”. [2] Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. [2] Edward Fredkin argues that “artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution”, an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler’s ” Darwin among the Machines ” (1863), and expanded upon by George Dyson in his book of the same name in 1998. [2] For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from “artificial intelligence”, having become a routine technology. [2] McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the [email protected] conference where he said “Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence” ( Maker 2006 ). [2]

The document, titled ” Artificial Intelligence at Google: our principles,” does not directly reference this work, but makes clear that the company will not develop AI for use in weaponry. [13] We combine Artificial Intelligence with our deep product engineering expertise to help our clients realize highly intelligent and interactive AI systems and applications. [14] We have a new tool to help us better manage the impacts of climate change and protect the planet: artificial intelligence (AI). [11] AI refers to computer systems that “can sense their environment, think, learn, and act in response to what they sense and their programmed objectives,” according to a World Economic Forum report, Harnessing Artificial Intelligence for the Earth. [11] The Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory operated by Stanford University will use machine learning and artificial intelligence to identify vulnerabilities in the grid, strengthen them in advance of failures, and restore power more quickly when failures occur. [11] After Google’s own employees protested Project Maven, a Pentagon defense contract that saw the company helping military drones gain the ability to track objects, the company promised it’d issue ethical guidelines about the use of artificial intelligence. [12] Microsoft believes that artificial intelligence, often encompassing machine learning and deep learning, is a “game changer” for climate change and environmental issues. [11] Illustration by Alex Castro / The Verge Google has released a set of principles to guide its work in artificial intelligence, making good on a promise to do so last month following controversy over its involvement in a Department of Defense drone project. [13] What exactly these guidelines will stipulate isn?t clear, but Google told the Times they will include a ban on the use of artificial intelligence in weaponry. [15] Google CEO Sundar Pichai outlined the company’s ethical guidelines surrounding artificial intelligence. [12]

Google’s decision to outline its ethical stance on AI development comes after years of worry over the impending threat posed by automated systems, as well as more sensational warnings about the development of artificial general intelligence — or AI with human-level intelligence. [13] Artificial intelligence systems can simulate potential zoning laws, building ordinances, and flood plains to help with urban planning and disaster preparedness. [11] Artificial intelligence can also help predict the spread of invasive species, follow marine litter, monitor ocean currents, keep track of dead zones and measure pollution levels. [11] As vehicles become able to communicate with each other and with the infrastructure, artificial intelligence will help drivers avoid hazards and traffic jams. [11] Uriarte says her work could not be done without artificial intelligence. [11] We create powerful and intelligent solutions that are infused with high-end Artificial Intelligence that not only integrate seamlessly with your business processes but are self aware of boosting operational efficiency and business growth. [14] The team is using artificial intelligence to analyze the high-resolution photographs and match them with Uriarte’s data–she has mapped and identified every single tree in given plots. [11]

In an effort to improve understanding of how to ethically and equitably implement AI in the development context, IDRC has published the white paper Artificial intelligence and human development. [16] As organizations and individuals develop they face the same challenges again and again: Time is limited – how to get the most out of existing or shrinking resources? The same realities present themselves with the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and even though the journey is at its beginning, significant results are already being achieved. [17] White paper on artificial intelligence and human development. [16] Twin Cities Business – Artificial Intelligence (AI): Better Than None? – The pace of AI development is exceedingly fast and its presence is being felt in nearly every industry. [18]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is often defined as technology where software is able to provide solutions and perform tasks previously done by humans. [18] Artificial intelligence software is a very general space, with a number of different subcategories, including AI platforms, chatbots, deep learning, and machine learning. [19] These learning algorithms can be embedded within applications to provide automated, artificial intelligence (AI) features or be used in an AI platform to build brand new applications. [19] Artificial intelligence (AI) platforms provide users a tool kit to build intelligent applications. [19]

