Architecture: History & Movements

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  • Although Sikh architecture was initially developed within Sikhism its style has been used in many non-religious buildings due to its beauty. 300 years ago, Sikh architecture was distinguished for its many curves and straight lines; Shri Keshgarh Sahib and the Sri Harmandir Sahib ( Golden Temple ) are prime examples.(More…)


Architecture: History & Movements
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Although Sikh architecture was initially developed within Sikhism its style has been used in many non-religious buildings due to its beauty. 300 years ago, Sikh architecture was distinguished for its many curves and straight lines; Shri Keshgarh Sahib and the Sri Harmandir Sahib ( Golden Temple ) are prime examples. [1] Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 – 1565 CE) was a notable building style evolved by the Vijayanagar empire that ruled most of South India from their capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in present-day Karnataka. [1] Hoysala architecture is the distinctive building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire in the region historically known as Karnata, today’s Karnataka, India, between the 11th and the 14th centuries. [1]

Postmodern architecture is characterized by the incorporation of historical details in a hybrid rather than a pure style, by the use of decorative elements, by a more personal and exaggerated style, and by references to popular modes of building. [2] The availability of timber also influenced the style of architecture, with timber buildings prevailing in Scandinavia. [3] Walled and moated cities with large gates and multi-storied buildings which consistently used arched windows and doors are important features of the architecture during this period. [1] The horizontal and vertical scope of the Gothic church, filled with the light thought of as a symbol of the grace of God admitted into the structure via the style’s iconic windows are among the very best examples of Christian architecture. [3] The pointed arch, one of the defining attributes of Gothic, was earlier incorporated into Islamic architecture following the Islamic conquests of Roman Syria and the Sassanid Empire in the 7th century. [3] The pointed arch is also a characteristic feature of Near Eastern pre-Islamic Sassanian architecture that was adopted in the 7th century by Islamic architecture and appears in structures like the Al-Ukhaidir Palace (775 AD), the Abbasid reconstruction of the Al-Aqsa mosque in 780 AD, Ramlah Cistern (789 AD), the Great Mosque of Samarra (851 AD), and the Mosque of Ibn Tulun (879 AD) in Cairo. [3] The pointed arch and its precursors had been employed in Late Roman and Sassanian architecture; within the Roman context, evidenced in early church building in Syria and occasional secular structures, like the Roman Karamagara Bridge ; in Sassanid architecture, in the parabolic and pointed arches employed in palace and sacred construction. [3] Interestingly, it was this high cost of design and construction that would help make Art Nouveau short-lived in architecture, as, by the beginning of World War I (1914), the more streamlined aesthetic of modernist structures that were far cheaper to produce became more popular. [4] Whether in graphic design, architecture, painting or even jewelry, Art Nouveau touched a plethora of design and art forms, which is a testament to its creativity and brilliance. [4] As is the case with so many schools of design, rebellion was involved in Art Nouveau’s sweep through architecture. [4]

Artstor Artstor is a digital image library that provides over 1.6 million images in the arts, architecture, humanities, and sciences from around the globe and across time periods. [5] Architecture benefitted greatly at the time from Art Nouveau’s influence. [4] Vasari and company were writing at a time when many aspects and vocabulary pertaining to Classical architecture had been reasserted with the Renaissance in the late 15th and 16th centuries, and they had the perspective that the maniera tedesca or maniera dei Goti was the antithesis of this resurgent style leading to the continuation of this negative connotation in the 17th century. [3] In England, partly in response to a philosophy propounded by the Oxford Movement and others associated with the emerging revival of ‘high church’ or Anglo-Catholic ideas during the second quarter of the 19th century, neo-Gothic began to become promoted by influential establishment figures as the preferred style for ecclesiastical, civic and institutional architecture. [3] The term postmodernism is probably most specific and meaningful when used in relation to architecture, where it designates an international architectural movement that emerged in the 1960s, became prominent in the late 1970s and 80s, and remained a dominant force in the 1990s. [2] The gold-standard exploration of architecture’s global evolution A Global History of Architecture provides a comprehensive tour through the ages, spinning the globe to present the landmark architectural movements that characterized each time period. [6] Fletcher, Banister ; Cruickshank, Dan, Sir Banister Fletcher’s a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 20th edition, 1996 (first published 1896). [3] Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals The Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals indexes articles published in U.S. and foreign journals 1930-present covering international, scholarly and popular periodical literature on the architecture and design of Europe, Asia, Latin America and Australia. [5] In English 17th-century usage, “Goth” was an equivalent of ” vandal,” a savage despoiler with a Germanic heritage, and so came to be applied to the architectural styles of northern Europe from before the revival of classical types of architecture. [3]

