Coal Power Plant Facts

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Fly ash emitted by a coal power plant carries 100 times more radiation into the surrounding environment than a nuclear power plant producing the same amount of energy.(More...)
  • ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) -- Environmental groups are accusing U.S. regulators of violating clean water rules by repeatedly delaying action on a discharge permit for a coal-fired power plant that provides electricity for customers in three western states.(More...)
  • WASHINGTON (June 1, 2018)--The White House is planning to issue a directive to the Department of Energy (DOE) that forces the agency to require electricity grid operators to buy power or capacity from uneconomical power plants for two years, according to news reports.(More...)
  • One extreme proposal being explored is allowing for the Department of Energy to order grid operators to buy electricity from coal-fired power plants for two years.(More...)

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  • With total consumption of about 12.7 quadrillion British thermal units, the U.S. electric power sector consumed more coal energy than any other sector in 2017.(More...)

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Coal Power Plant Facts
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KEY TOPICS

Fly ash emitted by a coal power plant carries 100 times more radiation into the surrounding environment than a nuclear power plant producing the same amount of energy. [1] A coal power plant with a 40% efficiency takes an estimated 325 kg (717 lb) of coal to power a 100 W lightbulb for one year. [1] Oil drilling might require strip-mining Canada's boreal forest, the technology associated with fracking can cause earthquakes and water pollution, and coal power plants foul the air. [2] Nowadays, coal is mainly used in coal-fired power plants to generate electricity. [3] In her statement, Ms. Sanders said that the ongoing retirement of coal and nuclear plants, which are being pushed out of competitive electricity markets by a glut of natural gas and renewable power, were "leading to a rapid depletion of a critical part of our nation's energy mix, and impacting the resilience of our power grid." [4] The company had earlier sent a letter to Mr. Perry asking him to save the country's coal and nuclear plants by invoking Section 202(c) of the Federal Power Act, under which the Energy Department can order certain power facilities to stay open in a crisis, such as a hurricane. [4]

In 2050, U.S. coal power generation is expected to decrease to around 1,139 terawatt hours. [5] According to data from the Sierra Club, at least 25 coal plants have shut down since he took office, largely squeezed out by competition from natural gas, wind and solar power. [4] There is no environmental argument for keeping open coal plants, which are the most carbon-intensive form of power. [4]

The largest Nuclear power plant (Bruce Nuclear Generating Station) in the world is in Ontario, Canada and their security force has won the U.S. National SWAT Championship 4 times. [1] Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona which is spread over 4000 square acres employs 2055 workers, generates 35% of the electricity needed in Arizona, and is the only nuclear power plant in the world that is not built next to a body of water. [1] It is widely used for generating electricity in coal-fired power plants. [3] The Chernobyl Power Plant continued operating and producing electricity until 2000, 14 years after the Chernobyl disaster. [1] If you live within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant then you are exposed to an average annual dose of 0.09 millirem per year, which is the same as eating 1.64 bananas. [1] Nuclear power plants in the U.S. are so strong that they can be struck by a large commercial airliner and still not release harmful radiation. [1] The world's first nuclear power plant (Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant), built by the USSR in 1951, wasn't decommissioned until 2002. [1] There was a second Fukushima nuclear power plant (Fukushima Daini), 10km to the south, that suffered the same crippling tsunami damage but was saved from meltdown by a capable leader and heroic staff. [1] In coal-fired power plants, this fossil fuel is first pulverized, and then burned. [3] A solar power plant in the Mojave Desert uses 5 square miles of mirrors to concentrate sunbeams on one central tower. [1] Former dictator of Equatorial Guinea Francisco Macias Nguema banned the use of lubricants in Malabo city power plant, saying he could run it using magic. [1] Unfortunately, World War 1 broke out and the power plant was abandoned due to the conflict in the area and oil became a much more attractive energy source. [1]

Today, the coal beds are quiet and blanketed in green, but an adjacent TransAlta power plant with three tall stacks still churns out electricity the traditional way, with coal now supplied from Wyoming. [6] This week Colorado's biggest utility, Xcel Energy, filed a plan to accelerate by a decade the closure of two coal units at its Comanche plant near Pueblo, CO, and to replace that power with the. [7] L.S. Power wants to build a 750-megawatt baseload plant projected to burn a unit train of coal every other day. [8] By 1936, a coal burning electric power generating plant at Newcastle Creek was operating with two 33,000 volt lines going to Fredericton and one 66,000 volt line going to Marysville. [9]

At today's Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee hearing there was widespread agreement among all five FERC Commissioners on the fact that that there is NO emergency with our nation's electric grid to justify bailouts to coal and nuclear power plants. [10] "The Energy Department has already tried to tip the scale in favor of uneconomic coal and nuclear power plants to provide a totally unnecessary "resilience? benefit. [11]

The Rosebud Mine will produce 10 million tons of coal this year to feed the Colstrip power plants. [12] The Rosebud will produce 10 million tons of coal this year to feed the Colstrip power plants. (Railroad shipping from Colstrip ceased four years ago.) [12]