In 2017, we published a popular post on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies that would dominate that year, based on Forrester’s TechRadar report. [20] Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming a staple of all business software, whether users are aware of it or not. [19] The world could fall behind China when it comes to developing artificial intelligence (AI), the former president of the European Commission warned Monday. [21] The profound impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on digital marketing efforts to date is something no marketer will dispute. [20] For instance, one team is using artificial intelligence — more precisely, “machine learning” — to recognize and classify exoplanets that are similar to rocky worlds in our own solar system, like Mars and Earth. [22] Arnold Schwarzenegger plays a machine with advanced artificial intelligence in “Terminator 2: Judgement Day” (1991). [22] While human volunteers on projects such as Galaxy Zoo help astronomers classify galaxies today, artificial intelligence is emerging as an alternative, said astrophysicist David Koo, an astronomer emeritus at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and astronomer emeritus at Lick Observatory. [22] The day will soon come where the initial diagnosis of a human health condition, its possible treatment and long-term chance of recovery/success will be done by artificial intelligence only. [18] That uncertainty has given many of us hope that artificial intelligence will always remain the servant of humans. [18] In 2014, Hawking said artificial intelligence might end up annihilating the human race. [22] In 2015, Musk, Hawking and other science and tech leaders signed an open letter saying that artificial intelligence technology could generate a global arms race unless the United Nations steps in with a ban. [22] Some critics, like SpaceX founder Elon Musk and the renowned physicist Stephen Hawking ( recently deceased ), have warned that artificial intelligence could be dangerous if left unchecked. [22] Artificial Intelligence solves problems and accelerates innovation. [23] The letter was issued by the Future of Life organization and presented at the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence that year in Buenos Aires, Argentina. [22]

The State Council of China released an Artificial Intelligence (AI) development plan on July 20, 2017, which aims to build a domestic industry worth almost $150 billion and positioning the country to become the world leader in AI by 2030. [24] One of Google’s former chiefs, Eric Schmidt has said that he believes that Tesla and SpaceX founder Elon Musk is wrong to condemn the development of artificial intelligence (AI) as he believes it will only help make humanity smarter. [25] Sentiance chose to locate its R&D operations in Toronto, where they’re harnessing cutting edge artificial intelligence to put people at the center of product development. [26] It’s unclear what the timeframe is for the development of the artificial intelligence the Department of Defense is investing in. [27]

“Artificial intelligence (AI) is poised to enhance productivity and innovation around the world. [16] The twin goals of knowledge-based artificial intelligence (AI) are to build AI agents capable of human-level intelligence and gain insights into human cognition. [28] You?ve probably already heard of the rise in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) across many industries and applications. [29] Their vision: creating a “diagnostic cockpit” where medical experts have at their fingertips all the data they need to diagnose and treat patients while artificial intelligence (AI) analyzes that data and provides decision support behind the scenes. [30] The other (Garris) is a computer scientist with expertise in using artificial intelligence and machine learning to recognize patterns in images and other data. [30] The practical application of artificial intelligence and machine learning will become a standard way of life across engineering, testing, and broader portfolio management in the near future. [29] This all sounds great and like a definite advancement for the agile and program management office, right? But many of us are worlds away from implementing artificial intelligence or machine learning broadly. [29] “RoadTracer” system from the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory could reduce workload for developers of apps like Google Maps. [31] Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory system enables people to correct robot mistakes on multiple-choice tasks. [31] Wireless smart-home system from the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory could monitor diseases and help the elderly “age in place.” [31] Annamarie Bair, a premed student turned computer science major, is drawn to the promise of artificial intelligence and health care. [31] The news about the budget comes just days after Google announced it would not renew a contract to work on the Pentagon’s Maven Project, which uses artificial intelligence to identify objects recorded by drones. [27] The innovation uses computational neural networks, a form of artificial intelligence, to “learn” how a nanoparticle’s structure affects its behavior, in this case the way it scatters different colors of light, based on thousands of training examples. [32] This week’s workshop focused on identifying the standards needed to integrate big medical data with artificial intelligence. [30] Today, thanks to Toronto, Ontario-based Creative Destruction Lab’s ground-breaking programs for quantum machine learning and artificial intelligence start-ups, the province – and indeed, the rest of the country – is poised to lead the global race in both fields. [26] Ontario has, for many years now, been a formidable contender in quantum science and artificial intelligence. [26] MIT hosts a summit on transformative artificial intelligence technologies in biomedical sciences and health care. [31] Deep learning is driving advances in artificial intelligence that are changing our world. [28]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

