Blockchain Databases

Blockchain Databases
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  • A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that the record cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and the consensus of the network. 1 17 This allows the participants to verify and audit transactions inexpensively. 18 A blockchain database is managed autonomously using a peer-to-peer network and a distributed timestamping server.(More…)
  • If the financial services sector, for example, implements blockchain for KYC, they will be able to verify users quickly and reliable, via an app etc. Due to the reliability of blockchain databases, government institutions and companies could rely on the data completely, something which would remove the need for any further ID checks.(More…)
  • Prior to establishing FlureeDB a blockchain database for decentralized applications Brian co-founded SilkRoad Technology which grew to over 2,000 customers and 500 employees in 12 global offices.(More…)


  • It is “an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way”. 7 For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks.(More…)


It is not hard to imagine a future where blockchain databases are integrated into all aspects of life. [1]


A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that the record cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and the consensus of the network. 1 17 This allows the participants to verify and audit transactions inexpensively. 18 A blockchain database is managed autonomously using a peer-to-peer network and a distributed timestamping server. [2] Blockchain databases consist of several decentralized nodes, or in NEO’s case, a few Council controlled nodes with a decentralized infrastructure. [3]

With Bitcoin’s blockchain database, the ledger is kept and updated communally by all the computers that are hooked into the Bitcoin network. [4] Blockchain databases do not have the limitations of more traditional databases and can keep a running log of every transaction ever made on the system. [5] Blockchain databases consist of several decentralized nodes. [6]

The data at is proof that the database document hashes were valid at the time at which the block was added to the blockchain. [7] A database developer shows how you can use existing APIs together with blockchain and JavaScript code to’seal’ data on a MongoDB database. [7] Just like blockchain, the modern database accumulates history and stores all manner of data, and others will access the database exclusively through the central authority. [8] Only those authorized may access a database and input data, while anyone can access a blockchain and validate or input data according to what has gone before. [8] Each node participates in administration: all nodes verify new additions to the blockchain, and are capable of entering new data into the database. [6] With a blockchain, all the people relying on the database can keep and update their own copy of the data. [4] Many critics of the blockchain design have said the inefficiencies in keeping data communally are likely to make blockchains unattractive except in cases where centrally kept databases are a major liability. [4] Blockchain acknowledges that we don?t know or trust each other with the data contained in this “database” we have. [8] Blockchain has been one of the most loudly trumpeted new technologies on the enterprise database scene in recent history, writes Big Data Quarterly columnist Jim Scott. [9] No. Most of the early efforts to imitate the Bitcoin blockchain were done by programmers looking to create virtual currencies with slightly different characteristics from Bitcoin, and that needed their own databases to store all the transactions. [4] The first blockchain was the database on which every Bitcoin transaction was stored. [4] A few of the other efforts include Enterprise Ethereum, R3 Corda and BigchainDB. While there is no standard in the blockchain space currently, all the ongoing efforts involve some combination of database, transaction, encryption, consensus and other distributed systems technologies. [10] We can say that a blockchain is a ledger, a database, that is not centralized, but distributed. [8] Individual ledgers keep track of informational changes that are then fully synced to all databases within the blockchain to ensure that they all have the most recent ledger. [5] While private keys are a security vulnerability, blockchains are generally more secure against attacks in which a bad actor tries to change the records in the database. [4] I believe that, eventually, all critical database systems will need to be equipped with built-in mechanisms to “seal” database records on the blockchain. [7] The emergence of a tamper-proof distributed ledger in the form of the Blockchain now promises to give us a mechanism to at least “seal” database records. [7] A new era is emerging in the world of distributed computing with the growing popularity of blockchains (shared, replicated and distributed ledgers) and the associated databases as a way of integrating inter-organizational work. [10] Blockchain is an immutable distributed ledger that is shared among a set of databases or nodes. [5] Blockchain is a new database technology and it is poised to have a big impact in a diverse array of industries. [9] As blockchain becomes familiar to millions, many appear to contextualizing the technology as a database. [8] In the original documents describing Bitcoin, the virtual currency’s new database was not referred to as a blockchain. [4] A blockchain is a relatively new kind of database that has become the trendy solution for storing digital information more securely. [4] I will also distinguish how traditional distributed database management systems have handled replication and how blockchain systems do it. [10] Another fundamental difference when blockchain is compared to a database is that the latter is a “current” ledger. [8] Databases have an administrator and systems of access control, while blockchain has none. [8] This checks that the hash values stored in the database control table still match, and retrieves the receipt id that was generated from the blockchain. [7] In this post, I?ll show how to implement a simple Blockchain seal for MongoDB. We?ll record a hash value corresponding to a set of documents in a database. [7] Blockchain is a far more enabling idea, and all the better that people can get on board by figuring it as a “sort of” database. [8] Blockchain enables to solve important issues that other databases can?t. [11] Blockchain has been one of the most loudly trumpeted new technologies on the enterprise database scene in recent history. [9] That said, until blockchain speeds up and impresses millions more, databases can boast a much higher output. [8] You are correct that transaction finality for the current blockchains are slower than the traditional database, but that will change. [11] To understand the difference between a blockchain and a traditional database, it is worth considering how each of these is designed and maintained. [6]

It is becoming clear that blockchain applications need modern, full-featured, scalable, and secure databases such as MongoDB in order to unlock this potential. [12]

The genius of the Bitcoin blockchain protocol is that roughly every 10 minutes the blockchain database is updated with new transactions by miners who compete to create a new block of data containing updates to the blockchain database. [13] The new block of updated data is added to the existing blockchain database and an updated version of the blockchain database is copied instantaneously across the entire Bitcoin network. [13]

The entire Bitcoin blockchain database is encrypted with the most advanced form of encryption technology called SHA-256 that requires an encrypted private key to unlock and transact information on the blockchain. [13] Highly secure distributed blockchain databases could create a whole new paradigm shift in technology in much the same way electricity, telephones, radio, TV, computers, cell phones and the internet did in the past. [13] Blockchain database is structured as a ledger or a registry of entries into the Blockchain. [14] Public blockchain databases have experienced scaling issues and in some cases, are slower. [15]

A key property of blockchain technology, which distinguishes it from traditional database technology, is public verifiability, which is enabled by integrity and transparency. [6]

The blockchain is then a set of protocols and cryptographic methods that enable a network of computers to work together to securely record data within a shared open database. [16] The blockchain is a continuously growing list of these blocks of data which are linked and secured using cryptography, this makes it a trusted database with this trust being maintained by open source computer code and encryption instead of any institution. [16] Blockchain-based database provider Fluence is using the blockchain to create a decentralized data organization layer – Siacoin for databases. [17] You should consider using a blockchain instead of a database if: 1) there is anything less than 100% trust shared among parties, 2) the process would be improved by a shared set of data instead of passing data around. 3) there are multiple parties entering data, and 4) there is a need for restrictions, or certain parties are given specific permissions only. [18] Blockchain should be used if the data in your database needs to be preserved forever as evidence or if you need to collaborate with a number of different parties who all need to work from the same set of data. [18] Unlike most central databases, the unique feature of Bitcoin and other blockchains is that an exact copy of the database is distributed across a vast network of computer systems called nodes can number in the hundreds of thousands to millions depending upon the size of the network. [13] The blockchain though uses a distributed network of computers to maintain a shared database. [16]

Blockchain is database technology that works on a network such as the Internet. [14] Blockchains are trying to create a secured, trusted, shared database and they do this through encryption and hashing, proof of work and network consensus. [16] Collectively, the entire community – the network of computers that make up the blockchain and each store the information in the database – is responsible for keeping everyone else in the network honest. (These computers are usually called “miners?.) [19] Because the data inside a blockchain is not managed or owned by a central party (in the way a database is), it is extremely difficult to alter. [18] Open Source code provides the blockchain with important transparency, which adds to the trust in the system and its ledger that comes with the Distributed Consensus database structure. [14] The blockchain is a distributed system, meaning there is no centralized organization to maintain and verify the entries on the database. [16] Blockchain is a great solution as an add-on solution to existing database technologies. [18] On its most basic level, the blockchain can be understood as a new kind of database, at least this is its original design. [16] As an overall concept, however, the blockchain is nothing more than a community-run database. [19] Replacing an SQL database, for example, with blockchain may not be a good idea. [15] There are many signs of a momentum shift away from traditional database technologies and towards better data security via decentralized blockchains. [20] Blockchain data storage has the potential to offer much-improved security solutions compared to traditional databases used today. [20]

If the financial services sector, for example, implements blockchain for KYC, they will be able to verify users quickly and reliable, via an app etc. Due to the reliability of blockchain databases, government institutions and companies could rely on the data completely, something which would remove the need for any further ID checks. [21] Blockchain databases have an inbuilt immutably that makes the data that they contain far more trustworthy. [21] It is not hard to imagine a future where blockchain databases are integrated into all aspects of life. [1]

