Road Construction Cost Per Km

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • If the volume of traffic is low and width is 3.75M,the cost for flexible pavement/bituminous road with just three layer of stone metal as base and top as carpeting with 20mm bituminous layer works out RS 25/Km.The cost will also vary as how far the material is available required for construction.(More...)
  • On the per unit cost (money spent per km), Kagina assured the BoD that if her request for restructuring was granted, she would reduce the $1m that was being spent per km to just $0.5m within 3 years.(More...)
  • Replying to a debate on Central Road Fund (Amendment) Bill, 2017, which was later passed in the house, Gadkari said that average speed of road construction had gone up 28 km per day and it will be 40 km per day by the end of next year.(More...)
  • They alleged that the road's construction cost $9.3 million per kilometer and ordered a review of the costs.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • You need to analyse the cost based on your specific requirement, local availability of materials and type of road.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

Road Construction Cost Per Km
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KEY TOPICS

If the volume of traffic is low and width is 3.75M,the cost for flexible pavement/bituminous road with just three layer of stone metal as base and top as carpeting with 20mm bituminous layer works out RS 25/Km.The cost will also vary as how far the material is available required for construction. [1] Roads come at a much more affordable cost per kilometre and user for countries without ice and with greater population densities, for, although the initial cost of laying the asphalt may be high, it is subsequently used and amortised by a large number of people. [2]

That being said, I can give you some tentative estimates for a KM of Road construction. [1]

Work that was awarded to CCCC will cost $2.7m per km and $2.3m per km for the case of the roads awarded to CCECC (this badly contradicts Kagina's own pledge to the BoD that within 3 years she would bring the unit cost to $0.5m). [3] Whereas under the old UNRA management, the unit cost (cost per km) averaged at around $0.7m, the Kagina-led UNRA management tendered out the oil roads at a cost way higher. [3]

A slew of measures taken by the Union government have bolstered growth in the road sector, with nearly 80 per cent of the Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC) projects tendered last year being bagged by infrastructure developers quoting lower than the reserve price. [4] This refers to using one's own internal staff and equipment to do road construction and maintenance as opposed to outsourcing. [3] She is well-meaning but some people are always exploiting her inexperience in this very technical road construction sector to manipulate and lead her into wrong decisions. [3] Realising that road construction is vital for creating jobs and raising incomes, Gadkari's ministry has drawn up a list of 200 road projects worth about Rs 1.5 lakh crore -- likely to be completed by mid-2019 -- which it wants to showcase ahead of next year's Lok Sabha elections. [5]

On the per unit cost (money spent per km), Kagina assured the BoD that if her request for restructuring was granted, she would reduce the $1m that was being spent per km to just $0.5m within 3 years. [3] The cost per km for dual track was US$43.6million, including trains and stations. [6] She also promised to save lots of money, eliminate corruption, reduce per unit cost (money spent per km) and increase output. [3]

Replying to a debate on Central Road Fund (Amendment) Bill, 2017, which was later passed in the house, Gadkari said that average speed of road construction had gone up 28 km per day and it will be 40 km per day by the end of next year. [7] The revolution of plastic waste roads started brewing in 2015 when the Centre made it mandatory for all road developers in the country to use plastic waste for road construction after Padma Sri Rajagopalan Vasudevan, a professor from Madurai's Thiagarajar College of Engineering, laid out a process of building roads by recycling plastic waste. [8] The Border Road Organisation (BRO) is a road construction executive force, integral to and in support of the army. [9] This new design will hope to achieve two things - help the environment and make road construction process cost-effective. [8]

They alleged that the road's construction cost $9.3 million per kilometer and ordered a review of the costs. [10] The work linked to construction and maintenance of roads and intersections on the Seventh Ring Road was progressing at a steady pace with nearly 27 per cent of the project already completed, said a report. [11]

The cost of transporting crude oil by road and rail over the 1,086-kilometre distance is estimated at $30-34 per barrel. [10]

Road construction has returned to areas where it existed several years ago. [12] Our decision depends on when we are ready to leave, which is often dictated by my business schedule and traffic conditions, such as weather, traffic, road construction, and major accident slowdowns. [12] That is they count the cows instead of counting their legs which is the practice in road construction. [10] I got a glimpse of that: Road construction in Germany meant that my Mirai test drive involved a couple of long detours, which burned through more hydrogen than expected. [13]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

You need to analyse the cost based on your specific requirement, local availability of materials and type of road. [1] The other has quantities and cost for various cross sections of roads. [1] Cost of Materials : The cost of materials like murram, aggregates, bitumen & emulsion and their availability also determine the cost of the road. [1] Each of these factors shall determine the material cost of the road. [1]

Nothing indicates that we will leave roads to one side in this century, as they are still an efficient means of transport compared to many others, the most obvious being aeroplanes, a mass means of transport. [2] For many, this ship, owned by Royal Artic Line and Air Greenland, is the only means of transport available in a country without roads. [2]