The architecture during the Mughal Period, with its rulers being of Turco-Mongol origin, has shown a notable blend of Indian style combined with the Islamic. [1] Among the influences on both decoration and form are Islamic architecture and, towards the end of the period, Renaissance details combined with the Gothic in a distinctive manner. [3] A characteristic of Gothic church architecture is its height, both absolute and in proportion to its width, the verticality suggesting an aspiration to Heaven. [3] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe called Gothic the ” deutsche Architektur ” and the “embodiment of German genius,” while some French writers like Camille Enlart instead nationalised it for France, dubbing it ” architecture franise “. [3]

This resulted in the creation of a distinctive imperial style of architecture which featured prominently not only in temples but also in administrative structures across the deccan. [1] Cave temples became prominent throughout western India, incorporating various unique features to give rise to cave architecture in places such as Ajanta and Ellora. [1] The economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urban architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world’s economy. [1] The history of architecture in India: from the dawn of civilization to the end of the Raj. [1] The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion. [1]

Growing awareness of ecology has influenced architecture in India during modern times. [1] Qutub Minar a prominent example of Indo-Islamic architecture in India. [1] The Taj Mahal in Agra, arguably the greatest example of Indo-Islamic architecture in India. [1]

Madras High Court buildings are a prime example of Indo-Saracenic architecture, designed by J W Brassington under the guidance of British architect Henry Irwin. [1] Archinform International Architecture Database An online database with information on more than 65,000 built and unrealized projects from various architects and planners, mainly 20th century. [5] The middle of the 19th century was a period marked by the restoration, and in some cases modification, of ancient monuments and the construction of neo-Gothic edifices such as the nave of Cologne Cathedral and the Sainte-Clotilde of Paris as speculation of medieval architecture turned to technical consideration. [3] One of its earliest uses in Christian architecture is in the Cathedral of Ani (989 AD), designed by Trdat the Architect. [3] For some architects, postmodernism was defined by the abandonment of modernist utopianism and a validation of vernacular architecture, as in Robert Venturi’s celebration of the “decorated shed” of commercial architecture. [2]

They incorporated the best practices of Arab and Byzantine architecture into their own art. [3] Over in France, by the 1870s, these new art ideas were taking hold especially in architecture. [4] Postmodernism had specific references to the visual arts and redefined trends in painting and architecture. [2] Access point for the Grove Dictionary of Art and several Oxford reference sources on art and architecture. [5]

The temple was rebuilt by the Vijayanagar Empire and an example of Dravidian architecture. [1] The architecture of the temples built during the reign of the Vijayanagara empire had elements of political authority. [1]

Chennakesava Temple is a model example of the Hoysala architecture. [1] An analysis of Gothick architecture: illustrated by a series of upwards of seven hundred examples of doorways, windows, etc., and accompanied with remarks on the several details of an ecclesiastical edifice. [3] Other Italian cities such as Florence ( Palazzo Vecchio ), Mantua or Venice also host remarkable examples of secular public architecture. [3] In the architecture of some Italian cities, notably Venice, semi-circular arches are interspersed with pointed ones. [3] The major cities colonized during this period were Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, Delhi, Agra, Bankipore, Karachi, Nagpur, Bhopal and Hyderabad, which saw the rise of Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture. [1] The architecture of Maratha period was planned with courtyards suited to tropical climates. [1]

M?ru-Gurjara Architecture has two prominent styles Maha-Maru and Maru-Gurjara. [1] Sikh Architecture is a style of architecture that is characterized with values of progressiveness, exquisite intricacy, austere beauty and logical flowing lines. [1] In both of these styles architecture is treated sculpturally. [1]

A Global History of Architecture takes you inside history itself to witness the the growth and movements that built our world. [6] The all-new online enhanced companion site brings history to life, providing a clearer framework through which to interpret and understand architecture through the ages. [6]

Subjects include architecture, city planning, conservation and restoration, interior design, museums, and sustainable design. [5] Located on the third floor of the historic Charles Deering Library, the Architecture Reading Room features general books on architectural history, many rare 19th- and early-20th-century architectural periodicals, and quiet reading space. [5] Unique in its non-Eurocentrism, this book provides a fresh survey of architectural history with a truly global perspective, fulfilling the National Architectural Accrediting Board’s requirements for ‘non-Western’ architecture in history education. [6]

The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics. [1] As with the Mughals, under European colonial rule, architecture became an emblem of power, designed to endorse the occupying power. [1] Wooden architecture was popular and rock-cut architecture, such as the Barabar caves, became solidified. [1]

Climate responsive architecture has long been a feature of India’s architecture but has been losing its significance as of late. [1] Practitioners of postmodern architecture have tended to reemphasize elements of metaphor, symbol, and content in their credos and their work. [2] One point particularly in architecture that you hinted at a little but was a main driving force, was the idea that functional elements can (and should be) pleasing to the eye (enter all the flowey lines and asymmetry). [4] One reason for this perhaps is the record of economic and political exchange between some of western Europe and Armenia, which might explain the similarities between Armenian architecture and the ribbed vaults at San Nazzaro Sesia and at Lodi Vecchio in Lombardy and the Abbey of Saint Aubin in Angers. [3] Technically, it is far ahead of the contemporary Anglo-Saxon and Norman architecture of Europe. [3]

