Wind Energy Basics

Wind Energy Basics
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C O N T E N T S:


  • Based on a study carried out by the European Wind Energy Association, in the year 2010 alone, between 110 and 140 kilotons of composites were consumed by the wind turbine industry for manufacturing blades. 51 The majority of the blade material will eventually end up as waste, and in order to accommodate this level of composite waste, the only option is recycling.(More…)
  • Over the course of three days, students learned the basics of solar energy, energy efficiency, utility operation, and wind energy from local experts.(More…)
  • The controller continually optimizes the energy production based upon continuous measurement of mainly wind direction and wind speed.(More…)
  • It’s that sustainable approach that has led Iowa to achieve the highest percentage of power generation coming from wind energy, more than any other state,” Iowa Governor Kim Reynolds stated.(More…)
  • Over the course of three days, students learned the basics of solar energy, energy efficiency, utility operation and wind energy from local experts.(More…)
  • In this instance, the certificates verify the Pomeroy wind farm produced the Principal Charity Classic’s energy.(More…)
  • In order to have a true understanding of the impact of wind energy on society, one also has to have a thorough understanding of the impacts that other sources of electric generation have, such as fossil-fuelled plants or nuclear power plants.(More…)
  • The IEA also predicts that the rapid expansion of PV and wind energy in China and India will result in a world where 40 percent of electricity generation is renewable in 2040.(More…)


  • By minimizing the yaw angle (the misalignment between wind and turbine pointing direction), the power output is maximized and non-symmetrical loads minimized.(More…)
  • Small Wind Turbines is a suitable reference for student projects and detailed design studies, and also provides important background material for engineers and others using small wind turbines for remote power and distributed generation applications.(More…)



Based on a study carried out by the European Wind Energy Association, in the year 2010 alone, between 110 and 140 kilotons of composites were consumed by the wind turbine industry for manufacturing blades. 51 The majority of the blade material will eventually end up as waste, and in order to accommodate this level of composite waste, the only option is recycling. [1] The Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) predicts that wind energy will supply 15.7% of the world’s total energy needs by the year 2020, and 28.5% by the year 2030. 50 This dramatic increase in global wind energy generation will require installation of a newer and larger fleet of more efficient wind turbines and the consequent decommissioning of aging ones. [1]

Turbine systems that have fewer failures, 92 require less maintenance, are lighter and last longer will lead to reducing the cost of wind energy. [1]

The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 0.59 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. [1] In 1919, the physicist Albert Betz showed that for a hypothetical ideal wind-energy extraction machine, the fundamental laws of conservation of mass and energy allowed no more than 16/27 (59.3%) of the kinetic energy of the wind to be captured. [1]

Wind turbine design is the process of defining the form and specifications of a wind turbine to extract energy from the wind. 1 2 A wind turbine installation consists of the necessary systems needed to capture the wind’s energy, point the turbine into the wind, convert mechanical rotation into electrical power, and other systems to start, stop, and control the turbine. [1] The shape and dimensions of the blades of the wind turbine are determined by the aerodynamic performance required to efficiently extract energy from the wind, and by the strength required to resist the forces on the blade. [1] Operating closer to their optimal tip speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings. [1] Braking of a small wind turbine can be done by dumping energy from the generator into a resistor bank, converting the kinetic energy of the turbine rotation into heat. [1] In December 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy published a report stating critical shortage of rare-earth elements such as neodymium used in large quantities for permanent magnets in gearless wind turbines. 20 China produces more than 95% of rare-earth elements, while Hitachi holds more than 600 patents covering Neodymium magnets. [1]

Wind Power: Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business (second ed.). [1]

The Pitch system in a wind turbine is a closed loop drive system that controls the angle of the turbine blades by rotating them so that the blades use the right amount of the available wind energy to get the most power output, at the same time ensuring that the turbine does not exceed its maximum rotational speed. [2] The rotor, which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost, includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. [3]

The energy in the wind turns the turbine blades around the rotor, which spins the power generator and the generator converts the mechanical energy at the shaft of the turbine into electrical energy by using an electromagnetic field. [2] Even if you’re closer to these energy sources, it still pays to know the basics of a DIY wind turbine. [4] This homebrewed wind turbine isn’t necessarily going to be powering your home (although a series of these could potentially be used to generate enough electricity to charge a battery bank for modest home use), it might be a great hands-on school project or homeschool activity about wind energy. [4] Getting started with home wind energy projects can set you back a pretty penny if you buy a finished product, but if you’re a little bit handy and don’t mind scrounging for materials and getting creative in the garage or backyard, you can try your hand at building one of these DIY wind turbines for about $30 in materials. [4] A study of the material consumption trends and requirements for wind energy in Europe found that bigger turbines have a higher consumption of precious metals but lower material input per kW generated. [3] If the height of a rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building height it is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence. [3] Turbines can be placed on ridges or bluffs to maximize the access of wind they have, but this also limits the locations where they can be placed. 72 In this way, wind energy is not a particularly reliable source of energy. [3] While lower in cost in the long-term, wind energy has a higher initial investment because the turbines and machinery are expensive to build and install. [5] How does a wind turbine work is one of the frequently asked questions about wind energy which is one of the fastest-growing renewable resources in the world. [2] There is no competitive market for wind energy, as it does not cost money to get ahold of wind. 72 The main cost of wind turbines are the installation process. [3] Wind turbines convert wind energy to electrical energy for distribution. [3] Accessing wind energy requires locations with good wind speeds. More power is generated with strong winds of at least 13 miles per hour. [5] Wind energy is not only cost effective but also doesn’t pollute the air like power plants that rely on combustion of fossil fuels, which emit particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulphur dioxide, causing human health problems. [2] If you are a small company that doesn?t use much electricity, it may make sense to tap into your local wind energy provider. [5] Wind energy in the 21st century: economics, policy, technology and the changing electricity industry. [3] The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management has approved large-scale wind energy projects in seven western states. [5] The State of Pennsylvania offers $6 million in loans and grants for wind energy projects. [5] There are locations throughout the United States that are suitable for good wind energy production. [5] States offer their own rates, grants, loans and incentives to businesses using or manufacturing wind energy. [5] Many companies receive federal and state incentives for generating wind energy. [5] On the federal level, the Business Energy Investment Tax Credit allows a federal tax deduction of 30 percent of the cost of installing a wind energy system. [5] Wind energy is one of the fastest growing energy technologies in the world with an annual growth rate of more than 30 percent. [5] Wind energy is one of the lowest-priced energy resources currently available, and it could potentially save your company a significant amount of money in the long term. [5] Arizona offers property tax reductions to businesses that use their land to manufacture wind energy. [5] “Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27”. [3] A quantitative measure of wind energy available at any location is called the Wind Power Density (WPD). [3]

The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 16/27 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. [3] The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor (as shown in the picture). [2] When the wind blows on the angled blades of the rotor, it causes the rotor to spin thereby converting the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy. [2]