Navajo Mine has provided coal to the Four Corners Power Plant for 50 years. [13] The Navajo Mine currently supplies coal to the Four Corners Power Plant. [13] The really funny thing about all of this is that the nation's oil and gas stakeholders hate the idea of saving old coal and nuclear power plants, too. [10] The Trump Administration has devised a new plan for saving the nation's aging fleet of coal and nuclear power plants, but so far it has been going over like a lead balloon. [10] "Last such attempt" refers to last year's plan to save coal and nuclear power plants. [10] The question is whether or not an emergency exists, and at yesterday's hearing the FERC commissioners couldn't find anything in that long list of section 202(c) emergencies that would apply to the nation's fleet of coal and nuclear power plants. [10] "The Trump administration is trying, once again, to fleece ratepayers by giving coal and nuclear power plants billions of dollars in guaranteed profits. [11]

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) -- Environmental groups are accusing U.S. regulators of violating clean water rules by repeatedly delaying action on a discharge permit for a coal-fired power plant that provides electricity for customers in three western states. [14] It should go a long way toward meeting that goal: Today, in a state that relies on hydropower for most of its energy, the Centralia power plant contributes 10 percent of the state's total greenhouse gases --as much as the emissions from 1.75 million cars. [6] NRG Energy wants to repower the Dunkirk coal-fired power plant in New York to burn natural gas, but unexpected costs have put the project at risk. [15] It's this flexibility that will be key to transitioning away from coal-fired power plants like the one in Centralia and toward clean energy sources like solar. [6] Loy Yang-A power station is a 2,215-megawatt (MW) coal-fired power plant in Victoria, Australia. [16] Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. [17] Arizona Public Service says that would force the closure of the nation's largest nuclear power plant. [15] Greenhouse gas data, voluntary reporting, electric power plant emissions. [17] That's a concern on the mind of Bob Guenther, a local community member who worked at the Centralia power plant for 34 years as a mechanical foreman. [6] Strata Solar to build largest solar power plant in Washington - pv. [6]

"The water pollution permit for the Four Corners coal plant is based on facts and technology from last century," Gloria Smith, an attorney with the Sierra Club, said in a statement. [14]

Western Energy Co. alone paid the state $28 million in taxes in 2012 on its Rosebud Mine, where they dig the coal that powers four side-by-side generating plants - Colstrip Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 - across State Highway 39. [12] Colstrip got its start as a coal mining town back in 1924 but the construction of the power plants provided a reliable market. [12]

It adds to coal phaseout plans in the UK, Italy, France, Finland and Portugal, and other coal power headwinds and especially rising carbon prices and growth in renewables." [18] "It is the ultimate warning for investors in new coal and coal power life extension in Europe. [18]

Even after its merger with Texas-based Vistra Energy, the power company has been petitioning lawmakers and regulators to help keep its eight coal plants in Southern and Central Illinois in business. [19] The power sector's preference for a quick fix - its willingness to take hundreds of coal plants off the electric grid despite a risk to electricity reliability - is supposedly the answer. [20]

Kenya's first coal power plant awaits environmental watchdog's ruling Construction of Kenya's first coal power plant is waiting on a ruling from the country's environmental watchdog. [21] President Donald Trump ordered his energy secretary to take immediate action to stem power plant closures, arguing that a decline in coal and nuclear electricity is putting the nation's security at risk. [22] "The Administration's draft plan to provide government assistance to those coal and nuclear power plants that are struggling to be profitable under the guise of national security would be unprecedented and misguided. [23] NAIROBI, Kenya (AP) - Kenyan activists on Tuesday protested the plans for a joint venture between the Kenyan and Chinese governments to mine coal and open a coal-fired power plant near the Indian Ocean coast, saying it will have devastating effect on the environment and health of the local population. [24] "The Administration's plan to federalize the electric power system is an exercise in crony capitalism taken solely for the benefit of a bankrupt power plant owner and its coal supplier. [23]

WASHINGTON (June 1, 2018)--The White House is planning to issue a directive to the Department of Energy (DOE) that forces the agency to require electricity grid operators to buy power or capacity from uneconomical power plants for two years, according to news reports. [11] Last year the powerful American Petroleum Institute pushed back against the new grid study early on, by making the case that natural gas power plants would do a better job of integrating more renewable energy into the grid. [10] Three days after our visit came word that Pennsylvania-based PPL Corp., the company that bought the plants in 2001, plans to transfer ownership of all its power plants nationwide to a new subsidiary, Talen Energy Corp., within the next year. [12] SPRINGFIELD, Ill. If Dynegy Energy closes its eight coal-fired power plants in downstate Illinois, all will be fine - and better for the environment - according to a new study commissioned by environmental groups. [19] The Netherlands Government has advised the remaining coal-fired power plants that, in the intervening period, they should make their plants suitable for electricity production by other means or other fuels such as sustainable biomass. [18] President Trump's mandate would force the DOE to implement two emergency-only provisions--the Federal Power Act and the Defense Production Act--to once again attempt to bail out coal-fired and nuclear power plants. [11]

