Electricity Generation Capacity By Country

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Based on the above table and the data presented in the Wikipedia article on Electricity generation the table on the right is a comparison of electric energy production versus consumption for the worlds' top 30 energy producing countries.(More...)
  • Global nuclear electricity generation in 2012 was at its lowest level since 1999.(More...)
  • By excluding renewable energy from the accepted norms of available sources of electricity generation, it is elevated to a strategic choice -- when it need not be; or discounted as an unjustifiable luxury -- which it is not.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Solar PV additions were up 29 percent relative to 2016, to 98 GW. More solar PV generating capacity was added to the electricity system than net capacity additions of coal, natural gas and nuclear power combined, said the report.(More...)
  • Ragnar Branth, general manager of Commercial Habitat, a high-end furniture and home design store in the municipality of Vitacura in eastern Santiago, installed solar panels on the roof to power a five-kW photovoltaic plant whose generation saves 13.5 percent in annual electricity bills.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

Electricity Generation Capacity By Country
Image Courtesy:
link: http://www.statista.com/statistics/270367/share-of-nuclear-power-in-the-power-supply-of-selected-countries/
author: statista.com
description: Share of nuclear power generation by country 2016 | Statistic

KEY TOPICS

Based on the above table and the data presented in the Wikipedia article on Electricity generation the table on the right is a comparison of electric energy production versus consumption for the worlds' top 30 energy producing countries. [1] Other countries have significant amounts of nuclear power generation capacity. [2]

The current installed generation capacity is approximately 103 MW. While most power companies rely on diesel generators for electricity generation, interest and investment is growing in hybrid systems that draw on solar and wind energy resources. [3] Over the medium term, construction of new gas-fueled electricity generation capacity and the expansion of existing power stations are expected to inform countries? decisions on where and how to invest in gas transmission lines. [4] TPDC targets 2,000 MW of new gas-fired electricity generation capacity by the end of 2018 and a total of 10,000 MW of power generation capacity by 2025. [4] Renewable energy still attracts a growing share of investment in new electricity generation capacity. [5]

Global nuclear electricity generation in 2012 was at its lowest level since 1999. [2] Of the 31 countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Hungary use them as the source for a majority of the country's electricity supply. [2]

Tanzania is also scaling up electricity generation from gas-fired power stations as the country intensifies the monetization of its recoverable natural gas reserves, estimated at more than 57 Tft. [4] All regions of the country saw a decrease in electricity generation from coal compared to the previous March. [6]

Finance Minister Abul Maal Abdul Muhith said the country's power generation capacity will go up to 20,000 MW in September next. [7] GCC utilities tend to prefer large projects that add substantial blocks of generation capacity to meet breakneck growth rates of 8 percent to 10 percent each year in many areas that they serve. [5] Successful and timely procurement of generation capacity according to an announced schedule builds private-sector confidence and widens the pool of accessible financial resources. [5] When the government took office in 2009, the power generation capacity was 4,942 MW, he said adding, "We prepared the 'Power Sector Master Plan' with a coordinated development strategy for power generation, transmission, and distribution and implemented various activities following this plan." [7] He said the number of power plants rose to 118 from 27, while power generation capacity increased by three times to 18,353 MW, including captive power due to the government's persistent efforts. [7]

We estimate that if the full economic costs of fossil power generation were added to the electricity tariff, GCC countries would have some of the most expensive electrical systems in the world, with generation costs of 8 to 9 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), 25 percent to 30 percent higher than in the United States. [5] Another 542-km gas transmission line has been constructed to transport gas from the Mtwara and Lindi regions to Dar es Salaam for electricity generation, for power to industrial plants and for household consumption. [4] Along with gathering, processing and delivering gas to the global market through an estimated 5.2 MMtpy of LNG, the project is expected to supply enough gas for electricity generation for industrial and domestic consumption, as well as for the production of condensate, propane and butane. [4] More gas transmission lines are anticipated under Tanzania's electricity generation master plan, implemented by Tanzania Petroleum Development Corp. (TPDC). [4]

Power Africa's goal is to add more than 30,000 megawatts of cleaner, more efficient electricity generation capacity and 60 million new home and business connections. [8] The nine plants reportedly will have total generation capacity of 5,250 MW. PV Power at present operates eight power plants--four gas-fired, three hydropower, and one coal-fired--with total generation capacity of 4,208 MW. The country's largest power generator, Vietnam Electricity (EVN), has generation capacity of about 23,600 MW. [9] The Vietnamese government in April signed off on a plan to increase the generation capacity of the Hoa Binh Hydropower Plant by 480 MW. The facility, located on the Black River in Hoa Binh Province, is the country's second-largest hydro plant, with eight 240-MW turbines providing generation capacity of 1,920 MW. Vietnam Electricity (EVN) will pay for 30% of the $379 million expansion; commercial loans will finance the other 70%. [9]

The Energy Department would exercise emergency authority under a pair of federal laws to direct the operators to purchase electricity or electric generation capacity from at-risk facilities, according to a memo obtained by Bloomberg News. [10] Although India's solar (and other renewable energy) generation capacity numbers don?t match China's, it has embarked on a significant transformation of its electricity sector. [11]

