Artificial Intelligence Goals & Means

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Originating in the work of the British mathematician and logician Alan Turing, artificial intelligence involves the effort to produce machines (in most cases, computers) that are capable of executing tasks formerly thought to require human intelligence and thus mind.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • An evolutionary system can induce goals by using a " fitness function " to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems; this is similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food, or how dogs can be bred via artificial selection to possess desired traits.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

Artificial Intelligence
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link: http://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/
author: futureoflife.org
description: Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence - Future of Life Institute

GENERAL INFO
Artificial intelligence is the study of agents that perceive the world around them, form plans, and make decisions to achieve their goals. [2]
Any definition of Artificial Intelligence will have to be vague enough due to our inability to define Human Intelligence. [1]

KEY TOPICS

Originating in the work of the British mathematician and logician Alan Turing, artificial intelligence involves the effort to produce machines (in most cases, computers) that are capable of executing tasks formerly thought to require human intelligence and thus mind. [3] Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. [3] While I am now cognizant of the fact that, technically speaking, Dragon is categorized as a "non-sentient artificial intelligence that is focused on one narrow task" (utilization of computers completely by voice), there have been many, many times when the program has behaved in ways that have caused both myself and those around me to sincerely question whether or not the Dragon program has somehow attained sentience and a wicked sense of humor to boot. [4]

AGI stands for artificial general intelligence, a term intended to emphasize the ambitious goal of building general-purpose intelligent systems, whose breadth of applicability is at least comparable to the range of tasks that humans can address. [5] Artificial Intelligence Deep Learning already is in position to peel off the layers of each complex product conglomerate of civilizational values and to reach the frequency and the multiplicated usage of every civilizational value piece ever generated in human history; then AI can measure, in exact figures - in CiVal units, the overall contribution of that particular piece of civilizational value to the advancement of human civiliztion. [4] Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI effect. [6] This approach to the philosophical problems associated with artificial intelligence forms the basis of the Turing test. [6]

The most important general-purpose technology of our era is artificial intelligence, particularly machine learning (ML) that is, the machine's ability to keep improving its performance without humans having to explain exactly how to accomplish all the tasks it's given. [7] People refer to machines that can do tasks that we thought humans could only do as artificial intelligence. [8] Over time, as we become used to machines performing a particular task it is no longer surprising and we stop calling it artificial intelligence. [8]

While it's science's aim to discover truth and knowledge at the heart of every system and process in the universe, we should recognize that we may not be able to understand the workings of an artificial intelligence that we one day create in fact, that's already the case with deep learning and neural networks, similar to our current complete lack in understanding how the human brain works. [1] In artificial intelligence ( AI ), a Turing Test is a method of inquiry for determining whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human being. [9] The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is concerned with methods of developing systems that display aspects of intelligent behaviour. [10] Russell is the author, with Peter Norvig (a peer of Kurzweil's at Google), of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, which has been the standard AI textbook for two decades. [11] Any definition of Artificial Intelligence will have to be vague enough due to our inability to define Human Intelligence. [1]

This task used to be considered "artificial intelligence" (Pavlidis, n.d.). [8] In "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach", Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig defined AI as "the designing and building of intelligent agents that receive percepts from the environment and take actions that affect that environment." [1]

The abstract approach emerged from the necessity of addressing sub-symbolic and intuitive specters of human intelligence in order to provide optimal solutions for problems of artificial intelligence. [12] The "final? goal of artificial intelligence endeavors is to create an intelligent machine which is capable of reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly and learning from experience (which is an agreed definition of human intelligence). [12]

The definition of an AGI is an artificial intelligence that can successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can, including learning, planning and decision-making under uncertainty, communicating in natural language, making jokes, manipulating people, trading stocks, or? reprogramming itself. [2] Our aim was to solidify our own understanding of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and how the methods therein fit together?--?and hopefully create something worth sharing in the process. [2] In this article, we are presenting a complete guide to artificial intelligence through sections 1) Origins of AI; 2) Goals of AI ; 3) Approaches and Tools ; 4) Issues of AI ; 5) Application in Entrepreneurship, and 6) Examples of AI implementation in Business. [12] SAN FRANCISCO -- Google, reeling from an employee protest over the use of artificial intelligence for military purposes, said Thursday that it would not use A.I. for weapons or for surveillance that violates human rights. [13] Artificial intelligence was primarily created with the purpose of analyzing large amounts of data; more than the average human can handle. [14]

In order to optimize customer experience, Facebook implements artificial intelligence to recognize behavioral patterns of individual users (on the Facebook domain, as well as online in general, ) and offers according to particular inclinations and interests. [12] While artificial intelligence (AI) is the broad science of mimicking human abilities, machine learning is a specific subset of AI that trains a machine how to learn. [15] Artificial intelligence is the study of agents that perceive the world around them, form plans, and make decisions to achieve their goals. [2]

The future is aimed at significant expansion of this functionality into more generalized AI (also known as AGI - Artificial General Intelligence), which may eventually lead us to "HAL-moments" (thanks Jamie Titchener for triggering this expression), where AI takes of control of humans instead of the other way around. [16]