He grew up playing with household appliances, learning first-hand how they solve problems and wondering why technology was not more evenly distributed: “I was curious about robots and automation: Why are people farming? Why don’t they just use machines and other inventions?” By teaching Ethiopians how to use AI technologies he hopes to equip them to find their own path to development. [3] Sophia is one of the most famous and lifelike robots in the world, and an ambassador for the use of AI for development. [7] There is a concern that potential adversaries are would observe fewer constraints in the development and use of AI. [4] AI in mobile app development continues to gain grounds, and we can certainly expect upcoming AI platforms to work in unison and consolidate for our mobile interactions. [5] His work is focused on technical and policy approaches to ensure the ethical, safe, and inclusive development of AI, while also building citizen participation capacities in these conversations via the Montreal AI Ethics community. [6]

“Instead of one-size-fits-all AI,” Avila says, “we could be placing the developments closer to the people and empowering local communities to both participate in its design, benefit from the data they generate and increase the accountability of the systems serving them.” [3] This “knowledge revolution” led to the development and deployment of expert systems (introduced by Edward Feigenbaum ), the first truly successful form of AI software. [2] That’s why Assefa and other stakeholders think Ethiopia would do better to skip the manufacturing stage of development and invest instead in a high-tech workforce–including one at the cutting edge of AI. This, he argues, would help Ethiopians find a new path to development by riding the wave of technological disruption. [3] Watch Sophia’s interview with Boutheina Guermazi, Practice Manager for Transport and Digital Development at the World Bank, on how the new field of AI can help end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity–the core goals of the institution. [7] “The development of an AI journal ranking based on the revealed preference approach” (PDF). [2] The far-reaching impact of AI on mobile app development has now started to take shape. [5] Let’s have a detailed look at different aspects which explain how AI is changing the mobile app development process. [5]

Each of these areas present questions about the responsible development and deployment of AI. To discuss these issues, Governance Studies hosted the ninth annual A. Alfred Taubman Forum on Public Policy at the Brookings Institution on June 12. [4]

The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring “intelligence” are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, “AI is whatever hasn’t been done yet.” [2] Proposed “universal intelligence” tests aim to compare how well machines, humans, and even non-human animals perform on problem sets that are generic as possible. [2] The Dartmouth proposal “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” [2] Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to make ethical decisions. [2] Even specific straightforward tasks, like machine translation, require that a machine read and write in both languages ( NLP ), follow the author’s argument ( reason ), know what is being talked about ( knowledge ), and faithfully reproduce the author’s original intent ( social intelligence ). [2] Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence, such as W. Grey Walter’s turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. [2] Ronald, E. M. A. and Sipper, M. Intelligence is not enough: On the socialization of talking machines, Minds and Machines, vol. 11, no. 4, pp.567-576, November 2001. [2]

Moravec’s paradox generalizes that low-level sensorimotor skills that humans take for granted are, counterintuitively, difficult to program into a robot; the paradox is named after Hans Moravec, who stated in 1988 that “it is comparatively easy to make computers exhibit adult level performance on intelligence tests or playing checkers, and difficult or impossible to give them the skills of a one-year-old when it comes to perception and mobility”. [2] Are there limits to how intelligent machines- or human-machine hybrids- can be? A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that would possess intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human mind [2] The new intelligence could thus increase exponentially and dramatically surpass humans. [2] The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. [2] The timeline for some of these changes is unclear, as predictions vary about when self-driving cars will become a reality: BI Intelligence predicts fully-autonomous vehicles will debut in 2019; Uber CEO Travis Kalanick says the timeline for self-driving cars is “a years thing, not a decades thing”; Andrew Ng, Chief Scientist at Baidu and Stanford faculty member, predicted in early 2016 that self-driving cars will be mass produced by 2021. [9] Turing, Alan (October 1950), “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, LIX (236): 433-460, doi : 10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423. [2] Moravec’s paradox can be extended to many forms of social intelligence. [2] “?Superintelligence?? may also refer to the form or degree of intelligence possessed by such an agent. [2]

These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. “robotics” or “machine learning”), the use of particular tools (“logic” or artificial neural networks ), or deep philosophical differences. [2] Many people concerned about risk from superintelligent AI also want to limit the use of artificial soldiers. [2] The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts ‘ 1943 formal design for Turing-complete “artificial neurons”. [2] An evolutionary system can induce goals by using a ” fitness function ” to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems; this is similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food, or how dogs can be bred via artificial selection to possess desired traits. [2]

