Largest Country In Sub Saharan Africa

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • It is the worlds 11th largest country and largest in the Sub Saharan Africa.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Although Africa is termed as a developing continent, there are large deposits in almost every country, and some countries have one of the favorable climatic conditions.(More…)
  • North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.(More…)
  • The Malagasy peoples, moreover, do not consider themselves to be Africans, but, because of the continuing bond with France that resulted from former colonial rule, the island developed political, economic, and cultural links with the French-speaking countries of western Africa.(More…)

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Largest Country In Sub Saharan Africa
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KEY TOPICS

It is the worlds 11th largest country and largest in the Sub Saharan Africa. [1]
It is the worlds 11th largest country and largest in the Sub Saharan Africa. [1]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Although Africa is termed as a developing continent, there are large deposits in almost every country, and some countries have one of the favorable climatic conditions. [2] Chad is a country in central Africa, and it is a landlocked country occupying a total area of 496,000 square miles with an estimated population of 13,670,084 people by 2015. [2] Sudan is the 3rd largest country in Africa with an estimated population of 39,578,828 by the census of 2016. [2] Libya has an area of 700,000 square miles, and it is a fourth largest country in Africa and sixteenth in the world. [2]

Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Western Africa includes the preceding states with the addition of Mauritania (which withdrew from ECOWAS in 1999), comprising an area of approximately 6.1 million square km. [3] Because of the large numbers of West Africans enslaved in the Atlantic slave trade, most African Americans are likely to have mixed ancestry from different regions of western Africa. [3] The Indian Ocean surrounds Africa on the southeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the West, the Mediterranean Sea to the North and the Red Sea and the Suez Canal to the North East. [2] Impacts of Global Change on the Hydrological Cycle in West and Northwest Africa, p. 33. [3]

By 2016, Africa had a population of 1.2 billion people which is about 16% of the world’s population. [2] The DRC has a population of 78 million people which ranks as the fourth most populous nation in Africa. [2]

West Africa has been defined as including 17 countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, the island nation of Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, the islands of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. [3] The Trans-West African Coastal Highway is a transnational highway project to link 12 West African coastal states, from Mauritania in the north-west of the region to Nigeria in the east, with feeder roads already existing to two landlocked countries, Mali and Burkina Faso. [3]

There have been setbacks to the development of most African countries. [2] West African cuisines have had a significant influence on those of Western civilization for centuries; several dishes of West African origin are currently enjoyed in the Caribbean (e.g., the West Indies and Haiti ); Australia; the USA (particularly Louisiana, Virginia, North and South Carolina ); Italy; and other countries. [3] Colonial languages also play a pivotal cultural and political role, being adopted as the official languages of most countries in the region, as well as linguae franca in communication between the region’s various ethnic groups. [3] Christianity, a relative newcomer introduced from the late 19th to mid-to-late 20th centuries, is associated with the British and French colonisation eras, when missionaries from European countries brought the religion to the region. [3]

Fufu (from the Twi language, a dough served with a spicy stew or sauce for example okra stew etc.) from Ghana is enjoyed throughout the region and beyond even in Central Africa with their own versions of it. [3] Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa, are found in more northerly parts of the region nearest to the Sahara, and Nilo-Saharan communities, such as the Songhai, Kanuri and Zarma, are found in the eastern parts of West Africa bordering Central Africa. [3] Despite the wide variety of cultures in West Africa, from Nigeria through to Senegal, there are general similarities in dress, cuisine, music and culture that are not shared extensively with groups outside the geographic region. [3] Due to its increasingly close ties to the Arab World and its 1999 withdrawal from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), in modern times it is often considered, especially in Africa, as now part of western North Africa. [3] The football governing body of West Africa is the West African Football Union (WAFU) and the major tournament is the West African Club Championship and WAFU Nations Cup, along with the annual individual award of West African Footballer of the Year. [3] In 1957, Ghana, under Kwame Nkrumah, became the first sub-Saharan colony to achieve its independence, followed the next year by France’s colonies (Guinea in 1958 under the leadership of President Ahmed Sekou Tour; by 1974, West Africa’s nations were entirely autonomous. [3] The major national teams of West Africa, the Ghana national football team, the Ivory Coast national football team, and the Nigeria national football team regularly win the Africa Cup of Nations. [3] In other areas of West Africa, primarily among the Hausa, Mossi, Dagomba and Yoruba in the area encompassing Burkina Faso, northern Ghana, Nigeria and Niger, the traditional profession of non-hereditary praise-singers, minstrels, bards and poets play a vital role in extending the public show of power, lineage and prestige of traditional rulers through their exclusive patronage. [3] Britain controlled the Gambia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, and Nigeria throughout the colonial era, while France unified Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Ivory Coast and Niger into French West Africa. [3]

