What Is Sustainable Development in Reference to Groundwater?

What Is Sustainable Development in Reference to Groundwater?
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link: http://mavensnotebook.com/2016/01/06/implementing-the-sustainable-groundwater-management-act-the-importance-of-local-agency-and-stakeholder-participation/
author: Maven\u0027s Notebook

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Groundwater pollution and sustainable development of the Collo plain; Northeastern Algia.(More…)
  • At the current rate of use, the groundwater supply is simply not sustainable. (Hydrogeology, Hydrologic Effects of Development, and Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Borrego Valley, San Diego County by U.S. Geological Survey.)(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • In the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians v. Coachella Valley Water District case the tribe sued a number of California water agencies for adversely affecting the quality and quantity of its groundwater by over-pumping a shared aquifer.(More…)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS

Groundwater pollution and sustainable development of the Collo plain; Northeastern Algia. [1] Sustainable groundwater resources development implies use of groundwater as a source of water supply, on a long term basis, in an efficient and equitable manner sustaining its quality and environmental diversity. [2]

He presented his work in various congresses and actually he is referee of some important Brazilian journals in water resources, sustainable development, and environmental law. [2]

The SDG 6 Synthesis Report offers the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) a progress report on the eight indicators under the clean water and sanitation Goal. [3] This new, comprehensive knowledge management platform focuses on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and uses IISD’s network of experts to provide information on SDG implementation and to link to key partners engaged in SDG implementation. [3] SHORT BIO: Viviana Re holds a PhD in Analysis and Governance of Sustainable Development (2011), a MSc in Environmental Sciences (2007) and a BSc. in Natural Sciences (2003). [4] The ISOE is an independent institute that develops social-ecological concepts for sustainable development. [5]

One of the objectives of the study is to estimate the groundwater recharge in the basin during the years 2013-2016 for a sustainable development of the groundwater resources. [6] To provide a space for academic institutions, think-tanks and other stakeholders to offer learning and training sessions on sustainable development implementation, the Forum that takes place at the UN headquarters in New York from 9-18 July hosts a wide range of side-events running in parallel to the HLPF formal meetings. [7] Entitled ” Transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies, ? the United Nations High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) on Sustainable Development reviews the implementation of a number of Sustainable Development Goals, including SDG 7 – “ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all?. [7] The IAEA training course, ” What is needed to make capacity building for SDG 7 truly effective? ” included presentations of key elements of the IAEA’s capacity building framework for energy planning that integrate the complex challenges associated with the sustainable development goals. [7]

At the current rate of use, the groundwater supply is simply not sustainable. (Hydrogeology, Hydrologic Effects of Development, and Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Borrego Valley, San Diego County by U.S. Geological Survey.) [8] The SEIR states, “Based on the information from the 2015 USGS Groundwater Study, groundwater use reductions are anticipated to be significant and may necessitate reconsideration of the land use designations within Borrego Springs to properly align land use designations with reduced development potential given the anticipated groundwater use restrictions under the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act. [8]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

In the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians v. Coachella Valley Water District case the tribe sued a number of California water agencies for adversely affecting the quality and quantity of its groundwater by over-pumping a shared aquifer. [9] Two aspects of the case are still being litigated – the tribe’s claim to ownership of its aquifer’s pore space (storage) and degradation of its groundwater quality by the water agencies’ use of inferior Colorado River water to recharge a aquifer they share with the tribe. [9] Each plan will establish a “water budget” and “sustainability goal” that may limit future groundwater use. [10] The Sustainable Groundwater Planning (SGWP) Grant Program provides funds for projects that develop and implement sustainable groundwater planning and projects consistent with groundwater planning requirements outlined in Division 6 of the California Water Code, commencing at 10000. [11] The pore space issue is particularly important, since, should the tribe prevail, ownership of pore space might interfere with states’ or water agencies’ efforts to implement managed aquifer recharge(MAR) projects, since the water might enter pores owned by tribes and possibly pollute the tribes’ groundwater. [9]