Information maintained on CyberVein databases is protected from tampering, just like bitcoin transactions on the blockchain. [22] A decentralized computing architecture, blockchain will allow for the accumulation of data from multiple authoritative service providers into a single immutable, cryptographically secured and validated database. [21] Blockchain aims to vastly improve data security through the development of decentralised database technologies. [23] The basic idea is similar to the above: use a blockchain as a distributed, ownerless version of a proprietary database — this time for tracking physical products as they are manufactured, distributed, and sold. [24] The CyberVein network is the first Distributed Ledger System allowing for the decentralized management of complex databases on the blockchain itself, without requiring centralized storage providers. [22] The Springbord niche database offers comprehensive information on over 250 key blockchain professionals and online networks. [25] Applying new technologies in this way often results in a very poor prototype because current technology, say shared databases versus a blockchain, is far more developed and, consequently, superior. [26] In one way Blockchain is a tampered proof database that stores digital assets without any authority. [27] Feinberg: Yeah, so blockchain is essentially just an open database, and if you think about most databases that we’re familiar with, you know Facebook has their own databases, Google has their own databases, Amazon has their own databases, what the blockchain is, is an open database that doesn’t have a central owner. [28] Blockchains are able to reduce human error and the costs and delays associated with the verification processes, and with the synchronization and reconciliation of multiple databases among the various players in a market or value chain — they increase efficiency, transparency and fraud protection. [26] Just as there can be an infinite number of databases, there can be arbitrarily many blockchains. [24] For those who aren?t familiar with the basics of blockchain technology, a blockchain is a type of distributed database — a ledger of transactions that isn?t owned by any single entity. [24] There are many supply chain management solutions that use monolithic, proprietary databases, not least those of major transportation and logistics companies such as FedEx and UPS. The transportation logistics industry is looking into blockchain applications through a trade association called the Blockchain in Transport Alliance, and leading supply chain solution vendors such as Oracle, SAP, and IBM are embracing blockchain technology for large customers. [24]

Prior to establishing FlureeDB a blockchain database for decentralized applications Brian co-founded SilkRoad Technology which grew to over 2,000 customers and 500 employees in 12 global offices. [29] FlureeDB leverages the use of “Composite Blockchain Consensus,” in which developers can partition their data to lie on either a public, private, or internal blockchain, but join together to act as one database from an application’s point of view. [29] For most databases (and most use cases for blockchain), there needs to be some central organization that you trust and believe will maintain your data accurately. [30] At its core, a blockchain (or more generally a “distributed ledger”) is a way of creating secure, shared databases which are not owned or controlled by a single party. [31]

As the report states, the blockchain can be both a database and a network, allowing information to sit on a distributed ledger rather than in silos. [32] FlureeDB is a modern graph database that leverages blockchain as a core element in its underlying architecture and takes full advantage of its immutability to provide a practical solution for developers and enterprise wishing to build out decentralized applications. [29] Issuers maintain a private database (off the blockchain) that records the name and physical address of the token’s owner as well as the Ethereum address corresponding to the token. [33] On a less technical level, blockchain is a trustless database. [30] Deployment of blockchain peers, databases and other components is handled by automated scenarios. [34] As a data-centric technology that first and foremost provides modern and familiar database features like Graph Query and fully ACID-compliant transactions, FlureeDB is unique and needed infrastructure solution for building out enterprise-grade blockchain applications at scale. [29] Blockchain technology can make it possible to create a single database of musical creators and their works. [32]


It is “an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way”. 7 For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks. [2] The technology at the heart of bitcoin and other virtual currencies, blockchain is an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way. [2]

A blockchain, 1 2 3 originally block chain, 4 5 is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. 1 6 Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, 6 a timestamp, and transaction data (generally represented as a merkle tree root hash). [2] The block time is the average time it takes for the network to generate one extra block in the blockchain. 26 Some blockchains create a new block as frequently as every five seconds. 27 By the time of block completion, the included data becomes verifiable. [2] By storing data across its peer-to-peer network, the blockchain eliminates a number of risks that come with data being held centrally. 1 The decentralized blockchain may use ad-hoc message passing and distributed networking. [2] In August 2014, the bitcoin blockchain file size, containing records of all transactions that have occurred on the network, reached 20GB ( gigabytes ). 11 In January 2015, the size had grown to almost 30GB, and from January 2016 to January 2017, the bitcoin blockchain grew from 50GB to 100GB in size. [2] Blockchain was invented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin. 1 The invention of the blockchain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double-spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server. [2] A blockchain allows for two core functions: validation of a transaction and writing a new transaction; these changes are operations that modify the state of data housed in the blockchain. [3] An issue in this ongoing debate is whether a private system with verifiers tasked and authorized (permissioned) by a central authority should be considered a blockchain. 35 36 37 38 39 Proponents of permissioned or private chains argue that the term “blockchain” may be applied to any data structure that batches data into time-stamped blocks. [2] It’s unlikely that any private blockchain will try to protect records using gigawatts of computing power–it’s time consuming and expensive.” 42 He also said, “Within a private blockchain there is also no ‘race’; there’s no incentive to use more power or discover blocks faster than competitors. [2]

Public blockchains have many users and there are no controls over who can read, upload or delete the data and there are an unknown number of pseudonymous participants. [2] In comparison, private blockchains also have multiple data sets, but there are controls in place over who can edit data and there are a known number of participants. [2] Nikolai Hampton pointed out in Computerworld that “There is also no need for a ’51 percent’ attack on a private blockchain, as the private blockchain (most likely) already controls 100 percent of all block creation resources. [2] Blocks hold batches of valid transactions that are hashed and encoded into a Merkle tree. 1 Each block includes the cryptographic hash of the prior block in the blockchain, linking the two. [2] Public verifiability of transactions is enabled by transparency of the blockchain. [3] Blockchain security methods include the use of public-key cryptography. 4 : 5 A public key (a long, random-looking string of numbers) is an address on the blockchain. [2] The primary use of blockchains today is as a distributed ledger for cryptocurrencies, most notably bitcoin. [2] Some of the largest, most known public blockchains are Bitcoin and Ethereum. [2] Open blockchains are more user-friendly than some traditional ownership records, which, while open to the public, still require physical access to view. [2] A private key is like a password that gives its owner access to their digital assets or the means to otherwise interact with the various capabilities that blockchains now support. [2] According to Accenture, an application of the diffusion of innovations theory suggests that blockchains attained a 13.5% adoption rate within financial services in 2016, therefore reaching the early adopters phase. 15 Industry trade groups joined to create the Global Blockchain Forum in 2016, an initiative of the Chamber of Digital Commerce. [2] “IBM to open first blockchain innovation centre in Singapore, to create applications and grow new markets in finance and trade”. [2]

By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of the data. [2] “IBM unveils Blockchain as a Service based on open source Hyperledger Fabric technology – TechCrunch”. [2] As you contemplate the fact that more the world’s stored wealth and commercial exchange value is starting to ride on blockchains of one sort of another, the security vulnerabilities of this technology start to loom larger in your consciousness. [35]

A private blockchain is permissioned. 45 One cannot join it unless invited by the network administrators. [2] Many banks are partnering with companies building so-called private blockchains that mimic some aspects of Bitcoin’s architecture except they’re designed to be closed off and accessible only to chosen parties. that open and permission-less blockchains will ultimately prevail even in the banking sector simply because they’re more efficient. [2]

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies currently secure their blockchain by requiring new entries to include a proof of work. [2] “Move over Bitcoin, the blockchain is only just getting started”. [2] The journal encourages authors to digitally sign a file hash of submitted papers, which will then be timestamped into the bitcoin blockchain. [2] The words block and chain were used separately in Satoshi Nakamoto’s original paper, but were eventually popularized as a single word, blockchain, by 2016. [2] The blockchain allows you (user) to use your ID as you please with your wallet, while protecting your sensitive info from bad actors. [3] The use of a blockchain removes the characteristic of infinite reproducibility from a digital asset. [2]

Though blockchain records are not unalterable, blockchains may be considered secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. [2] Blockchain is more than a distributed database–it’s a growing system of record on which the global economy will rely intimately. [35] Blockchains have been described as a value -exchange protocol. 12 This blockchain-based exchange of value can be completed quicker, safer and cheaper than with traditional systems. 20 A blockchain can assign title rights because, when properly set up to detail the exchange agreement, it provides a record that compels offer and acceptance. [2] In 2014 the Nxt community was asked to consider a hard fork that would have led to a rollback of the blockchain records to mitigate the effects of a theft of 50 million NXT from a major cryptocurrency exchange. [2]

You don?t need to wade out too far into the growing blockchain literature before the security vulnerabilities just jump out at you. [35] Every node in a decentralized system has a copy of the blockchain. [2] Each node participates in consensus and administration; they all must verify new additions to the blockchain and are capable of writing changes. [3]

“The blockchain will disrupt the music business and beyond”. [2]

This type of blockchains can be considered a middle-ground for companies that are interested in the blockchain technology in general but are not comfortable with a level of control offered by public networks. [2] Permissioned blockchains use an access control layer to govern who has access to the network. 45 In contrast to public blockchain networks, validators on private blockchain networks are vetted by the network owner. [2] Currently, there are three types of blockchain networks – public blockchains, private blockchains and consortium blockchains. [2]

Data quality is maintained by massive database replication 8 and computational trust. [2] Stay up to date with InfoWorld’s newsletters for software developers, analysts, database programmers, and data scientists. [35] Blocks not selected for inclusion in the chain are called orphan blocks. 21 Peers supporting the database have different versions of the history from time to time. [2] Whenever a peer receives a higher-scoring version (usually the old version with a single new block added) they extend or overwrite their own database and retransmit the improvement to their peers. [2]

Banks preferably have a notable interest in utilizing Blockchain Technology because it is a great source to avoid fraudulent transactions. [2] An IMF staff discussion reported that smart contracts based on blockchain technology might reduce moral hazards and optimize the use of contracts in general. [2]