In contrast to other parts of the continent south of the Sahara Desert, the concepts of hemming and embroidering clothing have been traditionally common to West Africa for centuries, demonstrated by the production of various breeches, shirts, tunics and jackets. [3] West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa. [3] West Africa, broadly defined to include the western portion of the Maghreb ( Western Sahara, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia ), occupies an area in excess of 6,140,000km 2, or approximately one-fifth of Africa. [3] The northern section of West Africa (narrowly defined to exclude the western Maghreb) is composed of semi-arid terrain known as Sahel, a transitional zone between the Sahara and the savannahs of the western Sudan. [3] Early human settlers from northern Holocene societies arrived in West Africa around 12,000 B.C. At Gobero, the Kiffian, who were hunters of tall stature, lived during the green Sahara between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago. [3]

West Africans primarily speak Niger-Congo languages, belonging mostly, though not exclusively, to its non-Bantu branches, though some Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic speaking groups are also found in West Africa. [3] The population of West Africa is estimated at 362 million people as of 2016. [3]

At the independence, the country was the second most industrialized country in Africa following South Africa. [2] The Sahara Desert covers the southern part of Algeria making the country a semi-desert with very hot middays and chilly nights. [2]

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. [4] They estimate a 50 percent premium in labor costs in Africa when compared to same-size firms in comparable countries. [5]

For Iton, the traditional approach to the African diaspora focuses on the ruptures associated with the Atlantic slave trade and Middle Passage, notions of dispersal, and “the cycle of retaining, redeeming, refusing, and retrieving ‘Africa.'” : 199 This conventional framework for analyzing the diaspora is dangerous, according to Iton, because it presumes that diaspora exists outside of Africa, thus simultaneously disowning and desiring Africa. [6] The long lifespan and strong human-biting habit of the African vector species is the main reason why nearly 90% of the world’s malaria cases are in Africa. [7]

Out of the 12million people from Africa who were shipped to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade, 645,000 were shipped to the British colonies on the North American mainland and the United States. [6] Behind America, Brazil has the largest population of black diasporic people outside of Africa. [6] Immigrants born in Africa constitute 1.6 percent of the black population. [6]

It is estimated that almost two thirds of HIV infections in West and Central Africa in 2016 occurred in Nigeria. [8] Mainstream anthropologists determine that the Andamanese and others are part of a network of authothonous ethnic groups present in South Asia that trace their genetic ancestry to a migratory sequence that culminated in the Australian Aboriginals rather than from Africa directly. [6] For this reason, most malaria deaths in Africa occur in young children, whereas in areas with less transmission and low immunity, all age groups are at risk. [7] In 2012, WHO recommended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention as an additional malaria prevention strategy for areas of the Sahel sub-region of Africa. [7]

By the mid-16th century, slave trade from Africa to the Caribbean was so profitable that the Englishmen Francis Drake and John Hawkins engaged in piracy and violated Spanish colonial laws, in order to forcibly transport approximately 1500 enslaved people from Sierra Leone to Hispaniola ( Haiti and Dominican Republic ). [6] The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. [4] From this view, the daily struggle against what they call the “world-historical processes” of racial colonization, capitalism, and western domination defines blacks links to Africa. [6] Can Africa still leverage its latent comparative advantage in labor-intensive light manufacturing to benefit from second-generation offshoring? A special issue of the Revue d?Economie du Deloppement, Pathways to Structural Transformation brings together recent contributions on the analysis of structural transformation and the constraints to sub-Saharan Africa’s industrial development. [5] Over a hundred years and more, all Carthaginian territory was eventually conquered by the Romans, resulting in the Carthaginian North African territories becoming the Roman province of Africa in 146 B.C. This led to tension and eventually conflict between Numidia and Rome. [4]

