Artificial Intelligence Psychology

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Marcus believes the field of artificial intelligence (AI) would do well to learn lessons from young thinkers like her.(More…)
  • In the previous article, we talked about the nature of human fears in relation to artificial intelligence (AI).(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Tenenbaum says, “We’re trying to take one of the oldest dreams of AI seriously: that you could build a machine that grows into intelligence the way a human does–that starts like a baby and learns like a child.”(More…)
  • Raising good robots We already have a way to teach morals to alien intelligences: it’s called parenting.(More…)
  • This form of intelligence is called machine learning because, similar to human learning, the dynamic interplay between the machine neuron and its connecting machine synapses allows the machine to store and process information across a network of neurons.(More…)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

Artificial Intelligence Psychology
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link: http://www.educba.com/artificial-intelligence-vs-human-intelligence/
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description: Artificial Intelligence vs Human Intelligence – 5 Useful Comparison

KEY TOPICS

Marcus believes the field of artificial intelligence (AI) would do well to learn lessons from young thinkers like her. [1] Over time, artificial intelligence (AI) has shifted from algorithms that rely on programmed rules and logic–instincts–to machine learning, where algorithms contain few rules and ingest training data to learn by trial and error. [1]

With the permission of both directors of undergraduate studies, a course in cognitive psychology or cognitive science that is highly relevant to the major and that is not counted as one of the six courses in Psychology may substitute for one of the courses in artificial intelligence. [2] Artificial intelligence ( AI, also machine intelligence, MI ) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence ( NI ) displayed by humans and other animals. [3] Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein considers a key issue in the ethics of artificial intelligence : if a machine can be created that has intelligence, could it also feel ? If it can feel, does it have the same rights as a human? The idea also appears in modern science fiction, such as the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, in which humanoid machines have the ability to feel emotions. [3] The implications of a constructed machine exhibiting artificial intelligence have been a persistent theme in science fiction since the twentieth century. [3] Onlookers commonly discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not “real” intelligence after all; thus “real” intelligence is whatever intelligent behavior people can do that machines still cannot. [3] McCorduck 2004, pp.100-101, who writes that there are “two major branches of artificial intelligence: one aimed at producing intelligent behavior regardless of how it was accomplished, and the other aimed at modeling intelligent processes found in nature, particularly human ones.” [3] Gopnik, Alison, “Making AI More Human: Artificial intelligence has staged a revival by starting to incorporate what we know about how children learn”, Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 6 (June 2017), pp.60-65. [3] Cognitive modeling is used in numerous artificial intelligence ( AI ) applications, such as expert systems, natural language processing, neural networks, and in robotics and virtual reality applications. [4] AI And Robotics Are Taking Robotic Surgery To New Levels With artificial intelligence now firmly entrenched in many hospital operating rooms, the field of robotic surgery is starting to get competitive. [5] What Is AI? – An introduction to artificial intelligence by John McCarthy –a co-founder of the field, and the person who coined the term. [3] The opinion of experts within the field of artificial intelligence is mixed, with sizable fractions both concerned and unconcerned by risk from eventual superhumanly-capable AI. [3] With social media sites overtaking TV as a source for news for young people and news organisations increasingly reliant on social media platforms for generating distribution, major publishers now use artificial intelligence (AI) technology to post stories more effectively and generate higher volumes of traffic. [3] AI-Powered Stock Picks, Internet Giants Among New ETF Launches EquBot on Wednesday launched AI Powered International Equity, its second exchange traded fund that uses artificial intelligence to make its stock picks. [5] According to Bloomberg’s Jack Clark, 2015 was a landmark year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects that use AI within Google increased from a “sporadic usage” in 2012 to more