Peer-to-peer blockchain networks lack centralized points of vulnerability that computer crackers can exploit; likewise, it has no central point of failure. [2]

Blockchain, the distributed ledger technology, was explored in a 3-hour Data Summit 2018 presentation led by Paul Tatro, who covered the wide range of blockchain topics including what it is, the differences between public and private blockchains, use cases, and the meaning of terms such as “smart contracts,” “blocks,” “nonces,” “hashes,” “oracles,” and digital signatures. [9] Because all the computers on the network have to record every transaction, there are limits to how much data blockchains have been able to process. [4] FundRequest, a decentralized marketplace built for open source collaboration, is partnering with Indorse, a reward-based decentralized professional social network where users can control their data, to certify and reward open source developers on the Blockchain. [9] Agorai, an integrated marketplace for Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools and the data assets that fuel them, and Ocean Protocol, a decentralized, blockchain data exchange protocol to unlock data for analytics and AI, are entering a strategic technology partnership. [9] Many companies and governments have been interested in using blockchains to store data that has nothing to do with virtual currency transactions, or transactions of any sort. [4] A transaction is an operation that changes the state of data that lives on the blockchain. [6] Secure – Blockchain provides transaction and data security. [11] Since Bitcoin began in 2009, the blockchain has come to hold over 160 gigabytes worth of data about every time a Bitcoin is sent between two digital wallets. [4] It is estimated that, to process one transaction on Bitcoin’s blockchain, enough energy is consumed to power a house for one week (Christopher Malmo, “One Bitcoin Transaction Now Uses as Much Energy as Your House in a Week,” Motherboard, Nov. 1, 2017, ). [5] As we saw with the transition from the Bitcoin blockchain to the Ethereum blockchain, transaction finality came down from 10 minutes to 3 minutes, and Vitalik Buterin (founder of Ethereum) recently came out saying he thinks his blockchain can be enhanced to process ~1 million transactions per second. [11]

Once the transaction is hashed, it is grouped together with other transactions into a block and validated by the blockchain using agreed-upon consensus protocols. [5] Once a block obtains enough confirmations, the transaction is considered to be validated and have been placed on the blockchain as the next sequential block. [5] Transactions are organized and grouped together into “blocks” that are presented to the blockchain for authentication. [5] Suppose Company A wants to purchase $500 worth of goods from Company B; this purchase is grouped with other transactions into one block on the blockchain. [5] Looking at the example of the Bitcoin blockchain, “blocks” get added via crytographic proofs and timestamps every ten minutes. [8] The real game-changer here isn’t Bitcoin, though, but the technology that powers it, known as blockchain. [9] Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that is most commonly known for enabling the cryptocurrencies and payment networks. [9] Blockchain, a form of distributed ledger technology (DLT), is essentially a decentralized, trustless, openly auditable ledger that can be shared and viewed by all users. [5] The decentralized blockchain distributed ledger cryptocurrency technology and applications are starting to gain. [8]

In this webinar you will earn how we built a distributed identity management application on blockchain using Stitch and MongoDB for a financial services use case and how you can apply these concepts and patterns to blockchain use case in your industry. [12] Blockchains use the longest chain rule to prevent double spending, which is one reason governments and financial institutions are currently centralized. [5]

Blockchain may be the best thing to happen to data management and information security or just the latest tech fad, depending on your point of view. [9] These links play an important role in the immutability of a blockchain, which prevents bad actors from changing the data on the ledger by themselves. [5] Malcheski goes over the “hot topics,” including blockchain, AI, and Internet of Things, and notes that DBAs of the future will need to understand not only the technical aspects of these and the other technologies but also must be able understand and add value to the functional data requirements necessary for all-encompassing solutions. [9] While past entries on the blockchain must always remain the same, a new entry can change the state of the data in the past entries. [6] The International Data Corporation recently forecast that companies and governments will spend $2.1 billion on blockchains in 2018, more than double what was spent last year. [4] To shed light on critical blockchain issues and concerns and to provide attendees with a firm grasp of fundamental blockchain concepts, Data Summit 2018 will present a 3-hour blockchain workshop led by Paul Tatro, founder of Blockchain U Online, and author of “Blockchain Unchained: The Illustrated Guide to Understanding Blockchain.” [9] Gurdeep Kalra, principal consultant, Infosys, Srikanth Challa, senior director, Blockchain, Infosys Ltd., and Minollo(Carlo Innocenti), software architect, Oracle, presented their session, “Blockchain 101 with Oracle Cloud” during Data Summit 2018. [9]

The communally maintained nature of the Bitcoin blockchain has brought it comparisons with Wikipedia, which relies on a broad network of contributors rather than one author. [4] On the Bitcoin blockchain, the origin of digital records is made simple and transparent. [8] When the original blockchain arrived in 2009, it was a ledger for Bitcoins. [4] The shared nature of the Bitcoin blockchain was useful for the virtual currency because the shadowy creator of Bitcoin, known as Satoshi Nakamoto, wanted to create a currency with no central authority involved. [4] Cause transactions within blockchain occur without intermediaries and central authority, it enables to create a direct payment flow between operation participants from any place in the world. [11] Within a given blockchain there are multiple individuals (or nodes) confirming transactions and ensuring the accuracy of the distributed ledger. [5] This transaction is then confirmed by prerequired number of nodes within the blockchain, and the $500 is moved from the customer’s bank account to the vendor’s. [5] These equations are not easily solved and have varying levels of difficulty, depending on the demand and load of the blockchain (i.e., volume of transactions) and number of miners currently mining. [5] In addition to recording virtual currency transactions, the Ethereum blockchain can record and execute simple programs. [4] Several companies, however, are now vying to put voter registration, deeds, and identities on the blockchain, which would allow users to carry all their personal records with them at any time. [5] Is there a difference between the information blockchain oracles are willing to make public about their service, and what potential users need. [11] Users can have full confidence that transactions on the blockchain are as indicated with no falsification. [5] This spreads the cryptocurrency rapidly and incentivizes a larger pool of users to promote and use the blockchain, which in turn diminishes the likelihood of any one bad actor obtaining 51%. [5] An increasing number of enterprises across all industry sectors are now exploring how they can use blockchain to remove friction from business processes and build systems of trust. [12] At this point, aside from the big virtual currencies, few blockchains have been used and battle tested in the real world for any amount of time, which leaves significant questions about how they will perform once they make it into use. [4] Extinct blocks are also created when two miners present blocks at the same time; only the block created most quickly is placed on the blockchain. [5] Once a block is created and validated by the blockchain, it can never be destroyed or altered unless 51% of the blockchain agrees and determines change is needed. [5] Just as the Internet changed the way the world viewed information, blockchain will change the way people view trust. [5] In his view, blockchain has the potential to change the way the world does business, and its impact is being vastly underestimated by the accounting profession and society at large. [5] Allowing to avoid financial heavy systems, blockchain solutions are promising to revolutionize money transfer business environment. [11] The genesis of the technology is still being debated, but most would say that blockchain coalesced in the midst of the 2008 global financial crisis. [5] If you ask even the people who work with blockchains to define the technology, you are likely to get a stuttering response. [4] Two key areas of technology that Oracle is innovating in are blockchain and IoT, according to Thomas Kurian, Oracle president of product development. [9]

Slides (latest) and Video (latest) of my presentation “Blockchains Untangled: Public, Private, Smart Contracts, Applications, Issues” at the University of California in Irvine (USA) on 1 June 2018 are at and, respectively. [10] These hashes are based on public and private keys, which are generated by individuals using the blockchain. [5] While banks are building blockchains that can track payments between accounts, governments are experimenting with using blockchains to store property records and votes. [4] By putting the supply chain on the blockchain, records will never be altered, communication will be open, and tracking will be transparent. [5] Some of the application areas in which blockchain pilots are being carried out are: smart contracts, supply chain management, know your customer, derivatives processing and provenance management. [10] Marsh, a provider of insurance broking and risk management solutions, in collaboration with IBM, ACORD, and ISN, has introduced blockchain capabilities to an important part of the insurance value chain. [9] IBM has launched three new consulting services offerings, as well as an IBM Blockchain Platform Starter Plan, a low-cost plan to help clients, developers, and startups to develop, operate, and govern networks on the IBM Blockchain Platform. [9] Blockchain is built on a decentralized ledger, which is one of the main reasons why it is so disruptive. [5] When blockchains don?t have a virtual currency, they have to find a different mechanism to get everyone to agree on new additions to the ledger. [4] As mentioned above, current economic conditions require that a central authority keep the ledgers of the world in check and balance, but blockchain relies on peer-to-peer authentication and agreement. [5] As addressed above, transactions on the blockchain are immutable and can never be changed once validated. [5] The blockchain allows for two functions: validation of a transaction, and writing of a new transaction. [6] When I spend 200,000 BTC, that transaction is recorded onto the blockchain, bringing my balance to 800,000 BTC. However, since the blockchain can only be appended, my pre-transaction balance of 1 million BTC also remains on the blockchain permanently, for those who care to look. [6] Each transaction presented to the blockchain is first turned into a cryptographically secured hash, a fixed-length alphanumeric string that is then used by the blockchain as an identifier for transactions. [5] Each validated block also contains a link to the previous block, which includes a link to the block before that, and so on; the linked blocks form the blockchain. [5] The most valuable virtual currency other than Bitcoin is Ether, which runs on the Ethereum blockchain. [4] In Bitcoin, the process of mining, or creating new Bitcoin, also has a second purpose of making sure everyone is making the same updates to their copy of the blockchain. [4] If the blockchain has recorded that my Bitcoin wallet has 1 million BTC, that figure is permanently stored in the blockchain. [6] The underlying platform of Bitcoin and with greater or lesser differences, all cryptocurrencies is the blockchain. [8]