Beginning in the 15th century, Europeans captured or bought African slaves from West Africa and brought them to the Americas and Europe. [6] The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa’s peoples, predominantly in the Americas. [6]

Due to the recent African origin of modern humans, the history of Prehistoric North Africa is important to the understanding of pre-hominid and early modern human history in Africa. [4] The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity that is unique to this region. [4] Entrepreneurial dynamism, as evidenced by export surges in non-commodity sectors, is no more in short supply in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere, while export concentration appears to be a characteristic of resource-rich countries rather than the region as a whole. [5] In November 2016, WHO announced that the RTS,S vaccine would be rolled out in pilot projects in selected areas in 3 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana, Kenya and Malawi. [7] Some 15 countries – all in sub-Saharan Africa, except India – accounted for 80% of the global malaria burden. [7] They find that during the 1990-2012 period, services were, by far, the largest contributors to GDP growth in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, a pattern they observe in sub-Saharan Africa. [5] These trends stand in contrast to manufacturing, whose share in total employment tends to follow, across countries, a hump-shaped curve in terms of level of development–with a peak attained at lower levels for latecomers like sub-Saharan Africa. [5] Basing their analysis on firm-level data in the manufacturing sector (from the World Bank Enterprise Survey) in 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries and 13 comparators (e.g., Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, among others) Gelb, Meyer, and Ramachandran bring a key contribution to the discussion. [5] “North Africa”, particularly when used in North Africa and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb and Libya. [4] The official language or one of the official languages in all of the countries in North Africa is Arabic. [4]

Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World. [6] In October 2015, two WHO advisory groups recommended pilot implementation of RTS, S/AS01 in a limited number of African countries. [7]

A 2011 autosomal DNA study, with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country (“whites”, “pardos” and “blacks”), found out a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component. [6] According to an autosomal DNA study from 2010, “a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. [6]

Of 42 countries surveyed by a European Commission against Racism and Intolerance study in 2007, it was found that 29 collected official statistics on country of birth, 37 on citizenship, 24 on religion, 26 on language, 6 on country of birth of parents, and 22 on nationality or ethnicity. [6] Economic Strategies and Management for Transformation To help countries produce more transformational development strategies and plans in response to country demand. [5]

Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs as the Maghreb (“West”). [4] In recent years, 8 countries have been certified by the WHO Director-General as having eliminated malaria: United Arab Emirates (2007), Morocco (2010), Turkmenistan (2010), Armenia (2011), Maldives (2015), Sri Lanka (2016), Kyrgyzstan (2016) and Paraguay (2018). [7] Countries that have achieved at least 3 consecutive years of 0 local cases of malaria are eligible to apply for the WHO certification of malaria elimination. [7]

In 2016, 91 countries and areas had ongoing malaria transmission. [7] In 2016, there were an estimated 216 million cases of malaria in 91 countries, an increase of 5 million cases over 2015. [7] Effective surveillance is required at all points on the path to malaria elimination and the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030 (GTS) recommends that countries transform surveillance into a core intervention. [7] The WHO Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030 – adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2015 – provides a technical framework for all malaria-endemic countries. [7]

With 189 member countries, staff from more 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. [9]

Nigeria was selected as one of UNAIDS? 23 priority countries for PMTCT – being one of the nations with the highest HIV burden yet low levels of treatment coverage during pregnancy. [8] Leveraging Extractives for Transformation To help countries use their natural resources – mineral, oil, and natural gas – to more effectively support economic transformation by optimizing revenue take from projects, managing in transparent and accountable fashion, linking to other economic sectors, and boosting local content and value addition. [5] Some European countries make it illegal to collect demographic census information based on ethnicity or ancestry (e.g. France), but some others do query along racial lines (e.g. the UK). [6] In their contribution, Ghani and O?Connell argue that the potential of services to act as a “growth escalator” for sub-Saharan Africa’s low-income countries is overlooked. [5]

In a country such as Nigeria, where so many people are not on treatment, it is hard to tackle the HIV epidemic. [8] Nigeria is an enormous, populous country, and so it has a very high number of people living with HIV despite a relatively low HIV prevalence. [8]