An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works – some agents are symbolic and logical, some are sub-symbolic artificial neural networks and others may use new approaches. [2] Amazon uses artificial neural networks to generate these product recommendations. [9] Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation. [2] According to one overview, the expression “Deep Learning” was introduced to the Machine Learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986 and gained traction after Igor Aizenberg and colleagues introduced it to Artificial Neural Networks in 2000. [2] Similar to shallow artificial neural networks, deep neural networks can model complex non-linear relationships. [2] Artificial neural networks are an example of soft computing they are solutions to problems which cannot be solved with complete logical certainty, and where an approximate solution is often sufficient. [2]

This issue was addressed by Wendell Wallach in his book titled Moral Machines in which he introduced the concept of artificial moral agents (AMA). [2] The artificial brain argument The brain can be simulated by machines and because brains are intelligent, simulated brains must also be intelligent; thus machines can be intelligent. [2]

Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, and have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or Karel ?apek’s R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots). [2] Approaches based on cybernetics or artificial neural networks were abandoned or pushed into the background. [2] Deep learning is any artificial neural network that can learn a long chain of causal links. [2]

“A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part II: Biologically inspired cognitive architectures”. [2]

“On the impact of robotics in behavioral and cognitive sciences: from insect navigation to human cognitive development” (PDF). [2] Recognition of the ethical ramifications of behavior involving machines, as well as recent and potential developments in machine autonomy, necessitate this. [2] For Wallach the question is not centered on the issue of whether machines can demonstrate the equivalent of moral behavior in contrast to the constraints which society may place on the development of AMAs. [2]

New software development platforms from Google, Amazon, Microsoft, and others help automate the process of building machine learning systems, which lowers barriers and greatly expands the number of software developers capable of wielding these tools on the behalf of mission-driven organizations. [6] I wasn?t in Silicon Valley: I was in Johannesburg, South Africa, meeting with a firm that is designing machine learning (ML) tools for a local project backed by the U.S. Agency for International Development. [8]

Besides transfer learning, hypothetical AGI breakthroughs could include the development of reflective architectures that can engage in decision-theoretic metareasoning, and figuring out how to “slurp up” a comprehensive knowledge base from the entire unstructured Web. [2] This path to development may make less sense in an age of digital ubiquity–in part due to what futurist Ray Kurzweil has called the Law of Accelerating Returns, which holds that as technology advances at an exponential rate, so does its impact on society. [3] He was executive director at technology capacity builder, Groundwire, and before that, ran marketing and product development teams at Microsoft. [6] In the world of healthcare and drug development, however, the potential of this technology remains largely untapped–and what progress has been made remains rather narrow and somewhat esoteric. [1]

ARKA Softwares is a leading global IT solution, consulting firm and Top web / Mobile App Development Company. [5] What will it take to bring a data and data analytic revolution to healthcare and drug development? According to Nohaile, “there needs to be money and effort into educating the non-data scientists. [1] Logic was also the focus of the work at the University of Edinburgh and elsewhere in Europe which led to the development of the programming language Prolog and the science of logic programming. [2] IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development. 1 (1): 12-34. doi : 10.1109/tamd.2009.2021702. [2] “Autonomous mental development by robots and animals” (PDF). [2] Other cited examples include Microsoft’s development of a Skype system that can automatically translate from one language to another and Facebook’s system that can describe images to blind people. [2] Each individual organization will bear much of the cost of development of these specialty products. [6] Recent developments in autonomous automobiles have made the innovation of self-driving trucks possible, though they are still in the testing phase. [2] From Our Partner: The international development community is actively using innovative financing instruments to amplify its impact around the world. [6]

The application of soft computing to AI is studied collectively by the emerging discipline of computational intelligence. [2] IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. 5 (4): 293-311. doi : 10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2286295. [2] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. [2] To simplify the discussion, think of AI as the broader goal of autonomous machine intelligence, and machine learning as the specific scientific methods currently in vogue for building AI. All machine learning is AI, but not all AI is machine learning. [9] Ai essentially mimics human intelligence by means of gathering our data and deciphering it to provide more value and better user experience along with fast-paced and intuitive business processes. [5] To be clear, AI is a broad term that captures the constantly evolving advances in machines’ capabilities to perform tasks that would ordinarily require human intelligence. [6]