Computer companies like IBM and Microsoft, and many key players in different vertical industry segments have recognized the applicability of blockchains in environments other than cryptocurrencies. [10] These companies tap into new and still emerging technologies such as cloud, IoT, machine learning, containerization, AI, NoSQL, and blockchain to provide fresh solutions that simply were not possible before. [9] When it’s provenance and immutability that’s needed, there is no better solution than blockchain. [8]

An entry is made to the blockchain that records what is owed by and to whom, essentially creating an accounts receivable and accounts payable entry to the distributed ledger. [5] The blockchain is often referred to as an immutable and distributed ledger. [6]

Obtaining a masternode is much more difficult than normal staking; miners typically must stake a significantly greater portion of native coins, open a virtual private server (VPS), and have significant amounts of storage space to house the entire blockchain. [5] With blockchain, this access is thrown open to the world based on the immutable construct of the data-build within blockchain. [8]

Over time, some of these new virtual currencies added on significant new features that updated the blockchain concept so that it could handle more kinds of information. [4] At the same time, the subtleties of blockchain lie in the distribution of trust, a change in human behavior. [8] Masternodes are different from regular nodes in that they keep the full copy of the blockchain, in real time, and are always up and running. [5] Blockchains refresh whenever confirmations occur, which is, on average, multiple times an hour. [5] The hash value is stored on the Blockchain so that we can know with certainty that a particular hash value was in effect at a specific point in time. [7]

Right from the outset, some come unstuck hearing blockchain described as a ” distributed database.” [8] A very basic example demonstrating the use of blockchain is illustrated below; the more technical aspects are broken down in greater detail in further sections. [5] As blockchain is best know for its use in conjunction with cryptocurrencies, this example utilizes those terms; other paradigms may be used when blockchain is applied to accounting and auditing procedures. [5] He notes, the concept of a blockchain is not really a new notion: “It is more of a repackaging of existing constructs to deliver a new set of benefits to any organization leveraging it for their use cases. [9]

The Proof of Work (PoW) protocol allows anyone to write on a blockchain. [8] Virtual currencies have shown that blockchains can work at some level, but they also come with significant downsides. [4] At the most basic level, blockchains work by incentivizing parties to agree on any given transaction’s authenticity. [5]

With blockchain, however, bad actors need 51% consensus to get enough confirmations for the double spend to be validated by the blockchain. [5] For POS, the bad actor would need 51% of all coins in existence; while this might be possible for immature blockchains, it would not be beneficial to the bad actor, who would be damaging his own stake in the long run. [5]

Any blockchain wallet or account is generally only as secure as its private key. [4] Thanks for sharing the descriptive information on Blockchain tutorial. [6] Vukolic, M. Rethinking Permissioned Blockchains, 1st ACM Workshop on Blockchain, Cryptocurrencies and Contracts (BCC?17), Abu Dhabi, UAE, April 2017. http:// [10] Blockchain is creating this world, and while the change is massively disruptive, this author believes it will ultimately be for the better. [5] Blockchain is rapidly transforming finance and has the potential to radically change many other sectors as well. [9]

Blockchains can potentially provide a more efficient way to do this so that everyone is always on the same page. [4] This listing is in no way exhaustive, nor are any of the native tokens associated with the blockchains promoted or endorsed in the given examples. [5]

Says Nathan Zenero, senior industry consultant for Teradata, it is important to understand what the properties of blockchain are and to understand why one could, or rather should, consider using it. [9] It is possible, for instance, to create a program on the Ethereum blockchain that will move Ether between wallets only after a specific event. [4] Ripple, a blockchain company in San Francisco, is utilizing DLT to create what it calls the Internet of value (IOV). [5] These inefficiencies are being mitigated by Shipchain, a blockchain company that utilizes DLT to render communication and tracking transparent, allowing every step of the supply chain to be documented. [5] ALTR is emerging from nearly four years of stealth to release a platform that unleashes the security benefits of blockchain. [9] Within mature ecosystems like Bitcoin’s blockchain, this type of coordination would require massive global efforts, rendering hacking an actual blockchain virtually impossible. [5] It is not surprising that institutions like banks, who trade very heavily on centralized authority, are among the keenest blockchain adherents in 2018. [8]

The scope for business growth not to mention the cost-savings is limitless with blockchain. [8] For an addition to be made to the blockchain, the majority of nodes must reach consensus. [6] There are many nuances to each blockchain regarding recommended confirmations, protocols, and consensus mechanisms. [5]

Centralized networks store and send data through a single database or server, which is responsible for ensuring that the information sent is properly relayed to the end user. [5] Database Trends and Applications delivers news and analysis on big data, data science, analytics and the world of information management. [9] It’s time to vote for the annual Database Trends and Applications Readers’ Choice Awards Program in which the winning information management solutions, products, and services are chosen by you–the people who actually use them. [9]

Distributed networks do not have a centralized database or server, and there is no information storage. [5] Alongside the database, Bluzelle offers a framework that supports private data control, data syndication and decentralised web infrastructure. [36] At the core of this New Data Economy is the Bluzelle decentralised database that manages and stores data through sharding to achieve unprecedented security and scale. [36] Since this authority is responsible for administration of the database, if the security of the authority is compromised, the data can be altered, or even deleted. [6] When a database is maintained by a single authority, if that authority gets compromised by a hacker, or even by natural disaster, the people relying on that database can lose access to all their data. [4] Permissions system where your data is secured in our database and you choose who gets access and for how long. [36] Control of the database remains with a designated authority, which authenticates a client’s credentials before providing access to the database. [6] The ledger is an immutable and inconvertible record, and post to it can?t be revised or tampered with, even by database operators. [11] Most databases used to keep financial records are maintained by a central institution. [4] As long as the hash value has not changed, we can be confident that the database records have not been tampered with. [7] Once we get the updated receipt, we store it in the database record. [7] A database is a pooled or central ledger that is controlled by an administrator. [8] Regardless of the security protocols, databases can be hijacked by sophisticated, persistent hacks. [8] “Bluzelle is working on what I think is the most practical approach to decentralized databases, building a vital component for the future decentralized internet [36] BLZ tokens were introduced during the Bluzelle ICO in 2018, which allowed the company to raise $19.5M to be used in the decentralized database development. [36]

An astounding array of new technologies and approaches have emerged on the database scene over the past few years that promise to turn the next 12 months into a time of unprecedented transformation for the database landscape. [9] A database can often be the best solution where strict confidence and high output is needed. [8] Admittedly, the tech feel, the storage and access and volumes look the same as a database. [8] Others have access to the database with greater or lesser ease, typically part of their function as company employees. [8] This is done by sharing one overall database among many nodes. [5] Now the databases have spread to many companies and governments. [4] We store the hash into a control table within the MongoDB database itself. [7]

In a traditional database, a client can perform four functions on data: Create, Read, Update, and Delete (collectively known as the CRUD commands). [6] Traditional databases use client-server network architecture. [6]

The new ALTR platform is built on ALTRchain, the only high-performance, enterprise-grade blockchain technology for ultra-secure data access and storage. [9] With blockchain technology, the need to examine physical documents will be replaced by downloading the transaction history from the blockchain. [5] Request Network, a blockchain company in London, is implementing blockchain technology that allows users to request payment when buying items online. [5] Bitcoin and blockchain technology have been around for nearly a decade, finally garnering mainstream media attention at the end of 2017. [5]

In conjunction with Trimble’s new blockchain network, Hortonworks DataFlow (HDF) and Hortonworks Data Platform (HDP) are helping Trimble to increase its customers’ efficiency by modernizing transportation industry systems. [9] I will focus on how the functionality of traditional and modern data stores are being utilized or not utilized in the different blockchain projects. [10] Recoginized by the top ICO sites as one of the best blockchain projects for 2018, Bluzelle is hosting its first meetup in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia at the NEM Blockchain Center! Bluzelle is working with exciting blockchain projects like NEO, Ethereum, Zilliqa, 0x and has worked with enterprises including Maybank, HSBC, OCBC, AIA. [36]

Blockchain protocols mean that this process is slow, but this is traded against the immutable, absolutely secure nature of blockchain technology. [8] The blockchain technology is being applied to the certificate of insurance process, intended to enable clients to speed up necessary business functions such as hiring contractors and transferring risk while increasing coverage certainty. [9]

Although the blockchain topic is complex, in its basic form, a blockchain is an encrypted digital ledger that keeps track of data on a platform that is decentralized and distributed among a network of computers called nodes. [13] Blockchain is a public, digital ledger, a record of new transactions or any other data. [15]