From a country perspective, now that the most egregious restrictions to international trade across the continent have been removed, these conclusions suggest that policies to facilitate the development of services that have become increasingly tradable should be pursued. [5] The rate of progress in a particular country will depend on the strength of its national health system, the level of investment in malaria control, and a number of other factors, including: biological determinants, the environment, and the social, demographic, political, and economic realities of a particular country. [7]

North Africa has three main geographic features: the Sahara desert in the south, the Atlas Mountains in the west, and the Nile River and delta in the east. [4] The Sahara serves as a geographical boundary between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa and marks a transition zone from the largely Arab identifying population of North Africa to black Africa of the south. [4] The distinction between North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa is historically and ecologically significant because of the general barrier created by the Sahara Desert for much of modern history. [4] The Sahara desert has therefore played an important role in the history of North Africa. [4]

Northwest Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Copts. [4] North Africa remained a part of the Roman Empire, which produced many notable citizens such as Augustine of Hippo, until incompetent leadership from Roman commanders in the early fifth century allowed the Germanic peoples, the Vandals, to cross the Strait of Gibraltar, whereupon they overcame the fickle Roman defense. [4] The Islamic influence in the area is also significant, and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. [4] These areas are not generally considered part of North Africa, but rather Southern Europe, due to their European-based cultures and religion. [4] The Maghreb or western North Africa on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C., while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians. [4] Some parts of North Africa began to participate in the Neolithic revolution in the 6th millennium BC, just before the rapid desertification of the Sahara around 3500 B.C. due to a tilt in the Earth’s orbit. [4] In general geopolitical and business usage, as for example with the World Bank, North Africa is often grouped with the Middle East under the acronym MENA (“Middle East and North Africa”) and sometimes in American governmental usage the geopolitical term Greater Middle East. [4] The earliest inhabitants of central North Africa have left behind significant remains: early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa, for example, were found in Ain el Hanech, near Saa (c. 200,000 BCE); in fact, more recent investigations have found signs of Oldowan technology there, and indicate a date of up to 1.8 million BC. [4]

Today, the largest ethnic groups in North Africa are Arabs, Berbers and West Africas. [4] The most notable nations of antiquity in western North Africa are Carthage and Numidia. [4]

In my contribution, Cadot, myself, Plane, Wagner and Woldemichael show that the growth elasticity of poverty reduction is weaker in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions over the 1993-2011 period. [5] Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to recover steadily and is forecasted to pick up to 3.1% in 2018 and to firm to an average of 3.6% in 2019-20. [9]

Malaria-endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and India are causing significant concern due to high levels of malaria transmission and widespread reports of insecticide resistance. [7] Today 1.7 million people in the United States are descended from voluntary immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, most of whom arrived in the late twentieth century. [6]

The recovery in Sub-Saharan Africa’s economy is expected to gain steam this year, thanks to stronger growth in major players Nigeria and South Africa. [10] Higher oil prices and improved FX allocation should support growth in Nigeria, while Cyril Ramaphosa’s presidency has helped revive confidence in South Africa. [10]

The Malagasy peoples, moreover, do not consider themselves to be Africans, but, because of the continuing bond with France that resulted from former colonial rule, the island developed political, economic, and cultural links with the French-speaking countries of western Africa. [11] More broadly, the Economic Development in Africa report finds that intra-African migration is beneficial for structural transformation in destination countries in Africa; finding that a 1 percent increase in the number of immigrants in the destination country may increase manufacturing value added by 0.26-0.43 percent. [12] It is bounded on the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; on the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and on the east and northeast by Mozambique and Swaziland; and surrounds the kingdom of Lesotho. [13]

Francophone Africa is an important part of the puzzleSouth Africa’s Standard Bank launched operations in Ce d?Ivoire last year and is planning on using the country as its Francophone West. [14] Madagascar, island country lying off the southeastern coast of Africa. [11]