At the same time the plant's electricity generating capacity had reached its limit and it was therefore decided to abandon production and transfer loads to the local electrical utility, PEPCO. Another expansion of the Power Plant was authorized in 1958 to accommodate the latest enlargement of the Capitol, the construction of an additional House office building, and other projects. [25] Abusing this authority to bail out uneconomic power plants for such an extended time makes no sense, especially when most regions of the country are awash with excess electricity. [11] "The Netherlands phaseout decision is particularly striking because three of these power plants are brand new," said Gerard Wynn, an energy finance consultant with the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA), speaking via email. [18] T he Capitol Power Plant provides steam and chilled water used to heat and cool buildings throughout the U.S. Capitol campus. [25] With the advent of air conditioning in the 1930s, the power plant also supplied chilled water to the Capitol campus. [25] The man-made lake draws water from the Yellowstone River 30-miles North and provides cooling for Colstrip's four power plants. [12] As president and general manager of Western Electric Company's Rosebud Mine, Kent Salitros has an enormous stake in the proposed emission control standards for the power plants across the highway. [12] Today, the Rosebud Mine operation employs 360 people, roughly the same number as the power plants across the highway. [12] More specifically, all coal-fired power plants will be closed by 2030 at the latest, and the two oldest plants the Hemweg and Amer coal-fired power plants must shutter their doors by the end of 2024. [18] Specifically, the Amer Power Plant was one of two coal-fired power plants which the Netherlands Government ordered to be closed by the end of 2024. [18] The move has come as a surprise to at least one company, however, judging by the reaction from Germany utility RWE, which has numerous power plants in the Netherlands including two coal-fired power plants the 600 megawatt (MW) Amber Power Plant in Geertruidenberg, and the 1,560 MW Eemshaven Power Plant. [18] "It was a failure of managment by the owners of those three power plants, RWE, E.ON and Engie, to proceed with construction at the time of the global financial crisis," added Gerard Wynn. [18] Egan moved to Colstrip in 1972, during construction of the first two power plants. [12]

This needlessly raises costs for consumers and merely shifts the risk of premature retirement to newer, more efficient power plants that compete with coal and nuclear." [23] Coal and oil-fired power plants emit a bevy of air pollutants that have known negative impacts on public health--including fine particulate matter (or PM 2.5), nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, benzene, lead and mercury. [26]

The Kenyan government and private project proponents are pursuing the development of a coal industry in Kenya through two main projects: potential coal mining in Mui Basin, Kitui County, and the proposed Lamu Coal Power Station, a potential 1,050 coal processing plant. [21] Protests in Kenya over plans to introduce new coal mines (5 Jun 2018) Dozens of activists opposed to the development of coal-fired power plants took to the streets of Nairobi on Tuesday. [21]

At today's Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee hearing there was widespread agreement among all five FERC Commissioners on the fact that that there is NO emergency with our nation's electric grid to justify bailouts to coal and nuclear power plants. [27] President Trump has ordered Energy Secretary Rick Perry to take immediate steps to help financially troubled coal and nuclear power plants. [28] The solutions it advocates - essentially requiring the private sector to subsidise the U.S.'s expensive and outdated coal and nuclear power plants - are not adequate to the challenge. [29]

One extreme proposal being explored is allowing for the Department of Energy to order grid operators to buy electricity from coal-fired power plants for two years. [22] Energy Secretary Rick Perry on Monday defended President Donald Trump's call to bolster struggling coal-fired and nuclear power plants, saying a rash of plant retirements is "alarming" and poses a looming crisis for the nation's power grid. [30] A leaked internal memo called on the president's energy secretary to "prepare immediate steps" to stop the closure of coal-fired and nuclear power plants. [22]

Under the Energy Department's draft plan, the administration would take action under two laws: the Federal Power Act that allows the government to guarantee profits for power plants amid grid emergencies, and the 68-year-old Defense Production Act, a Cold War-era statute once invoked by President Harry Truman to help the steel industry. [22] The draft plan is meant to buy time for a two-year study of vulnerabilities in the American energy delivery system, extending to natural gas pipelines as well as power plants. [22] "Independent energy regulators, grid operators and other experts have gone on the record to declare that orderly power plant retirements do NOT constitute an emergency for our electric grid. [23] A FirstEnergy Corp. subsidiary requested immediate intervention from Perry's agency in late March, after the Ohio-based company announced it would shut three nuclear power plants feeding the nation's largest grid, operated by PJM Interconnection LLC. [22] The agency argues that power plant closures must be managed for national security reasons, because nuclear and coal-fired facilities can easily be restored after extreme weather events, cyber-attacks and other emergencies. [22] The Sierra Club recently reported 25 coal-fired power plants have been shuttered since President Trump took office. [22] A view of the inactive cooling towers at FirstEnergy Corporation's coal-fired power plant on October 27, 2017, in Shippingport, Pennsylvania. [31] CARTERSVILLE, Ga. (AP) -- Two people have been injured at a coal-fired power plant owned by Georgia Power. [32] "Any federal intervention in the market to order customers to buy electricity from specific power plants would be damaging to the markets and therefore costly to consumers." [22] As has been well established - by FERC, by grid operators, by industry experts - there is no emergency that would justify propping up uneconomic power plants that are superfluous in an over-supplied region. [23] Swedish Firm Relocates Mega Project from Kenya to Tanzania Swedish firm, VR Holding AB that was to construct Africa's largest wind power plant in Malindi, Kenya at a cost of U.S. $2.5bn has relocated the investment to. [21] Middle River Power, a portfolio company of Avenue Capital responsible for managing its power plant investments, said in a May 2 letter to the water conservation district's board president that it was discussing a possible plan for the station's future with the plant's operator and owners and federal and tribal officials. [33] "A policy to spend billions of dollars keeping uneconomic power plants afloat, while trying to put clean and affordable solar on the sidelines, is not a recipe for economic success. [23] "Propping up aging and uneconomic power plants through the Defense Production Act, the Federal Power Act or other unnecessary federal intervention is a short-sighted action that drives up customer costs and undermines well-functioning power markets. [23] Arbitrary market interventions deprive businesses of the certainty they need to invest in power plants of all types, harming not helping electric reliability. [23]