Roads are such a necessary element of our society that at times we do not even realise they are there, in much the same way as we tend not to notice the sanitation system or the power grid. [2] Design of the road : The design of the road depends on the strata underneath the road and the traffic load (usually calculated in Million Standard axles (MSA)). [1] Width of the road or Number of Lanes: Usually a single lane road is 3.75 meter wide. [1] Which is true, with the exception of a road running for less than 6 km from Ivittuut to Kanilinnguit, two tiny population centres in the south of the island. [2] Type of Layers used: Road base course can be achived by using WBM, which is a mixture of murram & 40 mm aggregate, & WMM (Wet Mix Macadam), which is prepared by adding aggregates of various sizes like dust, 6mm, 12mm, 20mm & 40mm aggregate. [1]

It also shows us the cost of other means of transport, which many times are unaffordable and require important local and Danish subsidies to continue operating. [2] These layers are to be determined based before arriving at the cost. [1]

The other disturbing development is that the "Grade-Separated-Junctions" (a very important traffic mitigation feature) that were originally designed to be part of the road, have since been removed and yet the cost hasn?t been accordingly adjusted. [3] It wasn?t until 2014 that Sylvester had what he calls his watershed moment when he spoke with the director of the Missouri Department of Transportation about building roads better and faster for lowered lifecycle costs. [14]

On "closed" or "ticket system" toll roads, such as the New Jersey Turnpike, New York State Thruway, and Mass Pike the use of this sort of service area allows drivers to stop for food and fuel without passing through additional tollbooths and thereby incurring a higher toll. [15] In 2013, the state of New York launched "It Can Wait", a program for encouraging drivers to pause at rest stops and parking areas along state roads to text (thereby avoiding texting while driving ) by designating all such areas as "text stops". [15] Along some highways and roads are rest stops known as wayside parks, roadside parks, or picnic areas. [15] Lay-bys are generally beneficial to road safety, as they provide somewhere safe for drivers to stop, whether they wish simply to rest, check directions, make a phone call (as it is illegal to use a mobile phone whilst driving in the United Kingdom except in an emergency - Highway Code Rule 149 ), stretch their legs, or get refreshments, or if their car has broken down. [15] This is still way below the 41km per day target set by the Union road transport and highways ministry but this has not stopped the government from setting a more ambitious target of constructing 45km per day this fiscal. [5] Once fully assembled a road like this will embed 2,000 access points per mile (1.6km). [14] In 2014, seven kilometres of roads were getting built per day; this number rose to 28km per day in 2017-18. [5]

Like the golden quadrilateral of NDA-I (which governed India between 1999 and 2004), an ambitious project that connected four major cities in the country with a highway network, the NDA-II government too had sets its eyes on roads, setting the bar high for a sector that has been hit post-2007 with over 400 stalled projects and delays in meeting deadlines. [5] "When a network of good roads is created then the economy of the country also picks the pace," Prime Minister Narendra Modi said in August 2017 at a ceremony to lay the foundation stone for a national highway project in Udaipur. [5] The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), which is currently tendering road monetisation projects, has started of a unique data-sharing plan with prospective bidders. [4] In January the ministry unveiled plans to conduct a tender for a 20.5 kilometre elevated highway but last week announced that the project had been expanded to a four-lane elevated ring road. [16] Prior to the creation of the Interstate Highway System, many states east of the Rocky Mountains had already started building and operating their own long-distance intercity toll roads (turnpikes). [15] SH249 (Tomball Tollway)--planned toll road connecting College Station and Houston, also known as the Aggie Highway. [17] I-35E (Express Lanes)--planned variable toll lanes, from south of the Loop 12 /I-35E split to south of Valwood Parkway, including the reconstruction of existing facilities, construction of frontage roads and the addition of managed lanes. [17] There was also another 488kms of old tarmac under rehabilitation. 27 bridges were under construction and another 1,200kms worth of roads were being designed. [3] US74 ( Monroe Connector/Bypass )--toll road under construction. [17]

She pledged that, because she was going to eliminate corruption and connivance between contractors and project supervising consultants, the life span of paved/tarmacked roads would (within her first 3 years) increase from 5 to 10 years before resealing. [3] It was a World Bank-funded project worth $350m and the idea was to build UNRA's financial capacity to engage contractors that would build and maintain roads for 5-10 years. [3] "The expressway project will facilitate millions of dollars of private investment in Yangon's road infrastructure, helping reduce the capital investment burden on the government." [16] Under Eng John Byabagambi's political supervision, the old UNRA got the Exim Bank of China agree to fund the ($180m) project works on this road and the deal was concluded in 2014 shortly before Kagina came into the picture. [3] One of the projects that illustrate development partner indifference is North-East Road Assessment Management Program (NERAMP) whose failure to take off has caused the WB to re-think their relationship with UNRA for as long as Kagina remains ED. NERAMP was to initially benefit the 250km economic corridor that runs through Tororo-Mbale-Soroti-Lira-Kamdin. [3] Many tax-paying entities that lived off UNRA are now in chaos because of the Force Accounting approach Kagina re-introduced resulting into road designs, road works and supervision not being outsourced anymore. [3] There are also concerns regarding other pre-financing arrangements for road works in mostly North Eastern part of Uganda in the Kagina era. [3]

