Meaning Of Artificial Intelligence

C O N T E N T S:


  • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein considers a key issue in the ethics of artificial intelligence : if a machine can be created that has intelligence, could it also feel ?(More…)
  • Even people who study AI have a healthy respect for the field’s ultimate goal, artificial general intelligence, or an artificial system that mimics human thought patterns.(More…)
  • Strong AI, also known as artificial common sense, is a human system with normal human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, there is sufficient intelligence to find solutions.(More…)
  • The ability for a computer to not only persuasively compete in a debate against a live person, but to actually win the argument, is only likely to feed into fears expressed by Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk and the late cosmologist Stephen Hawking that artificial intelligence could spell doom for human civilization.(More…)


  • Proposed “universal intelligence” tests aim to compare how well machines, humans, and even non-human animals perform on problem sets that are generic as possible.(More…)
  • This is more-so a form of augmented intelligence because the human operator has a large say in the creative process.(More…)


Meaning Of Artificial Intelligence
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Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein considers a key issue in the ethics of artificial intelligence : if a machine can be created that has intelligence, could it also feel ? If it can feel, does it have the same rights as a human? The idea also appears in modern science fiction, such as the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, in which humanoid machines have the ability to feel emotions. [1] The implications of a constructed machine exhibiting artificial intelligence have been a persistent theme in science fiction since the twentieth century. [1] Onlookers commonly discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not “real” intelligence after all; thus “real” intelligence is whatever intelligent behavior people can do that machines still cannot. [1] McCorduck 2004, pp.100-101, who writes that there are “two major branches of artificial intelligence: one aimed at producing intelligent behavior regardless of how it was accomplished, and the other aimed at modeling intelligent processes found in nature, particularly human ones.” [1] Gopnik, Alison, “Making AI More Human: Artificial intelligence has staged a revival by starting to incorporate what we know about how children learn”, Scientific American, vol. 316, no. 6 (June 2017), pp.60-65. [1] With social media sites overtaking TV as a source for news for young people and news organisations increasingly reliant on social media platforms for generating distribution, major publishers now use artificial intelligence (AI) technology to post stories more effectively and generate higher volumes of traffic. [1] According to Bloomberg’s Jack Clark, 2015 was a landmark year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects that use AI within Google increased from a “sporadic usage” in 2012 to more than 2,700 projects. [1] Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an ” AI winter “), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. [1] Frequently, when a technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI effect. [1] What Is AI? – An introduction to artificial intelligence by John McCarthy –a co-founder of the field, and the person who coined the term. [1] The opinion of experts within the field of artificial intelligence is mixed, with sizable fractions both concerned and unconcerned by risk from eventual superhumanly-capable AI. [1] Unlike previous waves of automation, many middle-class jobs may be eliminated by artificial intelligence; The Economist states that “the worry that AI could do to white-collar jobs what steam power did to blue-collar ones during the Industrial Revolution” is “worth taking seriously”. [1] Throughout the novel, Dick portrays the idea that human subjectivity is altered by technology created with artificial intelligence. [1] Other counterarguments revolve around humans being either intrinsically or convergently valuable from the perspective of an artificial intelligence. [1] Technological singularity is when accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing or even ending civilization. [1] The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race. [1] Once humans develop artificial intelligence, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. [1] “AlphaGo beats human Go champ in milestone for artificial intelligence”. [1] One high-profile example is that DeepMind in the 2010s developed a “generalized artificial intelligence” that could learn many diverse Atari games on its own, and later developed a variant of the system which succeeds at sequential learning. [1] In video games, artificial intelligence is routinely used to generate dynamic purposeful behavior in non-player characters (NPCs). [1] This marked the completion of a significant milestone in the development of Artificial Intelligence as Go is an extremely complex game, more so than Chess. [1] This approach to the philosophical problems associated with artificial intelligence forms the basis of the Turing test. [1] Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving (5th ed.). [1] “Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence”. [1] Note that they use the term “computational intelligence” as a synonym for artificial intelligence. [1] Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents (2nd ed.). [1] IBM has created its own artificial intelligence computer, the IBM Watson, which has beaten human intelligence (at some levels). [1] Deep learning has transformed many important subfields of artificial intelligence, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing and others. [1] Banks use artificial intelligence systems today to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties. [1] Widespread use of artificial intelligence could have unintended consequences that are dangerous or undesirable. [1] “The role of cognitive architectures in general artificial intelligence”. [1] Artificial Intelligence and Law. 25 (3): 341-363. doi : 10.1007/s10506-017-9210-0. [1] “Content: Plug & Pray Film – Artificial Intelligence – Robots -“. [1] “Comparing the expert survey and citation impact journal ranking methods: Example from the field of Artificial Intelligence” (PDF). [1] “ACM Computing Classification System: Artificial intelligence”. [1] “Bill Gates on dangers of artificial intelligence: ‘I don’t understand why some people are not concerned ‘ “. [1] Another study is using artificial intelligence to try and monitor multiple high-risk patients, and this is done by asking each patient numerous questions based on data acquired from live doctor to patient interactions. [1] After a half-decade of quiet breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, 2015 has been a landmark year. [1] The Nature of Self-Improving Artificial Intelligence. presented and distributed at the 2007 Singularity Summit, San Francisco, CA. ^ a b c Technological singularity : [1]