By excluding renewable energy from the accepted norms of available sources of electricity generation, it is elevated to a strategic choice -- when it need not be; or discounted as an unjustifiable luxury -- which it is not. [5] The 2001 to 2017 decline in the oil-powered electricity generation continues the decline that began following the oil price shocks of the mid-1970's, which raised the price of oil-powered generation, and the emergence of nuclear power generation in the late 1970s and early 1980s. [6] Since the fall of Somalia's central government in 1991, electricity generation and distribution has solely been a role of the dynamic Somali private sector. [3]

The current installed electricity generation capacity in Chile, a country of 17.9 million inhabitants, is 22,369 MW. Of this total, 46 percent comes from renewable sources (30 percent hydropower), and 54 percent is thermal (21 percent coal). [12] Left axis: Global coal-fired electricity generation (yellow, terawatt hours), CO2 emissions (red, millions of tonnes of CO2) and capacity (pink, megawatts) between 2000 and 2016. [13] The map shows coal capacity, whereas electricity generation and CO2 emissions depend on a range of other factors. [13]

The two plants are the first of nine planned by PV Power in Vietnam, as the country tries to develop new generation to keep up with increasing demand for electricity. [9] For two years, the Energy Department would direct the purchase of power or electric generation capacity from a designated list of facilities “to forestall any future actions toward retirement, decommissioning or deactivation,” according to the memo. [10] The Nhon Trach 3 and Nhon Trach 4 plants will have combined generation capacity of 1,500 MW and are scheduled to come online in 2020 and 2021, respectively. [9] The Ramagundam plant has a nameplate generation capacity of 2,600 MW, which includes the three 200-MW units, and four 500-MW units. [9]

In 2014, 80.5% of its installed power generation capacity was comprised of thermal fuels--mostly oil, coal, and natural gas--and the bulk of the remainder (18.7%) was hydro. [14]

Faced with growing power demand, and the need to tackle high electricity losses and capacity shortages, by 2016, at least 24 sub-Saharan countries had enacted electricity sector reforms. [14] According to figures attributed by NREL analysts to the China Electric Council, 2017 was the first year that wind and solar contributed more than half of all new electricity generating capacity in the country. [15]

Solar energy is playing a key role in transforming the global electricity generation markets alongside other renewables such as wind and hydroelectricity. [11] Global deployment of photovoltaics for electricity generation is growing faster than previously expected, and set to reach the terawatt level within just five years. [15] The severe drought that has affected parts of Mozambique and the Southern Africa region in two last years has contributed to reducing electricity generation at the Cahora Bassa dam (HCB), on the Zambezi river, in the western Mozambican province of Tete. [16] The high costs and low revenues at African utilities have resulted in "serious shortcomings in operational efficiency, high costs of small-scale operation, and over-reliance on expensive oil-based electricity generation," it says. [14] Co-author Santosh Veda reported that this kind of analysis would become increasingly important as the deployment of PV grows, and the technology's overall contribution to electricity generation becomes far more significant. [15]

The government has planned to shutdown the domestic coal-fired electricity generation capacity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 30% until 2030. [17] The Ethiopia government hopes to increase the electricity generation capacity of the country from the current 4,300 MW to 17,300 MW by 2020, utilizing hydro, wind, geothermal, solar and biomass energy sources. [18] Ethiopian official revealed that the country has increased its electricity generation capacity 11-fold during the last 27 years. [18]

A new coal-fired power plant in Kenya's Lamu country - set to produce 1 050 MW of power - will not only be the single largest independent power producer in Kenya, accounting for up to 30% of total power generation capacity in the country - but will also make use of clean coal technology. [19] Minister Goyal discussed India's ambitious target of achieving 175 GW of renewable generation capacity and innovative ways of mainstreaming energy efficiency. [20] The U.S. is second in the world (after China) in terms of both installed wind power capacity and wind energy generation, and wind provided 6.3 percent of America's electricity in 2017. [21] Coal-based power continues to hold the highest share in the country's installed capacity and total generation. [22] Concurrently, hydroelectricity generation capacity increased by 10.3% over the same period. [17]

Many wind facilities rely on lead batteries to regulate the variability of renewable electricity generation. [21] Coal-fired electricity generation plants are responsible for over 70% of the country's greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector. [17]

CEO of Ethiopian Electric Power (EEP), Azeb Asnake, said that Ethiopia has managed to increase its electricity generation from 380 Mega Watts (MW) in 1991 to around 4,300 MW currently, reported state affiliated media outlet Radio Fana. [18] Total power generation capacity is about 7,000 MW but if plants operated at full tilt the transmission network could not handle the power. [23] U.S. coal-fired power generation experienced a 20 percent decrease in coal fleet utilization rates and a 12 percent decrease in the generation capacity from 2015 to 2016. [24] China is far and away the largest coal consumer and has built coal-fired power generation capacity at an unprecedented rate over the past couple of decades. [24]

The country is also committed to increase the local electricity generating capacity and, especially, the rural electrification rate from 34% to 50% by 2020. [25] Renewable energy has made great strides in electricity generation but the integration of renewables in the heating, cooling and transport sectors is still in its infancy. [26] After good advancements in the electricity sector, the conclusion of the report is that transport and heat must follow the lead of electricity generation. [26]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Solar PV additions were up 29 percent relative to 2016, to 98 GW. More solar PV generating capacity was added to the electricity system than net capacity additions of coal, natural gas and nuclear power combined, said the report. [27] The first light bulbs ever lit by electricity generated by nuclear power at EBR-1 at Argonne National Laboratory-West, December 20, 1951. [2] The United States is the largest producer of nuclear power, while France has the largest share of electricity generated by nuclear power. [2] France produces around three quarters of its electricity by nuclear power. [2]