They are the responsibility of a variety of authorities, such as a state transport or main roads bureau, or a local government's works department. [15] Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari on Monday said the government would start building a new expressway connecting Gurgaon and Mumbai. [4] If the Vajpayee government's success was in upgrading the national highways, the NDA-II government has the Bharat Mala -- building 24,800 kms of roads connecting coasts to borders to expressways. [5] British Columbia has many services centres on its provincial roads, particularly along the Yellowhead Highway / Highway 16, the Coquihalla Highway / Highway 5, and on Highway 97C, the first service centres built in the province. [15] One notable curiosity is a service centre built along Highway 118 : it is a minor road connecting two towns to the Yellowhead Highway (Hwy. 16). [15]

"Everyone has a road near them, so when we build network services into the road, better connectivity is the natural byproduct." [14] The philosophy behind Integrated Roadways is to build roads that are funded through leasing agreements with private sector Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and a private party app that generates revenue by offering information to travelers. [14]

SH121 / SH183 ( North Tarrant Express )--proposed improvements are planned to include three general purpose lanes in each direction with three HOT lanes in each direction for a total of twelve lanes with frontage roads for future traffic volumes, located in the Fort Worth area. [17] Heartland Parkway --proposed 110-mile (180km) toll road through interior counties, from southwest of the Orlando metro area to the Fort Myers-Naples area. [17] This is a list of toll roads in the United States (and its territories). [17] The vastly knowledgeable State House source further explained that: "As part of the original contract, there must be the operations and management contractor before that road is commissioned for 15 years. [3] That as a result of all these reforms (and after the first three years), she would grow the length of roads upgraded (murram to tarmac) from her predecessors? 250km annually to 1,000km. [3] On 9th September 2015, newly appointed UNRA ED Allen Kagina met BoD members for the first time and presented to them her vision for the roads Authority she envisaged. [3] This is not the first time that a company has suggested a radical new way to rebuild America's roads. [14] She inherited 985kms of roads being upgraded at the time of taking office. [3] Barlow Road --tolls in effect from 1864 to 1919; no longer a viable route due the eastern portion being overgrown; most western portions are paved over by modern roads. [17]

US290 / SH71 (Oak Hill Expressway)--proposed toll road or variable toll lanes along Oak Hill Expressway, in Austin. [17] On May 18, the ministry invited expressions of interest from local or international companies "interested in designing. engineering, financing, constructing, operating and maintaining" the toll road through a long-term public-private partnership concession agreement. [16] The elevated toll road is expected to connect downtown Yangon, Yangon Port, Yangon International Airport, Mingalardon Industrial Park and the Yangon-Mandalay Expressway. [16] Central Polk Parkway --planned, unfunded toll road in Polk County. [17] Cibolo Parkway - proposed F.M. 1103 extension as a toll road south from Weil Road south to I-10 at Zuehl Road in Cibolo, TX ( Guadalupe County ). [17] I-69E --proposed toll road segments located at Riviera and Driscoll. [17]

Some of the projects undertaken on force accounting so far include the upgrading of 15km Garuga road from murram to tarmac. [3] In all, the road ministry plans to complete 416 projects worth Rs 3.26 lakh crore by 2020. [5]

Desire to circumvent bureaucratic delays that are synonymous with government procurement processes explains why globally not many road authorities work that way (force account). [3] When they know its government handling land compensation, many of the speculators who eventually become PAPs act very unreasonably in many ways including suing government unnecessarily because they know that (because of the political convenience requiring urgent delivery of certain roads) the GoU will subsequently give in to their demands. [3]

The precursor to the tollway rest areas were public and private " Road stations " along almost any trunk road - places to rest, eat, and shop for local goods on the traditional road system. [15] Other rest areas, especially in more remote locations, may lack some or even all of these facilities: in South Australia, a rest area may be no more than a cleared section besides the road with a sign indicating its purpose. [15] The Dutch rest area De Lucht (nl) is typical of many European rest areas, in that it has no access roads other than from the motorway itself. [15] In Queensland, however, well-maintained rest areas sometimes explicitly invite travelers to stay overnight, as a road safety measure, but this is rare elsewhere. [15]

The IFC originally said it expected the winning bidder to be selected in early 2019 and the road would be built over two to three years. [16] The practice involves placing road signs which indicate the nearest "texting zone" at which to legally stop and use mobile devices such as smartphones. [15] On other roads, they are marked by a rectangular blue sign bearing a white letter P, and there should also be advance warning of lay-bys to give drivers time to slow down safely. [15] Away from the financial loss, the removal of the "Grade Separated Junctions means the original objective of significant jam-reduction won?t be achieved to the levels the original road planners and designers anticipated. [3] Byabagambi's concern was on the intersection feature getting the two roads linked up to comprehensively decongest the traffic flow. [3] There are concerns inside UNRA that the surfacing they went for, in justifying the additional $150m, isn?t appropriate for the traffic anticipated on that road. [3]