than 2,700 projects. [3] Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI effect. [3] Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an ” AI winter “), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. [3] Unlike previous waves of automation, many middle-class jobs may be eliminated by artificial intelligence; The Economist states that “the worry that AI could do to white-collar jobs what steam power did to blue-collar ones during the Industrial Revolution” is “worth taking seriously”. [3] Investors beware: there’s plenty of buzz around artificial intelligence (AI) as more and more companies say they’re using it. [5] Following a boom in investment and overinflated expectations in the 1980s, artificial intelligence entered a period of retrenchment known as the “AI winter.” [6] Despite advancements in applying cognitive models to artificial intelligence, it still falls short of its true goal of simulating human thinking. [4] Throughout the novel, Dick portrays the idea that human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence. [3] The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. [3] Technological singularity is when accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing or even ending civilization. [3] “AlphaGo beats human Go champ in milestone for artificial intelligence”. latimes.com. [3] Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. [3] Other counterarguments revolve around humans being either intrinsically or convergently valuable from the perspective of an artificial intelligence. [3] Deep learning has transformed many important subfields of artificial intelligence, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing and others. [3] One high-profile example is that DeepMind in the 2010s developed a “generalized artificial intelligence” that could learn many diverse Atari games on its own, and later developed a variant of the system which succeeds at sequential learning. [3] The major for the Class of 2022 and subsequent classes? Eight of the fourteen courses must be in computer science: CPSC 201, 202, 223, 323, and 365 or 366, and three advanced computer science courses in artificial intelligence (examples of such courses are those in the range CPSC 470 through CSPC 477). [2] “Comparing the expert survey and citation impact journal ranking methods: Example from the field of Artificial Intelligence” (PDF). [3] This illustrates a further source of confusion: people working in the field disagree about the end goal of their work, how close an AGI might be, and even what artificial intelligence is. [7] Sophia’s uncanny-valley face, made of Hanson Robotics? patented Frubber, is rapidly becoming an iconic image in the field of artificial intelligence. [7] IBM has created its own artificial intelligence computer, the IBM Watson, which has beaten human intelligence (at some levels). [3] “The role of cognitive architectures in general artificial intelligence”. [3] Note that they use the term “computational intelligence” as a synonym for artificial intelligence. [3] Banks use artificial intelligence systems today to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties. [3] Widespread use of artificial intelligence could have unintended consequences that are dangerous or undesirable. [3] This approach to the philosophical problems associated with artificial intelligence forms the basis of the Turing test. [3] Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving (5th ed.). [3] “Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence”. [3] Artificial Intelligence and Law. 25 (3): 341-363. doi : 10.1007/s10506-017-9210-0. [3] Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents (2nd ed.). [3] “Content: Plug & Pray Film – Artificial Intelligence – Robots -“. plugandpray-film.de. [3] This marked the completion of a significant milestone in the development of Artificial Intelligence as Go is an extremely complex game, more so than Chess. [3] A common concern about the development of artificial intelligence is the potential threat it could pose to humanity. [3] Examples of this interaction include cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and biological perception. [2] Algorithms are already reshaping our society; regardless of where you think artificial intelligence is going, a confused response to its promises and perils is no good thing. [7] “Bill Gates on dangers of artificial intelligence: ‘I don’t understand why some people are not concerned ‘ “. [3] There is no simpler or more practical way to define artificial intelligence. [8] In video games, artificial intelligence is routinely used to generate dynamic purposeful behavior in non-player characters (NPCs). [3] “ACM Computing Classification System: Artificial intelligence”. [3] The Nature of Self-Improving Artificial Intelligence. presented and distributed at the 2007 Singularity Summit, San Francisco, CA. ^ a b c Technological singularity : [3]