Later in 1954, Lewis Strauss, then chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (U.S. AEC, forerunner of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United States Department of Energy ) spoke of electricity in the future being " too cheap to meter ". [2] The U.S. AEC itself had issued far more realistic testimony regarding nuclear fission to the U.S. Congress only months before, projecting that "costs can be brought down. about the same as the cost of electricity from conventional sources [2]

On June 27, 1954, the USSR's Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant became the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid, and produced around 5 megawatts of electric power. [2] By far the largest nuclear electricity producers are the United States with 805 647 GWh of nuclear electricity in 2017, followed by France with 381 846 GWh. [2] Electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor on December 20, 1951, at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho, which initially produced about 100kW. [2]

New Delhi : Renewable power accounted for 70 percent of net additions to global power generating capacity in 2017, the largest such increase in modern history, a report said on Monday. [27] According to the REN21's Renewables 2018 Global Status Report, solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity reached record levels. [27]

Investment in new renewable power capacity was more than twice that of net, new fossil fuel and nuclear power capacity combined, despite large, ongoing subsidies for fossil fuel generation. [27] More than two-thirds of investments in power generation were in renewables in 2017 owing to increasing cost-competitiveness and the share of renewables in the power sector is expected to only continue to rise. [27]

Access to the most comprehensive and up-to-date database on energy supply, demand, prices and GHG emissions (186 countries). [28] Based on its 2016 data for G20 countries, Enerdata analyses the trends in the world energy markets. [28] This list of countries by electric energy consumption is mostly based on The World Factbook. [1]

Some countries operated nuclear reactors in the past but have currently no operating nuclear plants. [2] Several countries are currently operating nuclear power plants but are planning a nuclear power phase-out. [2]

When measured per unit of gross domestic product (GDP), the Marshall Islands, Rwanda, the Solomon Islands, Guinea-Bissau, and many other developing countries are investing as much as or more in renewables than developed and emerging economies. [27] The per capita data for many countries may be slightly inaccurate as population data may not be for the same year that the consumption data are. [1] Population data were obtained from the List of countries by population in 2016, except for years other than 2016, in which case they were obtained from the Wikipedia pages for the corresponding countries/territories. [1]

Positive numbers show the commissioned capacity for each year; negative numbers show the decommissioned capacity for each year. [2] Timeline of commissioned and decommissioned nuclear capacity since the 1950s. [2] Six reactors with a cumulative capacity of 4300 MW are under construction as of 2016. [2] The facility consists of two 4.45 Mt/year liquefaction trains (total capacity of 8.9 Mt/year), whose first LNG train came onstream in October 2017. [28] "Iran's Bushehr nuke power plant at full capacity from May 23: Russian contractor - People's Daily Online". [2]

The introduction of significant new renewables capacity in the GCC will reduce the utilization rate of existing conventional power plants, driving up the per-unit cost of electricity in the state-of-the-art combined-cycle power plant parks that have recently been built. [5] Analyses should capture the full cost of electricity supply to an end-user, including system integration costs such as backup capacity, increased intermittency balancing requirements, and T&D network reinforcement. [5]

The pipeline is expected to contribute substantially to the success of South Africa's planned procurement of 3,126 MW of new electricity generating capacity from gas-fired plants by independent power producers. [4]

Gas from the country's Songo Songo Island gas fields is being used to generate electricity by Dar es Salaam-based Songas Ltd., which operates as a subsidiary of Globeleq Generation Ltd. Songas processes the gas and then transports it through a 225-km pipeline to Dar es Salaam to power the Ubungo power station, the largest of its kind in East Africa. [4] Hawaii generates two-thirds of its electricity from oil and is the only state where oil is the leading generation source. [6] There is great opportunity here for generation of electricity. [29]

If we could build enough of these pumped hydro stations as backup for the variability of solar and wind power, Stocks said, Australia could easily get all of its electricity from renewables. [30] The long-term financial viability of the electrical power industry as a whole, and of renewables in particular, hinges on phasing out subsidies and reforming electricity tariffs. [5]

In countries with colder climates, by contrast, the demand for electricity is typically highest on cold and dark winter days, when solar plant outputs are lowest. [5] Air conditioning demand, which drives peak electricity consumption in GCC countries, rises and falls in tandem with the output of solar power plants. [5] GCC countries are major consumers of energy in their own right, with a rapidly growing demand for electricity. [5]

The electricity produced by all of these countries is either 100 percent green, or a few percent short. [30] "Other countries such as Brazil, Canada and New Zealand make extensive, successful use of hydro, and have maintained electricity during periods of drought." [30]

This is part one of "Fight The Power," a series about the people, organizations and countries transforming the way we think about energy for the better. [30] It's just one of many countries that reap huge rewards from hydro power, according to Martin Young, director of policies and risk for the World Energy Council. [30] Despite security and logistical challenges in some countries, new discoveries in both emerging and mature gas markets in Africa continue to attract the interest of international energy producers and pipeline companies. [4]