The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence “can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it”. [2] Many of the problems in this article may also require general intelligence, if machines are to solve the problems as well as people do. [2] Some cognitive architectures are custom-built to solve a narrow problem; others, such as Soar, are designed to mimic human cognition and to provide insight into general intelligence. [2]

The main areas of competition include general machine intelligence, conversational behavior, data-mining, robotic cars, and robot soccer as well as conventional games. [2] A 2017 report (pdf) by the World Wide Web Foundation suggested that Ethiopian “intelligence services are using machine intelligence techniques to break encryption and find patterns in social media posts that can be used to identify dissidents.” [3]

IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine. 9 (2): 48-57. doi : 10.1109/MCI.2014.2307227. [2] Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. 2012 : 1-20. doi : 10.1155/2012/850160. [2]

As well as forbidding the development of AI for weapons, the principles say Google will not work on AI surveillance projects that violate “internationally accepted norms,” or projects which contravene “widely accepted principles of international law and human rights.” [13] While the new principles forbid the development of AI weaponry, they state that Google will continue to work with the military “in many other areas.” [13] Jeff Dean, who heads AI work at Google, said this month that he had signed a letter in 2015 opposing the development of autonomous weapons. [15] Google CEO Sundar Pichai yesterday published his company’s new rules governing the development of AI. Over the course of seven principles he lays out a broad (and useless) policy leaving more wiggle room than a pair of clown pants. [33] The second is the principle of liability –that is, a clear system of liability should be established both with respect to technology development and application, so as to be able to hold the AI developers or department accountabile at the level of technology, and to establish a reasonable system of liability and compensation at the application level. [10] Recent developments in AI are based on the application of large amounts of data in information technology. [10] The development of AI technology makes the government’s collection and use of citizens’ personal data more convenient. [10] We will incorporate our privacy principles in the development and use of our AI technologies. [12] Under this principle, policies and laws should devote themselves to the construction of the external social environment for the development of AI, promote awareness education on AI ethics and safety for individuals in society, and make society guard against the risk of abuse of AI technologies. [10] Overall, establishing policies, laws, and a standardized environment in which AI technologies benefit society and protect the public interest are important prerequisites for the continuous and healthy development of AI technology. [10] Although China has a good foundation in the field of AI, even as core technologies such as speech recognition, visual recognition, and Chinese-language information processing have achieved breakthroughs and possess huge market environments for applications, the overall level of development still lags behind that of developed countries. [10] As an important member of the international community, China should take on the great responsibility of ensuring the application of AI is on the right path and that healthy development is based on sound grounds. [10]

Particular attention should be paid to privacy issues, because the development of AI is occurring as more and more personal data are being recorded and analyzed; in the midst of this process, protecting personal privacy is an important condition for increasing social trust. [10] This is mainly because engineers and design teams tend to ignore ethical issues in the development and production of AI products and services. [10] The issues of safety, ethics, and privacy covered in this section are challenges to the development of AI. Safety is a prerequisite for sustainable technology. [10] The development of AI technology has posed new challenges to the original regulatory framework, as the scope for the collection of PI agreed upon by users is no longer clearly defined. [10] The development of AI techniques also makes it easier to violate personal privacy, so the relevant laws and standards should provide more powerful protections for personal privacy. [10] The infrastructure, policies, regulations, and standards systems that are suitable for the development of AI are in urgent need of improvement. [10]

We believe these principles are the right foundation for our company and the future development of AI. This approach is consistent with the values laid out in our original Founders’ Letter back in 2004. [12] Designers and manufacturers involved in the development of AI products may not be able to accurately predict the risks inherent to a product. [10] Standardization has a fundamental, supportive, and leading role in AI and its industrial development. [10]