Two other notable findings from the report are that the middle class in Africa migrates to the region’s richer countries, and the need for jobs is a major driver of migration in poorer countries. [12] East Africa also has several smaller economic corridors with migrants moving around the East African Community (EAC) countries, largely due to relaxed labor laws for migrants from EAC countries. [12] As Figure 1 from the Annual Development Effectiveness Reviews 2018 shows, in 2017, the largest migrant flows in Central, East, and West Africa were to other countries in their respective regions. [12] Sub-Saharan Africa has several power regions where participating countries trade electricity to improve the reliability of the whole electricity system. [15]

If solar power projects are to succeed in African countries, it’s key to make finance less risky, to strengthen institutional capacity so that regions can co-operate, and to improve domestic logistical infrastructure. [15] The Energy Progress Report, presented earlier this month, highlighted the significant strides attained by East African countries towards meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. [16] John Moore/Getty Images Endemic to the African tropics, the Ebola virus has killed thousands in recent years, putting the World Health Organization and major donor countries in the limelight as they?ve grappled with how to respond to outbreaks. [17] A study by Chapman has shown that hydropower is providing more than 50 percent of electricity in twenty African countries. [16] 2.2 million Somalis have been displaced inside the country, according to UN figures, while a further 870,000 are refugees in other countries. [16] By emphasizing the prominence of country variables, reflecting the quality of countries? macroeconomic management and their economic performance, our results qualify the common view that SSA countries have little control over their market borrowing costs. [18] A panel error-correction analysis suggests large heterogeneity in the short-term influence of our global and country variables across countries. [18]

Nationals should hold a current passport from a Caribbean or Sub-Saharan African country. [19] South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area, and with close to 56 million people, is the world’s 24th-most populous nation. [13] South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. [13]

According to the report, these and other migration corridors (Figure 2) in West and Southern Africa are economically driven as they connect migrants to jobs in farming and informal trade. [12] Last week, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) released its annual Economic Development in Africa report. [12] Looking further into intra-African migration, Figure 2, from UNCTAD’s Economic Development in Africa report, highlights the 15 top corridors for intra-African migration in 2017 by migrant stock. [12]

The most impoverished and marginalised people are suffering greatly as a result, and the development gap in Africa will reach an all-time high should this trend be allowed to continue. [16] The Lake Turkana Wind Power Project, for example, is the biggest wind farm in Africa and the single largest private investment in Kenyan history. [16] The World Bank has financed multiple electrification projects in Mali, for example, as part of its Africa Climate Business Plan. [16]

Africa had split from South America, the last land connection being between Brazil and Nigeria. [11] The inability to access clean and reliable energy has severely impacted the lives of millions in Africa. [16]

Several of the migration corridors ending in East Africa have developed due to conflict or political instability in countries like South Sudan and Somalia. [12] Most other outbreaks have occurred in Gabon, the Republic of Congo, and South Sudan, though international travel has led to cases of Ebola in Western countries, including the United States. [17] The disease was mostly confined to small outbreaks in remote settings until 2014, when it hit urban areas in several West African countries and even traveled as far as the United States. [17]

That said, facilitating greater cooperation and collaboration between public and private utilities will promote scalability, in turn enabling more people across many countries in the region to gain access to electricity. [16] People in high-transmission countries are generally told, as part of public awareness campaigns, to avoid physical contact, such as hugs and handshakes. [17] Such projects, financed in part by international organisations, aim to reduce sub-Saharan Africa’s overreliance on harmful energy sources while broadening energy access to encompass all inhabitants of the countries targeted. [16] Private utility heads have argued that, in order to have the greatest impact, this subsidy should be benchmarked against those received by public utilities in countries that take part in renewable energy donor programmes. [16] Such sustained efforts in tackling problems of energy access and efficiency should result in faster rates of economic development for the countries concerned, and a much-improved standard of living for their citizens. [16] The report recommends that origin countries increase engagement with the diaspora to further the development of those origin countries. [12]

Growth rates in many countries on the continent have been impressive, with capital cities like Cameroon and Burkina Faso experiencing rates exceeding 7 percent – far above the 1.84 percent global average. [16] More broadly, cooperation between developed and developing countries is playing an integral role in shaping Africa’s energy future. [16]