Taking inspiration from the Justice's energy plan and the governor's public commitment to rebuilding West Virginia's coal industry, Trump ordered Secretary Perry on June 1 to take immediate steps to protect the viability of American coal-fired and nuclear-fired power plants. [34] The St. Petersburg-built power plant will replace a coal plant and an older, landlocked nuclear plant. [35] Coal and nuclear power generation are crucial, the memo's authors argue, because coal and nuclear plants have access to large, on-site reserves of fuel. [29] A draft plan circulating in Washington would require power grid operators to buy electricity from struggling coal plants over the next two years to prevent them from shutting down. [28]

The dual-reactor Akademik Lomonosov will begin operations in Pevek next year, replacing the town's coal-fired power plant and aging nuclear power plant, which 50,000 people in Chukotka rely on for electricity. [36] President Donald Trump on June 1 directed Secretary of Energy Rick Perry to take steps aimed at keeping "fuel-secure" power facilities -- coal-fired generation and nuclear power plants -- operational. [37] Kevin McIntyre, the chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and one of three Republicans on the five member panel, said there was "no immediate calamity or threat" to power plants operating or serving the needs of consumers. [27] Russia's floating nuclear power plant, dubbed the "nuclear Titanic," has arrived in the Arctic port of Murmansk ahead of its first mission, in spite of criticism from environmental campaigners. [36] World's first floating nuclear power plant 'Akademik Lomonosov' passed Langeland, Denmark on May 4. [35] The Gundremmingen nuclear power plant in Germany was found to have been infected with a number of computer viruses. [29] The letter calls for full oversight of the project by the Russian nuclear regulator and an international study into the potential impact of such power plants. [36] In an April 26 blog titled " What Could Possibly Go Wrong with a Floating Nuclear Power Plant? " Greenpeace nuclear experts Jan Haverkamp and Rashid Alimov suggested these plants will primarily serve to power Russian fossil-fuel extraction efforts in the de-iced Arctic, and said, "If this development is not halted, the next nuclear catastrophe could well be a Chernobyl -on-ice or a Chernobyl-on-the-rocks." [35] Once it is fired up, the Akademik Lomonosov will become the world's only operational floating nuclear power plant and the northernmost nuclear installation in the world, according to Rosatom. [36] "Any federal intervention in the market to order customers to buy electricity from specific power plants would be damaging to the markets and therefore costly to consumers. [37] Shut down the coal-fired power plants by 2025, with all other fossil fuels gone by 2030. [38] In late May, the city of Colstrip accepted the latest financial-aid offer extended by one of the utilities that owns the nearby coal-fired power plant. [39]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

With total consumption of about 12.7 quadrillion British thermal units, the U.S. electric power sector consumed more coal energy than any other sector in 2017. [5] The cheapest bid for unsubsidized solar is 2.42/kWh--cheaper per kWh than natural gas, coal, or nuclear power can provide practically anywhere in the world. [1] Ten percent of the state's greenhouse gases come from a single coal-fired power plant--which will soon trade coal for solar. [2] It is the lowest rank of coal that is mainly used as a fuel for steam-electric power generation. [3]

Coal was believed to form during the carboniferous age (about 298 to 358.9 million years ago), from the dead plant and organic matter that accumulated at the bottom of the water bodies. [3] Under one proposal outlined in the memo, which was reported by Bloomberg, the Department of Energy would order grid operators to buy electricity from struggling coal and nuclear plants for two years, using emergency authority that is normally reserved for exceptional crises like natural disasters. [4] Depending on what the Trump administration decides, an intervention to prop up unprofitable coal and nuclear plants could cost consumers between $311 million to $11.8 billion per year, according to a preliminary estimate by Robbie Orvis, director of energy policy design at Energy Innovation. [4] Credit Jeffrey M. Smith/The Times Herald, via Associated Press WASHINGTON -- President Trump has ordered Energy Secretary Rick Perry to "prepare immediate steps" to stop the closing of unprofitable coal and nuclear plants around the country, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, said on Friday. [4]

The conversion of dead organic or plant matter into coal is known as carbonification. [3]

Concrete is a building material that is made with cement, and coal is used as a source energy in the production of cement and bricks. [3] Texas is one of the largest consumers of coal energy in the country, however, the U.S. has begun to divest away using coal resources due to its environmental impacts. [5] Nonrenewable, or " dirty," energy includes fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal. [2]

Credit Tom Brenner/The New York Times But in January, the commission unanimously rejected Mr. Perry's request, saying that the nation's grids currently had plenty of spare electric capacity on hand, even with the loss of coal and nuclear units in recent years, and that grid operators had sufficient tools to keep the lights on. [4] Over the past 500 years or so, humans increasingly turned to cheaper, dirtier energy sources such as coal and fracked gas. [2] Coal and its by-products have found numerous uses over the years. [3]