Simon and his longtime collaborator Allen Newell won the 1975 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for their “basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.” [9] Someone working on, say, MIT Intelligence Quest or Google Brain might be attempting to reach AGI by studying human psychology and learning or animal neuroscience, perhaps attempting to simulate the simple brain of a nematode worm. [7] This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. [3] In 2017, Vladimir Putin stated that “Whoever becomes the leader in (artificial intelligence) will become the ruler of the world”. [3] Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. [3] Edward Fredkin argues that “artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution”, an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler’s ” Darwin among the Machines ” (1863), and expanded upon by George Dyson in his book of the same name in 1998. [3] There’s the cultural idea (from films like Ex Machina, for example) of a machine that has human-level artificial general intelligence. [7] Some argue that some kind of (currently-undiscovered) conceptually straightforward, but mathematically difficult, “Master Algorithm” could lead to AGI. Finally, a few “emergent” approaches look to simulating human intelligence extremely closely, and believe that anthropomorphic features like an artificial brain or simulated child development may someday reach a critical point where general intelligence emerges. [3] Refer to these algorithms as “artificial intelligence,” and people will think you?re a conspiracy theorist. [7] McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the [email protected] conference where he said “Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence” ( Maker 2006 ). [3] For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from “artificial intelligence”, having become a routine technology. [3]

One of the hot areas of emerging technology is Artificial Intelligence or AI. You know a topic is hot when products use the terminology in their name or in their marketing materials. [10] Artificial Intelligence is so hot of a topic among the development community that the marketing teams are saying products have AI when in fact, they do not. [10] Because of this, I?ve been using the approach of calling this “artificial” Artificial Intelligence or “Fake” AI. Facts matter, and many products that claim to have AI simply do not. [10] Just like how a chess engine is able to identify the best move and defeat even the most accomplished grandmasters in the game, future artificial intelligence has the potential to reach a point where it becomes even better at understanding the preferences and behavior of humans in relation to brands than a human themselves might consciously realize. [11] As artificial intelligence systems and machine learning algorithms advance, their ability to grasp a “human” perception of brands will become increasingly accurate. [11] “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. [10] Complex artificial intelligence systems have the ability to learn from repeated mistakes and continually optimize their own code similar to how a human advances in proficiency for certain skills. [11] Artificial Intelligence articles involving programming, software engineering, neural engineering, artificial neural networks, artificial life, a-life, floyds, boids, emergence, computers, machine learning, neuralbots, neuralrobotics, engineering, computational neuroscience and much more. [12] Later in his career, Simon pursued means of creating artificial intelligence through computer technology. [9] The crux of what we want to discuss here is the intersection between cultural competence and the use of artificial intelligence in the counseling field. [13] Services such as Netflix or Spotify employ this sort of artificial intelligence and learning when they offer you suggestions on what videos or music you might enjoy based on your current tastes. [11] Companies can achieve impressive results in the realm of automation by merging concepts from machine learning with a model of artificial intelligence. [11] Most people have a vaguely positive impression of the versatile applications of artificial intelligence and the increases to efficiency that it brings, but don?t fully understand what the fuss is about. [11] When robots read books Artificial intelligence sheds new light on classic texts. [14] Question : What is strong artificial intelligence? Provide one example also.! What is weak artificial inte. [15]

Explore diverse, interesting topics such as cognitive psychology, limits of artificial intelligence, the philosophy of mind, the nature of visual perception and the role of emotion in moral decision-making. [16] A question often raised about artificial intelligence (AI) is whether machines will one day become human, but this way of framing the question assumes we have settled on what it means to be human. [17] Artificial Intelligence or also known as AI or Machine Intelligence, is a computer program with capabilities to perform tasks that require human intelligence. [18] In additional to graduate study, this program is also a great foundation for careers in advertising and marketing, artificial intelligence, computer programming, education, government, intelligence, law, medicine, robotics and software design. [16] According to the documentary film Do You Trust this Computer, “The pursuit of Artificial Intelligence is a multi-billion dollar industry with almost no regulations.” [18] The multimillion dollar deal that brought him to Intel put him in charge of building artificial intelligence (AI) technologies that transform how businesses operate and how people engage with the world. [19] In case you are living under a rock, Artificial Intelligence also known as AI is one of the hottest buzzwords in the industry today. [18] Date: June 5, 2018 Source: Queensland University of Technology Summary: A new study using artificial intelligence has proved a Twitter-based personality estimate is as successful in predicting local differences in actual entrepreneurial activity as regional personality data collected by means of millions of standard personality tests. [20] “We wanted to test whether we find similar results, in our case effects of local personality on entrepreneurship, when using regional personality estimates generated by an artificial intelligence method, based on publicly available social media data such as tweets. [20] “Instead, by means of artificial intelligence methods we can simply analyse existing, publicly-available social media data such as billions of tweets to study local personality differences and their relevance for the well-being and prosperity of whole regions.” [20] Existing artificial intelligence as of this time are considered ANI, and we use most of them in our daily lives, often you don?t realize it. [18] Philosophy – Studying the general nature of both knowledge, wisdom, and values is an important factor in unlocking more advance, safe Artificial Intelligence. [18]