Popular rural roads that lead to remote tourist locations still have popular road stations, but with the rise of the tollway system, previously popular routes have been bypassed, leading to the decline or closure to once popular road stations all over Japan. [15] Sylvester says that Integrated Roadways has taken a different approach from solar roadway developers by focusing on the road first and the technology second. [14] It's a 90km road and the Kagina team justified this additional $150m on grounds that the surfacing of the road would now be different from what Colin would have delivered. [3] Shortly before Kagina became ED, this road project was awarded by her predecessors to Colin, the Turkish construction company in 2014. [3] It also came up with two new models, the hybrid annuity one, where the government gives 40% of the construction cost, while the developer invests the remaining 60% and "Toll Operate Transfer" where the concessionaire pays a one-time concession fee upfront to operate and toll the project for a 30-year concession period. [5] To help recover construction costs, most turnpike operators leased concession space at rest areas to private businesses. [15]

California's current policy is to maintain existing public rest areas, but no longer build new ones due to the cost and difficulty of keeping them safe, although many California rest stops now feature highway patrol quarters. [15] Sources have put the likely cost of the highway at $20 million to $30 million per kilometre, depending on the number of exits and other technical factors, for a total price tag of between $1 billion and $1.5 billion. [16] In comparison, the 47 kilometres (29mi) Regional Rail Link to be built in Victoria will cost A$5 billion, or A$105 million per kilometer, including two stations. [6] In comparison, InterCityExpress which are also built by Siemens cost about A$6 million per carriage. [6] This restructuring (growing the UNRA staffing strength from 800 to over 1700 employees) would come at a cost and it indeed saw the annual wage bill grow from mere Shs23.5bn of the Kimeze/Sebanakitta era to today's Shs150bn per year. [3]

The ability of the Transrapid system to handle tighter turns and steeper gradients could heavily influence a cost comparison for a particular project. [6] When the 20.5km project was announced in January the cost was estimated at $350 million to $400 million. [16]

The connection between the train station and airport was close to being built, but was cancelled on 27 March 2008, by the German government due to a massive overrun in costs. [6] The fully elevated Shanghai Maglev was built at a cost of US$1.33billion over a length of 30.5 kilometres (19.0mi) including trains and stations. [6]

This shows Transrapid train sets are likely to cost over twice as much as ICE 3 conventional fast rail train sets at this time. [6] Transrapid claims their system has very low maintenance costs compared to conventional high speed rail systems due to the non-contact nature of their system. [6] In April 2006, new announcements by Chinese officials planning to cut maglev rail costs by a third stirred some strong comments by various German officials and more diplomatic statements of concern from Transrapid officials. [6]

"Exclusive: Here's how much it could cost you to dodge I-70 mountain traffic". [17] SBI had bided for the same work but the Ugandan Mafia ensured it went to Motal Engil at a cost that was Euros10m higher than the price SBI had quoted. [3] The disagreement that eventually cost Byabagambi his juicy post, was that Kagina objected to giving CCCC the job automatically without advertising. [3]

In 2008 Transrapid Australia quoted the Victoria State Government A$ 34 million per kilometer for dual track. [6] In 2008, Transrapid Australia quoted the Victoria State Government between A$16.5 million (commuter) and A$20 million (luxury) per trains section or carriage. [6]

In Transrapid vehicle versions TR08 and earlier, when travelling at speeds below 80 kilometres per hour (50mph), the vehicle levitation system and all on-board vehicle electronics were supplied with power through physical connections to the track guideway. [6] At vehicle speeds above 80 kilometres per hour (50mph), all on-board power was supplied by recovered harmonic oscillation of the magnetic fields created from the track's linear stator. (Since these oscillations are parasitic, they cannot be used for vehicle propulsion). [6] On-board vehicle electronic systems measure the dipole gap distance 100,000 times per second to guarantee the clearance between the coils attached to the underside of the guideway and the magnetic portion of the vehicle wrapped around the guideway edges. [6] The normal energy consumption of the Transrapid is approximately 50 to 100 kilowatts (67 to 134hp) per section for levitation and travel, and vehicle control. [6]

A two line, 120-kilometers (75-mile) long system has been proposed for the island of Tenerife, which is visited by 5 million tourists per year. [6] Whereas her predecessors delivered 250kms per year, Kagina's report card for the last three years miserably reads as follows: 156kms in FY2014/15, 120kms in FY2015/16 & 100kms in FY2016/17. [3] They rehabilitated/reconstructed 1,135kms averaging at 162kms per year. [3]

This works out at between A$179,000 and A$217,000 per square meter. [6]

Anil Ambani-promoted Reliance Infrastructure on Monday said it has won the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for the Versova-Bandra Sea Link Project in a joint venture with Astaldi SpA (Italy) for a value of Rs 70 billion. [4] "The EOI is a first step in that process as it allows the Ministry of Construction to gauge market interest in the project," said Mr Vikram Kumar, country manager for Myanmar at the International Finance Corporation, which is the ministry's lead transaction adviser on the project. [16] "The timeline for the tender and construction will be determined once a decision is taken on whether to divide the project into multiple sections and/or multiple tenders," Kumar said. [16] The project could be split into multiple sections and tenders to speed up the construction process. [16]