In 2017, Vladimir Putin stated that “Whoever becomes the leader in (artificial intelligence) will become the ruler of the world”. [1] Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. [1] Edward Fredkin argues that “artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution”, an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler’s ” Darwin among the Machines ” (1863), and expanded upon by George Dyson in his book of the same name in 1998. [1] McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the [email protected] conference where he said “Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence” ( Maker 2006 ). [1] For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from “artificial intelligence”, having become a routine technology. [1]

This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. [1] Some argue that some kind of (currently-undiscovered) conceptually straightforward, but mathematically difficult, “Master Algorithm” could lead to AGI. Finally, a few “emergent” approaches look to simulating human intelligence extremely closely, and believe that anthropomorphic features like an artificial brain or simulated child development may someday reach a critical point where general intelligence emerges. [1]

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Computer Science dedicated to creating intelligent machines that work and react like humans. [2] Deep Learning makes it possible for Artificial Intelligence to function like a human, and probably even a more intelligent version of a human. [2]

Artificial intelligence are software programs that mimic the way humans learn and solve complex problem. [2] Machine Learning provides Artificial Intelligence with the ability to learn and adapt and solve problems on its own based on some algorithms. [2] While machine learning algorithms have been around for decades, they’ve attained new popularity as artificial intelligence (AI) has grown in prominence. [3] There are a lot of ways to define artificial intelligence – mostly since “intelligence” alone can be hard to pin down, but also because people ascribe AI to everything from the grandiose to the matter-of-fact. [4] AI stands for artificial intelligence, where intelligence is defined as the ability to acquire and apply knowledge. [2] Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. [2] This method involves selecting from a choice of words generated from the machine and constructing sentences in collaboration with the artificial intelligence model. [5] People “think we are recreating a brain,” Amir Khosrowshahi, chief technology officer of the Artificial Intelligence Products Group, said in an interview. [4] Artificial intelligence will transform the relationship between people and technology, charging our creativity and skills. [6]

In nature, we can find many similarities to this kind of artificial intelligence way to solve problems. [2] There is no simpler or more practical way to define artificial intelligence. [7] Artificial intelligence way is to let ants to make local decisions to be successful as a whole. [2] A YouTube video was released this week that explained Bitcoin in a rather creative way using the predictive text from an artificial intelligence model. [5] Intel Fellow Pradeep Dubey calls artificial intelligence “a simple vision where computers become indistinguishable between humans.” [4] Botnik Studios released the video as part of a creative series that explores the use of artificial intelligence for creating artistic representations of language. [5] Why this happens, and could we do any better? Could ants somehow know where the areas are and adapt their behavior to make them more successful? This is where artificial intelligence comes into play. [2]