The aim of artificial intelligence include learning, reasoning and perception and machine are wired using of a cross-disciplinary approach based in science, maths & psychology. [21]

Of course, the created Artificial Super Intelligence will keep on creating smarter versions of itself, more efficiently and rapidly. [18] This continuous self improvement will result in creating a powerful Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) that no human intelligence may possibly surpass. [18] “Artificial Intelligence is attempting to solve that same problem.” [19] “Artificial Intelligence can create heaven on earth or turn it into hell.” [18]

Psychology – AI is all about replicating human intelligence and behavior. [18]

In the previous article, we talked about the nature of human fears in relation to artificial intelligence (AI). [22] Artificial intelligence (AI), with its self-teaching smart machines, will transform Latin America and the Caribbean. [23] Let’s now look at what would drive change in an era of AI. Along with algorithms and advanced computation facilities, the accuracy of the models constituting artificial intelligence rely heavily on the availability of real-world data. [22] It came to notice that people are arguing for making code of conduct or ethics for artificial intelligence also or otherwise they should also be treated same like as humans. [21] Therefore, countries and economic areas that create favorable conditions for artificial intelligence solutions that augment human capabilities, are expected to largely benefit from technology progress. [22] As technology advances, previous benchmarks that defined artificial intelligence become outdated. [21] What if a technology came along that shifted this balance unpredictably, complicating how we make decisions about when to remain ignorant? That technology is here: It’s called artificial intelligence. [24] We could estimate, regulate and design the impact of artificial intelligence on an individual basis – industry by industry, technology by technology and role by role. [22] The best out of artificial intelligence is that has the ability to rationalize and react as per the situations because it totally works on the command and commands are programmed in these machines. [21] Artificial Intelligence is a terminology used in machines as simulated or artificially generated intelligence. [21] Examples of artificial intelligence are self-driven cars; computers that play chess are the new development in this field. [21] Bezoar Software is a universal problem solver for all the IT needs. It is best Product Development companies in USA. With the integration of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Blockchain, we deliver the best projects. [21] The crux of the problem is that the field of artificial intelligence has not come to grips with the infinite complexity of language. [25] The field of artificial intelligence doesn?t lack for ambition. [25] The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. [26] It is very hard to estimate the impact of artificial intelligence on society in general. [22] Students will sound like they know what they are talking about while discussing Artificial Intelligence. [27] Schedule hair salon appointments? The dream of artificial intelligence was supposed to be grander than this — to help revolutionise medicine, say, or to produce trustworthy robot helpers for the home. [25]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Tenenbaum says, “We’re trying to take one of the oldest dreams of AI seriously: that you could build a machine that grows into intelligence the way a human does–that starts like a baby and learns like a child.” [1] In the end,artificial intelligence cannot replace human psychologists. [28] In her adaptability, Chloe is demonstrating common sense, a kind of intelligence that, so far, computer scientists have struggled to reproduce. [1]

Human compassion and understanding just can?t be replicated by something artificial. [28] He says computer scientists are ignoring decades of work in the cognitive sciences and developmental psychology showing that humans have innate abilities–programmed instincts that appear at birth or in early childhood–that help us think abstractly and flexibly, like Chloe. [1] Norman was not corrupted to make any sort of point about human psychology on the internet a neural network is a blank slate. [29]