This requires the establishment of people-oriented principles, and the development of relevant security standards and norms to ensure that intelligent systems comply with and serve human ethics and ensure information security. [10] Policies, laws, and standards should extend the protection of personal data management to encourage the development of relevant technologies and explore the use of algorithmic tools as agents of individuals in the digital and the real world. [10] Standards, as the main technical basis for economic and social activities, have already become an important indicator for measuring the level of technological development in a country or a region, are the basic guidelines for products entering the market, and are a concrete manifestation of the market competitiveness of enterprises. [10] How to increase social trust and let the development of technology follow ethical requirements, especially, is an urgent problem to be solved to ensure that privacy will not be violated. [10] In its development, it should include the correct consideration of the ethical values ??of human beings. [10]

Under the principle of liability, technology development should follow the principle of transparency, and technology applications should follow the principle of equal rights and responsibility. [10] Among these principles, the principle of transparency requires understanding of the system’s operating principles in order to predict future development. [10]

Another IBM system in development could help cities plan for future heat waves. [11]

In an artificial neural network, an important topic of AI, one needs to know why it produces a specific output result. [10] AI is an extension of human intelligence, and it is also an extension of the human value system. [10]

From the angle of technical application of AI, it is necessary to fully consider questions of liability and fault in the process of AI development and deployment. [10] We aspire to high standards of scientific excellence as we work to progress AI development. [12] Over the years, criticism and commentary regarding AI development has come from a wide-ranging group, from pessimists on the subject like Tesla and SpaceX founder Elon Musk to more reasonable voices in the industry like Facebook scientist Yann LeCun. [13]

AI design improves efficiency in the development of AI projects like chatbots while helping the experience feel more human. [23] The white paper addresses issues such as AI and healthcare, agriculture, economic development, etc. as well as the potential risks like threatening privacy, loss of jobs, fake news and misinformation. [16] It takes a high knowledge of machine learning and software development to fully utilize AI software. [19] YouTuber “Two Minutes Papers” gives an easily digestible explanation of the recent scientific paper, “Curiosity-driven Exploration by Self-supervised Prediction,” another very cool development in AI technology. [34] AI is already playing a key role in the development of society and technology and deep learning is a significant part of it. [17] To be able to educate the AI, data needs to be “cleaned” by the developer, but they are often also required to manage development and processing environments. [17] There is enormous potential for how AI can benefit the developing world and what it can contribute towards achieving the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. [16] If any major military power pushes ahead with AI weapon development, a global arms race is virtually inevitable, and the end point of this technological trajectory is obvious: Autonomous weapons will become the Kalashnikovs of tomorrow,” the letter read, referring to the automatic weapons. [22] Jose Manuel Barroso, now non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International, told CNBC’s Arjun Kharpal that Beijing is getting on with development in AI. [21]

By providing algorithms, APIs (application programming interface), development and training tools, big data, applications and other machines, ML platforms are gaining more and more traction every day. [20] The ability to connect machine learning algorithms to data sources to use them when building intelligent applications requires a high level of development skill and technical knowledge. [19] Machine learning as a service — The software world has moved to a much more granular, microservices structure in recent years, particularly for development operations needs. Additionally, the boom of public cloud infrastructure services has allowed large companies such as Google, Amazon, and Microsoft to offer development and infrastructure services to other businesses with a pay-as-you-use model. [19] It takes a great deal of software development and machine learning knowledge. [19] While there is still a degree of manual labor in software development, automation, better language expression and visual development platforms have raised software development productivity to a completely new level. [17] That being said, the options are still quite limited and meaningful development requires a platform and tools that fulfill the developers needs. [17] For those without sufficient development knowledge, these platforms may prove to be challenging, even with the inclusion of drag-and-drop functionality for beginners. [19]

Deep learning platforms use a unique form of ML that involves artificial neural circuits with various abstraction layers that can mimic the human brain, processing data and creating patterns for decision making. [20] Deep learning – Deep learning algorithms differ from machine learning algorithms specifically because they use artificial neural networks to make their predictions and decisions, and do not necessarily require human training. [19]

With artificial neural networks, elaborate algorithms can make decisions in a similar way as the human brain. [19]

Some of the companies that provide virtual agents include Amazon, Apple, Artificial Solutions, Assist AI, Creative Virtual, Google, IBM, IPsoft, Microsoft and Satisfi. [20] Each of these subcategories utilize artificial neural networks and rely on the networks? deep layers of neural connections for an increased level of learning. [19] Judgment, experience and human interaction iteratively affecting human actors are concepts difficult for an algorithm or self-learning artificial system to replicate. [18]