MnDot has plans to continue their construction of MnPASS Express Lanes. [17] Construction on the HOT lanes is expected to begin in 2019. [17]

Tim Sylvester first got the idea for the Wi-Fi connectivity pavement in 1997, when he was working in the construction industry. [14]

The highways ministry has identified at least five greenfield road networks connecting major industrial and manufacturing hubs, which will reduce the existing distance on these stretches up to 200 km. [4] Rest areas in Australia are a common feature of the road network in rural areas. [15] This we picked directly from reliable State House sources that disclosed to us that the H/E recently got intelligence information that Kagina, who is desperate to have her tenure associated with a major road project in order to silence critics, has no problem commissioning this road before it's sufficiently ready. [3] AfDB is said to have become very disappointed with the way Kagina fought with Dott Services on the Rukungiri-Kihihi-Ishaka road project they were funding. [3] One wonders why, despite inheriting such a healthy portfolio of running and completed road projects, UNRA's Kagina era performance has only declined rather than improving. [3]

Kagina's predecessors practiced the latter and the benefit with outsourcing is that you circumvent the government lengthy bureaucratic procurement procedures which catch up with every road project decision you make. [3]

The Commonwealth government announced some months ago that there would be a study launched into road charging for light vehicles. [18] That would be relatively simple, but the other goals (more efficient route operation and driving more efficient use of the roads) are difficult to achieve with a charging scheme that only distinguishes by vehicle classification and dates of permitted access to the network. [18] Charging separately for motorways would disincentives use of that network, which is hardly going to optimise road use. [18] The main part of the pilot is a program to investigate and design an on-road pilot for heavy vehicles across Australia, to trial replacing the existing registration/fuel tax based system of charging heavy vehicles for road use. [18] Australia's (Federal) Minister for Urban Infrastructure and Cities announced in his speech to the Roads Australia Annual Luncheon on 15 December 2017 that Australia will be launching a National Heavy Vehicle Charging Pilot. [18] Most of the pilots that have operated in the United States to date have been simulated charging pilots, so there should not be difficulty in developing a pilot for heavy vehicles, across Australia, that replicates the best elements of those, but also tests policy and governance elements that are relevant to Heavy Vehicle Road Reform. [18]

Assuming Stage Two can be successful, then the programme can move onto Stage Three - a real money pilot, where heavy vehicle users can opt into paying by road charging instead of the PAYGO system. [18] The money that is spent on the roads is used to inform the charges that heavy vehicles pay, as the National Transport Commission uses data on previous spending (and forecasts of heavy vehicle demand) to inform rate setting of registration and the fuel excise "road user charge". [18] The way to deliver a heavy vehicle charge would be to adopt an open market approach, certifying service providers to a standard of performance to measure road use and bill for it. [18] Mass-distance charge that varies by road type, based on marginal cost : Prices would vary by road type, nationally, based on the marginal costs heavy vehicles impose, by mass. [18] There is a relatively poor relationship between what is paid and the costs that heavy vehicles impose on the roads that they use. [18] One example could be adopting a rate setting approach that lowers costs for heavy vehicles on the roads in that state, which may be appropriate for recovering the costs of those roads, but which implies that lower costs would apply on similar roads in other states. [18] Given Germany only charges for use of the motorways and expressways, it is likely that the difference this makes to road maintenance costs in Germany is low. [18] It will take atleast 2 years for the plastic roads to get more durable and the cost is expected to come down to Rs. 30,000-40, 000, says Shirish Phadtre, Director, Rudra Foundation. [8] In terms of economics, the plastic layered roads are cost effective. [8] Developed by Pimpri-Chinchwad New Township Development Authority (PCNTDA) at a cost of over 70 crores, it is a six-lane road with service roads and parking facilities. [19] A tender was issued by the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) on 14th December, 2017 for constructing a subway at the cost of about Rs. 6 crore at Sector 4, Krishnanagar near Spine Road. [19] No new machinery is required to produce the plastic-bitumen mix and the maintenance cost of the road is almost nil. [8] This assumes a road type classification that reflects differential costs. [18]