No matter how much is used today, there will still be the same supply of wind energy in the future. [2] The wind turbine generator converts the rotational mechanical power generated by the rotor blades into electrical energy. [2] Energy harnessed by wind turbines is intermittent, and is not a “dispatchable” source of power; its availability is based on whether the wind is blowing, not whether electricity is needed. [3] The taller towers enable wind turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity because the wind speed increases farther away from the ground and wind blows more steadily at a higher atmosphere. [2] In order to harvest the energy from this wind turbine, it’s necessary to add an alternator to the rotor, as well as a method of storing the electricity, but it could also be used simply for the mechanical rotation, such as to pump water or spin a flywheel for other applications. [4] To explain how do wind turbines work, the description of the important components of the wind turbine installation and the roles played by them to capture the wind’s energy, point the turbine into the wind, convert the mechanical energy at the rotor shaft into electrical energy and to start, stop, and control the turbine, are detailed below. [2] Next time when you hear someone complaining about how wind turbines are causing noise and aesthetic pollution, with a better understanding of how do wind turbines work, you can explain convincingly wind power sceptics, who may not have a good understanding of green energy, about how wind turbines function to generate alternative clean power from wind, which is one of the fastest-growing renewable resources in the world. [2] The wind turbine blades are the core of conversion of kinetic energy of wind to rotary-mechanical energy. [2] Small wind turbines may be used for a variety of applications including on- or off-grid residences, telecom towers, offshore platforms, rural schools and clinics, remote monitoring and other purposes that require energy where there is no electric grid, or where the grid is unstable. [3] The Nacelle is the most important part of the wind turbine that houses the components that transform the wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy to turn a generator that produces electricity. [2] Wind turbine design is a careful balance of cost, energy output, and fatigue life. [3] A wind turbine is essential in homesteading, especially in areas far from a mainstream energy source. [4] Wind turbines provide a clean energy source, emitting no greenhouse gases and no waste product. [3] Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture energy from the wind. [2] Over 1,500 tons of carbon dioxide per year can be eliminated by using a one megawatt turbine instead of one megawatt of energy from a fossil fuel. 74 Being environmentally friendly and green is a large advantage of wind turbines. [3] A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind’s kinetic energy into electrical energy. [3] We’ve previously covered Daniel Connell’s open source concentrated solar collector plans, but now he’s back with another great DIY renewable energy project, a vertical axis wind turbine based on the Lenz2 lift+drag design. [4] Want to know how to build a DIY wind turbine with as low as $30? If you want a source of renewable energy in your homestead, this wind turbine for the home project is for you! There are different types and designs for wind turbine but we will take on the more common vertical wind turbine. [4]

Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. [3] They will produce electricity at between two and six cents per kilowatt hour, which is one of the lowest-priced renewable energy sources. 72 And as technology needed for wind turbines continues to improve, the prices will decrease as well. [3]

Over the course of three days, students learned the basics of solar energy, energy efficiency, utility operation, and wind energy from local experts. [6] The 275 turbines, manufactured by Vestas Wind Systems A/S, will add 550 megawatts of wind generation capacity for MidAmerican Energy customers – enough wind energy to power more than 230,000 average Iowa homes. [7]

The controller continually optimizes the energy production based upon continuous measurement of mainly wind direction and wind speed. [2] It is hoped that after going through the functions and roles played by the main components of a wind turbine installation described in this post, it should be easier to understand the basics of wind power technology and answer how does a wind turbine work to produce electricity. [2] How does a wind turbine work- wind power generation basics explained Mon. [2]

It’s that sustainable approach that has led Iowa to achieve the highest percentage of power generation coming from wind energy, more than any other state,” Iowa Governor Kim Reynolds stated. [7] When complete in 2019, the $3.6 billion Wind XI project will add up to 2,000 megawatts of capacity, and produce enough wind energy to power more than 840,000 average Iowa homes. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (May 30, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company will be the first investor-owned electric utility in the country to generate renewable energy equal to 100 percent of its customers? usage on an annual basis, upon completing its newest proposed wind energy project. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (May 25, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company will again provide clean, renewable wind energy for the Principal Charity Classic, the annual PGA Tour Champions event, June 5-10 at the Wakonda Club in Des Moines. [7]

MidAmerican Energy’s investment in renewables has helped make Iowa a national wind energy leader. [7] “Wind energy is great for our customers, because it’s a renewable resource that powers Iowa homes and businesses and it also helps energize the state’s economy,” Fehr added. [7] This review covered energy technologies classed as “renewable” (mainly hydroelectricity, biomass, wind, solar, wave and geothermal), often with the explicit exclusion of nuclear power and fossil fuels. [8] I.G. Mason, S.C. Page, A.G. Williamson, “A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources,” Energy Policy, 38 (2010), pp. 3973-3984. [8]

These annual payments are in addition to the economic benefits associated with wind energy construction, operations and maintenance jobs in rural areas, wind industry manufacturing jobs, landowner easement payments and renewable energy’s impact in attracting new businesses to the state. [7] “We are proud to support the Drake Relays, and appreciate the opportunity to help athletes and fans understand the benefits of renewable, affordable wind energy that we harvest here in Iowa.” [7]

“Wind energy is friendly to our environment, helps keep rates low for our customers, and benefits Iowa’s economy in many ways.” [7] Wind XII is a clear demonstration of our commitment to and investment in the cleaner, more sustainable energy future our customers want and our environment deserves. [7] M.Z. Jacobson, M.A. Delucchi, A.R. Ingraffea, R.W. Howarth, G. Bazouin, B. Bridgeland, et al., “A roadmap for repowering California for all purposes with wind, water, and sunlight,” Energy, 73 (2014), pp. 875-889. [8] That’s because everyone benefits from our substantial and still growing ability to harness energy from the wind,” Wright said. [7] When combined with MidAmerican Energy’s other projects, the 591-megawatt Wind XII project will allow the company to provide renewable energy each year that is equal to 100 percent of the energy consumed by the homes and businesses in MidAmerican Energy’s Iowa service area. [7] Over the past three years, MidAmerican Energy has moved forward with its previously announced Wind XI and repowering projects, that when combined with Wind XII, will provide customers with 100 percent renewable energy on an annual basis. [7] MidAmerican Energy announced its 100 percent renewable energy vision in 2016 at the same time it launched its Wind XI project. [7]

Aside from personal electronics and EVs, they are finding applications as electric power grid support and as a backup to renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power. [9] Our most recent effort, the $3.6 billion Wind XI project, will significantly increase the amount of renewable energy provided to customers, without the need to raise customer rates. [7] “Wind XII will transform our 100 percent renewable energy vision from a bold dream into a reality,” Adam Wright, MidAmerican Energy’s President and CEO, said. [7] When Wind XI is completed, MidAmerican Energy expects to provide 90 percent of customers? annual energy needs with renewable energy,” Wright continued. [7] “Thanks to major investments in renewable energy generation, nearly half the energy provided by MidAmerican Energy now comes from wind. [7] MidAmerican Energy will continue to use its natural gas, nuclear and coal-fueled plants to ensure reliable electric service even in times of low wind. [7] MidAmerican Energy proposed an additional investment of $922 million with the announcement of its Wind XII project that will be formally filed with the Iowa Utilities Board later today. [7] MidAmerican Energy expects this percentage to grow annually as the company completes additional wind projects. [7] “This is another step forward for our Wind XI project,” Mike Fehr, MidAmerican Energy vice president of resource development, said. [7]

Over the course of three days, students learned the basics of solar energy, energy efficiency, utility operation and wind energy from local experts. [10] Everblue currently offers a variety of renewable energy courses including Solar PV Associate, Solar PV Installer, Solar Sales Professional, Solar Heating Associate, and Basics of Wind. [11] Writing clearly and simply, Thomas Kissell explains how wind turbine blades harvest wind energy, and how generators convert shaft turning energy into electricity. [12] The first book on wind energy designed specifically with technicians in mind! INTRODUCTION TO WIND PRINCIPLES, 1/e covers all aspects of installing and troubleshooting wind turbines, giving technicians the knowledge they need to handle even complex maintenance tasks. [12]

In this instance, the certificates verify the Pomeroy wind farm produced the Principal Charity Classic’s energy. [7] In 2017, MidAmerican Energy paid $19.6 million in Iowa property taxes on wind turbines. [7] Since 2011, MidAmerican Energy has donated renewable energy certificates to the Principal Charity Classic from its Pomeroy wind farm, located in Pocahontas and Calhoun counties in Iowa, to offset the tournament’s electricity usage. [7] MidAmerican Energy is working with developers, county officials and landowners on potential wind farm sites in several Iowa counties for the balance of Wind XI. [7] MidAmerican Energy will certify that an Iowa wind farm generated the energy for this year’s event. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (May 1, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company today announced construction of two new Iowa wind farm projects to begin this summer in Adair County. [7]