Charles Keter, Kenya’s Energy Cabinet Secretary, stated that the “government has no intention of locking out some parts of the country in the provision of electricity,” and that “all regions will be treated equally in the new connections to improve the lives of Kenyans.” [16] The zero emissions project will help to fight the existing energy gap in the country whilst saving 16 million tons of CO 2 compared to the fossil fuel-based alternatives. [16] In this vein, the government believes that the implementation of numerous small-scale solar projects represents the best opportunity to provide power to rural areas across the country. [16] Following the provision of solar power, primary and secondary school completion rates in the country increased from less than 50 to 100 percent. [16]

In their view, in rebuilding Somalia’s limited, and in many cases barely functional, energy infrastructure – a legacy of 25 years of civil war – the country has a unique opportunity to leapfrog fossil fuels in favour of a modern network of local grids powered by renewables. [16]

Crucially, energy is a vital motor propelling education, poverty reduction, improved health, as well as economic growth – all areas in which sub-Saharan Africa has typically fallen short. [16] Energy providers in East Africa, meanwhile, have reported a one-third average increase in incomes for its network of solar distributors – a promising phenomenon that in turn furthers economic growth, the driving force for economies. [16]

For the first time ever, the number of people without energy in sub-Saharan Africa is falling. [16] According to the World Bank, one billion people were still without energy access in 2016, with the vast majority of these inhabiting sub-Saharan Africa. [16] Since sub-Saharan Africa does not already have a lot of dirty energy supply in place, it makes perfect sense for the region to invest in renewable energy sources. [15] If sub-Saharan Africa is to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals, including goal 7 to ensure access to affordable, reliable and modern energy for all and goal 13 to combat climate change and its impact, electricity should not only be affordable and reliable, but also from clean energy sources. [15]

While it is encouraging that such extensive projects have been confirmed, an obvious question must be raised: namely, how can these nations afford such initiatives? Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa is rampant, unemployment is high, and economic opportunities are few and far between. [16] Sub-Saharan Africa has the sunshine that is needed for these projects and the cost of the electricity generated has fallen in recent years. [15]

The largest outbreak, however, occurred in West Africa from 2014 to 2016, killing more than eleven thousand people, the vast majority of whom lived in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. [17]

South Africa’s cash-strapped state utility Eskom said some of its power stations were operating below full capacity on Wednesday, after union members blocked some staff from entering around 10 plants. [14] The remaining population consists of Africa’s largest communities of European, Asian, and multiracial ancestry. [13]

One such example is the U.S. Power Africa Initiative, which aims to reach 60 million people across the continent through an ambitious programme of capacity building. [16]

Though African countries have averaged annual GDP growth of almost 9 percent in recent years, 47 percent of people in sub-Saharan Africa still live in poverty. [20] With a population of just 7.6 million people, Togo is one of the smallest countries in Africa. [21] Interestingly, 21 out of 25 of the world’s poorest countries are located in Africa. [21] Countries surrounding Lake Chad in Central Africa are facing staggering levels of poverty. [21]

Nearly 40% of all Africa-focused private equity funds were domiciled in the country in 2014, and according to privately-owned investment group Credentia, 2016 saw 70.8% of FDI channelled into developing economies – particularly those in Africa. [22]

Other factors that have influenced the development of Africa’s cryptocurrency market include the establishment of regulatory sandboxes in regions such as Sierra Leone to promote Fintech innovation ; interest from blockchain companies looking to harness the potential of Africa n markets ; and African policymakers and regulators grappling with the risks associated with cryptocurrency by addressing them through existing legal frameworks. [23] Beyond the Grid, a sub-initiative launched in June 2014, is powering Africa by working to unlock investment and growth in off-grid energy and electricity access projects across the African continent. [21] Though Chinese largesse in strategically important locales has now become a global phenomenon, the power of Chinese money is especially felt in Africa – where Beijing has extended more than $86 billion in commercial loans to African governments. [24] AllAfrica is a voice of, by and about Africa – aggregating, producing and distributing 800 news and information items daily from over 140 African news organizations and our own reporters to an African and global public. [25] The Africa Policy Breakfast, hosted by the Congressional Black Caucus Foreign Affairs & National Security Task Force, was attended by a standing-room-only crowd that included Congolese and other members of the African diaspora, policy analysts and at least 10 of the 48 Caucus members. [25] Thomas-Greenfield, a former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, added that U.S. policies toward Africa are in transition. [25]