Biomass is often mistakenly described as a clean, renewable fuel and a greener alternative to coal and other fossil fuels for producing electricity. [2] The cost of electricity produced from coal was estimated at about 3.29 U.S. dollar cents per kilowatt hour in 2014. [5] In the United States, about 50% of electricity is generated from coal. [3] Coal consumption is rapidly decreasing in the United States due to increased availability of renewables and natural gas, as well as stronger environmental regulations. [5] Among other things, the report asserts that natural gas pipelines are vulnerable to cyberattacks and that coal and nuclear plants are essential during extreme weather because they can keep large amounts of fuel on-hand. [4] It says that the loss of both coal and nuclear plants could threaten national security, given that Department of Defense installations are 99 percent dependent on the grid. [4]

"The idea of superseding the market for a full two years and directing that purchases be made from specific plants is well beyond any existing use of these statutory powers," said Joel B. Eisen, a professor of law at the University of Richmond in Virginia. [4] During the early hours of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, plant employees scavenged car batteries to power essential monitoring equipment in the plant. [1]

Now that we have increasingly innovative and less-expensive ways to capture and retain wind and solar energy, renewables are becoming a more important power source, accounting for more than one-eighth of U.S. generation. [2] While renewable energy is often thought of as a new technology, harnessing nature's power has long been used for heating, transportation, lighting, and more. [2] Renewable power is booming, as innovation brings down costs and starts to deliver on the promise of a clean energy future. [2] Fun fact: In most of the country, there's a daily auction to sell energy into our power grids--with the least expensive sources winning. [2]

Not many people are aware of the fact that coal can be turned into ammonia and urea, which are used as fertilizers. [3] The bituminous coal is used to make coke, which is primarily used in the steel industry. [3] The anthracite coal is used for both residential and commercial space heating, as it is considered to be a good heating fuel. [3] Coke is basically a coal residue that is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent. [3] To produce coke, the bituminous coal is heated under controlled conditions, and in the absence of air at temperatures as high as 1,000C. The bituminous coal that has low-sulfur and low-ash content is usually used for producing coke. [3] The soaps and shampoos containing coal tar are used for conditions, like dandruff, skin sores, and psoriasis. [3] The lignite and bituminous coal are largely used for this purpose. [3] Coal combustion products, such as 'fly ash' are also used in manufacturing cement. [3]

In 2017, one metric ton of thermal coal cost about 88.4 U.S. dollars. [5] The popularity of coal as an energy source in the U.S. is largely due to its relatively low cost. [5] In 2016, coal was the third most heavily consumed energy source for primary energy in the United States. [5] The United States has the largest coal reserves in the world, while China, USA, India, Russia, and Japan are the largest users of this fossil fuel. [3] Coal is a fossil fuel, which has found a wide range of applications and uses in the modern world. [3] These five countries account for about 76% of global coal use. [3]

To make molding sand, the sand (silica or olivine) is mixed with a mixture of clay and water, finely ground bituminous coal (at a ratio of less than 5%), and several other substances. [3] Coal is first broken down into its constituent elements by a process called coal gasification. [3] It is true that fossil fuels, like coal are indispensable for economic growth and development. [3]

On Oct 28, 2013 wind power not only provided 100% of Denmark's power but at 2:00 AM Denmark wind was producing 122% of the country's energy needs. [1] Tidal and wave energy is still in a developmental phase, but the ocean will always be ruled by the moon's gravity, which makes harnessing its power an attractive option. [2]

Even if you're not yet able to install solar panels, you may be able to opt for electricity from a clean energy source. (Contact your power company to ask if it offers that choice.) [2] Distributed solar systems generate electricity locally for homes and businesses, either through rooftop panels or community projects that power entire neighborhoods. [2] California generates so much solar power that at times the state will pay Arizona to take it. [1] Top wind power states include California, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Iowa, though turbines can be placed anywhere with high wind speeds--such as hilltops and open plains--or even offshore in open water. [2] Today, we use the sun's rays in many ways--to heat homes and businesses, to warm water, or power devices. [2] If you make more electricity than you use, your provider may pay you retail price for that power. [2]

Wind- and solar energy-powered homes can either stand alone or get connected to the larger electrical grid, as supplied by their power provider. [2] In 1913, the first practical thermal solar 'power plant' was built in Egypt that generated power using polished steel to focus the sunlight. [1] Solar farms can generate power for thousands of homes, using mirrors to concentrate sunlight across acres of solar cells. [2] At a smaller scale, we can harness the sun's rays to power the whole house --whether through PV cell panels or passive solar home design. [2]

We need wind farms to produce renewable power, and new solutions can keep the giant turbines from also harming birds and bats. [2] Renewables are increasingly displacing " dirty " fossil fuels in the power sector, offering the benefit of lower emissions of carbon and other types of pollution. [2] Harnessing power generated by the sun reduces your reliance on fossil fuels, but it can come with a price tag. [2]

The controversial project which produces power for over 60 million people, caused multiple landslides, and even slowed down the Earth's rotation a fraction of a second. [1] Like tidal power, wave power relies on dam-like structures or ocean floor-anchored devices on or just below the water's surface. [2]