Not with the broad, deep, and subtle intelligence that we associate with human intelligence, but with the ability to deliver billions of dollars? worth of value, and real aid to clinicians in the field in medicine,” Jacobstein said at the Exponential Medicine conference in San Diego, California. [30]

Defining intelligence is difficult enough, but efforts like Stanford’s AI index go some way towards establishing a framework for tracking progress in different fields. [7] The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring “intelligence” are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, “AI is whatever hasn’t been done yet.” [3] Proposed “universal intelligence” tests aim to compare how well machines, humans, and even non-human animals perform on problem sets that are generic as possible. [3] Moravec’s paradox generalizes that low-level sensorimotor skills that humans take for granted are, counterintuitively, difficult to program into a robot; the paradox is named after Hans Moravec, who stated in 1988 that “it is comparatively easy to make computers exhibit adult level performance on intelligence tests or playing checkers, and difficult or impossible to give them the skills of a one-year-old when it comes to perception and mobility”. [3] The main areas of competition include general machine intelligence, conversational behavior, data-mining, robotic cars, and robot soccer as well as conventional games. [3] The Dartmouth proposal “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” [3] Even specific straightforward tasks, like machine translation, require that a machine read and write in both languages ( NLP ), follow the author’s argument ( reason ), know what is being talked about ( knowledge ), and faithfully reproduce the author’s original intent ( social intelligence ). [3] Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence, such as W. Grey Walter’s turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. [3] Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to make ethical decisions. [3] Ronald, E. M. A. and Sipper, M. Intelligence is not enough: On the socialization of talking machines, Minds and Machines, vol. 11, no. 4, pp.567-576, November 2001. [3] Are there limits to how intelligent machines- or human-machine hybrids- can be? A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that would possess intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human mind [3] The new intelligence could thus increase exponentially and dramatically surpass humans. [3] The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. [3] Turing, Alan (October 1950), “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, LIX (236): 433-460, doi : 10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423. [3] Emergent behavior such as this is used by evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. [3] Moravec’s paradox can be extended to many forms of social intelligence. [3] Because the capabilities of such an intelligence may be impossible to comprehend, the technological singularity is an occurrence beyond which events are unpredictable or even unfathomable. [3]

These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. “robotics” or “machine learning”), the use of particular tools (“logic” or artificial neural networks ), or deep philosophical differences. [3] Those algorithms come under different names: deep artificial neural networks, support-vector machines, Gaussian models, multilayer perceptrons, LSTMs, convolutional networks, logistic regression, random forests. [8] Similar to shallow artificial neural networks, deep neural networks can model complex non-linear relationships. [3]

Neural networks work similarly to the human brain by running training data through a large number of computational nodes, called artificial neurons, which pass information back and forth between each other. [4] Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation. [3] With advances in the field of machine learning and the availability of large datasets for training various types of artificial neural networks, AI is in another cycle of halcyon days. [6] According to one overview, the expression “Deep Learning” was introduced to the Machine Learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986 and gained traction after Igor Aizenberg and colleagues introduced it to Artificial Neural Networks in 2000. [3] Deep learning is any artificial neural network that can learn a long chain of causal links. [3]

An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works – some agents are symbolic and logical, some are sub-symbolic artificial neural networks and others may use new approaches. [3] Artificial neural networks are an example of soft computing they are solutions to problems which cannot be solved with complete logical certainty, and where an approximate solution is often sufficient. [3] Approaches based on cybernetics or artificial neural networks were abandoned or pushed into the background. [3]

Many people concerned about risk from superintelligent AI also want to limit the use of artificial soldiers. [3] The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts ‘ 1943 formal design for Turing-complete “artificial neurons”. [3] An evolutionary system can induce goals by using a ” fitness function ” to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems; this is similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food, or how dogs can be bred via artificial selection to possess desired traits. [3]