It would be logical to incentivise greater use of motorways and major highways over local roads, because such roads tend to be built to standards that mean that the marginal wear and tear generated by a heavy vehicle axle passing over the road surface is lower. [18] The Commonwealth government doesn't manage any roads, but it does manage the primary means of charging for road use. [18] In practice, all participants in the pilot will continue to pay registration and fuel excise through the current PAYGO system (as well as tolls where relevant), but it will show what it would mean to have road charging operating in real life. [18] There are sound reasons for thinking about competitive service delivery in terms of accounts, but if Delhi wants to move quickly, its existing toll roads provide a starting point to test charging without any barriers, and to also test charging higher at congested periods. [18] Numerous studies have noted the scope for reform, and a major reform programme was embarked upon, called the Heavy Vehicle Charging and Investment (HVCI) project, that sought to introduce heavy vehicle road charging. [18] Strategic, technical design and implementation advice on progressing with on-road pilots of heavy vehicle road charging. [18] Actual on-road trials could complement the proposed National pilot, by having trucks actually paying for road use, on a distance, location (and presumably some vehicle configuration and mass basis). [18] Such roads tend to be safer on a vehicle km basis and avoid built up areas. [18] The problem of potholes significantly reduced last year as no cracks developed in areas where roads were layered with waste plastic says Akshay Pandya, Executive Engineer, Road Development Department, Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC). [8] We noticed that areas in Indore where plastic was used to build roads saw less water clogging during monsoons as the roads didn?t develop potholes. [8] Prominent areas in the city like the N.S.C Bose road, Halls road, Ethiraj Silai street and Sardar Patel street are layered with plastic components. [8] The BRO has not only linked borders areas of north and north-east with the rest of the country, but also developed the road infrastructure in Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Uttarkhand and Chattisgarh. [9] This implies that speed of vehicles would be comparatively slower at the site where subway is recommended, in comparison to the rest of the stretch of Spine Road. [19] It ought to mean establishment of notional hypothecated road fund accounts (although the question of how many there any, whether by geography or jurisdiction is a moot point), and the management of the data that is collected to enable sufficient assurance to be carried out about individual vehicles having valid accounts that are paid. [18] It effectively means that vehicles using roads the most are cross-subsidised by those using roads the least. [18]

That means paying to use roads on a network wide basis, varying by time of day and location. [18] In parallel, Germany is developing the PKW-Maut, a time based charge for car use of ALL public roads. [18] That means moving from fixed (registration) charges and fuel taxes to distance, mass, location and time of day charges, set by utility based road providers with an independent price regulator. [18] Mass-distance charge that varies by road type, based on level of service : As in 3, with national charges by road type, but varying on a defined "level of service". [18] The Grattan Institute appears to be completely unaware of the national Heavy Vehicle Road Reform programme and the proposal in that to create an independent price regulator for existing and future road charges (existing being registration fees and fuel tax). [18] Any revenue collected from a new distance based charge from heavy vehicles would have to be hypothecated, and it would make sense for this to be a source of funding for both local roads and strategic roads for maintenance funding, alongside Vehicle Excise Duty from all vehicles. [18]

Surely if it is offsetting registration fees it should be offsetting spending on roads? Is there a case for more public transport spending per se or is it assumed? Surely the idea that revenues should be spent based on merit would make more sense. [18] Two-time winner of India's cleanest city title, Indore recycles 100 per cent of its plastic waste and has used 5,000 kilos of waste plastic to build 45 kilometre stretch of roads in the last two years. [8] The city, which generates over 200 tonnes of plastic waste per day, has used 3,343 kilos of plastic waste in building 1,430 kilometres of roads in the last two years. [8]

The city has, so far, used 1,60,000 (1.6 Lakh) kilos of plastic waste to build 1.035 kilometres of roads. [8] If plastic waste can be used to build roads, then it will be a huge load off the planet that is currently choking on plastic. [8] Indore Municipal Corporation saves upto Rs 2,500 every time it uses thousand kilos of plastic waste to build roads. [8] The Hindustan Times claims that Delhi needs to replicate the success of Singapore in charging for road use. [18] Charging for road use at peak times in cities can reduce congestion and is worthwhile. [18] Who believes that charging for road use will reduce congestion? No one, and it is in part because the Sydney Harbour crossing peak charging has had negligible impacts, but moreso because it hasn't been piloted seriously in Australia. [18] Delhi has a network of toll roads, which use manual as well as electronic tolling. [18] Road pricing is any system that directly charges motorists for the use of a road or network of roads. [18] This is necessary because the very large route network will give rise to changes much more frequently in the future, especially on the federal trunk road e.g. construction sites or traffic blockades. [18] According to Poudyal, the construction has been delayed in some locations like Parwanipur where a road expansion project is going on. [20] Adopting ad hoc measures like construction of subways and foot overbridges instead of comprehensively understanding the needs and safety of pedestrians, goes against PCMC's commitment to equitable allocation of road space. [19]