In 2009, scientists in Iceland unexpectedly drilled into a magma chamber 2.1 km below ground, creating the world's first magma-enhanced geothermal energy (Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station) source capable of powering 80,000 homes. [1] Acting alone, an activist once single-handedly broke into the Kingsnorth Power Station in England, shut down a 500 megawatt generator, and cut off enough electricity from the grid to power a city of half a million people. [1]

In Norway, 99% of electricity production is from hydroelectric plants. [1] Due to natural processes like flood, plants and other organic matter got buried at the bottom of such water bodies. [3] Geothermal plants typically have low emissions if they pump the steam and water they use back into the reservoir. [2] A commando unit of 12 men sabotaged a heavy water plant (Rjukan plant) in Norway in World War 2, crippling Nazi attempts at developing an atomic bomb. [1]

In these regions, utilities and regulators often force plants to stay open in order to maintain grid stability. [5] There are ways to create geothermal plants where there are not underground reservoirs, but there are concerns that they may increase the risk of an earthquake in areas already considered geological hot spots. [2] Small hydroelectric plants (an installed capacity below about 40 megawatts), carefully managed, do not tend to cause as much environmental damage, as they divert only a fraction of flow. [2]

Coal plants in the United States have been the focus of recent energy policy under the Trump administration. [5] Many utilities are planning to retire coal plants while replacing them with natural gas and renewables. [5] A large majority of coal plants in the U.S. where regulators set rates have operating expenses that exceed revenue. [5] In April, FirstEnergy Solutions, an Ohio-based utility, announced that it would file for bankruptcy, threatening the future of three nuclear plants and two coal plants in Ohio and Pennsylvania. [4]

A few states, including New York and New Jersey, have offered subsidies to their struggling nuclear plants in the name of fighting climate change. [4]

The coal-fired power stations are responsible for emitting not only carbon dioxide, but several other noxious gases, volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals, like mercury, arsenic, and uranium. [3]

By the late 20th century, coal was, for the most part, replaced in domestic as well as industrial and transportation usage by oil, natural gas or electricity produced from oil, gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. [9] In the late 20th century, improved integration of coal extraction with bulk industries such as electrical generation helped coal maintain its position despite the emergence of alternative energies supplies such as oil, natural gas and, from the late 1950s, nuclear power used for electricity. [9]

The mine is the exclusive provider of coal for the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), which is retiring on December 22, 2019 in favor of cheaper sources of power. [7] ISBN 9780142000984. (stating that, " oal consumption doubled every decade between 1850 and 1890" and that by turn of the century, "coal was the unrivaled foundation of U.S. Power," providing "71 percent of the nation's energy." [9] The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the 18th century, and later spread to continental Europe, North America, and Japan, was based on the availability of coal to power steam engines. [9] The production decrease is largely attributable to a forecast decline of 5% in domestic coal consumption in 2018, with most of the decline is expected to be in the electric power sector. [17]

CFU's local plant is a 49-megawatt supplemental facility that uses about six unit trains of coal a year. [8] By comparison, a typical new coal -based generating plant produces about 550 megawatts (MW; million watts). [40] At a June 12 analyst meeting, Curtis Morgan also said the company is looking at energy storage opportunities and criticized the Trump Administration's plans to support ailing coal and nuclear plants. [15]

Though it was used historically as a domestic fuel, coal is now used mostly in industry, especially in smelting and alloy production as well as electricity generation. [9] At the same time steam engines were phased out in railways and factories, and bituminous coal was used primarily for the generation of electricity. [9] Coal remains an important energy source because of its low cost and abundance compared to other fuels, particularly for electricity generation. [9] Compared to wood fuels, coal yields a higher amount of energy per mass and can often be obtained in areas where wood is not readily available. [9] By 2000 about 19% of Canada's energy was supplied by coal, much of it imported from the U.S while Eastern Canadian ports import considerable coal from Venezuela. [9] Significantly reducing CO2 emissions will mean moving away from coal through energy efficiency and alternative sources. [8] By 2010, coal produced over a fourth of the world's energy, and by 2050 it is expected to produce about a third. [9] As well as energy supply, coal became a very political issue, due to conditions under which colliers worked and the way they were treated by colliery owners. [9] In a world where clean energy keeps winning, expanding exponentially, and creating good jobs, President Trump continues to keep his head in the sand -- or rather, in the coal dust. [7]

At its peak in 1949 25,000 miners dug 17 million metric tons of coal from Nova Scotian mines. [9] Coal miners' labour and trade unions became powerful in many countries in the 20th century, and often, the miners were leaders of the Left or Socialist movements (as in Britain, Germany, Poland, Japan, Chile, Canada and the U.S.) Since 1970, environmental issues have been increasingly important, including the health of miners, destruction of the landscape from strip mines and mountaintop removal, air pollution, and coal combustion's contribution to global warming. [9] The first important mines appeared in the 1750s, in the valleys of the rivers Ruhr, Inde and Wurm where coal seams outcropped and horizontal adit mining was possible. [9] The power station burns brown coal from the adjacent Loy Yang mine. [16] On September 3, 2007, activists from Real Action on Climate Change chained themselves to the coal conveyor belt from the Loy Yang mine which supplies coal to the brown-coal-fired Loy Yang A Power Station and Loy Yang B Power Station in Traralgon, Australia. [16]

The power station, which is the largest brown coal fired power station in Australia, was assessed in 2003 as having an average annual "sent out thermal efficiency" of approximately 31% (HHV). [16]