Groundwater underlying tribal reservations could be treated as a transboundary resource subject to water law different from the states. [9] The aforementioned case is most decidedly a transboundary groundwater case – tribal v. water agencies, or districts, or states or. [9] State Intervention will require any groundwater extractors to file an extraction report with the State Water Board, and the Board may require the use of meters to measure extractions. [12] The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in the tribe’s favor, stating that the Winters doctrine applies to groundwater as well as surface water. [9] These reserved rights, or Winters rights as they are frequently called, have traditionally pertained to surface water and not to groundwater. [9] How does an article about the Winters doctrine and its promise of water rights find its way into an issue on transboundary groundwater? Let me explain, starting with a little bit of repetition. [9] Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater throughout the tropics enabling access to safe water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes close to the point of demand. [9] Cal. Dep?t of Water Res., Groundwater, http://www.water.ca.gov/Water-Basics/Groundwater (last visited May 6, 2018, 10:45 AM). [10] A global lecture tour delivering the message about our changing water cycle, groundwater depletion, and the future of freshwater availability. [9]

The goal of thisconference is to forward a discussion on how to understand the behavior of Transboundary Groundwater and discussthe range of management systems and governance frameworks that have been developed to sustainably use and ensureequitable access to this critical resource. [9] On behalf of AWRA and the Conference Planning Committee, we welcome you to the Dallas/Ft. Worth area for AWRA’sspecialty conference on the Science, Management and Governance of Transboundary Groundwater. [9] We just finished a very successful conference on The Science, Management and Governance of Transboundary Groundwater. [9]

The presentation provides the background and salient points of the case and how possible outcomes might influence interstate management and governance of groundwater in the USA and elsewhere. [9]

The State law requires all high- and medium-priority basin GSA’s (Groundwater Sustainability Agencies) develop and implement a GSP. Basins designated as medium- or high-priority and critically overdrafted are required to complete a GSP by January 31, 2020. [12] The GSP is a roadmap for how a basin will avoid the adverse effects of overdraft and achieve balanced levels of groundwater to reach sustainability. [12]

Twenty-six basins — mostly in southern California — have adjudicated areas where a court has determined the groundwater rights of all overliers and appropriators. [10] The valley accounts for half of California’s food production; reducing groundwater use here as well as in other agriculturally intensive areas of the state will likely have significant financial consequences. [10] This study constitutes the diagnosis of groundwater pollution of the Collo aquifer, as well as the mapping of areas vulnerable to pollution. [1] Inter-annual changes in groundwater storage correlate well to inter-annual rainfall variability. [9]

If you rely on groundwater for your home, farm, or business, it is critical to understand if you are located in a basin that is developing a plan and to participate in the process of developing that plan. [10] Eighty-eight percent of the state’s population uses the groundwater coming from those basins. [10] Agriculture — including ranching, farming, vineyards, and fruit washing — accounts for about 75% of the state’s groundwater use. [10]

In his signing statement, the governor emphasized that “groundwater management in California is best accomplished locally.” [11] Before the SGMA, California was the only western state that did not regulate groundwater under a state-wide program. [10] We will continue to monitor and report on the evolution of the SGMA and are available to assist California groundwater users as they navigate the challenges of this new process. [10]

Until the SGMA, there was no statewide governance scheme regulating groundwater pumping. [10] Groundwater pumping has resulted in swaths of the San Joaquin Valley sinking, which the U.S. Geological Survey has called “one of the single largest alterations of the land surface attributed to humankind.” [10] It should be noted that the Coachella Valley Water District implements MAR. Its Thomas E. Levy Groundwater Replenishment Facility graced the cover of the September 2017 Water Resources IMPACT. [9]

Groundwater The water stored beneath our feet is an important water supply source in California. [11] While in normal years pumped groundwater comprises approximately 38% of California’s total water supply, in drought years groundwater contributes up to 46% (or more) of the state’s annual water supply. [10] The irony of this groundwater dispute is that it has unfolded in a region of the U.S. that averages over 50 inches of precipitation per year and is located on the banks of one of the world’s largest streams – the Mississippi River. [9]

This book aims to provide an overview of established practices worldwide to keep groundwater as resource for the future generations. [2] GSAs “have the authority and responsibility to sustainably manage their respective groundwater basins.” [10] There is not a single legal agreement in place between states to guide the apportionment of groundwater that crosses state lines. [9] The Supreme Court has never ruled on a case involving a groundwater dispute between states. [9]

Karst groundwater vulnerability mapping: application of a new method in the swabian alb, ermany; Hydrogeology Journal, 13, issue 4, 555-564. [1] In some locations, over-drilling and over-pumping led to land subsidence, saltwater intrusion, and concerns about the long-term viability of the state’s groundwater supply. [10] One thing is certain: when it comes to groundwater, we are living in interesting times. [9]