“Artificial intelligence is a broad term that simply means: any intelligence run by a computer. [2] If machines are getting better at doing the copy-editor’s job, will that mean we don?t need human editors anymore? It may sound like an inevitability, but that misunderstands both the value of a human editor and the capabilities of artificial intelligence. [8] Where are we on our journey to true machine or artificial intelligence? How much farther do we have to go, before we arrive at our final destination and can talk to our own equivalent of C3P0 and R2D2? The truth is that we have a sort of AI available right now. [9] Artificial intelligence (AI) is not one technology, but a collection of technologies such as advanced analytics, expert systems, neural networks and machine learning. [8] Artificial Intelligence (AI) is by far one of the most exciting projects into which mankind has invested time, money, and sweat. [9] AI in healthcare accounted for 15% of all equity deals to artificial intelligence startups in 2015. [10] The standout speaker on artificial intelligence (AI) was Dr. Noah Silverman, founder of, a consulting firm in Hong Kong. [11] Copy-editors and proofreaders shouldn?t be alarmed by the rise of AI. The newly released Blade Runner 2049 has lots of characters with artificial intelligence. [8] That said, there is a consensus that we can distinguish between artificial intelligence within a specific domain (i.e. a computer performing a given task, but no other task, in a way that mimics what an intelligent being would do) and a general artificial intelligence that can act across different domains (i.e. HAL 9000). [11] Even though artificial intelligence isn?t a new field, we?re a long, long way from producing something that, as Gideon Lewis-Kraus wrote in The New York Times Magazine, can “demonstrate a facility with the implicit, the interpretive.” [12] Technological advances in fields such as artificial intelligence and automation have the potential to fundamentally alter prevailing economic trends. [13] Regardless of your field or your area of interest, artificial intelligence is very likely to have an impact in the future. [9] At TechEmergence, we?ve developed concrete definitions of both artificial intelligence and machine learning based on a panel of expert feedback. [14] TechEmergence conducts direct interviews and consensus analysis with leading experts in machine learning and artificial intelligence. [10] “Anything that could give rise to smarter-than-human intelligence – in the form of Artificial Intelligence, brain-computer interfaces, or neuroscience-based human intelligence enhancement – wins hands down beyond contest as doing the most to change the world. [9] The synergistic approach in the former shows that by pairing human intelligence with artificial intelligence, the overall grading system costs less and accomplishes more. [14] The point of the experiment was to show how easy it is to bias any artificial intelligence if you train it on biased data. [12] Though yet to become a standard in schools, artificial intelligence in education has been “a thing” since AI’s uptick in the 1980s. [14] A question often raised about artificial intelligence (AI) is whether machines will one day become human, but this way of framing the question assumes we have settled on what it means to be human. [15] Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a series of advanced technologies that allow a machine to work in humanistic ways. [16]

Even people who study AI have a healthy respect for the field’s ultimate goal, artificial general intelligence, or an artificial system that mimics human thought patterns. [12] For some, the phrase “artificial intelligence” conjures nightmare visions — something out of the ?04 Will Smith flick I, Robot, perhaps, or the ending of Ex Machina — like a boot smashing through the glass of a computer screen to stamp on a human face, forever. [12] Besides the lack of consensus on a coherent definition for “artificial intelligence” as a term, the field’s nascent stage of development makes it difficult to carve out silos or hard barriers of where one industry or application ends, and another begins. [10]

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are two terms often used interchangeably or considered to be synonyms. [17] If you keep track of industry trends at all, then I bet your newsfeed has been filled with exciting stories and bold predictions about artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and neural networks. [17] Among the different types of AI, strong artificial intelligence refers to the work that looks to genuinely imitate a human. [16] AI (Artificial Intelligence) Help marketing agencies to targeting the right customers using the help of artificial intelligence. [18] The challenge of artificial intelligence isn’t so much the technology as it is our own attitude about machines and intelligence. [19] As part of Loughborough University’s data science team, my colleagues and I are adapting the latest artificial intelligence technology to perceive and learn a different type of data: the chemical compounds in breath samples. [20] Kyndi’s office in San Mateo, Calif. The company’s focus on the reasoning side of artificial intelligence distinguishes it from the branch known as deep learning, in which computers train themselves by processing massive amounts of data. [21] If the reach of deep learning is limited, too much money and too many fine minds may now be devoted to it, said Oren Etzioni, chief executive of the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence. [21] For the past five years, the hottest thing in artificial intelligence has been a branch known as deep learning. [21] Mechanical system controls using PLCs and automation servers that have existed for years, for example, is a form of artificial intelligence. [17] A weak artificial intelligence simply aims to build systems that are able to behave in the same manner as humans. [16] The danger, some experts warn, is that A.I. will run into a technical wall and eventually face a popular backlash — a familiar pattern in artificial intelligence since that term was coined in the 1950s. [21]

AI in Healthcare is being held with an objective of bringing together all the entities from healthcare domain to discuss the true meaning of Artificial Intelligence and learn the first-hand experience from leading experts who are developing and using the technology. [22] In order for machines to capture the meaning and individual components of images, artificial intelligence is required, in which a human-like analysis of images is simulated. [23]

Strong AI, also known as artificial common sense, is a human system with normal human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, there is sufficient intelligence to find solutions. [24] AI (artificial intelligence) machines, especially computer systems, emulate human intelligence processes. [24]