The artificial brain argument The brain can be simulated by machines and because brains are intelligent, simulated brains must also be intelligent; thus machines can be intelligent. [3] This issue was addressed by Wendell Wallach in his book titled Moral Machines in which he introduced the concept of artificial moral agents (AMA). [3]

“A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part II: Biologically inspired cognitive architectures”. [3] We urgently need to move away from an artificial dichotomy between techno-hype and techno-fear; oscillating from one to the other is no way to ensure safe advances in technology. [7] Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, and have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or Karel ?apek’s R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots). [3]

Humans also have a powerful mechanism of ” folk psychology ” that helps them to interpret natural-language sentences such as “The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they advocated violence”. (A generic AI has difficulty inferring whether the councilmen or the demonstrators are the ones alleged to be advocating violence.) [3] The AI field draws upon computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and many others. [3] Computer Science and Psychology is an interdepartmental major designed for students interested in integrating work in these two fields. [2] Credit/D/Fail? No course in Computer Science taken Credit/D/Fail may be counted toward the major; no more than one course in Psychology taken Credit/D/Fail may be counted toward the major. [2] Refer to the Psychology program overview for a listing of courses that fulfill the social science and natural science requirements. [2] The remaining six courses must be in psychology, including PSYC 200 ; at least one from PSYC 210-299; at least two Psychology courses from the social science point of view; and at least two courses from the natural science point of view. [2] An additional course in psychology and an examination arranged with the instructor of PSYC 200 may substitute for PSYC 200. [2]

The entire program of each student majoring in Computer Science and Psychology must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies in each department. [2] The prerequisite for the major is PSYC 110, from which students who have scored 5 on the Advanced Placement test in Psychology are exempt. [2]

We believe that both machine learning and cognitive psychology can draw inspiration from the comparison and enrich their repertoire of similarity-based models. [31] Cognitive Psychology. 3 (1): 1-191. doi : 10.1016/0010-0285(72)90002-3. [3]

IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. 5 (4): 293-311. doi : 10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2286295. [3] The application of soft computing to AI is studied collectively by the emerging discipline of computational intelligence. [3] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. [3]

Then there’s the philosophical idea, championed by Ray Kurzweil, Nick Bostrom, and others, of a recursively-improving superintelligent AI that eventually compares to human intelligence in the same way as we outrank bacteria. [7] The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence “can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it”. [3] Many of the problems in this article may also require general intelligence, if machines are to solve the problems as well as people do. [3] Some cognitive architectures are custom-built to solve a narrow problem; others, such as Soar, are designed to mimic human cognition and to provide insight into general intelligence. [3]

I am more interested in the use of Sophia as a platform for general intelligence R&D.” [7]

Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. 2012 : 1-20. doi : 10.1155/2012/850160. [3] IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine. 9 (2): 48-57. doi : 10.1109/MCI.2014.2307227. [3]

Raising good robots We already have a way to teach morals to alien intelligences: it’s called parenting. [14] Traditional symbolic AI – John Haugeland named these approaches to AI “good old fashioned AI” or ” GOFAI ” exploring the possibility that human intelligence could be reduced to symbol manipulation. [10] Computational intelligence – neural networks and ” connectionism ” was revived by David Rumelhart leading to soft computing approaches including fuzzy systems, evolutionary computation and statistical tools. [10]

Psychology, scientific discipline that studies mental states and processes and behaviour in humans and other animals. [9] The discipline of psychology is broadly divisible into two parts: a large profession of practitioners and a smaller but growing science of mind, brain, and social behaviour. [9] After holding various posts in political science, he became a professor of administration and psychology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in 1949, later becoming the Richard King Mellon University Professor of Computer Science and Psychology there. [9]

This form of intelligence is called machine learning because, similar to human learning, the dynamic interplay between the machine neuron and its connecting machine synapses allows the machine to store and process information across a network of neurons. [17] It is pretty obvious that no matter how fast a computer can process data, they still don?t have the quality of intelligence that we humans have. [18]