If they try to change the blockchain fraudulently – perhaps by adding a large number of bitcoins to their own balance – then the rest of the network will notice something is wrong and ignore the fraudulent transaction, meaning the rogue computer has not only passed up the chance of receiving rewards but has wasted all the resources they put into mining. [19] Bitcoin is an is an Non Permissioned System which implies the information about all transactions on the Blockchain is accessible to all users. [14] For example on the bitcoin blockchain to receive funds from another person you use a piece of software called a wallet which creates a public key that you give to someone else for them to send bitcoins to that address, with your private key you can then access that address with those bitcoins on it. [16] Instead of writing the data directly, Blockchains use cryptographic proofs (called “hashes”), one-way encryption that cannot be undone to create the original data. [18] Some Organizational Entities are proposing Blockchains as Permissioned Systems which demands a link to a entity ‘s Digital Identity, and this Personal data will be accessible for all who use the Blockchain. [14] Blockchain entries are aggregated into data structure blocks. [14] Structurally speaking, a blockchain may be considered as a series of blocks of data that are securely chained together. [16] To successfully tamper with a blockchain you would need to alter all the blocks on the chain, redo the proof of work for each block and take control of more than 50% of the peer-to-peer network, only then will your altered block become accepted by everyone else. [16] A hacker would need to take control of 51% of the nodes running the blockchain, which is increasingly more difficult the larger the network becomes. [18]

Though that can sound like a scary idea, blockchain is most useful for cases when you need to establish data provenance – who created what document when, who currently owns the data, what changes were made, etc. [18] This system of an encrypted distributed blockchain makes the data stored in the blockchain highly secure and impenetrable to hacking and unauthorized access. [13] For many companies and users, however, blockchains have an even more immediate potential to store sensitive data that requires less storage. [20] It may take some time before companies and users can consider large-scale data storage on the blockchain an overall better solution. [20] Entering your data (or its hash) into a blockchain reduces the liability of lost documentation, reduces audit time, and negates costly litigation. [18]

Blockchain is generally used to describe the Protocol for the Distributed Ledger Technology which forms the heart of the Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. [14] The first successful longest operating blockchain protocol network is Bitcoin, a cryptocurrency invented by a person or group working under the name Satoshi Nakamoto. [13] Indeed the bitcoin blockchain is a very good proof of this given that it now secure hundreds of billions of dollars using this method without the network having been hacked. [16] As in the case of the bitcoin blockchain, this is realized on some form of challenge such that no one actor on the network is able to solve this challenge consistently more than everyone else on the network. [16] Blockchain is the decentralised historical record of changes in the ownership of an asset, be it simply spending a bitcoin or executing a complex Smart contract in one of the second-generation cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum. [14] Blocks record and confirm when, and in what sequence, transactions enter and are logged in the Blockchain. [14] In order to randomize the processing of blocks across the nodes and deter certain service abuses, blockchains use various time-stamping schemes, such as proof-of-work. [16] Any node that creates a transaction can, after a confirmation period, determine with a reasonable level of certainty whether the transaction is valid, able to take place and become final (i.e. that no conflicting transactions were confirmed into the Blockchain elsewhere that would invalidate the transaction, such as the same cryptocurrency units “double-spent” somewhere else). [14] Blockchain transactions are hosted by millions of computers at once, a decentralized system that increases security. [15] Blockchain is a shared ledger that is managed by a large network of computers, rather than one central party. [18] The core of a blockchain, such as Bitcoin, is a digital ledger where metadata is stored. [13] Whether you believe in the future of Bitcoin or not, the Bitcoin blockchain protocol has unleashed a global tidal wave of potential disruption and rethinking of how future financial and technological systems could work. [13] Such descriptions make it easy to envision this technology used in the financial sector, but as we?ve talked about, Blockchain has many applications, from contracts and cutting fraud to arbitrage. [15] The original Bitcoin code has been released under an Open Source licence and all Blockchain 2.0 applications have also been Open Source. [14] Companies can and should use blockchain to store employee time-tracking and smart contracts, and there are many other useful applications. [15]

Data stored on the blockchain is generally considered incorruptible. [16] Because the data in a blockchain lives on forever, the data inside is immutable. [18] You can store data and documents privately behind your company’s firewalls, and store the proof on the blockchain. [18]

A consensus algorithm, like bitcoin’s proof of work, works to ensure that the next block in a blockchain is the one and only version of the truth, and it keeps powerful adversaries from derailing the system. [16] Right now, blockchain is like the internet back in the mid-90s: a massively important technology that is divisive precisely because it is too early for its implications having become clear – not least because it is so poorly understood. [19] Blockchain is a peer-to-peer Distributed Ledger Technology ( DLT ) shared by Untrusted participants, with strong guarantees about accuracy and consistency. [14] Blockchain is a powerful new technology, but since it isn’t mainstream yet, it may be difficult to justify to your boss, who may still be unsure about a blockchain strategy. [18] We could be looking at the next big advancement in technology, and that’s why everyone is talking about this thing called blockchain. [13]

Blockchain is a permanent, Cryptographic tool that makes it easier to create cost-efficient networks without requiring a Registration Authority. [14] Each of these miner computers gets a copy of the blockchain, which gets downloaded automatically upon joining the network. [16]

Any well-connected node is able to determine, with reasonable certainty, whether a transaction does or does not exist in the Blockchain. [14] The specific blockchain protocol defines a valid transaction. [14] Other Blockchain Protocols may use a different method of validation, such as third party certification, or none at all. [14] Blockchain security methods include the use of public-key cryptography. [16] You do not need other collaborators to your system to use the company’s blockchain. [18] Using a blockchain service provider that provides services like any other software platform means you just need Javascript developers with the capacity for understanding simple API calls. [18] Even with the advent of decentralized blockchains, there are still a lot of developments that need to happen. [20] Blockchain is a hot buzzword right now, and company managers might be wondering if it’s something they need to “do” or add to their business. [15] If you are technically inclined, you can find the original paper describing Bitcoin and the Blockchain here. [14] In the past year, you?ve likely heard the words blockchain, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies frequently bantered about. [13] Whilst the mainstream media has done a patchy job of explaining bitcoin and its importance, their explanation of blockchain has been sorely lacking. [19]

The blockchain consists of blocks that hold “time-stamped” batches of valid entries. [14] Blockchain p rojects not only have the potential to create the architecture for inherently more secure data storage systems but also to allow individual users to have full authority over which parties are allowed to view data. [20] These can make blockchain data storage more scalable, potentially allowing millions (or even billions) of users to store data securely. [20] It’s still to be determined when exactly blockchain can become the ultimate solution and when user adoption will follow. [20] All users of Blockchain can verify if the underlying code has any security flaws or contains any back doors to allow tampering. [14] Blockchain and tokenization have enabled video games to offer users more value and rights to their in-game digital assets. [37] This transparency allows all users to check their copy of the Blockchain for consistency with other users? copies. [14] Blockchain transparency may be a challenge for the privacy of its user. [14] In mid-2018, most of the major blockchains haven?t demonstrated enough scalability yet to meet potential increases in user demand. [20]

You can use blockchain software that integrates directly with your existing software. [18] The clever bit about blockchain is the way access to the filing cabinet is handled. [19] All across the board, the world’s largest enterprise companies are experimenting with blockchain, determining the most efficient way to leverage its power, and preparing for blockchain’s integration across various industries. 2018 is the year of blockchain. [18] Blockchain has become a big topic among companies, technologists and investors. [13] While blockchain as a service makes it more accessible, Blockchain isn?t necessarily the must-have solution for all. [15] If you don?t have an IT or tech team ready to create or manage your blockchain, you can still take advantage with blockchain as a service. [15] Lisk is a blockchain platform for JavaScript developers who create dApps. [15]

A public key which is a long, random-looking string of numbers, is an address on the blockchain. [16] What are the concepts, concerns, and advantages of using the blockchain data storage? Let’s take a look. [20] While security is essential for blockchain data storage adoption, so is usability. [20] Even with these concerns, blockchain still has a few advantages over traditional data storage security. [20] Despite the promises of blockchain to provide better security, it’s still important to consider some of the risks of blockchain implementation. [20]

The misconception is that we are going to build our own blockchain, but that is just preposterous! The value of a blockchain is that it is a decentralized and does not require a trusted third party. [18] The best thing about blockchain is that it proves the process before you make a business decision. [18] Blockchain provides proof of the evidence on which you based your business process decisions, making it easy to validate how decisions were made. [18] Blockchain provides immutable proof that something did or did not happen in the past, effortlessly validating your business process decisions. [18] Blockchain can help your business if used in the appropriate situation. [15] Blockchain is more than a trend, but some business owners might wonder how to get started. [15]

Depending on how much you are affected by time and money lost, and resources wasted, blockchain can have tremendous value to save your company money. [18] If you need clear audit trail, blockchain is the perfect tool. [15] Check out these insightful flowcharts to guide you on whether you need blockchain. [15]

It can be so seamless, in fact, that the outside observer wouldn’t even know you had a blockchain solution underpinning your process. [18] According to an IBM survey, “91 percent of banks are investing in blockchain solutions for deposit-taking by 2018 to protect against start-up non-banks.” [15] IBM recently unveiled blockchain as a service via its program IBM Hyperledger. [15] Oracle and Huawei are offering blockchain as a service built on IBM’s Hyperledger. [15] Crystal Wiese is the Director of Marketing for Factom, a Blockchain as a Service company based in Austin TX. Working within the startup tech scene for the past 10 years she has become passionate about taking great ideas and building a strong comprehensive narratives. [18] Ardor is a new blockchain as a service in 2018, claiming it is “reducing blockchain bloat, providing multiple transactional tokens, and hosting ready-to-use interconnected blockchains called child chains.” [15] Microsoft was one of the early ones to offer blockchain as a service with Azure. [15]