Just like solar power, wind power is another renewable energy source with zero carbon emissions. [13] “Every wind farm we add gets us closer to achieving our 100 percent renewable energy vision.” [7]

In order to have a true understanding of the impact of wind energy on society, one also has to have a thorough understanding of the impacts that other sources of electric generation have, such as fossil-fuelled plants or nuclear power plants. [12] Much of the second half of the book is devoted to comparing wind energy to other forms of electric generation, both renewable and non-renewable sources. [12]

Large corporations can create power purchase agreements with energy companies to build new solar and wind energy projects. [14] Examines the possible societal impacts of wind energy projects and explains the potential issues faced when siting, constructing, and operating a wind energy project. [12] If you are an energy planner, engineer, designer, utility project manager, wind power station developer, manufacturer of wind turbine equipment, teacher, or student, “”Wind Turbine Technology”” has all the latest information for you. [12] If there was any doubt about where Seneca County Commissioner Shayne Thomas stood on a movement to rescind an Alternative Energy Zone and thus thwart the erection of wind turbines on the east side of the county, such doubt was erased Tuesday. [15]

Economics promises cheaper renewable energy, but the pace needs to be accelerated by large firms embrace of wind, wave, and solar generation. [14] The cost of wind and solar energy has come down in recent years, causing a surge in clean energy demand. [14] It has been involved in numerous utility-scale wind and solar energy projects across the globe. [14]

Wind power is the most mature technology of the major sources of renewable energy that have been developed, and more efficient and cost-effective techologies and materials are constantly being sought for turbines and the equipment used on them. [12]

Always referencing a state of the art system for comparison, Jamieson discusses the basics of wind turbine theory and design, as well as how to apply existing engineering knowledge to further advance the technology, enabling the reader to gain a thorough understanding of current technology before assessing where it can go in the future. [12] This book begins with a history of wind power and the social impacts of both electricity and wind power from a historical perspective, a discussion of basic electrical terms, and a primer on the conversion of power in the wind to electricity. [12]

The IEA also predicts that the rapid expansion of PV and wind energy in China and India will result in a world where 40 percent of electricity generation is renewable in 2040. [16] With Green Core Electric your home or business will be powered by 100% renewable, wind energy from U.S. wind farms for three months at the same price you pay with your current electric utility company. [17] Our system uses your utility’s online account to track your monthly usage and matches it with 100% clean and renewable wind energy using RECs. [17] Although it emerges as the outright winner compared with fossil fuels, it does not come near solar power, hydropower, wind energy or tidal energy. [18] The wind energy farm sits on over 7,500 acres of agricultural and grazing land. [19] The purchase will pave the way for Xcel to begin construction of its new wind energy project, spanning multiple counties in Texas and New Mexico. [20] No. If you pay an electric bill you can get our wind energy service. [17]

Renewabele energy is electricity that is generated by sources such as wind and solar. [17] Xcel Energy finalized their purchase of the Hale Wind Project from NextEra Energy Resources on Tuesday. [20] Falling photovoltaic (PV), wind, and battery costs will cause the dramatic shift in investment, Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) notes. [16] Lake Erie Energy Development Co., or LEEDCo., has been planning wind turbines in Lake Erie for a decade. [21]

We have already explained direct combustion in electricity production above under biomass energy basics. [18] We will be exploring the biomass energy basics, social and environmental impacts, economic effects, advantages and disadvantages of biomass energy, and the applications (uses) of this energy. [18] May 18, 2018 Business, Residential, Solar Basics, What Sets Us Apart Here at Paradise Energy Solutions, the process of going solar is broken into six main steps. [22]


By minimizing the yaw angle (the misalignment between wind and turbine pointing direction), the power output is maximized and non-symmetrical loads minimized. [1] The lowest velocity at which the turbine develops its full power is known as rated wind velocity. [1] A fully stalled turbine blade, when stopped, has the flat side of the blade facing directly into the wind. [1] A fully furled turbine blade, when stopped, has the edge of the blade facing into the wind. [1] Standard modern turbines all furl the blades in high winds. [1] Considering wind, it is expected that turbine blades go through ~10^9 loading cycles. [1] “Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics” p142. [1]

The turbine’s rotation can be kept at a safe speed in faster winds while maintaining (nominal) power output. [1] Stalling is simple because it can be made to happen passively (it increases automatically when the winds speed up), but it increases the cross-section of the blade face-on to the wind, and thus the ordinary drag. [1] The ratio between the speed of the blade tips and the speed of the wind is called tip speed ratio. [1] A major problem in desert environments is erosion of the leading edges of blades by wind carrying sand, which increases roughness and decreases aerodynamic performance. [1] Stalling works by increasing the angle at which the relative wind strikes the blades ( angle of attack ), and it reduces the induced drag ( drag associated with lift ). [1]

Here again the 1/7 power law applies or is at least a good approximation of the wind profile. [1] Course notes from Scoraig Wind Electric, used in courses at the Centre for Alternative Technology. [1] Manufactures such as Nordex SE and GE Wind use an infusion process. [1] Wind velocities increase at higher altitudes due to surface aerodynamic drag (by land or water surfaces) and the viscosity of the air. [1] With the data from the wind resource assessment it is possible to calculate commercial viability. 1 The typical operating temperature range is ?20 to 40C (?4 to 104F). [1] Failure in ultimate loading of wind-turbine rotor blades exposed to wind and gravity loading is a failure mode that needs to be considered when the rotor blades are designed. [1]

Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed, to match power line frequency, which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. citation needed Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently. [1] Older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades, which have higher inertia, and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines. [1] New wind turbine designs push power generation from the single megawatt range to upwards of 10 megawatts using larger and larger blades. [1] The speed at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for efficient power generation and to keep the turbine components within designed speed and torque limits. [1] Use of aluminum and composite materials in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia, which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up, keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. [1]

In some cases, especially when turbines are sited offshore, the DC energy will be transmitted from the turbine to a central (onshore) inverter for connection to the grid. [1] The very nature of the way in which energy is extracted from the air also causes air to be deflected by the turbine. [1]

Critical Materials Strategy permanent dead link United States Department of Energy, December 2011. [1]

Because the power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed, turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. [1] Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. [1] At night time, or when the atmosphere becomes stable, wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase. [1] Particularly at low-to-medium wind speeds, yawing can make a significant reduction in turbine output, with wind direction variations of 30 being quite common and long response times of the turbines to changes in wind direction. [1]

Labor and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size, so to minimize costs, wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials, and siting requirements. [1] Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length. 9 The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material. [1]

With different control schemes a wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator can provide or consume reactive power. [1] Further design questions arise when integrating wind turbines into electrical power grids. [1] The smallest having power production less than 10kW are used in homes, farms and remote applications whereas intermediate wind turbines (10-250kW ) are useful for village power, hybrid systems and distributed power. [1] In that way the wind turbine will not consume reactive power, which is the most common problem with wind turbines that use induction machines. [1] Usually the rotational speed of the wind turbine is slower than the equivalent rotation speed of the electrical network: typical rotation speeds for wind generators are 5-20 rpm while a directly connected machine will have an electrical speed between 750 and 3600 rpm. [1] For large, commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines, the electrical generator 15 is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower, behind the hub of the turbine rotor. [1] In conventional wind turbines, the blades spin a shaft that is connected through a gearbox to the generator. [1] A fixed-speed HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine) inherently increases its angle of attack at higher wind speed as the blades speed up. [1] A wind turbine is designed to produce power over a range of wind speeds. The cut-in speed is around 3-4m/s for most turbines, and cut-out at 25m/s. 3 If the rated wind speed is exceeded the power has to be limited. [1] If the low-temperature interval is combined with a low-wind condition, the wind turbine will require an external supply of power, equivalent to a few percent of its rated power, for internal heating. [1] Below some minimum wind velocity, no useful power output can be produced from wind turbine. [1]