The Ancient and Medieval Architecture of India: a study of Indo-Aryan civilisation. [1] M?ru-Gurjara Architecture show the deep understanding of structures and refined skills of Rajasthani craftmen of the bygone era. [1] Old forms returned with this ‘renewal’ of Hindu architecture, infused by the Sultanate and later the Mughal traditions. [1] As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, and its principles and characteristic forms were applied to other types of buildings. [3] Elsewhere this disorientation also takes on a temporal, historical form, as architects combine disparate elements from previous architectural eras and styles in the same building, an incongruous mixing that initially gave rise to the term postmodernist architecture. [2] Many architectural features that are associated with Gothic architecture had been developed and used by the architects of Romanesque buildings, but not fully exploited. [3] Unlike with past and future styles of art, like the Carolingian style as noted by French art historian Louis Grodecki in his work Gothic Architecture, Gothic’s lack of a definite historical or geographic nexus results in a weak concept of what truly is Gothic. [3] Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum (“French/ Frankish work”), with the term Gothic first appearing during the later part of the Renaissance. [3] By the 12th century, Romanesque architecture, termed Norman Gothic in England, was established throughout Europe and provided the basic architectural forms and units that were to remain in evolution throughout the Medieval period. [3] Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. [3] The names used to define various periods or styles within Gothic architecture differs from country to country. [3] In many Gothic churches, particularly in France, and in the Perpendicular period of English Gothic architecture, the treatment of vertical elements in gallery and window tracery creates a strongly unifying feature that counteracts the horizontal divisions of the interior structure. [3] Two more features of Norman Romanesque, the wall buttress and the thick “double shell” wall at window height, were to later play a role in the birth of Gothic architecture. [3] Gothic architecture did not emerge from a dying Romanesque tradition, but from a Romanesque style at the height of its popularity, and it would supplant it for many years. [3] The same wide geographic area was then affected by the development of Gothic architecture, but the acceptance of the Gothic style and methods of construction differed from place to place, as did the expressions of Gothic taste. [3] From the 10th to the 13th century, Romanesque architecture had become a pan-European style and manner of construction, affecting buildings in countries as far apart as Ireland and Croatia, and Sweden and Sicily. [3]

There can be no doubt that the term ‘Gothic’ as applied to pointed styles of ecclesiastical architecture was used at first contemptuously, and in derision, by those who were ambitious to imitate and revive the Grecian orders of architecture, after the revival of classical literature. [3] One of the defining characteristics of Gothic architecture is the pointed (or ogival ) arch, and it is used in nearly all places a vaulted shape might be called for structural or decorative consideration, like doorways, windows, arcades, and galleries. [3] Other characteristics of early Gothic architecture, such as vertical shafts, clustered columns, compound piers, plate tracery and groups of narrow openings had evolved during the Romanesque period. [3] The characteristic forms that were to define Gothic architecture grew out of Romanesque architecture and developed at several different geographic locations, as the result of different influences and structural requirements. [3] These range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals, and although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either substantially intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form, character and decoration of Gothic architecture. [3] Ever since the remodeled Basilica of Saint-Denis opened in 1144, Gothic architecture has featured expansive windows, such as at Sainte Chapelle, York Minster, Gloucester Cathedral. [3] Grodecki’s Gothic Architecture also notes that the glass pieces of various colors that make up those windows have been compared to “precious stones encrusting the walls of the New Jerusalem,” and that “the numerous towers and pinnacles evoke similar structures that appear in the visions of Saint John.” [3] One of the most ubiquitous elements of Gothic architecture is the shrinking of the walls and inserting of large windows. [3] Various elements of Gothic architecture highlighted in red. [3]

In German and Spanish Gothic architecture it often appears as openwork screens on the exterior of buildings. [3] Secular Gothic architecture can also be found in a number of public buildings such as town halls, universities, markets or hospitals. [3]

The Polish gothic architecture is characterised by its utilitarian nature, with very limited use of sculpture and heavy exterior design. [3] The term ” Gothic architecture” originated as a pejorative description. [3] The Gothic cathedral: origins of Gothic architecture and the medieval concept of order. [3] Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. [3] This characteristic is also expressed in the Gothic architecture of Central Europe in the huge size of the towers and spires, often projected, but not always completed. [3]

Exceptional works of Gothic architecture can also be found on the islands of Sicily and Cyprus, in the walled cities of Nicosia and Famagusta. [3] Wherever Gothic architecture is found, it is subject to local influences, and frequently the influence of itinerant stonemasons and artisans, carrying ideas between cities and sometimes between countries. [3]

The Malbork Castle built for the master of the Teutonic order is an example of Brick Gothic architecture. [3] Note that “today” refers to 1977, the year of publishing for the edition of Gothic Architecture used in the writing of this article. [3] Already, pointed arches and clustered piers, whose appearance together is considered one of the hallmarks of mature Gothic architecture, are found in this remote corner of the Christian East.” [3] A study of Gothic architecture is often largely a study of cathedrals and churches. [3]