It is a form of intelligence in opposition to native intelligence (because we got here before machines). [18] Companies working in this area include Compliance.ai, a Retch company that matches regulatory documents to a corresponding business function; Merlon Intelligence, a global compliance technology company that supports the financial services industry to combat financial crimes, and Socure, whose patented predictive analytics platform boosts customer acceptance rates while reducing fraud and manual reviews. [20] The company is using the power of cloud, mobile and the internet of things, coupled with technologies such as automation, cognitive intelligence and blockchain to elevate every constituent interaction, driving modern digital experiences that are more efficient, helpful and satisfying. [35]

The potential for confusion with human intelligence has vexed the AI community for a long time. [18]

Productivity can also be enhanced with solutions that enable data scientists to do less manual work: PowerAI DL enables automation helping in optimizing AI-development, and PowerAI Vision offers a full workflow for users who are taking their first steps in deep learning development, or for users who just want to get straight down to development. [17] The system enables the usage of familiar deep learning -environments using the latest NVIDIA V100 GPUs, that offers state-of-the-art performance for deep learning development. [17]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(35 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (94) Artificial intelligence – Wikipedia

2. (28) Translation: Excerpts from China’s “White Paper on Artificial Intelligence Standardization?

3. (12) Best Artificial Intelligence Software in 2018 | G2 Crowd

4. (11) Artificial Intelligence–A Game Changer for Climate Change and the Environment

5. (11) Ethiopia’s futurists want artificial intelligence to drive the country’s development — Quartz

6. (10) Artificial intelligence – The search for productivity – IBM Digital Nordic

7. (9) Twin Cities Business – Artificial Intelligence (AI): Better Than None? – The pace of AI development is exceedingly fast and its presence is being felt in nearly every industry.

8. (8) NASAs Space AI Hunts Exoplanets, Not Humans — Yet

9. (8) Artificial Intelligence as a Force for Good

10. (8) Everyday Examples of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

11. (7) How Artificial Intelligence Will Shape The Mobile App Development | CustomerThink

12. (6) Read Google’s AI ethics memo: ‘We are not developing AI for use in weapons’ – CNET

13. (6) Google pledges not to develop AI weapons, but says it will still work with the military – The Verge

14. (6) White paper on artificial intelligence and human development. Ensuring its ethical and equitable use. WFSJ I We believe that science journalism will help make science accountable.

15. (6) 19 Artificial Intelligence Technologies That Will Dominate In 2018

16. (5) Artificial intelligence | MIT News

17. (5) How Can Artificial Intelligence Support Development? We Asked a Robot.

18. (4) Artificial Intelligence: A Developing Capability at Amgen

19. (3) Artificial intelligence | InvestinOntario

20. (3) Using AI and Machine Learning for Agile Development and Portfolio Management – SPONSOR CONTENT FROM CA TECHNOLOGIES

21. (3) The Next Big Health Care Merger: Biomedical Imaging and Artificial Intelligence | NIST

22. (3) How to respond to the many applications of artificial intelligence

23. (2) AI Application Development Company | Machine Learning Apps | ChatBot Development

24. (2) Google promises ethical principles to guide development of military AI – The Verge

25. (2) The world is at risk of falling behind Chinese A.I., says Goldman’s Barroso

26. (2) Artificial Intelligence Development | Toptal

27. (2) U.S. Military Invests in Artificial Intelligence to Fight North Korea’s Nuclear-Capable Missiles

28. (2) Artificial Intelligence Courses | Udacity

29. (2) Navigating the risks of artificial intelligence and machine learning in low-income countries TechCrunch

30. (1) Basic Income Topic: Artificial Intelligence | BIEN

31. (1) Former Google chief Eric Schmidt says Elon Musk is wrong to condemn AI development | The Drum

32. (1) AI-based method could speed development of specialized nanoparticles — ScienceDaily

33. (1) Googles principles for developing AI arent good enough

34. (1) Researchers Are Developing A Curiosity-Driven Artificial Intelligence Program – Digg

35. (1) Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence Among Technologies Developed at Conduent’s New Innovation Hub in North Carolina’s Research Triangle