Credit Jason Henry for The New York Times The technology struggles in the more open terrains of intelligence — that is, meaning, reasoning and common-sense knowledge. [21]

The ability for a computer to not only persuasively compete in a debate against a live person, but to actually win the argument, is only likely to feed into fears expressed by Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk and the late cosmologist Stephen Hawking that artificial intelligence could spell doom for human civilization. [25] How can one train a program that enables automatic image annotation and functions according to the principles of artificial intelligence? The prerequisite for the training is a large number of images, which are initially processed by human beings. [23] The San Francisco event was the first time anyone outside of IBM was able to witness a live debate between a human and its artificial intelligence system. [25] IBM shows off an artificial intelligence that can debate a human and it does it surprisingly well. [25] The closer an artificial intelligence for image recognition comes to the human interpretation of images, the better it is. [23] She is literally the face of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for much of the world. [26] Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been around a long time, but it is a newer concept within healthcare. [27] The more complex the task is, the more one has recourse to artificial intelligence, i.e. to programs that are capable of learning. [23] Artificial intelligence uses these commented images as templates. [23] Although it is hard to predict what the future will look like, it is safe to say that artificial intelligence and automation will play a central part in it. [26] Artificial Intelligence can broadly be defined as a type of computer science, having problem-solving, human-like capabilities. [28]

Most IT professionals have reached the point where when a vendor says the words “artificial intelligence,” they duck and cover. [29]

As noted in a previous blog here, AI is currently being applied to extract meaning from massive data lakes that conventional business intelligence applications would not even consider. [29]


Proposed “universal intelligence” tests aim to compare how well machines, humans, and even non-human animals perform on problem sets that are generic as possible. [1] Moravec’s paradox generalizes that low-level sensorimotor skills that humans take for granted are, counterintuitively, difficult to program into a robot; the paradox is named after Hans Moravec, who stated in 1988 that “it is comparatively easy to make computers exhibit adult level performance on intelligence tests or playing checkers, and difficult or impossible to give them the skills of a one-year-old when it comes to perception and mobility”. [1] Are there limits to how intelligent machines- or human-machine hybrids- can be? A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that would possess intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human mind [1]

The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring “intelligence” are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip, “AI is whatever hasn’t been done yet.” [1] The Dartmouth proposal “Every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” [1] Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence, such as W. Grey Walter’s turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. [1] Machines with intelligence have the potential to use their intelligence to make ethical decisions. [1] Even specific straightforward tasks, like machine translation, require that a machine read and write in both languages ( NLP ), follow the author’s argument ( reason ), know what is being talked about ( knowledge ), and faithfully reproduce the author’s original intent ( social intelligence ). [1] Ronald, E. M. A. and Sipper, M. Intelligence is not enough: On the socialization of talking machines, Minds and Machines, vol. 11, no. 4, pp.567-576, November 2001. [1] Turing, Alan (October 1950), “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, LIX (236): 433-460, doi : 10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, ISSN 0026-4423. [1]

The new intelligence could thus increase exponentially and dramatically surpass humans. [1] The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. [1] Emergent behavior such as this is used by evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. [1] “?Superintelligence?? may also refer to the form or degree of intelligence possessed by such an agent. [1] Moravec’s paradox can be extended to many forms of social intelligence. [1]

Because the capabilities of such an intelligence may be impossible to comprehend, the technological singularity is an occurrence beyond which events are unpredictable or even unfathomable. [1]

These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. “robotics” or “machine learning”), the use of particular tools (“logic” or artificial neural networks ), or deep philosophical differences. [1] An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works – some agents are symbolic and logical, some are sub-symbolic artificial neural networks and others may use new approaches. [1] Artificial neural networks are an example of soft computing they are solutions to problems which cannot be solved with complete logical certainty, and where an approximate solution is often sufficient. [1] Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation. [1] According to one overview, the expression “Deep Learning” was introduced to the Machine Learning community by Rina Dechter in 1986 and gained traction after Igor Aizenberg and colleagues introduced it to Artificial Neural Networks in 2000. [1] Similar to shallow artificial neural networks, deep neural networks can model complex non-linear relationships. [1]

Many people concerned about risk from superintelligent AI also want to limit the use of artificial soldiers. [1] The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts ‘ 1943 formal design for Turing-complete “artificial neurons”. [1] An evolutionary system can induce goals by using a ” fitness function ” to mutate and preferentially replicate high-scoring AI systems; this is similar to how animals evolved to innately desire certain goals such as finding food, or how dogs can be bred via artificial selection to possess desired traits. [1]