These include the flying buttresses, pinnacles and traceried windows which typify Gothic ecclesiastical architecture. [3] Some important Gothic churches could be severely simple such as the Basilica of Mary Magdalene in Saint-Maximin, Provence where the local traditions of the sober, massive, Romanesque architecture were still strong. [3] In addition to being able to its applicability to rectangular or irregular shapes, the pointed arch channels weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle, enabling architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture. [3] Its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault (which evolved from the joint vaulting of Romanesque architecture) and the flying buttress. [3] While barrel vaults and groin vaults are typical of Romanesque architecture, ribbed vaults were used in many later Romanesque churches. [3]

Indian Architecture, its psychology, structure, and history from the first Muhammadan invasion to the present day. [1] Scholars such as George Michell, M.A. Dhaky, Michael W. Meister and U.S. Moorti believe that M?ru-Gurjara Temple Architecture is entirely Western Indian architecture and is quite different from the North Indian Temple architecture. [1] Grandeur of construction, beautiful sculptures, delicate carvings, high domes, gopuras and extensive courtyards were the features of temple architecture in India. [1] A feature of Hoysala temple architecture is its attention to detail and skilled craftmanship. [1]

M?ru-Gurjara temple architecture originated somewhere in the sixth century in and around areas of Rajasthan. [1]

What characterizes postmodernist architecture most, however, is its diversity in spirit and in style, and the ways it defines itself, in each movement and project, in relation to this diversity. [2] While reflecting many general aspects of postmodernism, the phenomenon and concept of postmodernist architecture have a particular specificity and complexity, in part because the term postmodernist architecture was given a specific meaning very early in the postmodern period. [2]

Vi?vakarm?; examples of Indian architecture, sculpture, painting, handicraft. [1] Indian traders brought Indian architecture to South east Asia through various trade routes. [1] Indian architecture reflects its various socio-cultural sensibilities which vary from region to region. [1]

Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of India’s global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its millennia-old past. [1]

The term Bauhaus has become synonymous with modern design and architecture, as many renowned modernist architects and artists studied or taught at the school themselves, before moving to practice in various cities around the world. [7] Now What?! Advocacy, Activism & Alliances in American Architecture since 1968 links the U.S. design community to larger social and political movements of the late 20th century, placing design practice in the foreground and engaging viewers in critical conversations of history, progress, and the built environment. [8] The civil rights, women’s, and LGBTQ movements have impacted every facet of U.S. society, including architecture and design. [8]

Japanese architect Itsuko Hasegawa winning the inaugural Royal Academy Architecture Prize, Mexican architect Frida Escobedo being named as the second woman to design London’s Serpentine Pavilion, which opened today, and Spanish architect Carme Pinós becoming the second woman selected to design the annual MPavilion in Melbourne are among the others. [9] The American architect says this contradicts the fact that women are making major contributions to architecture, particularly in New York, giving examples like Studio Gang founder Jeanne Gang and Diller, Scofidio + Renfro partner Elizabeth Diller – who was recently named one of the world’s most influential people by Time magazine. [9] The women in terms of architecture make up approximately 20 per cent of all the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in the United States. [9] As well as filmmaking, the architect set up the non-profit Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation in 2002, to improve the culture for women learning and working in architecture today through education. [9] My other interest in doing this, and probably the most important is the reason I founded the Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation, is that I became very distressed at the age of 75 that women were not in the architectural history books, or any architectural references. [9] That of course was not only applied to women in architecture but it was applied to women in art and music, and other artistic fields. [9] Alongside UVA Architecture Professor Jeana Ripple, Wilson coordinated the community engagement platform for the Light Lab Public Art Installation for the ArtHouse: A Social Kitchen Project in Gary, Indiana and this team is now collaborating on a participatory design-manufacture-build project with local youth here in Charlottesville. [10]

Areas of study included graphic design, furniture, textiles and industrial design, although but the school didn’t run a specific architecture programme. [7] Dezeen launched the Move the Needle initiative to help encourage diversity in the architecture and design industry after our survey of the world’s 100 biggest architecture firms revealed a “quite shocking” lack of gender diversity at senior levels. [9] This intersectional and interdisciplinary look at the design professions draws historical connections and serves as the only comprehensive narrative of activism in U.S. architecture and design that spans these generations and disparate causes. [8]