Or the benefit might be a targeted program of investments to upgrade roads in a particular area which is of benefit to heavy vehicle operatorsfor example, livestock or grain transporters in a particular rural area. [18] The BRO was brought into being to construct and maintain roads in the border areas, classified as General Staff (GS) roads, in keeping with defence requirements. [9] BRO has been assigned the task of rehabilitation of roads in the tsunami affected areas of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [9] New Delhi : Union Road Transport and Shipping Minister Nitin Gadkari said on Tuesday said there will be a "revolution" in the country in development of inland waterways and cruise service between Mumbai and the Andaman and Nicobar islands and between Mumbai and Goa will be launched. [7] Earlier moving the bill for passage, Gadkari said that national waterways provide a cost-effective, logistically-efficient and environment-friendly mode of transport, whose development as a supplementary mode would enable diversion of traffic from the over-congested roads and railways. [7] GS roads are developed and maintained with the funds provided by the Border Roads Development Board (BRDB), through the Department of Road Transport and High-ways. [9] There is widespread consensus that pricing of road use would reduce congestion, the reason pricing has been applied in few cases is a mix of political will, lack of innovation in the development of options for pricing and the inability to communicate to a sceptical and untrusting public that paying to drive on some roads at peak times will improve conditions for them. [18] It also encourages road managers to take a more commercial, user-oriented approach to infrastructure development for heavy vehicles. [18] Design of existing road infrastructure, including traffic signals, roundabouts, intersections, lanes, parking restrictions. [18] The congestion charge helped raise revenue to support increased subsidies for buses, made reallocation of road space to bus lanes less disruptive for existing traffic and enabled some improvement in bus trip reliability. [18] The report says that there were "significant reductions across a range of pollutants" in comparison to "comparison cities" and of course, because the congestion charge did reduce road traffic volumes and there were reports at the time of reduced emissions, it is a fair assumption that the net effects should be positive environmentally. [18]

According to the Pedestrian Policy, a subway or a grade separator for pedestrians should be the last option under consideration and only if there was heavy traffic at a particular location on the road. [19] We conducted physical testing of roads just at onset of monsoon to prepare the civic body for repairing potholes that would develop during heavy rains. [8]

I expect that once the system has expanded to Federal Highways, there will be a need to further expand the chargeable network to include regional and local roads. [18] Known for its wide roads and connectivity with National Highways, it is common to find huge flyovers and umpteen grade separators dotting the roadscape of the twin city of Pimpri Chinchwad. [19] The 14 km Spine Road is an important link road from the Mumbai-Pune highway to the Pune-Nashik highway. [19] At least 11 states have used the technology to build more than 1,00,000 km of roads, professor Vasudevan told Thomson Reuters Foundation. [8] India has built one lakh kilometres of roads in at least 11 states using discarded plastic. [8] The plastic tar roads in Chennai have not developed any potholes, rutting, raveling or edge flaw, even though these roads are more than four years of age, read a performance report by India's Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). [8] The same Municipal Corporation which bagged the prize for urban cleanliness (which includes civic amenities and road development) in the year 2012 is now plagued with dirty, underutilized and unusable subways and underpasses. [19] There is sparse mixed-use development on either sides of the Spine Road. [19]

The HGV Levy was introduced as a relatively simple way of raising revenue from foreign trucks using UK roads (as VED on the trucks liable for the HGV Levy was reduced on almost all those vehicles, meaning most paid nothing more). [18] It does not include fuel or tyre taxes, or taxes on ownership or purchase of road vehicles. [18]

Improvement in bus services came about primarily because subsidies for bus franchises were increased so service frequencies could be increased, and some new routes introduced, and also the introduction of new bus lanes (and of course reduced congestion improved the ability to operate buses on existing roads). [18] Portions of crash barriers (aluminium planks) which separate service lane from the main carriageway are removed to access the other side of the Spine Road. [19] Enforcement against illegal parking and considerable work to improve the design of existing roads could help ease congestion, along with enforcement of behaviour that promotes congestion (such as poor lane behaviour). [18] Besides GS roads, BRO also executes Agency Works, which are entrusted to it by other Central government ministries and departments. [9] All road managers are at the state/territory or local level of government, but a significant proportion (23%) of spending on roads come from the federal (Commonwealth) level of government. [18]

The Stage Two pilot should be designed to test the critical elements that would allow for road charging to be able to replace the PAYGO system. [18] Careshould be taken as to how much complexity will be mandated for the Stage Two pilot, bearing in mind that it wont be actually collecting revenue, and the key dimension iy must test is sufficient assurance to enable the Stage Three pilot to proceed (which actually does collect revenue, and offset this with refunds or supplementary payments to offset road charges). [18] Much more likely to be effective would be network road pricing, which is what the Grattan Institute says but then doesn't recommend (it thinks that a cordon charge is network road pricing, but it certainly is not). [18] Few need to be reminded of the severity of New York's congestion, and also the enormous funding problem for the city's road and public transport networks. [18] He said the government's first priority is water-based transport as it is cheap, second was rail and the third was roads. [7]

Heavy vehicle configurations in Australia are complex, and some of the largest heavy vehicles allowed on public roads anywhere in the world. [18] Although much attention is often given to toll roads in Australia, almost all road distance in Australia does not involve toll roads. [18] Independent regulation of toll road pricing is interesting, but naive. [18] It has now been reported by various Australian news outlets that Brisconnections, the company behind the AirportLink toll road in Brisbane. [18]

Highways England is a good start, but a similar reform should apply to local roads and the road authorities of the devolved administrations should follow as well. [18] Environmental objectives could also be better met through a distance based charged, because it better links payment with road use, so that those that drive the most pay the most. [18] As a vignette, the HGV Levy is basically a prepaid fee for using UK roads based on time, as is similar to such schemes operating in several European countries. [18] We spend so much on building roads that develop potholes and need rebuilding in no time. [8]