This issue was addressed by Wendell Wallach in his book titled Moral Machines in which he introduced the concept of artificial moral agents (AMA). [1] Deep learning is any artificial neural network that can learn a long chain of causal links. [1] Approaches based on cybernetics or artificial neural networks were abandoned or pushed into the background. [1]

The artificial brain argument The brain can be simulated by machines and because brains are intelligent, simulated brains must also be intelligent; thus machines can be intelligent. [1] “A world survey of artificial brain projects, Part II: Biologically inspired cognitive architectures”. [1]

Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices since antiquity. [1]

Many of the problems in this article may also require general intelligence, if machines are to solve the problems as well as people do. [1] Some cognitive architectures are custom-built to solve a narrow problem; others, such as Soar, are designed to mimic human cognition and to provide insight into general intelligence. [1]

The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence “can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it”. [1] IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. 5 (4): 293-311. doi : 10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2286295. [1] The application of soft computing to AI is studied collectively by the emerging discipline of computational intelligence. [1] Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. [1]

Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing. 2012 : 1-20. doi : 10.1155/2012/850160. [1] IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine. 9 (2): 48-57. doi : 10.1109/MCI.2014.2307227. [1]

The main areas of competition include general machine intelligence, conversational behavior, data-mining, robotic cars, and robot soccer as well as conventional games. [1]

The net forms “concepts” that are distributed among a subnetwork of shared neurons that tend to fire together; a concept meaning “leg” might be coupled with a subnetwork meaning “foot” that includes the sound for “foot”. [1]

This is more-so a form of augmented intelligence because the human operator has a large say in the creative process. [5] Business intelligence (BI) and analytics vendors use machine learning in their software to help users automatically identify potentially important data points. [3] Explore how we harness talent, data and intelligence to reinvent operations. [6]

That said, computer intelligence isn?t our generation’s Golem or Frankenstein’s creation. [30] Intelligence should be regarded as a property of some system (usually biological) but we would like to apply it to hardware. [2] To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines ? Building systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like people. [2]

Those algorithms come under different names: deep artificial neural networks, support-vector machines, Gaussian models, multilayer perceptrons, LSTMs, convolutional networks, logistic regression, random forests. [7] The neural network – technically an “artificial neural network” since it’s based on how we think the brain works – provides the math that makes it work. [4]

Being a property (not some sort of physical thing ) you should not apply the term “artificial” to it. [2]

The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages. [31]

As opposed to classical machine learning, which does not have any ambitions for creating general AI, neural networks (particularly the “deep” ones) more explicitly try to replicate biological intelligence by mimicking the brain structure of intelligent beings. [11] If one is just analyzing “AI for Business Intelligence,” one can construct a relatively rigorous set of classifying rules to determine what does and does not get couched under the header of “AI” and “Business Intelligence.” [10] The timeline for some of these changes is unclear, as predictions vary about when self-driving cars will become a reality: BI Intelligence predicts fully-autonomous vehicles will debut in 2019; Uber CEO Travis Kalanick says the timeline for self-driving cars is “a years thing, not a decades thing”; Andrew Ng, Chief Scientist at Baidu and Stanford faculty member, predicted in early 2016 that self-driving cars will be mass produced by 2021. [14]

Amazon uses artificial neural networks to generate these product recommendations. [14] Instagram, which Facebook acquired in 2012, uses machine learning to identify the contextual meaning of emoji, which have been steadily replacing slang (for instance, a laughing emoji could replace “lol”). [14] By contrast, a piece of software can “know? the definition of a word, but can?t understand the meaning of that word within the larger context. [8]

To simplify the discussion, think of AI as the broader goal of autonomous machine intelligence, and machine learning as the specific scientific methods currently in vogue for building AI. All machine learning is AI, but not all AI is machine learning. [14] For the first time, a “one stop shop” of the machine intelligence stack is coming into view –even if it’s a year or two off from being neatly formalized. [10] Unlike with big data, where you could buy a new capability, machine intelligence depends on deeper organizational and process changes. [10]