By isolating the architectural problems treated from the theoretical context of the journal, the way was found to consider my essay an apocalyptic prophecy, the expression of renunciation, the ultimate pronouncement of the death of architecture. [11] Architect, historian, critic, and educator Kenneth Frampton is this year’s recipient of the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement, awarded at the May opening of the 16th International Architecture Exhibition of the Venice Biennale. [12] Following her inclusion on this year’s Time 100 list, Diller told Dezeen that the male-dominated architecture industry is undergoing “dramatic change”, with women in architecture experiencing a series of victories and celebrations. [9] Her aim is to raise awareness of women working in the architecture industry, as not enough gain the recognition they deserve, she told Dezeen. [9] Beverly Willis: The background of the film is a programme which the Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation did called Built for Women, or Built by Women. [9] In 1965, he began teaching at the Princeton University School of Architecture and in 1972 joined the faculty of Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation in New York. [12] Once the culture of architecture is no longer a discourse, it has no continuity–it just becomes a technical provision of built form; there’s no other meaning or significance that you can attribute to it. [12] A number of major firms, including Foster + Partners and Africa’s largest architecture practice, Boogertman + Partners, promised to tackle their gender pay gap in response. [9] Africa’s largest architecture practice pledges to move the. [9]

Rereading the history of modern architecture in the light of methods offered by an ideological criticism, understood in the strictest Marxist acceptance of the term, could, six years ago, furnish only a frame of reference for further examination, and only a partial and circumstantial analysis of individual problems. [11] The first edition of Modern Architecture has this beautiful Walter Benjamin quote about the angel of history. [12] His well-known essays and books include Modern Architecture: A Critical History (1980), now in its fourth edition, with a fifth under way. [12]

The area also features wonderful examples of 20th century architecture as well, due in large part to popular movements like “Beautify Main Street? and the “Arts and Crafts? movements that affected historic, commercial and residential buildings. [13] AHIS GU4011 Art and Archaeology of Mesopotamia Z. Bahrani T/R 4:10-5:25, 612 Schermerhorn This course surveys the art and architecture of Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq and north-eastern Syria) from the establishment of the first cities and the development of the first monumental art and architecture in the fourth millennium BC through the Hellenistic conquest in the fourth century BC (the Seleucid dynasty), and the Parthian era. [14] The encyclopaedic dictionary in the eighteenth century : architecture, arts, and crafts / Terence M. Russell. [15] Terminology and styles of art, architecture, design since 1945. [15] Chicago: St. James Press, 1991. 450 masterpieces of art, architecture, photography and design, mostly produced since 1945. [15] Access to a number of art, architecture and design dictionaries published by Oxford University Press. [15] Our B.A. in art history offers students a thorough introduction to the art and architecture of Europe and the Americas, beginning in ancient times through to contemporary art. [16] History of technology, including architecture and building technology–tools, techniques, and materials–from ancient times through the 20th century. [15] Federal architecture in Savannah reflects an early time in America’s history, a time when the United States was getting its bearings as a democratic republic towards the end of the 1700s leading into the advent of the new century. [13]

Western architecture Classical to Modern times with glossary of terms, famous architects, time-line tracing styles. [15] Covers all aspects of architecture, including biographies of major contemporary architects, building types, styles, materials, organizations, etc. Articles include bibliographies. [15] Detroit: St.James Press, 1993. 2 vols. (Vol. 1, Architects; Vol. 2, Architecture) Encyclopedia of prominent architects and buildings in Western architectural history. [15] Architecture entries in Vol. 2 are arranged by country and include pertinent facts and lists of publications relating to each building, with a separate architect index. [15]

Alphabetical list of over 12,500 architecture and construction words, including names of important architects, with pronunciation and hyphenation, abbreviations with cross references, a list of abbreviations used on drawings, a glossary of preferred terms for drawing notations, a list of 300 trade associations with their addresses, and a summary of CSI’s Masterformat list of section numbers and names. [15] Comprehensive definitions of terms for architecture and construction, including styles such as deconstructivism. [15] Definitions for terms of everyday practice of architecture, construction, including on drawings and in specifications. [15] Non illustrated list of construction terms, with lists of construction associations and government agencies, facts and figures for materials such as concrete, metals, soils, etc. as well as architecture and engineering symbols. [15] Multilingual dictionary of architecture and building terms /edited by Chris Grech. [15] Defines and illustrates terms used for the general study of British architecture until about 1914. [15] AHIS GR8139 tbc F. de Angelis W 6:10-8, 930 Schermerhorn AHIS GR8340 British Architecture E. Pistis M 12:10-2, 934 Schermerhorn This course critically examines the history of Early Modern architectural practice and theory in Britain between 1600 and 1800. [14] Introduces the reader to the essential qualities of architecture as revealed through history, and provide an “appreciation of the general state of the architectural world as it appears at the close of the 20th century.” [15] Use effective written and oral communication skills to articulate key issues in the history of art and architecture. [16] AHIS GR8485 Architecture In and Of the Museum B. Bergdoll T 10:10-12, 934 Schermerhorn This seminar will examine the relationship of architecture to the rise of the modern art museum since the Enlightenment. [14] AHIS GR8138 Early Dynastic Art and Archaeology Z. Bahrani W 4:10-6, 832 Schermerhorn This seminar investigates the art and archaeology of the Sumerian city-states in Mesopotamia, focusing on sculpture, architecture, material culture, and the historical scholarship and scholarly debates regarding this era. [14] Recognize and identify major art historical works of art and architecture. [16] Oculi, an interdisciplinary exhibition created by art and architecture faculty from AAP, opened on Governors Island on Saturday, June 23. [17] Comprehensive encyclopedia of art and architecture, with good bibliographies. [15] Contains articles on every aspect of visual arts including painting, sculpture, graphic arts, architecture, decorative arts and photography. [15]