Africa has more than 1,000 gigawatts of untapped solar potential that could provide clean energy to millions of households–particularly exciting for rural areas that may currently lack access to power grids but could be powered by local solar panel installations. [20] Once the third-largest source of freshwater in Africa, satellite images show that the lake has vanished to roughly 10 percent of its original size, putting millions from Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria at risk of losing their main source of water. [21] 50 percent of people with HIV in East and Southern Africa (up from 45 percent in 2015)–which is equivalent to 83 percent of those receiving ART–show viral suppression. [21] Seven million people with HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa are on ART. This means that 60 percent of all people with HIV (up from 53 percent in 2015)–or 79 percent of those who know their status–are receiving treatment. [21] East and Southern Africa is the region of the world most impacted by HIV/AIDS. UNAIDS estimates that 19.4 million people in that region have HIV/AIDS. However, since the creation of the 90-90-90 targets and the subsequent implementation of more rigorous prevention and treatment programs, tremendous progress has been made towards curbing the transmission of and deaths from HIV/AIDS. [21] East and Southern Africa may be the region most affected by HIV/AIDS, but UNAIDS is doing tremendous work towards achieving its 90-90-90 goals by 2020 and its goal of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030. [21] Infection rates peaked between 1995 and 1998, when UNAIDS estimates that 1.7 million people in East and Southern Africa were newly infected each year. [21] According to a UNAIDS Special Analysis from 2017, in 2016, 14.7 million of an estimated 19.4 million people with HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa knew their status. [21] Deaths from HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa peaked about a decade later than infection rates did, with approximately one million people dying annually between 2004 and 2006. [21]

While the implementation cost of a well can be high, a single well in Africa can meet the basic daily needs of nearly 2,000 people and last for over 20 years. [21] In Africa, over two million children die from illnesses brought on due to poor water each year. [21]

Continued increases in cryptocurrency-driven economic activity in Africa should inspire new developments in fintech, digital payment platforms, and macroeconomic measures to counter economic insecurity across the continent. [23] Considering the potential for large-scale cryptocurrency use in Africa, policymakers in regions across the continent have some legitimate concerns. [23] Already the hottest continent, Africa is projected to warm up to 1.5 times faster than the global average rate. [20] Though Africa is not conventionally thought of as a global tech powerhouse, the continent is certainly on the rise and gaining recognition for developing original and important technologies. [21]

Expected Population Growth: Business Insider approximated that more than half of the population growth that will occur between now and 2050 will take place in Africa, likely resulting in increased poverty and hunger. [21] Africa can show the rest of the world how to get energy development right. [20] Microsoft 365: Microsoft teamed up with the United Nations Development Programme on Jan. 23, 2004, to help with poverty alleviation through technology in Africa. [21]

Can African countries advance energy development while avoiding the adverse impacts made as so many nations pursued energy development? There are signs of hope in the strong leadership coming out of the continent’s climate action in other sectors. [20] “The business-friendly policies and trade agreements the country shares with many other countries (including its African counterparts) makes Mauritius a logical choice,” explains Pillay. [22] Due to the number of U.S. benefits from foreign aid to African countries, the country will continue to be a staunch supporter of existing and future initiatives. [21] National policies in East African countries substantially slow trade across East African borders and prohibitively increase costs. [21] Each of these technologies has useful applications for reducing poverty within their countries of origin and the African continent as a whole. [21]

Roughly 60 percent of people lack electricity, and, in many countries, as much as 75% of the population doesn?t have access to safe water. [20] Less than 60 percent of the infrastructure required to meet the continent’s energy needs currently exists; billions of dollars of capital will have to be raised and mobilized across several dozen countries, each with its own goals and priorities. [20]

In 2018 it was ranked 25 out of 190 countries in the World Bank Ease of Doing Business report, taking first place in sub-Saharan Africa. [22] Poverty Spotlight: Poverty Spotlight is a program that is currently working in 18 countries and is most advanced in South Africa. [21]