Its A.I. technology learned from relatively few examples to mimic human visual intelligence, using data 300 times more efficiently than deep learning models. [21] AI is the branch of Computer Science which deals with Machines with more Intelligence than Humans.AI will be the Future Technology, and it is still the best technology in some areas. [24] If this new model of augmented intelligence and shared responsibility between man and machine terrifies you and threatens what you consider to be the uniquely human capability of decision-making, I’d suggest that you hold on tight because this storm is going to much worse than you thought. [19] “AI is a very broad area, as humans demonstrate intelligence in many aspects,” Yen-Ling Kuo, PhD candidate in Boris Katz’s group at CSAIL pointed out. [32] This form of intelligence is called machine learning because, similar to human learning, the dynamic interplay between the machine neuron and its connecting machine synapses allows the machine to store and process information across a network of neurons. [15]

Perhaps it’s time to start calling it what it is, Augmented Intelligence that we need in order to deal with and survive the increasing complexity of the machines and the world we inhabit. [19] The fatal flaw in AI isn’t the technology or its intelligence, it’s something far more difficult to change. [19] “There is no real intelligence there,” said Michael I. Jordan, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of an essay published in April intended to temper the lofty expectations surrounding A.I. “And I think that trusting these brute force algorithms too much is a faith misplaced.” [21] While that program and other efforts vary, their common goal is a broader and more flexible intelligence than deep learning. [21]

The biggest impediment to AI is not the technology but the very term we use to describe it, Artificial. [19] Artificial neural nets prove superior to human neural networks in a number of ways. [15] This layered framework is often referred to as an artificial “neural network” because of its intended resemblance to neural networks in human brains. [17]

I find myself perplexed by the moral question of what neural net-based AI, modeled as it is on human intelligence, tells us about what it means to be human. [15] What makes the story of AF 447 especially hard to make sense of is that an Airbus under what’s called “normal law,” meaning that the computer prevents the plane from flying outside of its flight envelope, is impossible to stall. [19] In this case, with the autopilot disengaged, the plane switched over to “alternate law,” meaning that the pilot had full manual control, which could not be overridden by the computer. [19] In the forty-third remark, Wittgenstein claims, “For a large class of cases–though not for all–in which we employ the word “meaning? it can be defined thus: the meaning of a word is its use in the language” (20). [15]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(32 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (87) Artificial intelligence – Wikipedia

2. (13) What is artificial intelligence? – Quora

3. (8) Is There a Smarter Path to Artificial Intelligence? Some Experts Hope So – The New York Times

4. (7) Everyday Examples of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

5. (7) It’s Time to Stop Calling It ‘Artificial’ Intelligence |

6. (6) Artificial Intelligence Industry – An Overview by Segment

7. (5) The Problem Artificial Intelligence Poses for Humans – The Other Journal

8. (5) Image annotation and artificial intelligence

9. (4) MIT fed an AI data from Reddit, and now it only thinks about murder – The Verge

10. (4) Artificial Intelligence: A Definition for Colocation Providers

11. (4) Definition Of Artificial Intelligence

12. (4) Artificial intelligence creates creative definition of Bitcoin using predictive keyboard

13. (4) Can Artificial Intelligence Ever Replace Human Copy-Editors? | Intelligent Editing

14. (4) AI Awakening | USF Health

15. (3) Alphabet Soup: What Does Artificial Intelligence Really Mean? | CFA Institute Market Integrity Insights

16. (3) What is Artificial Intelligence? – The AI Revolution

17. (3) Know About AI | AI(Artificial Intelligence) Startup Hub: What Does AI(Artificial Intelligence) mean? Meaning of AI? Artificial Intelligence Meaning? AI Definition?

18. (3) IBM’s Project Debater uses artificial intelligence to debate a human

19. (2) How Can Artificial Intelligence Support Development? We Asked a Robot.

20. (2) Practical AI: or why everything that says it is, isn?t | InfoWorld

21. (2) What is machine learning (ML)? – Definition from

22. (2) Artificial Intelligence | Accenture

23. (2) Definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Deeplearning4j: Open-source, Distributed Deep Learning for the JVM

24. (1) What Will Automation and Artificial Intelligence Mean for Comparative Advantage and Supply Chains in the Developing World? | Center For Global Development

25. (1) What does artificial intelligence mean for marketing agencies? : artificial

26. (1) Artificial Intelligence May Be Able To Smell Illnesses in Human Breath | Innovation | Smithsonian

27. (1)

28. (1) The promise of Artificial Intelligence in health IT

29. (1) Defining Artificial Intelligence | Northbound brand | Seattle

30. (1) AI is a threat to humanity, depending on how you define it

31. (1) artificial intelligence | Definition of artificial intelligence in English by Oxford Dictionaries

32. (1) The Tech