The architecture here is incredibly diverse with styles that span the 18th and 19th centuries from simple Colonial to the gingerbread accents of the Victorian period. [13] Illustrations and definitions of stylistic details of architecture and interiors by period. [15]

Encyclopedia of architecture: design, engineering & construction. [15] The book explores “open” architecture in the context of the 1980s urban renewal of Berlin’s Kreuzberg and the Berlin International Building Exhibition. [17] Dictionary of architecture and building: biographical, historical, and descriptive. [15]

AHIS GU4747 Architecture and Empire in the Nineteenth Century Z. Celik R 10:10-12, 934 Schermerhorn This course revisits some of the key moments in the European architecture of the nineteenth century with the goal of understanding the relationship between these developments and a global modernity shaped by old and new empires. [14] Includes historical terms relating to European architecture. [15] Comprehensive information and bibliographies as well as good illustrations, on most aspects of architecture, especially history. [15] Seminar meetings will center on major artists (e.g. Inigo Jones, Wren, Hawksmoor, Adam, Soane); different scales of architecture, from the city to the landscape; institutions and movements (e.g. Universities, the Royal Office of Works, Palladianism). [14] This rectangle becomes a geography of social mores, things allowed and things constrained, movements that have been defined by an architecture of tradition. [18]

Discusses in encyclopedia format major elements of American architecture. [15]

Words and buildings : a vocabulary of modern architecture / Adrian Forty. [15] Now through her graduate work, Christine remains committed to demonstrating the capacity of landscape architecture to address issues of disinvestment, economic decentralization, and racial inequality in urban settings. [19] Last year we featured panel presentations on activism and advocacy, bridging academic and practice, and highlighted the professional journeys and challenges for three distinct and unique landscape architecture professionals in different stages in their career and perspectives in practice. [19]

A pink “pussy hat” installation designed by Antistatics, the firm of architecture’s Martin Miller, won first place in an international design competition. [17]

Of the two, Eero’s work was in the modernist mode of the International Style and included design of the St. Louis Arch and Dulles Airport Terminal near Washington, DC. With the Saarinens? encouragement, Rapson first obtained the deanship of the graduate school of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and then moved onto becoming dean for both undergraduate and graduate programs in architecture at Minnesota. [20] At Harvard, Sert became the Dean of the Graduate School of Design (1953-1969) and Gideon became the Norton lecturer on architectural history (1938-1939) – his notes from those lectures became the basis from which he wrote his book, Space, Time and Architecture. [20] Within a relatively short time -somewhat assisted by the hiatus in development of higher education brought about by World War II – schools of architecture adopted some form of modernist curriculum and discarded the old Beaux Arts methods. [20] The organization’s goal initially was to raise the performance levels of architects through education, but the result was the standardization of architectural education methods across the U.S. By 1900, most American schools and colleges of architecture were participating in the Beaux Arts program and methods. [20] A breakthrough came in 1897 when a group of Austrian artists and architects, who abhorred the government’s preference towards conservative historical-ism in its art and architecture, separated themselves from the Vienna’s government sanctioned institution of taste and style, the Kuntslerhaus. [20] In the revolutionary 1920s, the avant-garde in architecture, along with other art movements, were experimented with by prominent architects like Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius, as well as his Modernist contemporaries Alvar Aalto, Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier. [21] The bible for the Arts & Crafts movement was John Ruskin’s Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1880. [20] He wrote in his Discourses on Architecture (1858-1872) about the deficiencies in the Beaux Arts design philosophy, pointing out that its outside-in design method often resulted in floor plans with dead-end corridors and poorly thought out spaces. [20] Under the Beaux Arts method of education and design, students studied architecture from the ancient Classics through the Renaissance as exemplars of good design. [20]

The 1960 design of the British Petroleum headquarters in Lagos by international development architects Maxwell Fry & Jane Drew is a perfect example of “tropical architecture” with its use of brise-soleils and its bioclimatic concern with local conditions, including humidity levels, wind direction, and solar orientation. [22] By 1954, the American Institute of Architects announced that most U.S. architecture schools taught the modernist method of design. [20] Mies through the lobbying of Phillip Johnson moved to Chicago in the fall of 1938 to take on a significant commission to design a whole new college campus and to become head of the school of architecture for the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). [20]