With blockchains and distributed ledger technologies, however, hacks are much more difficult to execute. [20] When thinking about cryptocurrency payments on the blockchain, the amount of data storage needed is actually quite low, considering the large amounts of data needed to save photo and video files. [20]

In Storj, for example, only a small amount of data can be accessed in a hack since data is encrypted and distributed across a large network of databases. [20] Data quality and the resilience of the network is maintained by massive database replication across many different nodes on the network, no centralized “official” copy exists and no user is “trusted” more than any other. [16] Since data has traditionally been stored on centralized databases, it has become more likely that any given hack will lead to a large amount of data exposure for a large number of users. [20] This hashing and linking of blocks makes them inherently resistant to modification of their data, making them immutable, you can only write data to the database and once it is there it is very hard to change, almost impossible. [16] This database consists of a series of encrypted blocks that contain the data. [16] Dirt Protocol isn’t trying to create a single, definitive data repository, but rather to provide the tools for developers to build their own databases. [38] The great thing about databases are how easy they make it to access the current state of a piece of data. [18] Once a hack is successfully executed on a centralized database, vast amounts of data can be accessed by hackers. [20] Current database tools are specifically designed to make it very easy to write and update data. [18] Because databases are owned or managed by central parties, there is always a chance your data could be changed or overwritten without your notice or consent. [18] The miners that keep copies of the database of everyone’s financial transactions all compete to receive rewards of new bitcoins. [19] Every miner is pitted against the rest of the network put together, all of whom know it’s in their interests to act honestly and maintain the database accurately. (If you?re interested in finding out more about how the bitcoin network operates and how consensus is reached about what should be in the database, you can read a more detailed explanation and find further resources here.) [19] When new entries into the database are made these changes are automatically broadcast across the network. [16] The hashing and linking of blocks makes it difficult to go back and change a previous block once entered, but this alone would not be sufficed to ensured that it is tamper proof so the proof of work system intentionally makes it computationally more difficult to alter the database, thus making it extremely difficult to alter all the blocks. [16] The database stores information in blocks that are linked together through hash values, with entries to this database being made by computers that all have a copy of the database and must all come to a consensus about its state before they can update it. [16] Digital databases have been around for awhile now but until recently they have been designed to centralize information on one computer or within one organization. [16] Users will need to stake tokens to add new information to databases, to challenge an entry or to vote in disputes — you’ll be penalized (by losing tokens) for adding misinformation and rewarded for weeding it out. [38] Her solution? Build databases where anyone can contribute information, but where they have “skin in the game,” so there’s a financial penalty if they’re not truthful. [38] Those databases might focus on things like ICOs (providing information like the team, the investors and the number of tokens in circulation), or online publishers (to help advertisers avoid bots), or professional listings and membership lists. [38] This database is instead maintained by a large number of computers that are incentivized to provide computing resources by earning some form of tokens in exchange but these nodes themselves cannot be trusted individually. [16] Entities install the application locally and the “nodes” all hold a copy of the database. [14] At the end of the day what this technology enables is a database that is secure with automatic trust that is enabled by open source code and encryption. [16] At least two companies, Elliptic and Chainalysis, Cluster analysis and other techniques of Identity Correlation to bitcoin addresses, and compiling all their insights into commercialized databases that track all bitcoin activity in an effort to De-anonymization Bitcoin. [14] The quirks of the way a community-run database is maintained are what gives bitcoin all of its unique properties. [19] Ordinary databases have administrators who control who is allowed access to them, and how – in other words, who gets to use the filing cabinet. [19] On top of this it places a distributed consensus mechanism so that even if someone did manage to do this, their database would not match that of others and thus would not be accepted as the valid record. [16] Often you?ll pay a fee for each transaction in that database, making it more expensive in some cases. [15] It is a shared database as many people across a network have a copy which is continuously being updated so that all have a single source of truth. [16] As mentioned above, traditional data storage solutions rely heavily upon centralized databases to maintain security. [20] It is tamper proof, once information is put into the database it can not be altered. [16] The point is, there is always an administrator – a gatekeeper who owns the database, who has control of it and who can alter it however they want. [19]

Traditional databases are excellent if you require only basic transactions between parties. [15] With continued large-scale hacks of traditional databases, consumers are increasingly wary of vulnerable, outdated data storage technologies as well whether or not companies are keeping sensitive data safe. [20]

The fact that blockchain technology is still relatively new also means that the teams in charge of securing data have to consider a variety of possible (oftentimes theoretical) security scenarios. [20] Blockchain technology has already grown beyond just Bitcoin, and is now being used, by ShoCard and others, for systems other than currency transactions. [14] Some say blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin will change our world in profound ways; others say the whole topic is a giant sham and will eventually implode. [13] To appreciate the potential of blockchain applications, it’s important to understand how a blockchain like Bitcoin works. [13] The Bitcoin blockchain protocol described in the Satoshi white paper is the genesis of every blockchain application currently in use today. [13]

The team at Dirt Protocol is using blockchain technology to create a new approach to verify information. [38] Any computer connected to the blockchain network using a client can perform the task of validating and relaying transactions. [16] The structure and operation of a blockchain network makes the data on the blockchain network impervious to hackers. [13] So the Blockchain – a linked list of all the previous blocks – serves as the full and complete record of who owns what within the Blockchain network. [14]

Blockchain technology still needs some improvements in security and scalability before it can be considered the hands-down, go-to solution for data storage. [20] Blockchain technology underpins bitcoin and all other cryptocurrencies. [19] This new blockchain technology, and future evolutions of it, will likely underpin technologies such as autonomous vehicles, robotics, the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and social media; and could dramatically change financial services, currencies and investment markets. [13] Companies that work on an enterprise level scale should approach blockchain technology like any other software provider in their stack. [18] Some of the leading companies advocating for and working on blockchain projects are IBM, Microsoft, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, and Intel. Blockchain has been hailed as the “fifth evolution of computing,” so you can assume everyone will be using blockchain in some way in the future, whether or not they know it yet. [18] In many cases, blockchain projects are using native cryptocurrencies as part of tokenomic models. [20]

A number of blockchain projects are aiming to make data storage more secure. [20] For PoW consensus algorithm projects, 51% attacks executed by miners on blockchain networks have proven to cause big security issues for a number of projects. [20] In a blockchain network, the work of miners is to ensure that you and only you have access to your account. [19] This open-source blockchain is a service helping customers create, deploy and manage blockchain networks. [15]

If the Blockchain application is run for internal use within a bank or a group of banks these may simply pay third parties or employees to perform this task. [14] Blockchain applications can establishes trust, accountability and transparency while streamlining business processes. [14]

Sybil attacks, routing attacks, and DDoS attacks all present major security challenges for emerging blockchain projects. [20]

While Cambridge Analytica and other technology companies of the past have been restrictive in what information consumers can access and keep private, blockchain companies like SingleSource allow consumers to have full control over their own data. [23] IBM Open Cloud CTO Chris Ferris and IBM Blockchain Solution Architect Anthony O?Dowd provide an overview of Open Blockchain, IBM’s contribution to the digital ledger technology that’s changing the way business transactions happen. [39] Blockchain is a digital record of a variety of transactions : financial exchanges, store purchases, and transfer of data and goods, to name a few. [25] An example of a generic blockchain shows blocks that contain multiple transactions, pointers to previous blocks in the chain, and data used to validate the block. [24] Learn to perform traditional data store transactions with blockchain by implementing a web-based, to-do list app that enables you to browse, read, edit, add, and delete list items. [39] With the introduction of blockchain solutions to handle the KYC process, data will be available on a decentralized network and can, therefore, be accessed by third parties directly after permission has been given. [21] Taking into account the recent progress achieved on KYC policy standardization and the ever-increasing amount of data being collected, it is now possible for blockchain solutions to make use of smart contracts for the execution of control and operational processes. [21] A blockchain solution, on the other hand, would allow the creation of a ledger that would allow the data to be stored on a single, universally accessible platform. [21] Once entered, data on the blockchain ledger cannot be altered. [21] Get started with this secure, distributed, open ledger technology by completing a journey series that shows you how to build a working blockchain app step by step. [39] Predicted to be a commonplace foundational technology not too far into the future, blockchain has the potential to dramatically reduce the cost of transactions and simplify record-keeping. [25] Initially, blockchain was just a protocol that supported recording transactions in which the cryptocurrency bitcoin was being transferred between two individuals. [26] While it might be possible for a hacker to access some sensitive information should the device be stolen, they would not be able to change the data thanks to the immutability of the blockchain. [21] This blockchain based KYC system will also offer better data security by ensuring that data access is only made after a confirmation or permission is received from the relevant authority. [21] An institution, a bank, for example, sends a request to the blockchain platform to access your identity data. [21] Data stored on the blockchain is secured by cryptography and cannot be altered without agreement by more than 51% of the network. [21] When a process wants to add data to a blockchain, it constructs a block of data and appends it to the blockchain with a link. [24] Blockchains can be public or private, and entities that post data onto blockchains can be known or anonymous. [24] Blockchain makes it easy for unique digital artwork to have built-in ownership and provenance data. [24] When a dataset is hashed to the blockchain, this hash merely signifies the existence of this data at a certain point in time. [22] The ability to trust data stored on a blockchain removes the need for secondary validation processes or cross-checking. [21] Near-real-time adaptive pricing, on-demand insurance and hybrid insurance products for the sharing economy are being explored by multiple start-ups leveraging big data, AI and the IoT. Blockchain would add a feature to these types of models, making sure that these new sources of data used for better risk assessment, pricing and mitigation are stored in a distributed ledger, which is owned by neither insurers nor insureds and cannot be corrupted or manipulated. [26] Build an IoT app that stores, processes, and analyzes data from a Blockchain app and sends the data to be displayed in IoT dashboards. [39] Equally, blockchains could track “risk provenance” on an individual basis by leveraging data from the IoT and wearable devices. [26] In the traditional sense, data is never really “stored” on a blockchain. [22] Traditional blockchains are not designed to store vast amounts of structured data, especially if this data is being constantly processed by many participants in parallel. [22]