The piped gas is also expected to power the Kinyerezi II station, which is being expanded to its full capacity of 240 MW. Future plans include the construction of Kinyerezi III and Kinyerezi IV plants, with respective capacities of 600 MW and 450 MW. [4] There is enough wind energy capacity off the east coast to power the entire country, Hajjar said, and Massachusetts is the first state to invest heavily in taking advantage of this resource. [29] Eighty gigawatts represents about 7 percent of all energy needed in the country, so we?re still not talking about a large percentage, but the capacity is there--eighty gigawatts represents only about 4 percent of the total capacity for wind energy on the east coast. [29]

Nigeria relies on gas to meet nearly 44% of its total energy demand, with about 95% of the country's installed thermal power plant capacity powered by natural gas. [4]

Wind power is soaring in the U.S. Ironically, the state with the greatest wind capacity is oil-lovin' Texas. [30] Many of these countries must add significant electrical capacity every year to keep up with growing demand. [5] That year, Japan's installed solar PV capacity reached around seven gigawatts, representing 7.14 percent of PV capacity worldwide. [31] This statistic represents leading countries? share of global cumulative installed solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity in 2017. [31]

Somali government agencies are slowly regaining technical capacity and resources to direct the important policy discussions and activities needed to fill existing gaps in energy sector oversight. [3] A strong seasonal reliance on oil-based generation also exists in some areas, particularly in colder climates where natural gas deliverability and capacity may be limited. [6] The capacity exists to expand the power generation facility by another 100 MW in subsequent phases. [4]

Muhith said the government's target was to scale up power generation to 24,000 MW by 2021 and ensure electricity supply to all at an affordable price. [7]

The electricity will be sold to South Africa's power utility, Eskom, under 20-yr power purchase agreements. [4] "We've simulated up to six years using real data on sun and wind and electricity demand, and in our peer-reviewed paper we've shown we could have operated the national electricity market if we'd installed enough entirely on renewable energy with the same reliability as the same existing system," he said. [30] A country getting all its electricity from a combination of wind, solar and hydro sounds like science fiction. [30] According to a recent study done by AfDB, the country has the highest potential of any African nation for onshore wind power and could generate between 30,000 to 45,000 MW. Solar power could potentially generate an excess of 2,000 kWh/m2. [3] Lofty white wind farms and shiny solar parks, once considered expensive toys affordable only to the world's climate-conscious economic elite, are now an integral part of the generation expansion plans of almost every country in the world. [5] The recent decrease of oil-powered generation resulted from a variety of factors including strong growth in natural gas generation, as well as growth in both wind and solar generation. [6]

Wind and solar (also called photovoltaic solar, or PV) have become the most economic forms of electricity. [30] Then there are solar farms, where huge panels occupy a large swath of land, absorb the sunlight and funnel energy to the electricity grid. [30] The Dubai Electricity and Water Authority, the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority, and Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Energy, Industry and Mineral Resources have started recently to tender solar-photovoltaic projects using an IPP model as part of a multi-billion-dollar deployment program. [5] USAID/Somalia currently supports the Somali government and private sector to increase the availability of quality energy and to reduce tariffs through the provision of a wide range of technical assistance to develop the electricity supply industry. [3] Today, Iceland gets around 25 percent of its electricity from geothermal energy, and a whopping 75 percent from hydropower. [30] The lack of clearly articulated energy policies and the curtailment of regulatory authorities give incumbent operators the upper hand in setting the direction of the electricity industry, often on the basis of tactical short-term considerations that may not necessarily serve long-term national objectives. [5] For decades, national utility companies in the GCC benefited on a large scale from governmental support to generate cheap electricity from natural gas, heavy fuel oil (HFO), diesel, and crude oil. [5] Renewables should improve the overall efficiency of the GCC electricity system. [5] Reallocating merely a fraction of GCC subsidies from fossil fuels to support private-sector-led development of renewable energy grid-integration investments could create tremendous value for governments, investors, and electricity consumers. [5]

Electricity production from coal sources (% of total) in Denmark was reported at 24.17 % in 2015, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. [32] Historically, hydropower has been the cheapest way to source renewable electricity. [30] Yet 100 percent of Iceland's electricity comes from renewables. [30] Politics are the reason Australia's electricity isn't more renewable right now. [30] Diesendorf and his team at UNSW have been simulating Australia's electricity market using only renewable energies. [30]

At the moment, wind is a greater contributor of electricity than solar. [30] Solar and wind electricity are inexpensive and reliable, but they're also variable. [30]

This page provides - China Electricity Production- actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news. [33] Electricity Production in China decreased to 510800 Gigawatt-hour in April from 528300 Gigawatt-hour in March of 2018. [33] Electricity Production in China averaged 215878.96 Gigawatt-hour from 1989 until 2018, reaching an all time high of 604700 Gigawatt-hour in July of 2017 and a record low of 41760 Gigawatt-hour in February of 1989. [33]

Despite great strides made recently by the private sector to increase the production and distribution of electricity, the annual consumption of electricity per capita remains among the lowest in Africa. [3] Wholesale electricity and natural gas prices were down considerably at nearly all national hubs in March compared to February. [6] Separating these roles will create checks and balances that make the national electricity industry's decision-making processes transparent, participatory, accountable to the public interest, and nondiscriminatory. [5]