A made-up set of 100 engravings, cataloged as Recue des plans architecture du XVIII siècle, is a survey of French architecture from the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries, while Pierre Le Muet’s influential Maniere de bien bastir (1647) gives designs for elaborate townhouses in the Parisian style. [23] At stake in environmental architecture should not be how to design a sustainable building but the ways in which design participates in processes of environmental transformation. [22] Global environmental change poses two immediate challenges to architecture: the first is how to respond to its myriad consequences, from rapid transformations in land-use to food scarcity or population displacements; the second is how to re-assess the legal, ethical and political limits of architecture’s responsibilities, as–from an environmental perspective–these cannot be confined to the limits of the building. [22] Good architecture has commodity, firmness and delight a definition derived by Englishman, Henry Wotton, from the Latin text of Ten Books of Architecture by Vitruvius, a first century B.C. Roman builder and architect. [20] British and American domestic architecture is the main focus of the library’s collection of architectural books from the nineteenth century. [23] The Rare Book Collection contains miscellaneous examples of books on twentieth-century architecture, as does the Laughlin Collection, assembled by noted Louisiana architectural photographer Clarence John Laughlin (1905-1985), author of Ghosts Along the Mississippi (1948). [23] Image Courtesy: The GSW headquarters is an excellent example of sustainable architecture employing energy-conserving construction techniques. [21]

Alfred Barr, the director of MOMA, asked Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Phillip Johnson, who were all art historians, to organize an exhibit that was called, “Modern Architecture: International Exhibition.” [20] “At the Bauhaus under Gropius the effort was made to unite art and industry, art and daily life, using architecture as the intermediary.” [20] In the decorative arts and architecture, it often denotes a recognizable symbol that repeats. [24]

Wright, in his turn, was a leader in the new, domestic architecture later called the Prairie School, where the houses had open floor plans and there was a strong horizontal emphasis to their exterior elevations and roof lines. (Wright supposedly claimed that the American ranch style house and carport were derived from his designs.) [20] Because the focus of the exhibition did not include South American, African, Australian or Asian architecture, it truly did not represent an authentic international style. [20] Of interest is Sketches in Architecture (1793) by John Soane and A Treatise on the Decorative Part of Civil Architecture (1791) by Sir William Chambers, pioneers of the British neoclassical style. [23]

Architectural history is immensely rich in environmental concepts, from the quanat to the roman aqueduct, the nineteenth century greenhouse, or the air-conditioned interiors of post-war U.S. By organizing customs, habits, rituals, and protocols of being in the world, all these architectures gave form to very different socio-environmental ecologies. [22] Programs and manifestoes on 20 th century architecture, Edited by Ulrich Conrads, MIT Press, 1970-71. [20]

Before the war he mainly produced neo-classical designs, but after the war, in which he had fought, he began working on a new language of architecture based upon his own theory of its nature. [20] This is, after all, what architecture has always done best: to provide consistency to modes of living through the design of infrastructure and collective equipment. 15 And yet, the radical challenge for environmental architecture is not simply that of providing consistency to human modes of living, but to modes of coexisting. [22] OffCite is the digital home of Cite: The Architecture + Design Review of Houston, published by the Rice Design Alliance since 1982. [25] “Affordable housing is a key part of Houston’s resilience, and it’s been a subject of great interest to the architecture and design community for decades,” said Robinson. [25]

Thereafter, both operated their own practices, Adler died on April 16, 1900 – a few years after he was able to write and obtain passage in Illinois of the very first architects? licensure law for the U.S. Sullivan continued to practice architecture with less and less work augmented with more alcohol – mainly small, rural banks. [20] A former student of Wagner, Rudolph Schindler, who eventually emigrated to practice architecture in California, said: “Modern Architecture began with MacKintosh in Scotland, Otto Wagner in Vienna, and Louis Sullivan in Chicago.” [20] Mies tried again and again for several more years to practice architecture in Germany but most of his project by that time would not be built. [20] The “delight” factor separates architecture from simply utilitarian structures. [20] It is also to recognize that architecture has historically been privileged, colonial, and male, existing comfortably within structures of domination and control. [22] One or two years ago, describing Junya Ishigami’s architecture would likely conjure imagery of delicate and immaculately conceived structures tending towards invisibility. [22]

Views of medieval architecture may be found in various manuscripts from this period. [23] The World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 was a singular event for architects and architecture. [20] Please scroll down to read previously published blog Stories Nos. 1, 2, 3,etc. FIRMITAS, UTILITAS ET VENUSTAS This Latin phrase is the oldest definition of architecture first propagated around 30 B.C. by the Roman, Vitruvius, in his treatise, De Architectura, – or as it is commonly called The Ten books on Architecture. [20] Among works on English architecture is an early book of photographs titled Architecture of the Renaissance in England (1894). [23] Gideon’s book was required reading in many schools of architecture. [20] One of the treasures of LSU’s Rare Book Collection in the field of architecture is the Description de l’Égypte (1809-28), a record of the French scientific expedition that accompanied Napoleon to Egypt in 1798. [23]