It’s also worth considering where technology can complement changing the way things are currently done, which business models may become obsolete if blockchain solutions become widespread, and what are the regulatory implications and risks of blockchain-enabled insurance models. [26] In addition to the basic blockchain components, this solution relies on a technology called Smart Contracts. [24] As we saw with smart contracts, interactions which are backed up by blockchain are distinctly impersonal, and there is danger in embracing technology that reduces our capacity to make mistakes. [1] Indicative of the momentum building behind blockchain (Figures 3 and 4) since 2014, 627 patents were filed (372 in 2017 alone) containing either blockchain or distributed ledger technology in their abstracts. [26] In the battle against fraud, for example, distributed ledgers using blockchains can be more effective than existing technologies due to their shared and distributed nature and the mechanisms to self-regulate in a network of multiple parties with conflicts of interest. [26] If Visa were to start using blockchain data storage, any customer’s financial information would be virtually impossible to steal, since no one computer would have an entire customer’s information–just like no single computer had the entire check in Patrick’s example. [1] The concept of Blockchain based KYC platform is already being implemented by IT giants like IBM. The Shared Corporate Know Your Customer (KYC) project assures an efficient, secure and decentralized mechanism to validate, collect, store, refresh and share KYC information for customers. [21]

Blockchain is the foundation, or “building block,” of Bitcoin. [1] Blockchain may be a foreign concept to many readers, but if you’ve heard of Bitcoin or cryptocurrency, you’ve heard about blockchain. [1] The Bitcoin blockchain is only one particular blockchain; there are many thousands of others. [24]

Organizations that use blockchain depend on trusted transactions to securely automate processes that were previously completed manually. [39] Deploy a React UI that has can submit blockchain transactions and view the state of a blockchain ledger as updated. [39] If you sell, lend, or give it to someone else, the blockchain adds immutable transactions to reflect the change of ownership. [24] Blockchain, therefore, has the potential to bring about a big change in the way banks consider identity security and access. [21] Alex Feinberg, ex-Google employee and COO of Petram Security, talked with TechRepublic’s Dan Patterson about how blockchain could change user privacy. [28]

With its distributed ledger, smart contracts, and non-repudiation capabilities, blockchain is revolutionizing the way financial organizations do business, and the insurance industry is no exception. [39] A blockchain used for content rights licensing and royalty processing, which uses Smart Contracts to represent business rules, terms, and conditions. [24] In our view, promising applications over the next 10 years are likely to allow insurers to reduce administration and claim processing costs; reach underserved business segments; and offer on-demand, self-issuing policies driven by a number of key blockchain characteristics (Figure 2). [26] The application of KYC blockchain solutions is not limited to banks or financial institutions. [21] It is in this environment of volatility, ambiguity, complexity, and uncertainty that the financial sector is turning to blockchain solutions to help with KYC compliance. [21]

Other consortia or industry groups looking into how to apply blockchain to insurance specific use cases include The Institutes RiskBlock? Alliance, Hashed Health and the Financial Blockchain Shenzhen Consortium. [26] There are definitely good uses of blockchain, and those uses deserve to be celebrated. [1]

Two other advances have significantly increased the ability of blockchain to become a truly disrupting technology. [26] The newest frontier in the world of technology is called blockchain. [1] One emerging technology however, the blockchain, could put privacy back into the hands of consumers. [28]

There is no reason to ever interact with a person if a transaction is accomplished via blockchain. [1] It’s only possible to add transactions to a blockchain; once there, they can?t be altered or removed. [24] The highest-profile of several new blockchain-based image licensing initiatives is KODAKOne from Eastman Kodak, which includes not only an image licensing blockchain but a cryptocurrency for royalty transactions. [24]

While blockchain will not reinvent the way insurance is done, it can enable the transparency and scalability of new business models like P2P insurance, since it provides a framework for self-regulating organizations among non-trusted partners. [26] Blockchain is a way to track the ownership of the digital assets. [27] Blockchain is here to stay, and it will shape our society in ways we can’t anticipate. [1] The only way blockchain can be truly transformational is if it is employed at a scale, and with a depth and scope, where everyone is on board. [26] Hopefully this article has provided you with a good understanding of some of the important ways that blockchain can improve the future of consumer protection. [23]

When embedded on a blockchain, smart contracts become immutable, self-executing pieces of code sitting on a transparent and auditable shared ledger. [26] Patterson : Alex, it’s almost impossible to open your phone, or to load a website, without reading about cryptocurrency, the blockchain, smart contracts, but for those of us who are not engineers, and not nerds, help us understand what the blockchain is, how it works and why it’s important. [28] Blockchain, in combination with AI and the IoT, could enable a future in which risks are calculated, pooled and placed automatically through smart contracts on a truly decentralized, P2P platform. [26] Those are where applications of the blockchain can exist, and what this allows for is for decentralized organizations, organizations without one owner or without one king to exist. [28] A third of blockchain patents are international applications that have been filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and most of these international patent applications were filed starting in 2017. [26] This talk provides an in-depth look at blockchain and its practical applications, including an overview of blockchain concepts, a look at Hyperledger Fabric, an example architecture, and a dive into the specifics of building a blockchain app. [39] Learn how to create a blockchain monitoring app using React and Node.js with the Hyperledger Fabric SDK. [39] This code pattern shows you how to implement a web-based blockchain app using Hyperledger Fabric to facilitate insurance sales and claims. [39] KYC verification using blockchain has the potential to be faster, easier, safer and more efficient than the traditional verification procedures. [21] When using blockchain, however, the process of verifying the accuracy of payments is much simpler and quicker. [23]

This could change with blockchain time stamped and recorded portable identities. [26] Every entity that participates in a blockchain has a copy of it that is guaranteed to be complete at any given time. [24]

Several startups are building solutions in this area, such as Dot Blockchain Media, a public benefit corporation that is building blockchain-based API-level software infrastructure that solution providers can build on. [24] Join Arnaud Le Hors, IBM Senior Technical Staff Member for Open Web and Blockchain Technologies, for a look back at the past year’s Hyperledger accomplishments, milestones, and challenges. [39] Blockchain not only allows for the creation of new digital currencies but also vastly improves the future of consumer protection. [23] This will increase the effectiveness of the blockchain based KYC system, as it would reduce the need for manual oversight. [21] For simple risks, blockchain may become a reality sooner than we think, but for more complex risks, many challenges need to be overcome. [26] For a more in-depth explanation of blockchain and how it works, some introductory resources may be found here, here, and here. [1] The blockchain trail is sinuous and tricky, and insurers should work expediently to become proficient. [26] The KYC registry on a blockchain could be accessed by many industries in addition to banks and other financial institution. [21] The growing number of blockchain industry and InsurTech start-up ecosystem initiatives cannot be ignored. [26] Despite all of this activity, the future of blockchain and the speed at which it progresses within the insurance industry will depend on a number of unanswered questions and issues. [26] In the years to come, blockchain aims to achieve an even greater number of tangible, real-world results that benefit consumers as well as the global economy as a whole. [23] In the field of supply chain management, Blockchain not only offers benefits of traceability and cost-effectiveness but also brings a new level of transparency in B2B ecosystem. [27] Other P2P insurance start-ups, like Teambrella, InsurePal and Aigang, realized from the beginning that blockchain could be the technological enabler of a true P2P insurance platform. [26] No one has all the answers when it comes to how blockchain will ultimately influence the insurance business — even those at the forefront of its development. [26] The ethical implications of blockchain appear most clearly in smart contracts, which are also known as self-executing contracts. [1] The Ethereum blockchain is known for supporting Smart Contracts. [24] Smart Contracts are programs that specify rules, terms, and conditions of a contract; they are written in a programming language environment that causes programs to run on all copies of a blockchain atomically, meaning that they all run either completely and correctly or not at all. [24]

As demonstrated in the examples listed above, blockchain technology not only has the potential to improve financial transaction processes but can also keep user data safe from many of today’s largest sources of fraud. [23]