Now that I already mentioned Super Intelligence, let’s proceed to the most powerful AI level that may deliver us all from mortality or to extinction. [18] All of these things that we thought impossible suddenly becomes possible once super intelligence fully discovers how nanotechnology works. [18]

Artificial neural nets prove superior to human neural networks in a number of ways. [17] The Pentagon project focuses on harnessing deep learning algorithmsspecialized machine learning technologies often described as “artificial intelligence”to automatically detect and identify people or objects in military drone surveillance videos. [32]

Using a predictive analysis model, AI can merge interpretations of psychology and skill areas to create an efficient and customised training module for employees. [33] It’s also excellent preparation for graduate programs in cognitive science, computer science, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. [16] Top universities already offer programs focused on computer science, cognitive psychology and engineering. [19]

Neural Science – Speaking of replicating human intelligence, what better way to do it than to model it based on how our brain transmits signals. [18] I find myself perplexed by the moral question of what neural net-based AI, modeled as it is on human intelligence, tells us about what it means to be human. [17] An AI that exceeds human intelligence, surpassing the brightest combined human minds of our planet. [18]

That’s why, it’s still a big mystery on how human intelligence works, due to our brain’s very complex computational networks. [18] Creating an AGI is multiple times harder than creating ANI since how human intelligence works is not yet fully discovered. [18]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(33 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (88) Artificial intelligence – Wikipedia

2. (16) Artificial Intelligence: The Most Important Technology for Our Future | TurboFuture

3. (10) Computer Science and Psychology < Yale University

4. (10) Why We Need to Fine-Tune Our Definition of Artificial Intelligence

5. (7) Drawbacks of Artificial Intelligence | Bezoar Software

6. (6) Why and How: Artificial Intelligence: Part I | CPA Practice Advisor

7. (6) How Companies Are Using AI To Build Their Brand – The Startup – Medium

8. (5) How researchers are teaching AI to learn like a child | Science | AAAS

9. (5) How the era of artificial intelligence will transform society? | PocketConfidant AI

10. (5) Herbert A. Simon | American social scientist | Britannica.com

11. (4) The Problem Artificial Intelligence Poses for Humans – The Other Journal

12. (3) Cognitive Science | Siena College

13. (3) Naveen Rao Drives Artificial Intelligence into the Future – iQ by Intel

14. (3) Massive AI Twitter probe draws heat map of entrepreneurial personality: Social media — how language is used in Twitter — is a reliable marker of economic vitality in a region — ScienceDaily

15. (3) Artificial intelligence not even close to humanlike thought | GulfNews.com

16. (3) What is cognitive modeling? – Definition from WhatIs.com

17. (3) AI News: Artificial Intelligence Trends And Leading Stocks | Stock News & Stock Market Analysis – IBD

18. (2) Computing & Artificial Intelligence | Aeon

19. (2) Can artificial intelligence replace psychologists? – Quora

20. (2) Ethics and Psychology: Groundhog Day for Medical Artificial Intelligence

21. (2) Definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Deeplearning4j: Open-source, Distributed Deep Learning for the JVM

22. (1) Artificial Intelligence Archives – Neuroscience News

23. (1) Does Counseling Need to Address Bias in Psychological AI? – Blog

24. (1) Solved: What Is Strong Artificial Intelligence? Provide On. | Chegg.com

25. (1) Can Latin America Ride the Wave of Artificial Intelligence? – Ideas matter

26. (1) AI Gaydar and Other Stories of the Death of Ignorance

27. (1) Artificial Intelligence | ScienceDirect

28. (1) Artificial Intelligence Level 1: Cogito | Udemy

29. (1) MIT Creates AI-Powered Psychopath Called Norman – ExtremeTech

30. (1) The Future of AI in Health Care | Psychology Today

31. (1) [1806.01130] Learning from Exemplars and Prototypes in Machine Learning and Psychology

32. (1) Google Decides Not to Renew a Military AI Contract – Lovesick Cyborg : Lovesick Cyborg

33. (1) How Artificial Intelligence is Influencing 2018s Top HR Trends – Digital Dealer