Wind turbines developed over the last 50 years have almost universally used either two or three blades. [1] Materials selection strategy and surface treatment of polymer composites for wind turbine blades fabrication. [1] The use of lighter materials in the tower could greatly reduce the overall transport and construction cost of wind turbines, however the stability must be maintained. 67 Higher grade S500 steel costs 20%-25% more than S335 steel (standard structural steel ), but it requires 30% less material because of its improved strength. [1] Small wind turbines (under 50kW) with variable- pitching generally use systems operated by centrifugal force, either by flyweights or geometric design, and employ no electric or hydraulic controls. [1] This article covers the design of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) since the majority of commercial turbines use this design. [1] There are patents that present designs with additional blades, such as Chan Shin’s Multi-unit rotor blade system integrated wind turbine. 26 Aerodynamic efficiency increases with number of blades but with diminishing return. [1] The efficiency of a wind turbine is maximum at its design wind velocity, and efficiency decreases with the fluctuations in wind. [1]

While aligning the wind turbine to changes in wind direction (yawing), each blade experiences a cyclic load at its root end depending on blade position. [1] Development of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings for wind turbine blades. [1] One major problem in designing wind turbines is getting the blades to stall or furl quickly enough should a gust of wind cause sudden acceleration. [1] The majority of current commercialized wind turbine blades are made from fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs), which are composites consisting of a polymer matrix and fibers. [1] Fiberglass -reinforced epoxy blades of Siemens SWT-2.3-101 wind turbines. [1]

Below rated wind speed, the generator torque control is active while the blade pitch is typically held at the constant angle that captures the most power, fairly flat to the wind. [1] When the wind speed is below rated, generator torque is used to control the rotor speed in order to capture as much power as possible. [1]

For a given survivable wind speed, the mass of a turbine is approximately proportional to the cube of its blade-length. [1] Since the wind direction varies quickly the turbine will not strictly follow the direction and will have a small yaw angle on average. [1]

The generator in a wind turbine produces alternating current (AC) electricity. [1] Utility-scale wind turbine generators have minimum temperature operating limits which apply in areas that experience temperatures below ?20C (?4F). [1]

The survival speed of commercial wind turbines is in the range of 40m/s (144km/h, 89 MPH) to 72m/s (259km/h, 161 MPH). [1] As of 2003, typical modern wind turbine installations use towers about 210ft (65 m) high. [1] Wood is being investigated as a material for wind turbine towers, and a 100 metre tall tower supporting a 1.5 MW turbine has been erected in Germany. [1] New type of wind turbine tower Metal Industry, 8 August 2011. [1] A 100 m prototype tower with TC bolted 18mm ‘plank’ shells has been erected at the wind turbine test center Hse in Denmark and certified by Det Norske Veritas, with a Siemens nacelle. [1] Currently, the majority of wind turbines are supported by conical tubular steel towers. [1] Another disadvantage of conical steel towers is that constructing towers that meet the requirements of wind turbines taller than 90 meters proves challenging. [1]

Typically wind turbines generate electricity through asynchronous machines that are directly connected with the electricity grid. [1] Several modern wind turbines use rotor blades with carbon-fibre girders to reduce weight. [1] Wind turbines, by their nature, are very tall slender structures, 84 this can cause a number of issues when the structural design of the foundations are considered. [1] Innovation in Wind Turbine Design sec11-1, John Wiley & Sons, 5 July 2011. [1]

“The History and State of the Art of Variable-Speed wind Turbine Technology”. 2003. p. 130-131. [1] All wind turbines are designed for a maximum wind speed, called the survival speed, above which they will be damaged. [1] “Dynamic modelling and control of fully rated converter wind turbines”. [1] In addition to aerodynamic design of the blades, design of a complete wind power system must also address design of the hub, controls, generator, supporting structure and foundation. [1] In simple designs, the blades are directly bolted to the hub and are unable to pitch, which leads to aerodynamic stall above certain windspeeds. In other more sophisticated designs, they are bolted to the pitch bearing, which adjusts their angle of attack with the help of a pitch system according to the wind speed to control their rotational speed. 25 The pitch bearing is itself bolted to the hub. [1] Loads can be reduced by making a structural system softer or more flexible. 4 This could be accomplished with downwind rotors or with curved blades that twist naturally to reduce angle of attack at higher wind speeds. These systems will be nonlinear and will couple the structure to the flow field – thus, design tools must evolve to model these nonlinearities. [1] Above rated wind speed, the generator torque is typically held constant while the blade pitch is active. [1] A natural strategy, then, is to allow the blade to stall when the wind speed increases. [1] To protect components from undue wear, extracted power is held constant above the rated operating speed as theoretical power increases at the cube of wind speed, further reducing theoretical efficiency. [1] Typically, the variation follows the wind profile power law, which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. [1]

All grid-connected wind turbines, from the first one in 1939 until the development of variable-speed grid-connected wind turbines in the 1970s, were fixed-speed wind turbines. [1] Modern large wind turbines are typically actively controlled to face the wind direction measured by a wind vane situated on the back of the nacelle. [1]

The St. Leon Wind Farm in Manitoba, Canada, has a total rating of 99MW and is estimated to need up to 3MW (around 3% of capacity) of station service power a few days a year for temperatures down to ?30C (?22F). [1] The blade size of 49 meters 44 is in comparison to a substation behind them at Wolfe Island Wind Farm. [1]

As wind speed increases, rotor speed should increase proportionally. [1] Sensors detect the wind speed and direction, and motors turn the nacelle into the wind to maximize output. [1] The wind speed that causes bending of the rotor blades exhibits a natural variability, and so does the stress response in the rotor blades. [1]

Alois Schaffarczyk (ed.), Understanding wind power technology, Wiley & Sons 2014, ISBN 978-1-118-64751-6. [1]

The wind pushes directly against the blades of the turbine, which converts the linear motion of the wind into the rotary motion necessary to spin the generator rotor to produce electricity by using an electromagnetic field. [2] These turbines have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind. [3] Despite these advantages, upwind designs are preferred, because the change in loading from the wind as each blade passes behind the supporting tower can cause damage to the turbine. [3] Larger, more costly turbines generally have geared power trains, alternating current output, flaps and are actively pointed into the wind. [3] The upwind turbines have the rotor in front of the nacelle facing the wind while downwind turbines have the rotor behind the nacelle and facing away from the wind. [2] Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a yaw system. [3] “Wind Turbine – Materials and Manufacturing Fact Sheet”. [3]

The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and is self-starting. 33 The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque; a wide, relatively flat torque curve; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation in turbulent winds; and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. [3] In high winds, the blades can also be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. [3] Typically, the glass/epoxy composites for wind blades contain up to 75 weight% glass. [3] The blades work by generating lift and drag due to their difference in shapes when the wind blows over them, like an airplane. [2]

By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms, mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. [3] Even though the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fuelled generators, costs of wind generating systems are much more competitive with other generating technologies on a “life-cycle” cost basis because there is no fuel to purchase and operating expenses are minimal. [2] If you are looking to use or generate wind technology for your company, consider the size of your company, its location and your business goals. [5]

Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases. [2] Wind is a renewable resource because there is a limitless supply that is naturally produced. [5] Land, whbich might not be considered a material, is an important resource in deploying wind technologies. [3] Therefore, an increase in wind production would increase the demand for these resources. [3]