Sources of electricity refer to the inputs used to generate electricity. [32] The Finance Minister said overall the percentage of population under electricity coverage has increased to 90 percent from 47 percent. [7] Four of the six New England states--Maine (14.2%), Massachusetts (13.3%), New Hampshire (8.3%), and Connecticut (5.8%)--generated 5% or more of their total electricity from oil in January 2018. [6] Panels can be installed on the roofs of houses and buildings of all sorts, which absorb and convert sunlight to electricity that's then stored in a battery. [30] Electricity system daily peak demand was 3%-38% lower than the previous month on all selected systems as milder March weather replaced February's winter conditions. [6] The institutional setup in most GCC countries fails to demarcate clearly separate roles for policymakers, regulators, and operators across the electricity system as a whole. [5] The uncertainty in the timing, volumes, and cost of new gas supplies forces some GCC countries to burn expensive crude oil and liquid fuels to generate electrical power. [5]

In many countries with an attractive renewable resource endowment and an adequate level of electrical grid readiness, utility-scale wind and solar-photovoltaic are already cost-competitive with the cheapest conventional sources available. [5] Renewables are appealing to developing countries because of their comparatively shorter development lead times. [5]

In 2016, developing countries spent $117 billion on renewable energy projects (excluding large hydroelectric projects), an increase of 50 percent compared to 2010. [5] The Somali government has prioritized the drafting of an energy policy, strategy, and regulatory framework to facilitate more private sector investment in alternative renewable energy, and also to explore the possibility for technically viable cross-border energy trade with neighboring countries. [3] According to Technavio, renewable energy investments are expected to exceed $350 billion in 2020. 2 Among developing countries, China has taken the lead in renewables since 2004. [5] New gas discoveries in hydrocarbon-rich countries, particularly Egypt, could drive a new wave of investment in gas transmission lines. [4] Countries where domestic or cross-boundary gas transmission lines already exist, such as Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa, Algeria, Angola and Egypt, are likely to focus more on improving contract terms and maintenance procedures for existing pipelines to optimize infrastructure performance. [4] The GCC is falling behind developed countries such as Germany, and developing economies such as Chile, Mexico, Morocco, and South Africa. [5] The shift to renewable energy will eventually affect all six GCC member countries. [5] In some countries, a notion of the atypical nature or novelty of renewable energy magnifies the fundamental confusion of sector governance roles. [5]

Trading Economics members can view, download and compare data from nearly 200 countries, including more than 20 million economic indicators, exchange rates, government bond yields, stock indexes and commodity prices. [33] Directly accessible data for 170 industries from 50 countries and over 1 Mio. facts. [31]

Other developing countries have already successfully applied a suite of policies and initiatives that GCC policymakers can exploit. [5] While countries in Northern Europe have been using wind energy for more than two decades, the United States hasn?t invested much in the technology. [29]

GCC countries need to get on the path to optimal renewable energy infrastructure development in order to minimize costs while helping achieve their national economic development objectives. [5] In this uncertain economic environment, GCC countries will not have the luxury of reversing poor infrastructure investment decisions. [5]

Establishing clear standards for wind and, to a lesser degree, solar would reduce these barriers among GCC countries and across the broader Middle East region. [5] Located in the heart of the global sunbelt, GCC countries have some of the highest solar exposures in the world. [5]

GCC countries lack the predictable, stable regulatory and policy environments that the effective deployment of renewable energy demands. [5] The GCC countries are an ideal market for renewable energy deployment. [5]

GCC countries should also consider creating the necessary legal instruments to allocate risk optimally to the partner most capable of managing it at each phase of the project. [5]

These utilities lack the requisite mind-set and capacity to manage concurrently multiple renewables projects of 100 to 300 megawatts each. [5] Utilities today are becoming more comfortable with a growing share of renewables capacity. [5]

Although liquid hydrocarbon production capacity remains largely in surplus, the region as a whole faces an enduring gas shortage that is compelling it to develop increasingly remote and technically challenging gas resources. [5] Gas production capacity has increased to 2,750 million cft from 1,744 million cft in January 2009". [7]

State-run utility Tanzania Electric Supply Co. Ltd. is expanding the Kinyerezi I power plant ( Fig. 2 ) to 335 MW from the existing capacity of 150 MW. The expansion is expected to be completed by February 2019. [4]

It built a station with an installed capacity of 10MW. The National Power Company (Landsvirkjun) was set up in 1965, and that's when hydro started to become an electrical bedrock for the nation. [30] Germany, despite being smaller and with less sun exposure than Australia, has an installed capacity of 41GW in solar energy. [30] Drawing energy from nearby wind turbines, the battery has an installed capacity of 100 megawatts, making it roughly three times larger than any other battery of its kind. [30]

Right now, solar panels around the country have a combined installed capacity of just over 7 gigawatts. [30] In the U.S., a country that Stanford University says has more than enough resources to run entirely on renewables, the goal is 30 percent by 2025. [30] The southern African country, with an estimated 160 Tft of recoverable gas in the Rovuma offshore basin, recently brought online the 120-MW Ressano Garcia gas-fired power plant project. [4] This should mean great things for Australia, a country so rich in solar potential that some have dubbed it the Saudi Arabia of solar. [30] A solar-photovoltaic panel in a GCC country produces twice as much output as it would in Germany or any similar European country. [5] International experience points to six critical actions that can be adapted to the specific circumstances of each GCC country. [5]