Coal is used primarily to generate electricity, but the rapid drop in natural gas prices after 2008 created severe competition. [9] The earliest known use of coal in the Americas was by the Aztecs who used coal for fuel and jet (a type of lignite ) for ornaments. [9] The United States has 483 billion tons of coal in its demonstrated reserve base, enough domestic coal to use for over 500 years at current rates of consumption. [41] The United States has an estimated 10 trillion short tons of coal, over 11,000 years worth at today's consumption levels. [41] The United States produces 1.0 billion short tons of coal a year, making it the world's second largest coal producer. [41]

Total coal output soared until 1918; before 1890, it doubled every ten years, going from 8.4 million short tons in 1850 to 40 million in 1870, 270 million in 1900, and peaking at 680 million short tons in 1918. [9] Production during 2009 was 68.7 million tons in the Ukrainian and 4.9million tons in the Russian part of the basin, but coal gas is a major hazard. [9] Between 1770 and 1780 the annual output of coal was some 6 million long tons (or about the output of a week and a half in the 20th century). [9] China is by far the largest producer of coal in the world, producing over 2.8 billion tons of coal in 2007, or approximately 39.8 percent of all coal produced in the world during that year. [9] E&E News reported yesterday that last year, coal executive Bob Murray presented Trump administration officials with six draft executive orders focused on ending clean air and water protections for dangerous coal pollution. [7] "At this time Ceolred, abbat of Medeshamstede and the monks let to Wulfred the land of Sempringham,. and each year should deliver into the minster sixty loads of wood, and twelve of coal and six of faggots, and two tuns full of pure ale, and two beasts fit for slaughter, and six hundred loaves, and ten measures of Welsh ale, and each year a horse, and thirty shillings, and one day's entertainment." [9] One that does occur is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 852 when a rent including 12 loads of coal is mentioned. [9]

Several oil companies and electricity producers acquired coal companies or leased Federal coal reserves in the west of the United States. [9] As central and Northern England contains an abundance of coal, many mines were situated in these areas as well as the South Wales coalfield and Scotland. [9] As the demand for coal dropped, mines closed and communities suffered. [9] In much of Britain coal was worked from drift mines, or scraped off when it outcropped on the surface. [9] In 1804 the Sydney-based administration established a permanent convict settlement near the mouth of the Hunter River to mine and load the coal, predetermining the town's future as a coal port by naming it Newcastle. [9] Under John L. Lewis, the United Mine Workers (UMW) became the dominant force in the coal fields in the 1930s and 1940s, producing high wages and benefits. [9] The national government encouraged the mine safety movement as a means of limiting strife in the sometimes turbulent coal fields. [9] During the war the mines were expanded and over 700 factories were evacuated from the west, greatly increasing the demand for Ural coal. [9] It was once Washington state's largest coal pit, a terraced, open-to-the-sky strip mine, five miles from the city of Centralia and halfway between Seattle and Portland, Oregon. [6]

During this period, the industry in the U.S. was characterized by a move towards low-sulfur coal. [9] Wyoming's coal reserves total about 69.3 billion tons, or 14.2% of the U.S. coal reserve. [9] America's known coal reserves (259 short tons) constitute 27% of the world's supply, one-and-a-half times greater than our nearest competitor. [41] The two remaining units at Four Corners burn about 19,000 tons of coal a day, according to the complaint. [14] Approximately 200,000 tons of coal were dug at Grand Lake between 1639 and 1887 using surface collection, vertical shafts and the room and pillar system. [9]

The plan would raise the renewable share of the company's Colorado generating portfolio to 55% and reduce the coal share from 44% to 24%, all by 2026. [15] More recently coal has faced competition from renewable energy sources and bio-fuels. [9] Coal is our country's dirtiest energy source, from mining to burning to disposing of coal waste. [7] Archeological evidence in China indicates surface mining of coal and household usage after approximately 3490 BC. [9] Under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, coal companies are required to restore land once they have finished mining it to prevent groundwater contamination and erosion--and avoid leaving behind an eyesore. [6]

By the late 19th century the seams were becoming exhausted, and the steel industry was importing some coal from the Ruhr. [9] After the Romans left Britain, in AD 410, there are few records of coal being used in the country until the end of the 12th century. [9] In Roman Britain, the Romans were exploiting all major coalfields (save those of North and South Staffordshire ) by the late 2nd century AD. While much of its use remained local, a lively trade developed along the North Sea coast supplying coal to Yorkshire and London. [9] As early as 1228, sea coal from the north-east was being taken to London. : 5 During the 13th century, the trading of coal increased across Britain and by the end of the century most of the coalfields in England, Scotland and Wales were being worked on a small scale. : 8 As the use of coal amongst the artisans became more widespread, it became clear that coal smoke was detrimental to health and the increasing pollution in London led to much unrest and agitation. [9]

Our coal resources at the close of the nineteenth century (1897) Online at Open Library. [9]

All five commissioners stayed silent when a senator asked if they believe security threats mean DOE should subsidize struggling coal and nuclear generators. [15] Among the most prominent deposits are those located in what are now the Upper Silesian Industrial Region and Rybnik Coal Area (formerly part of Prussia ) and the Zag??bie D?browskie on the Russian side of the border. [9] Numerous small industrial centres sprang up, focused on ironworks, using local coal. [9]