When the wind changes direction, the nacelle and the rotor follows. [2] The two primary aerodynamic forces that work in wind-turbine rotors are lift, which acts perpendicular to the direction of wind flow and drag, which acts parallel to the direction of flow. [2] The rotor should always be facing the wind in order to catch the wind properly. [2]

Since the rotor shaft is connected to a generator through a gearbox, when the rotor spins, so does the generator and the generator converts the mechanical energy at the shaft of the turbine into electrical energy by using an electromagnetic field. [2] Small-scale turbines generate enough energy to power homes. [5] It can form part of the energy mix, which also includes power from other sources. [3]

Notably, the relative available output from wind and solar sources is often inversely proportional (balancing) citation needed. [3] Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. [23]

A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931. [3] Good wind sites may be in remote locations, far from areas with high electric demands. [5] ” 11 years of wind data shows surprising production decrease ” (in Danish) Ingenien, 1 November 2013. [3] This maintains the turbine’s safety in the event of high winds, loss of electrical load, or other harmful events. [2] As a sustainable resource, wind only needs the sun and the Earth’s rotation to appear. [5] Downwind machines have been built, because they don’t need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind. [3] The power from the rotation of the wind turbine rotor is transferred to the generator through the power train, i.e. through the low-speed shaft (the main shaft), the gearbox and the high speed shaft. [2]

While there are a number of variables that can affect the output of this DIY wind turbine, including the efficiency of the alternator used (and obviously the speed of the wind where it’s located), according to Connell, using a “50% efficient car alternator (the simplest and cheapest option) should produce 158 watts of electricity in a 50 km/h wind, and 649 watts at 80 km/h” with this design. [4]

Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually three-bladed. [3] It also houses a Controller that receives data from an Anemometer, which measures wind speed, a Vane, which measures wind direction, a Pitch control system that controls the angle of the blades, and the Yaw drive, which controls the position of the turbine relative to the wind. [2] The tower of a wind turbine supports the Nacelle and the Rotor (the hub with three attached blades). [2] The net result is a lifting force perpendicular to the direction of flow of the air over the turbines blades which creates torque in the wind turbine rotor and causes it to spin like a propeller. [2] The turbine blades and the hub together form the rotor of a wind turbine. [2] One of the predominant ways wind turbines have gained performance is by increasing rotor diameters, and thus blade length. [3]

A few localities have exploited the attention-getting nature of wind turbines by placing them on public display, either with visitor centers around their bases, or with viewing areas farther away. 59 The wind turbines are generally of conventional horizontal-axis, three-bladed design, and generate power to feed electrical grids, but they also serve the unconventional roles of technology demonstration, public relations, and education. [3] The generator, which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost, includes the electrical generator, 38 39 the control electronics, and most likely a gear box (e.g. planetary gear box ), 40 adjustable-speed drive or continuously variable transmission 41 component for converting the low-speed incoming rotation to high-speed rotation suitable for generating electricity. [3] If the wind speed continues to increase, the wind turbine generator would stop automatically at its cut-out point to prevent any mechanical or electrical damage. [2] Step-up gearboxes are being increasingly replaced with variable speed generators, increasing the demand for magnetic materials in wind turbines. 46 In particular, this would require an increased supply of the rare earth metal neodymium. [3] The rotor of the wind turbine rotates at a relatively slow speed. [2] For large wind farms distances of about 15 rotor diameters should be more economical, taking into account typical wind turbine and land costs. [3] On most horizontal wind turbine farms, a spacing of about 6-10 times the rotor diameter is often upheld. [3]

Electricity generated from wind turbines can power schools and businesses. [5] The Wind turbines, which operate on a simple principle, generate electricity by harnessing the power of the wind. [2]

Large three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT), with the blades upwind of the tower produce the overwhelming majority of windpower in the world today. [3] Environmental impact of wind power includes effect on wildlife, but can be mitigated if proper monitoring and mitigation strategies are implemented. 76 Thousands of birds, including rare species, have been killed by the blades of wind turbines, 77 though wind turbines contribute relatively insignificantly to anthropogenic avian mortality. [3] Currently, digital image correlation and stereophotogrammetry are used to measure dynamics of wind turbine blades. [3] Modern turbines use a couple of tons of copper for generators, cables, and such. 52 Smaller wind turbines have begun incorporating more aluminum based alloys into these components in an effort to make the turbines lighter and more efficient, and may continue to be used increasingly if fatigue and strength properties can be improved. [3] Materials that are typically used for the rotor blades in wind turbines are composites, as they tend to have a high stiffness, high strength, high fatigue resistance, and low weight. 46 Typical resins used for these composites include polyester and epoxy, while glass and carbon fibers have been used for the reinforcing material. 47 Construction may use manual layup techniques or composite resin injection molding. [3] Since it is the most widely used material for reinforcement in composites around the globe, the expansion of end use applications such as construction, transportation and wind turbines has fueled its popularity. [3]

Small wind turbines may be as small as a fifty-watt generator for boat or caravan use. [3]

In his book Machinae Novae (1595) he described vertical axis wind turbines with curved or V-shaped blades. [3] In Germany, wind turbine blades are commercially recycled as part of an alternative fuel mix for a cement factory. [3] Offshore wind turbines are built up to 8MW today and have a blade length up to 80 meters (260ft). [3] Wind turbines can be very large, reaching over 140 metres (460ft) tall and with blades 55 metres (60yd) long, 75 and people have often complained about their visual impact. [3] The blades of a wind turbine are shaped with one side (rear) much more curved than the other side (front). [2]

Wind power creates new job opportunities when wind farms hire people to set up and maintain the turbines. [5] Thorntonbank Wind Farm, using 5 MW turbines REpower 5M in the North Sea off the coast of Belgium. [3] “Optimal turbine spacing in fully developed wind farm boundary layers”. [3]

Wind direction determines the design of the turbines whether upwind or downwind. [2] One advantage of this arrangement is that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective, which is an advantage on a site where the wind direction is highly variable. [3]

When a turbine is mounted on a rooftop the building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. [3] Turbines do not operate at wind speeds above around 55 mph because the high winds may damage the turbines. [2]

The generator (or alternator) will not produce output power until its rotational speed is above its cut-in wind speed where the force of the wind on the rotor blades is enough to overcome friction and the rotor blades accelerate enough for the generator to start generating electricity. [2] Above this cut-in speed, the power output from the generator would rise as a cube of wind speed (i.e. if wind speed doubles, the power output increases eight times) until it reaches its maximum rated power output. [2]

Permanent magnets for wind turbine generators contain rare earth metals such as Nd, Pr, Tb, and Dy. [3] For every bird killed by a wind turbine in the U.S., nearly 500,000 are killed by each of feral cats and buildings. 78 In comparison, conventional coal fired generators contribute significantly more to bird mortality, by incineration when caught in updrafts of smoke stacks and by poisoning with emissions byproducts (including particulates and heavy metals downwind of flue gases). [3]

Materials for wind turbine parts other than the rotor blades (including the rotor hub, gearbox, frame, and tower) are largely composed of steel. [3] The world currently longest wind turbine rotor blade, the 88.4 m long blade from LM Wind Power is made of carbon/glass hybrid composites. [3] In July 2016, Siemens upgraded its 7 to 8MW. 81 Largest vertical-axis Le Nordais wind farm in Cap-Chat, Quebec has a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) named. ole, which is the world’s largest at 110m. 82 It has a nameplate capacity of 3.8MW. 83 Largest 1-bladed turbine Riva Calzoni M33 was a single-bladed wind turbine with 350kW, designed and built In Bologna in 1993. 84 Largest 2-bladed turbine The biggest 2-bladed turbine is built by Mingyang Wind Power in 2013. [3] In a large-scale setup, wind turbines are organized in groups that produce electricity in a wind farm. [5]

Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. [3] The effect of the rotor orientation i.e. upwind or downwind, has a dominating impact on the unsteady loads of the wind turbine system. [2] The controller of the wind turbine will always make sure that the rotor is turned into the wind. [2]

To optimize the functionality of a wind turbine, a control system is used. [2] The control system consists of a number of computers which constantly monitor the condition of the wind turbine and collect statistics of operation from the sensors. [2] Largest capacity conventional drive The Vestas V164 has a rated capacity of 8MW, 79 later upgraded to 9 MW. 80 The wind turbine has an overall height of 220m (722ft), a diameter of 164m (538ft), is for offshore use, and is the world’s largest-capacity wind turbine since its introduction in 2014. [3] It has a total height of 230m, and a hub height of 164m on 100m concrete tower bottom with steel tubes on top (hybrid tower). 88 Vestas V164 was the tallest wind turbine, standing in terild, Denmark, 220 meters tall, constructed in 2014. [3] Inside view of a wind turbine tower, showing the tendon cables. [3]

It’s a small wind turbine which could set the stage for more DIY wind turbine projects for you. [4] A small Quietrevolution QR5 Gorlov type vertical axis wind turbine in Bristol, England. [3]

Minimal operating expenses are associated with wind power, especially since wind turbines can be built on existing land. [5] The first automatically operated wind turbine, built in Cleveland in 1887 by Charles F. Brush. [3] In the autumn of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont. [3]

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 13 (5): 1082-1088. doi : 10.1016/j.rser.2008.03.008 via Elsevier Science Direct. [3] Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. [23] Forms EIA uses to collect energy data including descriptions, links to survey instructions, and additional information. [23]

This is similar with other critical and valuable materials required for energy systems such as magnesium, silver and indium. [3] If you are a large corporation with land available, the investment in manufacturing your own energy source may be worth it. [5] Comprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. [23]

Technology is also being developed to store excess energy, which can then make up for any deficits in supplies. [3] The North Carolina Clean Energy Technology Center maintains an online database that aggregates the information. [5]

State energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. [23] In the United States, the results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and referred to as “NREL CLASS”. [3]

Wind power is generated when the wind causes two or three propeller-like blades to rotate around a rotor. [5] When it comes to alternative clean power from renewable resources, wind power is expected to occupy the second-largest share of the market after solar in the future. [2] A report by the United States Geological Survey estimated the projected materials requirement in order to fulfill the U.S. commitment to supplying 20% of its electricity from wind power by 2030. [3] Keep in mind that not all states offer incentives to companies to use or generate wind power. [5]

Wind power was probably used in Persia (present-day Iran) about 500-900 AD. 2 The windwheel of Hero of Alexandria marks one of the first recorded instances of wind powering a machine in history. 3 4 However, the first known practical wind power plants were built in Sistan, an Eastern province of Iran, from the 7th century. [3] Wind power first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages. [3]

Problems: Getting the electricity to major cities from remote wind farms will require billions for expanding the electrical grid. [24] It starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph) and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. [2]

Increased wind and solar penetration, with asynchronous generation of electricity, displaces traditional synchronous generators. [8] This is particularly relevant for 100% renewable-supply systems that propose high reliance on asynchronous wind generation and embedded, asynchronous solar photovoltaic generation. [8] Iowa leads the country in the percentage of electric generation coming from wind. [7]

Any further installed wind-generating capacity makes little difference in meeting electricity demand in times of low wind supply. [8] And, like MidAmerican’s previous wind projects, Wind XII will be accomplished without the need to ask for an increase in customers? rates. [7] The company expects to complete the project, called Wind XII, in late 2020. [7] The $3.6 billion Wind XI project is scheduled for completion in December 2019. [7] Both are part of the company’s previously announced Wind XI project. [7]

M.Z. Jacobson, M.A. Delucchi, M.A. Cameron, B.A. Frew, “Low-cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of intermittent wind, water, and solar for all purposes,” PNAS, 112 (2015), pp. 1560-1565. [8]

The Orient wind farm project includes 150 turbines with the option to add up to 100 more. [7] The Arbor Hill wind farm project includes 125 wind turbines. [7] The project will include up to 1,000 wind turbines and add up to 2,000 megawatts of wind generation capacity in Iowa. [7]

The new law updates energy efficiency spending, implementing caps that will result in savings for MidAmerican Energy’s Iowa customers of nearly $84 million per year. [7] The caps implemented through the legislation are expected to save MidAmerican Energy’s customers $80 – $90 million per year, while still allowing Iowa to be a leader in energy efficiency. [7]

“MidAmerican Energy is proud to help power an event that contributes so much to the region and to charitable organizations.” [7] That’s enough energy to power more than 840,000 average Iowa homes. [7] J. Deign, “German firms turn batteries into power plants to aid grid control,” Energy Storage Update, London, UK (2015). [8]

To date, efforts to assess the viability of 100% renewable systems, taking into account aspects such as financial cost, social acceptance, pace of rollout, land use, and materials consumption, have substantially underestimated the challenge of excising fossil fuels from our energy supplies. [8] B. Elliston, M. Diesendorf, I. MacGill, Simulations of scenarios with 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market Energy Policy, 45 (2012), pp. 606-613. [8] D. Connolly, H. Lund, B.V. Mathiesen, M. Leahy, “The first step towards a 100% renewable energy-system for Ireland,” Appl Energy, 88 (2011), pp. 502-507. [8] “MidAmerican Energy has been leading the revolution of Iowa’s energy landscape – drastically reshaping it from what it was in 1990 when energy efficiency spending was first mandated,” Adam Wright, MidAmerican Energy’s president and CEO, said. [7] “MidAmerican Energy’s proposed energy efficiency plan will put money back into our customers? pockets and still provide a wide range of programs to encourage taking action to save energy. [7] “MidAmerican Energy believes that a cost-effective energy efficiency program is an important part of a long-term energy strategy. [7] “MidAmerican Energy is offering our customers the best of both worlds,” Adam Wright, president and CEO, said. [7] “We?re helping create a cleaner environment for our customers, communities and future generations while keeping their energy costs low.” [7]

Lithium ion batteries provide high amounts of power, store reasonable amounts of energy, and can be recharged through several thousand cycles. [9] Solar is the Latin word for sun–a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. [25] An increasing area of land would be recruited into the service of providing energy from diffuse sources. [8] The time was right to rebalance customer spending in this area in recognition of Iowa’s leadership in clean energy. [7] The new law updates energy efficiency spending, resulting in savings for customers. [7] Energy efficiency is a customer-to-customer program, wherein a portion of all customers? bills goes towards providing funds that customers can draw from to pay for qualifying products and services that save energy. [7] Beginning in 2019, utilities will no longer be prohibited from disclosing mandated energy efficiency charges, helping customers to better understand their monthly bills. [7] The legislation calls for utilities to file updated energy efficiency plans with the Iowa Utilities Board, requiring IUB to take action by March 1, 2019. [7] The legislation’s spending cap will cut that in half, bringing the cost of energy efficiency programming in line with the rest of the country. [7]

The September 2017 copy of the journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews included an article entitled ” Burden of proof: A Comprehensive Review of the Feasibility of 100% Renewable-Electricity Systems, ” by B.P. Heard, B.W. Brook, T.M.L. Wigley, and C.J.A. Bradshaw. [8] E.K. Hart, M.Z. Jacobson, “The carbon abatement potential of high penetration intermittent renewables,” Energy Environ Sci, 5 (2012), p. 6592. [8] Australian Energy Market Operator Ltd. 100 per cent renewables study-modelling outcomes. [8]