This is an incredible resource, and I hope the country works together to try to figure out how to harness it safely and effectively. [29]

Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. [6] The monthly oil-powered share of total generation can fluctuate significantly even on a national level, as illustrated below. [6] Alaska also relies on oil for nearly 15% of the state's total generation. [6]

Annual U.S. oil-powered generation fell from 114,647 gigawatthours (GWh), or 3.1 % of total power generation, in 2001 to 12,583 GWh, or 0.3% of total generation, in 2017. [6] The availability of cheap long-term project finance under the IPP contractual model allows the GCC to attract the necessary private and foreign investments into power generation. [5] We estimate that fossil fuel consumption subsidies in the GCC, inclusive of power generation fuel supply, amounted to $30 billion in 2016, matching Germany's renewable energy subsidies in the same year. [5] The IPP model of privately financed power generation assets is well-established in the GCC, with a track record of stability and success that spans more than two decades. [5]

The Finance Minister pointed out that maximum power generation record reached 10,958 MW from 3,268 MW in 2009. [7] "Some 99 percent of Norwegian power generation comes from hydro," said Young. [30]

Although Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai in the United Arab Emirates have made notable progress in sourcing, developing, and retaining the required skills, such policymaking and regulatory oversight of the electricity sector as a whole, and renewables in particular, is a relatively recent phenomenon in the GCC. [5] Nigeria has a thermal installed capacity of 12,000 MW. This capacity requires approximately 2,734 MMsft 3 d of gas to efficiently operate, of which a mere 820.2 MMsft 3 d, or 30%, is available. [4]

According to India's National Electricity Plan, released in March 2018, it has set an ambitious target to increase renewable energy capacity to 275GW by 2027.Solar energy represents two-thirds of this total, with upward of 165GW capacity across utility-scale projects, rooftop installations, floating solar, hybrid wind-solar and concentrated solar power. [11] While large swathes of Africa remain electricity poor, some countries are heavily investing in their power sectors with ambitions to become net power exporters. [14]

Projections forecast that the role of coal--which is one of the cheapest sources of electricity production--will decline, even in South Africa, as gas for power and industry, and liquid-petroleum projects for transport and power, develop. While the continent has only one nuclear plant--the 1,940-MW Koeberg in South Africa's Cape Town--several other countries, including Kenya, Egypt, and Namibia, are interested in introducing nuclear. [14] Zimbabwe and Zambia both rely heavily on the Kariba dam for electricity, and falling water levels at the dam raise the threat of deeper power cuts in the two countries. [16]

A coalition of natural gas and renewable power advocates told Perry that “power plant retirements are a normal, healthy feature of electricity markets,” and therefore there is no emergency that would justify Energy Department action. [10] Trump administration officials are making plans to order grid operators to buy electricity from struggling coal and nuclear plants in an effort to extend their life, a move that could represent an unprecedented intervention into U.S. energy markets. [10] For comparison, total electricity generating capacity in the U.S. currently stands at just over one terawatt, of which just under 4 per cent is provided by PV. However, because of the intermittency and seasonality of solar power, PV currently accounts for slightly less than 2 per cent of actual electricity generated. [15] After gathering data from sites across North America, the NREL team explained: "Utility-scale solar plants, not including concentrated solar power plants, have the capacity to generate 15.8 GW of electricity and rooftop solar can provide an additional 9.2 GW. [15] American power generators are expected to retire -- or announce the retirements of -- 16,200 megawatts of coal-fired and 550 megawatts of nuclear plant capacity this year, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance. [10] Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) projects that over 80% of global solar energy capacity will be procured through competitive procurement in the next 10 years. [8] According to a new report by the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, the levelized cost of solar dropped 15 percent year-over-year to $86/MWh for capacity installed in 2017. [11] While gas and hydropower will continue to dominate sub-Saharan Africa's power generation mix, particularly for baseload power utilization, solar capacity is expected to increase as a major power resource as technology prices continue to fall and solar tariffs become increasingly cost competitive with other thermal and renewable resources. [8] "For India, it's a very clear case where renewables are able to deliver power at lower cost than new coal and even a lot of existing capacity," says Myllyvirta. [13] For this reason, Power Africa builds local capacity for Africans to develop, negotiate, own, manage and operate projects themselves. [8]

Coal-fired capacity and generation in China has more or less peaked, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). [13]

This decrease is resulting in many countries adopting solar power as a viable source of energy, and China and India are at the forefront of this endeavor. [11] Canceling power purchase agreements (PPAs), particularly in countries with a limited track record of private sector investment, can increase the risk profile of the country and affect future energy prices. [8] A reliable and affordable energy supply is a foundational requirement for business investment, with increasing energy availability directly linked to increased GDP-growth. Countries with inadequate power supplies often pay a lot for emergency power solutions, or do not have sufficient power for industry and are under threat of losing those industrial clients. [8]

Power Africa strongly encourages countries to pursue competitive tendering to enhance transparency and get the best prices, and we are supporting competitive processes across the continent through Scaling Solar, the U.S. Trade and Development Agency's Global Procurement Initiative, and other programs. [8] The pools include the Central Africa Power Pool (CAPP); the ComitMaghrin de l?Electricit(COMELEC) for northern countries; the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP); the Southern Africa Power Pool (SAPP); and the West Africa Power Pool (WAPP). [14]