Delight separates architecture from the merely utilitarian building. [20] An early illustrated history of Roman antiquities, including architecture. [23] “He was thus well positioned as a central figure in German architecture and the fledgling movement for international modernism then blossoming among intellectuals in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium. [20] He eventually was on the faculty of Cranbrook and the University of Michigan’s school of architecture. [20] Ware was the founding dean of MIT’s school of architecture. [20]

To say that architecture is an environmental agent doesn?t simply apply to its direct material consequences (the disruption of water tables or deforestation that are typically associated with exploitative forms of urbanization, for instance). [22] Several of its plate volumes focus on architecture and contain the first detailed drawings of ancient Egyptian monuments. [23] Monographie du palais de Fontainebleau (1863-85) is an exhaustive work on the architecture of this French royal château. [23] If the way architecture conceives of the environment remains limited to its current form–something out there that surrounds us–architects and designers will remain unable (or unwilling) to address environmental relations that are in cities as much as in forests. [22]

It implies the development of a new field, concerned with re-imagining architecture as a practice that has the environment as its object of concern. [22] The fact that environments represent themselves indicates that the challenge for environmental architecture is not so much the aesthetics of how to best represent or visualize, but how to practice environmental transformation as an aesthetics. [22] The Rare Book Collection contains a copy of A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1859) by Andrew Jackson Downing, sometimes considered the father of American landscape architecture. [23] Works on Louisiana landscape architecture include books on nineteenth-century plantation gardens, urban parks, domestic landscaping, city planning, and histories of individual gardens, such as the Jungle Gardens of Avery Island. [23]

Special Collections holds copies of final projects, theses, and selected design studies produced by students and faculty in LSU’s School of Landscape Architecture. [23] To locate these in the catalog, enter “Louisiana State University School of Landscape Architecture” as author. [23]

Two of their most prominent members were Gustav Klimt, who later gained further prominence for his erotic portraits of women in gold leaf, and Otto Wagner, architect for numerous public buildings in Vienna and author of Modern Architecture (1896). [20] Gropius set to work designing a whole new building complex for the Dessau Bauhaus, which would become the “epitome of modern architecture in Germany.” [20] THE GREAT WAR AND ITS AFTERMATH. When the First World War erupted in July 1914, it caused a pause in published writings about modern architecture as well as modernist works. [20] He was considered the first theorist of modern architecture – although as a revivalist he did not always practice what he preached. [20] Description: Since its first publication in 1982, Modern Architecture Since 1900 has become established as a contemporary classic. [26] MODERNISM GAINS MOMENTUM. In 1932, the recently established Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) sponsored an exhibit in New York on modern architecture – mostly focusing on Europe with mild mention of Frank Lloyd Wright who was then thought to be a has been. [20] In the late 1800s, Chicago was the epicenter for a truly American and modern architecture that, for once, did not borrow heavily from European precedents. [20]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(26 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (59) Gothic architecture – Wikipedia

2. (38) Architecture of India – Wikipedia

3. (34) History of Architectual Movements: Beaux Arts to Bauhaus & Beyond Archives – architects tales

4. (25) Dictionaries and Encyclopedias – Architecture Resources – Library Guides at UC Berkeley

5. (14) Architecture & Landscape Architecture – Rare Books – Research Guides at Louisiana State University

6. (12) Interview with film director Beverly Willis about women in architecture

7. (11) Towards an Environmental Architecture – e-flux Architecture – e-flux

8. (8) postmodernism facts, information, pictures | articles about postmodernism

9. (6) Fall 2018 Graduate Courses – Department of Art History and Archaeology – Columbia University

10. (6) Art Nouveau Design 101: Everything You Need to Know ~ Creative Market Blog

11. (6) Getting Started – .Architectural History – LibGuides at Northwestern University

12. (5) Interview with Kenneth Frampton | 2018-05-29 | Architectural Record

13. (4) A Global History of Architecture | ArchDaily

14. (3) Savannah Architecture Guide | Architectural Style of Savannah

15. (3) Bachelor of Arts in Art History | department of art & art history

16. (3) Department of Architecture | Cornell AAP

17. (3) About — Now What?! Advocacy, Activism & Alliances in American Architecture Since 1968

18. (2) Architecture and Utopia, Manfredo Tafuri – ATLAS OF PLACES

19. (2) News & Events | Landscape Architecture Foundation

20. (2) 10 must-see architectural wonders in Berlin Architecture & more by Square One

21. (2) OffCite Blog | Design. Houston. Architecture.

22. (2) Mary Katrantzou combines Bauhaus and Arts and Crafts in fashion collection

23. (1) BARBARA WILSON – University of Virginia School of Architecture

24. (1) The Distinct Shapes and Movements of Korean Modernism

25. (1) Art History Glossary: 20 Art Terms To Help You Master Art History 101

26. (1) Modern Architecture Since 1900 – William Curtis | Traditions | Renaissance