“Uniting the alleviation of poverty with a successful climate-change response in our energy and electricity systems should be an international goal. [8] The new law puts money back in the pockets of our customers and provides them with safe, reliable, and increasingly clean energy,” Wright said. [7] The cap on energy efficiency programs will not be implemented immediately. [7] The existing energy efficiency plan will remain in effect until a new plan is approved. [7] The community has kept up this promise, gaining recognition for their energy efficiency outreach and education efforts. [6] Until a new plan is approved, the company’s existing energy efficiency programs remain in effect. [7]

Others have suggested that changes in market operations will be required to accommodate energy sources that are euphemistically described as “flexible.” [8] She volunteered well over 60 hours through the past 3 years and is helping us grow our Imagine Energy Volunteer team. [26] Senior Editor Kevin Clemens has been writing about energy, automotive, and transportation topics for more than 30 years. [9]

How do we make it? How does it affect our environment? There are several forms of energy that can be converted to electrical energy. [13] The British scenario is a typical example: Even with the assumption of a 54% reduction in primary energy consumption, biomass requires 4.1 million hectares of land to be committed to the growing of grasses, short-rotation forestry, and coppice crops (17% of UK land area). [8]

DES MOINES, Iowa – (June 20, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company provided its Iowa customers with more than half of their electricity from renewable sources last year, the Iowa Utilities Board verified yesterday during its monthly meeting. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (April 19, 2018) – A nationwide pre-Earth Day survey of utility customers chose MidAmerican Energy Company as one of the country’s top “environmental champion” utilities – the fourth year in a row that MidAmerican Energy has earned the honor. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (July 9, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company today filed an application with the Iowa Utilities Board for approval of its proposed 2019-2023 Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Plan, designed to reduce customer bills while continuing to create energy efficiency savings. [7]

Through a board vote to approve the amount of renewable energy the company provided to its Iowa customers in 2017, the IUB verified that MidAmerican Energy served 50.8 percent of its retail electric load using renewable generation. [7] MidAmerican Energy Company is an energy provider serving 770,000 electric customers and 751,000 natural gas customers in Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska and South Dakota. [7] MidAmerican Energy Company, headquartered in Des Moines, Iowa, serves 770,000 electric customers and 751,000 natural gas customers in Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska and South Dakota. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (May 8, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company customers will save money on their energy bills following the passage of Senate File 2311, a bill signed by Governor Kim Reynolds on Friday. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (April 24, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company will again support the Drake Relays presented by Hy-Vee, by providing clean, renewable energy for the meet. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (May 23, 2018) – MidAmerican Energy Company and Monsanto Company, which jointly own a unique 510-acre preserve near Muscatine, will open the refuge to the public one day next month for the triennial Big Sand Mound Field Day. [7] DES MOINES, Iowa – (July 1, 2018) – As Des Moines area residents affected by flooding are returning to their homes and businesses, MidAmerican Energy is highlighting some important safety reminders. [7]

An industry leader in environmental stewardship, MidAmerican Energy is already about halfway to its goal of delivering 100 percent renewable energy to its customers in Iowa. [7] The GreenAdvantage program, launched by MidAmerican Energy last year, quantifies the amount of renewable energy its electric customers can claim. [7] In Iowa, MidAmerican Energy customers pay, on average, more than seven percent of their bills toward energy efficiency programs, the highest in the nation. [7] It ensures that MidAmerican Energy can continue to offer a robust set of energy efficiency programs in Iowa at a reasonable cost. [7] “We?re excited that MidAmerican Energy is again powering the Drake Relays with renewable energy produced right here in Iowa. [7] I-Renew (Iowa Renewable Energy Association) invites you to tour the Jordan Solar Center and check out a variety of renewable energy systems in operation during our monthly open houses. [26]

Feasible refers to the whole electricity system, not merely the individual items of technology, such as a solar panel or a wind turbine. [8] Wind XII will provide an average $6.9 million per year in additional Iowa property tax payments on wind turbines and nearly $5.6 million more in annual landowner easement payments. [7] A group of wind turbines together are called as a wind farm. [13] The company is currently exploring potential wind farm sites in Iowa and will announce wind farm locations prior to constructing each site. [7] Arbor Hill and Orient will add to MidAmerican Energy’s three existing wind farms in Adair County: Adair, Morning Light and Rolling Hills. [7] The two new Adair County wind farms will be the latest additions to the Wind XI project. [7]

“At the same time, we?re not resting on our laurels and are continuing to aggressively pursue renewable energy projects for our customers. [7] And, given the maturity of today’s energy efficiency marketplace, coupled with our continued 100 percent renewable energy commitment, it’s the perfect time to rebalance the program to match the times.” [7] “We are excited to bring our 100 percent renewable energy vision to the Drake Relays for the fifth year in a row,” Kathryn Kunert, MidAmerican Energy’s vice president of economic connections and integration, said. [7] “MidAmerican Energy is working toward a 100 percent renewable energy vision,” Wright said. [7] “MidAmerican Energy’s commitment to powering the Drake Relays presented by Hy-Vee with renewable energy has become part of the fabric of America’s Athletic Classic,” said Blake Boldon, the Franklin P. Johnson director of the Drake Relays. [7] Athletes from around the world cherish the opportunity to race on the Blue Oval and MidAmerican Energy’s support of renewable energy helps illuminate those performances inside Drake Stadium.” [7]

Renewable Energy in Germany Germany’s main competitors in solar electricity are Japan, the U.S., and China. [25] RECs are tradeable, non-tangible U.S. energy commodities that represent an eligible, renewable energy source generated the electricity. [7]

On May 20th, 2018 the first ever Eric Foresman and Christine Nelson-Foresman scholarship was awarded to Linn Mar High School graduate, Delaney Bishop! Delaney learned about the Iowa Renewable Energy Association through [26] The American Solar Energy Society returns to Colorado this year, moving north to Boulder, a city with a progressive sustainable energy vision, to continue the conversation on maximizing renewable energy, and to forge pathways for communities in every state to follow, in achieving renewables-driven electrification, climate resilience, and clean-energy driven opportunities for all. [27] H. Lund, B.V. Mathiesen, “Energy system analysis of 100% renewable energy systems–the case of Denmark in years 2030 and 2050.” [8] “MidAmerican Energy has achieved an exciting milestone as a renewable energy leader,” Adam Wright, MidAmerican Energy President and CEO, said. [7] The foundation and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources presented MidAmerican Energy the award. [7] “Big Sand Mound is an Iowa environmental treasure,” Jenny McIvor, vice president, environmental programs for MidAmerican Energy, said. [7] While developing the nearby Louisa Generating Station in Muscatine in 1977, MidAmerican Energy set aside 420 acres for an environmental preserve after site evaluations indicated an ecosystem not typically found in Iowa. [7]

In the proposed plan, MidAmerican Energy offers customers 14 robust energy efficiency programs that are designed to achieve significant energy savings. [7] In locations where MidAmerican Energy or the local fire department has temporarily shut off natural gas service or if customers who were evacuated shut off their own gas service, MidAmerican Energy will restore service at no charge when local officials determine it is safe to do so. [7] This first-of-its-kind value-added program is offered to all MidAmerican Energy customers. [7]

For the third year, the company will sponsor the MidAmerican Energy Green Canyon, which provides fans a spectacular view of the competition. [7] “The MidAmerican Energy Green Canyon has been a fan-favorite location since its debut and continues to grow in popularity every year,” Sean Sovacool, executive director of the 2018 Principal Charity Classic, said. [7] It’s the 17th consecutive year that MidAmerican Energy earned the honor. [7]