As of 9 April 2018, 27 countries have joined the Powering Past Coal Alliance on phasing out coal power, of which 13 still have operating plants. [13] There are now 77 countries using coal power, up from 65 in 2000. [13] Some 77 countries use coal to generate electricity, up from 65 in 2000. [13] To sustain unprecedented economic growth, lift hundreds of millions out of poverty, and attract investment, African countries are taking bold steps to expand electricity infrastructure. [14]

PV Power, the second-largest electricity producer in Vietnam, said the plants represent an investment of about $33 trillion dong ($1.46 billion). [9] Electricity from the plant is supplied to the country's national power grid. [9] The country's Ministry of Industry and Commerce said 2017 was a record year for power consumption in Vietnam, and demand for electricity is forecast to increase 12.5% year-over-year this summer. [9] African governments and Independent Power Producers (IPPs) recognize the incredible opportunity to overcome African electricity poverty by utilizing one of the continent's most abundant natural resources?--?the sun. [8] BHEL is working on similar projects for NTPC--India's largest energy company--and state-owned utilities Gujarat State Electricity Corp. Ltd. and Chhattisgarh State Power Generation Co. Ltd. [9] On the flip side, owing to transmission and distribution constraints, a number of project developers have set up interesting business models for smaller, off-grid power generation applications to ensure that Africa's underserved population will still have electricity. [14]

If the problems faced are addressed quickly, we can witness a global energy technology transition, the report said, with reducing costs for consumers along with improved electricity access. [11] The oldest and least efficient subcritical units might turn less than 35% of the energy in coal into electricity. [13] The IEA dramatically cut its latest forecast for Indian coal demand, due to slower electricity demand growth and cheaper renewables. [13] Nuclear and coal-fired power plants are struggling to compete against cheap natural gas and renewable electricity. [10] The department’s intervention is meant to buy time for a two-year study of vulnerabilities in the American energy delivery system -- from power plants that provide electricity to the natural gas pipelines that supply them. [10]

This is roughly twice the emissions of gas-fired electricity and in the order of 50-100 higher than nuclear, wind or solar. [13] Plants burning low-quality lignite can emit as much as 1,200 tonnes of CO2 per gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity generated, falling below 1,000tCO2/GWh for harder, less polluting grades from sub-bituminous through to bituminous coal. (Rarely used anthracite is hard, but has high CO2 emissions, as it contains less hydrogen than other grades.) [13] This is also the basis of cost estimates for building new coal, whereas lower running hours raise costs per unit of electricity. [13] India's latest National Electricity Plan targets 48GW of coal retirements, in part due to new air pollution rules. [13] Coal generates 40-41% of the world's electricity, its highest share in decades. [13] Electricity generated from coal peaked in 2014, so the expanding fleet is running fewer hours than ever. [13]

These projects are what will provide, in the long term, the lowest cost reliable electricity for all of Africa's people and its economy. [8] By 2016, Africa had installed only 168 GW of power capacity, and progress on the transmission and power distribution front has been "painfully slow, making the generated electricity unusable for productive purposes," said the AfDB. And, its electricity deficit remains enormous. [14] Two out of three people in sub-Saharan Africa lack access to electricity. [8]

A legal wrangle looms over coal's role in South Africa's new electricity investment plan, due later this summer. [13] The plan cuts to the heart of a debate over the reliability and resiliency of a rapidly evolving U.S. electricity grid. [10]

Higher electricity prices have been a source of political resistance, "reinforced by the awareness that elections can be won or lost because of electricity prices." [14] As a 2016 World Bank report notes, many state-owned utilities have suffered "years of underspending on maintenance and expansion," which is tied to "the inability of many customers to pay for electricity services and underpricing" (Figure 2). [14] The promise of cheap electricity to fuel economic growth is driving this expansion. [13] This growth will be dependent on several factors, and nothing may be more crucial to the continent's economic advancement than a much-needed surge in access to electricity. [14]

The continent harbors a growing population--yet, more than 591 million Africans have no access to electricity. [14] Invoking national security concerns could bolster the Trump administration’s case in any legal challenges over the intervention, said Ari Peskoe, director of the Electricity Law Initiative at Harvard University. [10]

The country installed a record 53GW of solar power in 2017, 55 percent of the global total. [11] Instead of having to come up with $100 million, plus interest, to pay off a loan to another country for a $100 million power project, a government might need to set aside $8 million in a reserve fund to guarantee anticipated defaults on a $100 million, privately-funded project with an expected default rate of no more than 8%. [8] Paired with the 1,870-MW Gilgel Gibe III Dam, which it completed in 2015, the country plans to export surplus power to its neighbors, including Egypt, Djibouti, and Sudan, and boost revenues by up to $1 billion a year. [14] Any reduction in Cahora Bassa's generating capacity would force the country to rely increasingly on more expensive sources of power. [16]

Another 13 countries - responsible for 3% of current capacity - have pledged to phase out coal by 2030 as part of the " Powering Past Coal Alliance ", led by the UK and Canada. [13] This is more capacity than all except three countries (China, India and the US), as the table above shows. [13] The IEA in late 2017 suggested that installed capacity of renewables in sub-Saharan countries could almost double from around 35 GW to 60 GW, but only if it can resolve financial and political issues. [14]