For the present purpose the artificial intelligence problem is taken to be that of making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving. [17] And this is certainly also a topic we?ll develop more in depth, the increasing use of artificial intelligence, content analytics, connections with devices (the Internet of Things, essentially about data, automation and processes), along with self-learning and automated interaction systems, create information by themselves, fully automated and of course again in function of the goals we define. [18]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

An evolutionary system can induce goals by using a " fitness function " to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems; this is similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food, or how dogs can be bred via artificial selection to possess desired traits. [6] Even specific straightforward tasks, like machine translation, require that a machine read and write in both languages ( NLP ), follow the author's argument ( reason ), know what is being talked about ( knowledge ), and faithfully reproduce the author's original intent ( social intelligence ). [6] Learning and intelligence are inextricably linked in a vision of general-purpose machines that can learn how to master tasks directly from the raw experience or data of their environment. [19] The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring "intelligence" are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." [6] The development of AI started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans. [20] Proposed "universal intelligence" tests aim to compare how well machines, humans, and even non-human animals perform on problem sets that are generic as possible. [6]

For instance, one of Turing's original ideas was to train a network of artificial neurons to perform specific tasks, an approach described in the section Connectionism. [3] These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"), the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks ), or deep philosophical differences. [6] In order to improve the efficiency and security of the artificial neural networks they are forming by be split into separate blocks, which connected logically ("deepened" AI). [4] An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works - some agents are symbolic and logical, some are sub-symbolic artificial neural networks and others may use new approaches. [6]

At Bletchley Park, Turing illustrated his ideas on machine intelligence by reference to chess --a useful source of challenging and clearly defined problems against which proposed methods for problem solving could be tested. [3] Sub-symbolic methods manage to approach intelligence without specific representations of knowledge. [6] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. [6]

Turing gave quite possibly the earliest public lecture (London, 1947) to mention computer intelligence, saying, "What we want is a machine that can learn from experience," and that the "possibility of letting the machine alter its own instructions provides the mechanism for this." [3] It refers to the possibility that a sufficiently intelligent machine could redesign its own hardware and software to create a still more intelligent machine, which could repeat the process until " the intelligence of man would be left far behind." [5]

Whereas Turing had posited a humanlike intelligence, Vinge, Moravec, and Kurzweil were thinking bigger: when a computer became capable of independently devising ways to achieve goals, it would very likely be capable of introspection--and thus able to modify its software and make itself more intelligent. [11] Many or most of these tasks will be performed nearly exclusively by computers and we will no longer think of them as components of computer "intelligence". [8] The Turing Test has been criticized over the years, in particular because historically, the nature of the questioning had to be limited in order for a computer to exhibit human-like intelligence. [9] The methods taken toward achieving a "true AI" or AGI are wide and varied, but some are closer in line achieving an adaptive, flexible and autonomous intelligence that is more characteristic of human beings (and likely intelligences that do/will exist beyond our own). [1]

It's a little bit of a longer story, but basically, if we think about intelligence and things that might have goals, things that might have purposes, what kinds of things can have intelligence or purpose? Right now, we know one great example of things with intelligence and purpose and that's us, and our brains, and our own human intelligence. [21] Interestingly, once computers figure out how to do one of these tasks, humans have a tendency to say it wasn?t really intelligence. [2] Some people will insist that when a machine tasked with filling a cauldron gets smart enough, it will abandon cauldron-filling as a goal unworthy of its intelligence. [22] This question of realizing that there isn't this distinction between intelligence and mere computation leads you to imagine the future of civilization ends up being the box of trillion souls, and then what is the purpose of that? From our current point of view, for example, in that scenario, it's like every soul is playing video games basically forever. [21] When IBM's Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997, people complained that it was using "brute force" methods and it wasn?t "real" intelligence at all. [2]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(22 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (10) Artificial intelligence - Wikipedia

2. (6) A Beginner's Guide to AI/ML ?? - Machine Learning for Humans - Medium

3. (5) What is Artificial Intelligence? An Informed Definition -

4. (5) artificial intelligence | Definition, Examples, and Applications | Britannica.com

5. (4) Artificial Intelligence: A Complete Guide

6. (4) What is artificial intelligence? A three part definition Simply Statistics

7. (3) How Do We Align Artificial Intelligence with Human Values? - Future of Life Institute

8. (2) Our Fear of Artificial Intelligence - MIT Technology Review

9. (2) AI & The Future Of Civilization | Edge.org

10. (2) q-and-a.html

11. (2) What is Turing test? - Definition from WhatIs.com

12. (1) Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence

13. (1) Google Promises Its A.I. Will Not Be Used for Weapons - The New York Times

14. (1) Is the Artificial Intelligence Threat Real? - Knowmail

15. (1) Machine Learning: What it is and why it matters | SAS

16. (1) Service Management of Artificial Intelligence | LinkedIn

17. (1) A PROPOSAL FOR THE DARTMOUTH SUMMER RESEARCH PROJECT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

18. (1) Information management and strategy - an executive guide

19. (1) What is the ultimate goal of artificial intelligence? From where did the concept of AI start, and how it is moving forward towards its goal? - Quora

20. (1) Artificial Intelligence Overview

21. (1) Ensuring smarter-than-human intelligence has a positive outcome - Machine Intelligence Research Institute

22. (1) The Business of Artificial Intelligence

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