In order to build a network of decentralized databases, CyberVein iterates on DAG, Directed Acyclic Graph technologies, introduces a novel resource-conserving consensus mechanism, and modifies the Solidity contracting language to adapt it for the processing and monetisation of vast amounts of data. [22] For consumers and users of websites where sensitive data is submitted, decentralised databases will significantly reduce the risk of major issues like identity fraud. [23] The exact state of a database at a given time and date can easily be reconstructed, making it ideal for shared, immutable processing of data. [22] Most use cases being explored by incumbents have sought automation and back-end efficiency, either through the development of smart contract-enabled products for parametric insurance — cat swaps, crop or weather-index-based insurance, travel insurance and even life microinsurance products — or by using the technology to explore industry-wide solutions that use shared and near-real-time synchronized databases. [26] Even though adoption of decentralised databases is still quite low as of June 2018, it is expected that this promising technology will continue to improve and become more accessible for a greater number of companies. [23] Distributed database maintaining a continuously growing list of secured records or blocks. [39] That’s why the opportunity for privacy is enhanced, because an open database, what block chain is, is no better for privacy than a closed database, in fact it’s probably worse, but what an open database does allow for is organizations to run without one king. [28] It’s a chain of a database which is distributed all over the globe hosted by various computers which are also known as a peer-to-peer framework. [27] A file containing a spreadsheet, stored on IPFS, would indeed be hosted in a distributed way, but the database itself would not be decentralized, or immutable for that matter. [22] These distributed relational databases are being explored to automate processes, like subrogation, and reduce costs and processing times by reducing friction and human errors. [26] Databases, on the other hand, are interactive tools to analyze and process data in real-time and to derive insights thereof. [22] All entries, modifications, and amendments to CyberVein databases are stored as appended smart contract transactions. [22] Logistics companies can share information, pharmaceutical companies can share information potentially, hospitals can potentially share information, there’s a lot of legislation or laws in the books that make that a little bit challenging, but essentially anytime there’s coordination issues, that can be solved by having multiple people access and form a consensus around the appropriate changes to a common database. [28] That means Visa or MasterCard has a central database that contains every customer’s financial information. [1] If that database were to be hacked, every customer’s financial information would be at risk. [1]

The promise of this exciting new database technology cannot be overstated. [21] On top of that, CyberVein databases exist within a network. [22] There’s no one server or a person who is controlling this and that’s why we have Distributed Global De-Centralized Database. [27] No one, including parties to the database, can corrupt its records, delete it, or tamper with its processing history. [22]

Today blockchain technology has evolved to become a protocol that allows us to record any type of transactions transferring value. [26] Blockchain technology is poised to be a part of the solution by helping mitigate or even eliminate concerns over both identity fraud and data misuse. [23] There are already quite a few decentralised exchanges (and blockchain projects) emerging that will provide much better solutions for both the security of cryptocurrency funds as well as any other relevant user data. [23]

By providing consumers with better data privacy control options and greater overall transparency, blockchain technology gives more power to consumers to make their own decisions. [23] Blockchain technology allows for the creation of a distributed ledger that is then shared to all users on the network. [21] Blockchain technology can help solve this problem by enabling ownership transactions to be stored on a blockchain. [24] Extend your blockchain application with event handling, so that transactions on the shared ledger can initiate actions automatically. [39] Create a blockchain application for a customer loyalty program with members and partners on the same network. [39] Use the Hyperledger Composer framework to create and execute smart contracts within a blockchain application built on Hyperledger Fabric. [39] This may sound far fetched, but British musician Imogen Heap is already attempting to use smart contracts with blockchain technology. [1] If the technology goes around really well then soon the Blockchain technology is going to transform the global internet infrastructure and will change everyone’s perception about the use of technology. [27] Innovations in blockchain technology have already begun to change the way the global economy works. [23] The ability of blockchain technology to provide immutable ownership and ownership transfer records is more relevant for individual artwork than it is for mass-produced copyrighted works. [24] Not only this, many entrepreneurs are already adopting the new Blockchain technology in their work system. [27] Blockchain technology does not guarantee the accuracy of information about who needs to get paid and how much; this will still be up to third parties and the subject of occasional disputes. [24] The sudden boom in Blockchain technology is due to its vast uses in various fields and verticals. [27] Are you ready to take your company to the next level of productivity and decentralized security with blockchain technology but don?t know how and where to begin? Or perhaps you have had the experience of dealing with one of the self-styled gurus who lacked the expert-level knowledge necessary to guide you through the preparation for blockchain with small yet important steps. [25] This novel implementation of blockchain technology is only possible thanks to improvements to DAG ledger design developed by CyberVein. [22] Get started with blockchain technology by learning how to build a blockchain network using Hyperledger Composer. [39] Learn how to create a basic blockchain network using Hyperledger Composer and interact with the network through a web application. [39] Create and deploy a blockchain network using Hyperledger Fabric SDK Java, setting up and initializing the channel, installing and instantiating chaincode, and performing invoke and query on your blockchain network. [39] Get started with blockchain by deploying the blockchain network on Hyperledger Fabric using Kubernetes APIs on the IBM Cloud Kubernetes Service. [39] Check out how to control the flow of requests to a blockchain network using RabbitMQ and Redis Cluster. [39]

Execute transactions and requests against a blockchain network by creating an app to test the network and its rules. [39] According to a report published by Deloitte in 2016, blockchain networks could rival ACH’s 23 billion annual transactions by 2025. [23]

As I have already highlighted, technology giants like IBM have already invested in a massive blockchain project that is being built with the help of HSBC, Deutsche Bank, the Treasuries of Cargill. [21] Blockchain technology is especially relevant to digital artwork, as identifiers of nodes on a blockchain can be embedded directly into the art itself rather than supplied separately, such as on ownership certificates. [24] It is completely digital, and the code is written in terms of a smart contract utilizing blockchain technology. [1] First theorized by Nick Szabo in 1997, smart contracts are a natural result of blockchain technology. [1]

Here I?ll discuss the types of applications that are being investigated for blockchain technology in publishing, and I?ll compare them to blockchain developments in other media industry segments such as music and visual arts. [24] The third application of blockchain technology that I?ll discuss here relates to consumer e-book purchases. [24] In all, blockchain technology has various applications for rights management in publishing and other media industry segments. [24]

Only time will tell what the true impact of blockchain technology will be. [21] I have shown that blockchain technology can help improve KYC in many ways. [21] A KYC utility system based on blockchain technology will enable the financial and banking sectors to emancipate the process of identification verification. [21] Major music services such as Spotify have their own internal blockchain technology initiatives. [24]

Create a blockchain network for validating pledges and tracking funds made by the government for humanitarian causes. [39] Learn how to begin the process of building a Hyperledger blockchain application using the Hyperledger Fabric SDK API. [39] Those contracts will run within a blockchain application built on Hyperledger Fabric. [39] Blockchain applications are part of a complex and rapidly evolving field, and it is important to form academic and industrial partnerships with qualified and reliable blockchain experts to prepare your business for the future. [25] Load test your blockchain application by submitting a large number of enroll, invoke, and query requests, then viewing the results in MongoDB. [39]

The security offered by blockchain’s decentralized model makes the chance of fraud much less likely. [21]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(39 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (50) The Coming World of Blockchain – The CPA Journal

2. (44) Blockchain – Wikipedia

3. (30) Blockchain Technology Complexity Labs

4. (30) Confused About Blockchains? Here’s What You Need to Know – The New York Times

5. (28) 7 things you want your boss to know about blockchain | 2018-06-22 | HousingWire

6. (27) Ldapwiki: Blockchain

7. (26) Blockchain Data Storage Could Soon Be The New Standard

8. (26) Why Is Blockchain A Good Solution For KYC Verification? – DevTeamSpace

9. (26) The Promises and Perils of Blockchain Technology in Publishing – Book Industry Study Group

10. (26) Blockchain use in insurance — from theory to reality – Willis Towers Watson

11. (26) Blockchains Vs Databases: Main Differences, Advantages & Disadvantages

12. (26) Database Trends and Applications

13. (25) Blockchain – IBM Code

14. (22) Tips to Use Blockchain to Help Your Business

15. (18) Blockchain, Blockchain, Blockchain | News |

16. (17) What does blockchain have to do with a Christian’s need for fellowship? | ERLC

17. (16) Blockchains Versus Traditional Databases – Blockchain technology network and discussion forum

18. (14) 4 ways blockchain technology prevents fraud, reduces risk, and helps consumers with ownership of data

19. (13) What Is a Blockchain? – Uphold Blog

20. (13) CYBERVEIN – FAQ

21. (10) Sealing MongoDB Data on the Blockchain – DZone Security

22. (8) Permissioned/Private Blockchains and Databases

23. (8) Why do so many (financial) institutions use blockchain technology even though distributed auditable classic databases are cheaper, faster and can fulfill (almost) the same requirements? – Quora

24. (8) Blockchain: The New Technology of Trusted Transactions – Mobiloitte Blog

25. (7) How the blockchain could return privacy control to consumer – TechRepublic

26. (6) The Decentralized Database for Dapps

27. (5) Join the Future of Efficiency and Security with Blockchain

28. (5) Blockchain Vs Databases – BridgeProtocol – Medium

29. (5) Dirt Protocol raises $3M for a decentralized, blockchain-based approach to information vetting TechCrunch

30. (4) Startup Spotlight: Chicago Blockchain Project

31. (4) Sorry, but blockchain databases are just not that secure | InfoWorld

32. (3) Building Applications with Blockchain | MongoDB

33. (2) Blockchain: A Primer with Hack Reactor

34. (2) How Can the Blockchain Solve Music Industry Problems?

35. (1) Blockchain-based database provider Fluence is using the blockchain to create a decentralized data organization layer – Siacoin for databases. Thoughts? : CryptoCurrency

36. (1) PTC | How Blockchain Will Impact the Telecoms Industry | Pacific Telecommunications Council

37. (1) Tokenized Securities Are Not Secured By Delaware Blockchain Amendments

38. (1) Blockchain Framework for dApps – ?rovectus

39. (1) Cryptocurrency News, ICO Database, Coin Rankings and Blockchain Events | CryptoSlate