It was too focused on charging, and not the funding or supply of roads. [18] It was abandoned for several reasons, not least the complexity of the proposed programme, and the sequence of reforms, which effectively sought to reform charging before reforming the funding and governance structures for roads. [18]

With a couple of exceptions, none of the revenue collected from heavy vehicles is hypothecated into funds for road capital or maintenance spending purposes. [18] Heavy Vehicle Road Reform envisages a future whereby all heavy vehicles pay by mass, distance and location. [18]

The strength and finishing of roads when waste plastic is used is much better than tar. [8] The diamond city has used 90,000 kilos of waste plastic to layer 15.91 kilometres of roads. [8] The roads made from waste plastic are more durable against extreme weather conditions like floods and heat as compared to the conventional roads, points a report by World Economic Forum. [8] The Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) tied up with the Rudra Environmental Solution (India) Ltd and gave them a contract of building plastic roads across the city. [8] "Plastic helps in increasing the durability and flow of roads. [8]

As a further step, rates could vary between individual strategic and local roads at a later date, with lower rates for A compared to B roads and unclassified roads, to discourage use of residential streets to avoid congestion. [18] Any public right of way Boring will use will be underground and will not necessitate closing any surface roads. [21]

He also said a 14-lane road is being built in Delhi and efforts made to promote cycling. [7] The world's most sophisticated urban road pricing system is going to become even more sophisticated as Singapore looks like being the f. [18]

It has yet to be implemented due to legal challenges (including concerns from neighbouring countries about discrimination), but when implemented will apply a prepaid charge for access to those roads. [18] Length of approach road to South Portal of Rohtang Tunnel is 14.84 km and to the North Portal is 0.975 km. [9] Delhi's congestion is chronic, as incomes have risen, car ownership has risen and by no means has Delhi been able to increase road capacity to meet this demand. [18] This also means reforming the whole funding and governance system for roads. [18]

By virtue of its design, the subways also go against the principle of "providing consistent, high quality pedestrian infrastructure with equitable allocation of road space" enshrined in the Pedestrian Policy of Pune. [19] Across some of the Australian media is the release of a report from the Grattan Institute (a public policy thinktank) report titled "Stuck in traffic? Road congestion in Sydney and Melbourne" (PDF) by Marion Terrill. [18] The Grattan Institute report contains some useful data and analysis, but a report that misconstrues the London scheme, that jumps to transplanting a cordon onto Sydney and Melbourne and ignores the national agenda of road reform falls well short. [18] The onus of ensuring that every urban region is utilising its plastic waste into making roads lies with the City Engineers of municipal corporations. [8]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(26 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (111) Road Pricing

2. (35) HOW KAGINA FAILED UNRA TEST-AND LET DOWN MUSEVENI mulengeranews.com

3. (29) Musings From The Oil Patch, May 29, 2018 | Energy Musings

4. (27) Kenya National Highways Authority - Home | Facebook

5. (27) One Lakh Kilometres Of Roads In India Are Being Made From Plastic Waste, Is This The Solution To End Plastic Crisis? | World Environment Day

6. (24) East Africa Economic Report

7. (18) Rest area - Wikipedia

8. (17) Pan Borneo Highway

9. (17) Transrapid - Wikipedia

10. (15) Feds give GDOT $184 million for GA 400 toll lanes, project expected to cost $1.8 billion : Atlanta

11. (14) List of toll roads in the United States - Wikipedia

12. (13) Do we really need the proposed Pedestrian subway at Spine road in Pune?

13. (10) What is the construction cost for 1 km road? - Quora

14. (10) Govt seeks up to $1.5 billion investment in Yangon ring road | Frontier Myanmar

15. (9) IRF Global Road2Tunnel | IRF Global R2T

16. (9) Border Road Organisation (BRO)

17. (8) It's too early to write off hydrogen vehicles

18. (8) Chicago taps Elon Musk's Boring Company to build high-speed transit tunnels that would tie Loop with O'Hare - Chicago Tribune

19. (8) Four years of Modi govt: Roadways revived, but real challenge is raising money for expansion | india news | Hindustan Times

20. (7) Can smart pavements create the Wi-Fi-connected superhighway? | Wi-Fi NOW Events

21. (7) CONSTRUCTION & INFRASTRUCTURE INDUSTRY AWAITS 6TH EDITION OF CONCRETE SHOW INDIA - Exhibition Showcase

22. (6) Can we live without roads? The case of Greenland - Intelligent Infrastructure

23. (6) 10km pipeline laying works completed - Money - The Kathmandu Post

24. (6) Shipping ministry promises 'revolution' in inland waterways, cruise services; road building to reach 40 km/day target - Firstpost

25. (5) Roads | Welcome to infralive.com

26. (1) U-Haul: Moving Truck Rental in Kitchener, ON at U-Haul Moving & Storage of Kitchener

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