India's export of coal increased, especially to Burma, Ceylon, and the Malay states. [9] These estimates do not include Alaska's coal resources, which according to government estimates, are larger than those in the lower 48 states. [41]

Excavation has revealed coal stores at many forts along Hadrian's Wall as well as the remains of a smelting industry at forts such as Longovicium nearby. [9] In 1984 Australia surpassed the U.S. as the world's largest coal exporter. [9] This also extended to the continental Rhineland, where bituminous coal was already used for the smelting of iron ore. [9] After 1850 soft coal, which is cheaper but dirtier, came into demand for railway locomotives and stationary steam engines, and was used to make coke for steel after 1870. [9] Most of this coal was used by the railroad and large businesses. [9]

Coal was cheaper and much more efficient than wood fuel in most steam engines. [9] Anthracite (or "hard" coal), clean and smokeless, became the preferred fuel in cities, replacing wood by about 1850. [9]

As late as 1895, India imported large quantities of coal from Britain, but as domestic production increased and was found to be suitable for locomotives and ships, demand for coal imports declined dramatically. [9] As early as 1643, the French were sending coal and other supplies to the British colony at Boston. [9] The National Coal Board (by then British Coal ), was privatised by selling off a large number of pits to private concerns through the mid-1990s. [9]

Sam Drumheller started the coal rush in this area when he bought the land from a local rancher, which he then sold to the Canadian National Railway. [9] In 1183 a smith was given land for his work, and was required to "raise his own coal" : 171-2 Shortly after the signing of the Magna Carta, in 1215, coal began to be traded in areas of Scotland and the north-east England, where the carboniferous strata were exposed on the sea shore, and thus became known as "sea coal". [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(44 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (98) History of coal mining - Wikipedia

2. (26) C is for Colstrip: Where power plants bring a hive of activity | State & Regional | missoulian.com

3. (25) Renewable Energy: The Clean Facts | NRDC

4. (25) Trump Orders US Department of Energy to Interfere with Power Plants

5. (25) What is Coal Used For?

6. (22) 30 Interesting Facts about Power Plants | Fact Republic

7. (19) Major Coal-Fired Power Plant in Washington to Go Solar

8. (16) The Netherlands Announces Ban On Coal, Plans To Close 2 Power Plants By 2024 | CleanTechnica

9. (15) Loy Yang A power station - SourceWatch

10. (15) Broad Energy Coalition Condemns Action to Subsidize Failing Coal, Nuclear Plants | Americas Energy Forum - National Site

11. (15) Native Americans rally in bid to save Arizona coal plant | Fox Business

12. (13) Trump Orders a Lifeline for Struggling Coal and Nuclear Plants - The New York Times

13. (13) tidal power | Types & Facts | Britannica.com

14. (12) U.S. Coal Energy - Statistics & Facts | Statista

15. (11) Here are the facts about CFU's local power plant | Guest Column | wcfcourier.com

16. (8) Massive FERC Flop For Plan To Save Coal & Nuclear Power Plants | CleanTechnica

17. (8) White House Whims Are Not Grounds for Emergency Coal, Nuke Plant Bailouts | Union of Concerned Scientists

18. (8) Study Solar Can Fill Gap in Dynegy Coal Plant Closures / Public News Service

19. (8) Letter: Electricity becomes less reliable when coal plants shut down | Letters to the Editor | wvgazettemail.com

20. (8) Facts - American Energy Alliance

21. (7) Capitol Power Plant | Architect of the Capitol | United States Capitol

22. (7) President Trump's energy market interventions could save nuclear power, but coal is dead - Axios

23. (6) Environmentalists take aim at Four Corners Power Plant - Electric Light & Power

24. (6) Energy and Power Generation News | Utility Dive

25. (6) deCOALonize A Source of information for communities, policy makers and civil society on embracing clean energy in Kenya

26. (5) NTEC

27. (5) Beyond Coal | The Sierra Club

28. (4) Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

29. (4) Is a U.S. Without Coal & Nuclear a Disaster Waiting to Happen?

30. (4) Russian 'Nuclear Titanic' Floating Power Plant Arrives in Arctic

31. (3) Kenyan activists protest plans for coal-fired power plant | WFTV

32. (3) API | ICYMI: Regulators agree - NO emergency to justify coal, nuke bailouts

33. (3) Energy Chief Defends Trump Directive on Coal, Nuclear Plants | Iowa Energy Forum

34. (3) Russias Floating Nuclear Power Plant Heads for the Bering Strait

35. (3) Electricity | Statistical Review of World Energy | Energy economics | BP

36. (2) President Trump Orders Help For Coal And Nuclear Plants | NPR Illinois

37. (2) Recent Press | News | West Virginia Coal Association

38. (2) Trump directs DOE to intervene on coal, nuclear generation | American Public Power Association

39. (2) Millstone Power Station

40. (2) About Us - Duke Energy

41. (1) Premature Birth Rates Drop After Power Plant Closings In California

42. (1) 2 contractors injured at coal-fired Georgia Power plant | State News | The Brunswick News

43. (1) SA Climate Coalition Pushes For CPS Energy to Abandon Fossil Fuels

44. (1) Funding Colstrip's post-coal transition | News | missoulanews.com

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