In many countries, reputable companies have proposed to build reasonably priced power projects and are ready to get to work now. [8] That access to power is also disparate across the continent: In North Africa, it was 98% in 2014 but 26% in East Africa, and it varies greatly within countries, where urban consumers are better served than rural consumers. [14] After watching a power project get derailed for not having had an adequate community engagement plan in Kenya, Power Africa, along with several of its civil society partners produced a Guide to Community Engagement for Power Projects in Kenya that can be modeled in other countries, as well. [8] Another factor that hampers private investment is that some African countries don?t have well-defined infrastructure programs and bankable project pipelines, and the lack of planning often means that the private sector cannot assess costs and risks or set down long-time plans. [14] In those countries that choose to constantly move the goalposts just to get the lowest price, they likely will attract, let's just say it, opportunistic "fringe developers" without strong track records of successful project implementation, who are willing to cut corners on quality to bring down costs, and who may not comply with international social, environmental, labor, or good governance standards. [8] South African government officials now have extensive experience with renewable technologies, and most importantly, the cost of capital to invest in South Africa is much less than in most, if not all, countries in sub-Saharan Africa. [8] As the AfDB noted in a 2018 report, "In many African countries, airports, paved roads, and power plants are built to yield political benefits in the regions of powerful politicians, and end up as "white elephants.? " The organization said that political bias in project selection may also exist, leading to a large number of unfinished projects as new governments fail to complete them given their lack of economic returns (or benefits to constituents). [14] The countries where Scaling Solar has been successful in securing low bid prices?--?Zambia and Senegal?--?also have different economics, enabling environments, and political structures that are helping each country realize low solar tariffs. [8] As significant are political risks, which have assailed nearly every country on the continent historically and continue to lurk, particularly in countries that have recently held or plan to hold elections. [14] When this happens, there will be a very limited pool of investors willing to back developers to take a risk in the country, which will keep the cost of capital high for years to come and guarantee that, if they?re built at all, weak projects will be built, leaving these countries behind as other countries prosper. [8]

Together, these countries are building 50GW of new plants and have another 128GW planned, with many of the projects in poorer nations being financed or built by China, Japan and South Korea. [13] Using data from CoalSwarm's Global Coal Plant Tracker, it features around 10,000 retired, operating and planned coal units, totalling nearly 3,000 gigawatts (GW) across 95 countries. [13]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(36 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (55) Mapped: The world's coal power plants | Carbon Brief

2. (45) The outlook for renewable energy in the GCC: Mostly sunny with a chance of rain

3. (35) Power in Africa: Prospects for an Economic Foothold

4. (30) The Unintended Consequences of Falling Solar Prices in Africa

5. (25) If renewable energy can power entire countries, why isn't everyone doing it? - CNET

6. (18) Pipelines

7. (17) Nuclear power by country - Wikipedia

8. (14) Chile Debates Whether Citizens Should Profit from Generating Energy | Inter Press Service

9. (13) Trump Prepares Lifeline for Money-Losing Coal Plants - Bloomberg

10. (12) China and India Lead the Global Solar Energy Rush - Brink - The Edge of Risk

11. (12) Electricity Monthly Update - Energy Information Administration

12. (11) Canadian Government's coal restrictions boost demand for renewables

13. (9) Solar boom: installed capacity expected to double by 2023

14. (9) Supporting Local Industries and Everyday Life through the Worldwide Provision of Electric Power Infrastructure | Sumitomo Corporation

15. (9) POWER Digest [June 2018]

16. (7) Somalia | Power Africa | U.S. Agency for International Development

17. (7) Country's power generation capacity rise up to 2 , MW

18. (6) Mozambique: Severe drought affects electricity generation | Club of Mozambique

19. (6) Storing Renewable Energy That's "Blowin? in the Wind" - Essential Energy Everyday

20. (6) India Coal-based Power Generation Market Report 2018 - ResearchAndMarkets.com

21. (6) Renewable power accounted for 70% of net additions to global power generating capacity in 2017: Report - Firstpost

22. (5) "There is enough wind energy capacity off the east coast to power the entire country? - News @ Northeastern

23. (4) List of countries by electricity consumption - Wikipedia

24. (4) China Electricity Production | 1989-2018 | Data | Chart | Calendar

25. (3) Ethiopia increases electricity generation capacity 11-fold in 27 years - Nigerian Watch Newspaper

26. (3) New coal-fired power plant in Kenya to incorporate clean coal technology

27. (3) Electricity Production Data | World Electricity Statistics | Enerdata

28. (3) • Solar PV: global cumulative installed capacity share by country 2017 | Statistic

29. (2) A Tale of Three Coal Markets | Global Trade Magazine

30. (2) REN21 report: record PV growth but soaring energy demand leaves renewables playing catch-up pv magazine International

31. (2) Electricity production from coal sources (% of total) in Denmark

32. (2) About Us - Duke Energy

33. (1) SkyPower Global - Generating a Brighter Future

34. (1) Nigeria power generation drops after ruptured gas pipe shuts six power stations | News by Country | Reuters

35. (1) The 2nd Namibia Renewable Energy & Power Infrastructure Investment Conference | ESI-Africa.com

36. (1) in Central America - CentralAmericaData :: The Regional Business Portal

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