Higgins explained that Childaid is helping to fight poverty in Africa by supporting projects in many different areas, but their main efforts are focused in the Mukuru Slum. [21] The country has proved to be an important player and mediator especially in the geopolitics of North Africa and the Middle East. [21] It also came out as top African country in the World Economic Forum’s 2017-18 Global Competitiveness Index. [22] In the wake of Mauritius? 50th anniversary of independence on 12 March, we reflect on what the country has to offer African energy investors in 2018. [22] According to the IEA Energy Access Outlook 2017, the country boasts an impressive 100% energy access for both urban and rural areas and has ambitious plans of increasing renewable sources to account for 35% by 2025. [22]

The atmosphere in the room reflected the emotions which accompany the ongoing instability, the humanitarian crisis and the deteriorating situation in the DRC, sub-Saharan Africa’s largest country three times the size of Texas, with a population of more than 84 million people. [25] Attracting Africa’s largest power infrastructure service provider, and official AEF Country Sponsor CONCO, to set up its head office on the island nation is another proud achievement for Mauritius. [22] The country contributes to 35 percent of healthcare funding for malaria. [21]

Most of the countries in the region gained independence in the 1960s, but intercontinental trade was already well established and took precedence over regional trade. [21] U.S. trade in goods to the 49 countries in the region generated more than 121,000 jobs in 2014. [21]

That’s 60%, the largest group of countries from the same continent. [26]

Power Africa has funded off-grid companies and projects that have enabled tens of millions of people to gain access to electricity for the first time. [21] Power Africa strives to promote gender equality and female empowerment by supporting projects, programs and policies that promote the engagement of both men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. [21]

Only 16 percent of people living in Sub-Saharan Africa have access to drinking water through a household faucet. [21] The Hub’s regulatory reform activities have increased regional trade in East Africa by 39 percent over the past two years. [21] Regional trade in East Africa makes up only 13 percent of the region’s total trade. [21]

The EAC promotes the Common Market, a regional integration milestone that accelerates economic growth and development in East Africa. [21] While it strives to power Africa by sustaining economic growth, it also provides economic opportunities for American taxpayers, workers and businesses. [21] Power Africa, a five-year initiative launched by former president Barack Obama, aims to increase access to reliable, affordable and sustainable power in Africa and in turn support Africa’s economic growth. [21]

Green stated, “Under Power Africa 2.0, we will be expanding beyond our previous targets of increased energy generation and access and looking to make gains in the areas of distribution and transmission. [21]

Kenyans can now send money between the country’s two largest digital wallet services, Airtel and M-Pesa, the latest step toward interoperability in East Africa. [27]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(27 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (35) Africa Archives | The Borgen Project

2. (24) Revolutionising Renewables in Sub-Saharan Africa Climate Institute

3. (24) West Africa – Wikipedia

4. (22) North Africa – Wikipedia

5. (15) African diaspora – Wikipedia

6. (14) Malaria

7. (11) Pathways to structural transformation in Africa ACET

8. (10) The Largest Countries in Africa – WorldAtlas.com

9. (9) Figures of the week: Internal migration in Africa

10. (7) A Better Path for Energy Development: What Africa Can Teach the World

11. (7) Mauritius – gateway for investment into Africa’s energy sector

12. (5) How sub-Saharan Africa can harness its big electricity opportunities

13. (5) The Ebola Virus | Council on Foreign Relations

14. (4) South Africa | Spectroom

15. (4) Congo-Kinshasa: Tensions Run High at DRC Policy Breakfast on Capitol Hill – allAfrica.com

16. (4) HIV and AIDS in Nigeria | AVERT

17. (3) Madagascar | Culture, History, & People | Britannica.com

18. (3) Despite risks, cryptocurrency presents an exciting opportunity in Africa | Global Risk Insights

19. (2) Sub-Saharan Africa Economic Outlook | Data, Statistics & Forecasts | FocusEconomics

20. (2) African news, analysis and opinion – The Africa Report.com

21. (2) Sub-Saharan African Eurobond yields: What really matters beyond global factors? – ScienceDirect

22. (2) Africa Home

23. (1) Congo Safari Tours, Travel Adventures – Focus East Africa Tours

24. (1) World Bank IFC Recruitment Drive 2018 for Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Nationals | Opportunity Desk

25. (1) In Africa, Chinese Largesse Comes at a Price

26. (1) 5 things to know about GPE’s work with Africa | Global Partnership for Education

27. (1) Kenya | CGAP