“And, it doesn?t hurt that we have a company like MidAmerican Energy that has taken the long view and is forward-looking in its goal to provide sustainable and affordable energy to its customers.” [7] To report an electric emergency such as this, call MidAmerican Energy at 800-799-4443. [7] If your property sustained damage during the event, before MidAmerican Energy can restore service, an inspection may be required by city, county or state inspectors or professional electricians or plumbers. [7]

These are crucial times for driving the renewable energy revolution. [27] “We have now crossed the 50-yard line and we?re moving closer to the goal, which is the vision we announced in 2016 to ultimately provide 100 percent renewable energy for our customers.” [7]

Design News Senior Editor Kevin Clemens, Ph.D. has put together four basic lithium technology stories from the first half of 2018 that will help with that understanding. [9] Understanding the basic technology and the limits of the materials that make up lithium ion batteries makes it easier to assess their strengths and weaknesses. [9]

Small Wind Turbines is a suitable reference for student projects and detailed design studies, and also provides important background material for engineers and others using small wind turbines for remote power and distributed generation applications. [12] This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. [12]

He shows how electrical and hydraulic systems control the speed of wind turbine blades, energizing blade pitch and yaw position controls. [12]

Higher server utilization rates, that is, getting more from each watt of power expended, and improved data center design have reduced the energy required for non-computing purposes such as equipment cooling. [14] There are several reasons why alternative energy solutions, like solar power, will greatly impact economic and ecological structures. [11] “To all the employees of Power Trip Energy! Thanks for the awesome solar installation, you have motivated me to save more energy and promote solar power even more.” [28]

A transition to renewable sources is underway, which cloud users can encourage by choosing their online service providers based on what energy sources the service uses. [14] When President Trump announced that the United States would back out of the Paris climate deal, many U.S. corporations voluntarily committed to increasing their use of clean energy while reducing emissions to maintain their Paris commitments. [14]

“By generating our own clean electricity, our family is reducing air pollution while being energy independent. [28] A dedicated alternative energy solution would allow for greater control over economic activity as energy production occurs domestically. [11] Given the limited availability of these energy sources, it will be necessary at some point in the future to utilize new energy sources that are more sustainable. [11] Pollution Will Be Reduced: Current dominant sources of American energy, including coal and oil, are major contributors to pollution. [11] Greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are consistently exhausted from current energy sources. [11] Amazon, eBay, Etsy, HBO, Netflix, and Vimeo received mediocre scores from Greenpeace, while Hulu, Pandora, Pinterest, SoundCloud, Twitter, and WeChat received poor ratings because they rely heavily on coal and other unsustainable energy sources. [14]

The community has kept up this promise, earning recognition for their energy efficiency outreach and education efforts. [10] Despite serving a valuable purpose to us all, tech companies have been criticized for years for their exorbitant energy consumption. [14] Fossil Fuels Are Depleting: One of the fundamental reasons to invest in alternative energy solutions involves the reality of resource depletion. [11] Most of our clients spend a fair amount of time and energy to create beauty, perhaps grow some tasty food, and. [28]

Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. [12] The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. [12] Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. [12] Innovation in Wind Turbine Design addresses the fundamentals of design, the reasons behind design choices, and describes the methodology for evaluating innovative systems and components. [12]

Discussion of economic considerations, the integration of wind power plants into electric utility systems, and a gallery of color photographs of current commercial wind turbines are included. [12] Using detailed case study analysis, expert authors present practical lessons learned from the use of existing wind turbines. [12] Our expert guest is Danny Ellis, CEO of SkySpecs, a company that offers drone inspections for wind turbines, combined with intuitive software that allows for high-quality data capture. [29] Wind Turbine Technology is the authoritative guide to state-of-the-art wind turbine engineering. [12] Small Wind Turbines provides a thorough grounding in analysing, designing, building, and installing a small wind turbine. [12] A spreadsheet is also given to help readers apply the simple load model of the IEC standard for small wind turbine safety. [12]

Here is a comprehensive and thorough review of the engineering pros and cons for using different kinds of wind turbines in different areas, including offshore. [12]

Power Trip Energy is dedicated to improving the future of our community and our state through the use of renewable energy technologies. [28] She is a regular contributor to environmental and energy publications and websites, including Mother Earth Living, Earth911, Home Power, Triple Pundit, CleanTechnica, The Ecologist, GreenBiz, Renewable Energy World and Windpower Engineering. [14]

In addition to sourcing renewable energy, the highest-ranking companies have also put in place energy efficiency improvements to cut overall use in the business. [14] The authors conclude with a discussion of energy policies in the U.S., individual states, and foreign nations, how these policies influence the use of renewable energy, and what our future may hold in terms of energy supply and demand. [12] The use of renewable energy will help reduce the emissions of harmful elements into the atmosphere. [11] The surge in corporate use of renewable energy is largely economic, although pressure from consumers and nonprofit organizations has helped fuel this trend. [14] Tech companies are not alone in their use of renewable energy. [14]

As discussions about renewable energy heat up in the national discourse, many individuals are wondering about the benefits of solar technology to U.S. Energy Independence. [11] The largest Renewable Energy ETF is the Invesco Solar ETF (TAN) with $364.17 M in assets under management and an expense ratio of 0.70% with a trailing 12 month gain of 23.29%. [30]

Google — along with Facebook and Apple — was among the first corporations to make a 100 percent renewable energy commitment several years ago. [14] Last year, 19 large corporations announced deals with energy companies to create 2.78 gigawatts of renewable energy generation capacity. [14]

The annual study has consistently shown that individuals across various political spectrums support solar energy: Republicans (84 percent), Democrats (98 percent), and Independents (95 percent). [11]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(30 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (101) Wind turbine design – Wikipedia

2. (97) News

3. (75) Wind turbine – Wikipedia

4. (46) How does a wind turbine work- wind power generation basics explained

5. (25) Why Is Wind a Renewable Resource? | Bizfluent

6. (23) Books, Articles & Handbooks – EDSGN 100: Introduction to Engineering Design – Library Guides at Penn State University

7. (20) Is a 100% Renewable-Energy Power-Generation System Feasible? | Power Electronics

8. (15) Greening the Cloud With Renewable Energy –

9. (10) 5 Reasons To Invest In Solar Energy

10. (9) A $30 DIY Wind Turbine You Can Build For Your Homestead

11. (5) U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

12. (5) Free E-Book: Understanding the Basics of Lithium Batteries | Design News

13. (4) FAQ About Our Renewable Energy Service – Clean Energy Made Simple

14. (4) Power Trip Energy | Craft Your Own Energy Destiny

15. (3) Green Hatters Saving the Planet

16. (3) Biomass Energy Notes – Alternative Energy Sources

17. (3) Home – Iowa Renewable Energy Association

18. (2) Amplifying Student Voices in the Local Energy Discussion | IATP

19. (2) Report: World trending to hit 50% renewables, 11% coal by 2050 | Ars Technica

20. (2) Xcel finalizes wind farm purchase, begins wind energy expansion – | Lufkin and Nacogdoches, Texas

21. (2) Much Of Is Energy Solar Germany’s How

22. (2) Solar Conference 2018 | American Solar Energy Society

23. (2) Amplifying Student Voices in the Local Energy Discussion – Rural Dialogues

24. (1) Review Times Thomas: Further talk on wind turbines is a waste of energy

25. (1) The Pivot Point Collection: Enhanced Resilient Tile (ERT) – International Living Future Institute

26. (1) How do you feel about wind turbines on Lake Erie? – Rock The Lake

27. (1) Solar Blog & Information – Paradise Energy Solutions

28. (1) 5 Pillars of Renewable Energy

29. (1) Windpower News, Wind Energy, Windpower Construction, Wind Turbines

30. (1) 9 Renewable Energy ETF Reports: Ratings, Holdings, Analysis |