McMullin Area’s GSP will include a physical description of the groundwater management area including groundwater conditions, a water budget, groundwater management criteria, a monitoring program, and projects and measurable objectives to become sustainable within 20 years. [12] Water Storage & Supply We operate and maintain the State Water Project and support sustainable groundwater management. [11] CA Water Commission: Update on Sustainable Groundwater Management Implementation, MAVEN?S NOTEBOOK (Jan. 4, 2018), http://mavensnotebook.com/2018/01/04/ca-water-commission-update-on-sustainable-groundwater-management-implementation/. [10] Groundwater Management We support the sustainable management of California’s underground water reserves. [11] The SGMA established a process for local agencies to develop an alternative (“Alternatives”) in place of a GSP. Local agencies that had already developed groundwater management plans (either on their own or due to a groundwater adjudication) or that could demonstrate that their basins had operated within their sustainable yields, over a period of at least 10 years, could submit those plans or analyses as alternatives to GSPs. [10] The California legislature passed the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (“SGMA”) nearly four years ago and its impacts are finally beginning to take shape. [10] McMullin Area GSA is a California Joint Powers Authority to implement the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act in the northwestern part of the Kings Subbasin. [12] For the first time in its history, California has a framework for sustainable, groundwater management – “management and use of groundwater in a manner that can be maintained during the planning and implementation horizon without causing undesirable results.” [11] Here you will find a curated set of data, interactive mapping tools, and reports which are important resources to inform sustainable groundwater management decision-making. [11] On September 16, 2014, Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a three-bill legislative package, composed of AB 1739 (Dickinson), SB 1168 (Pavley), and SB 1319 (Pavley), collectively known as the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA). [11] Through the Sustainable Groundwater Management Program, DWR provides ongoing support to local agencies through guidance and financial and technical assistance. [11]

Over the next two to four years, local groundwater agencies will be developing groundwater sustainability plans for 127 basins that supply water to millions of people and businesses. [10] SGMA requires governments and water agencies of high and medium priority basins to halt overdraft and bring groundwater basins into balanced levels of pumping and recharge. [11] SGMA empowers local agencies to form Groundwater Sustainability Agencies (GSAs) to manage basins sustainably and requires those GSAs to adopt Groundwater Sustainability Plans (GSPs) for crucial groundwater basins in California. [11] And most significantly, while the SGMA requires each GSP to include specific elements (e.g., a description of the physical groundwater basin, measurable objectives to achieve sustainability within 20 years, a planning and implementation horizon), it grants the GSAs broad discretion to develop a GSP that works best for the region. [10] The SGMA grants GSAs the authority to develop a GSP that meets the unique characteristics and needs of each groundwater basin. [10]

Once GSAs form, the next step is to develop groundwater sustainability plans (“GSPs”). [10] GSPs detail how the GSAs plan to meet their groundwater sustainability goals. [10] GSAs must achieve groundwater sustainability 20 years after their GSPs are adopted. [10]

California’s groundwater “management” (or the lack thereof) was akin to the Wild West, with farmers and landowners who lacked surface water or shallow groundwater spending millions of dollars to drill deeper to access new groundwater resources. [10] Dr. Kukuric will address the scientific resources that are being developed to aid in themanagement of transboundary groundwater resources, and Dr. Rivera will present his recent work on identifying andmapping transboundary aquifers at the global scale. [9] The Transboundary Groundwater Conference starts with keynote presentations by Dr. Neno Kukuric, Director ofthe International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, and Dr. Alfonso Rivera, Chief Hydrogeologist for theGeological Survey of Canada. [9] During the conference we hope you will greatly expand your understanding and knowledgeof transboundary groundwater resources, but more importantly you will have the opportunity to become active in thedevelopment and promulgation of a coherent strategy for addressing transboundary groundwater issues. [9]

It is a very important resource because can supply drinking water and water for agricultural development. [2] Since 2002, the Sustainable Water Resources Roundtable (SWRR) has brought together federal, state, corporate, non-profit and academic sectors to advance our understanding of the nation’s water resources and to develop tools for their sustainable management. [9] Groundwater Sustainability Plans, CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, http://www.water.ca.gov/Programs/Groundwater-Management/SGMA-Groundwater-Management/Groundwater-Sustainability-Plans (last visited March 6, 2018 2:20 PM). [10] High- and medium-priority groundwater basins were required to form groundwater sustainability agencies (“GSAs”) by June 30, 2017. [10] To accommodate the regional and hydrological differences among groundwater basins, the SGMA allows various types of local authorities (or a combination of authorities) to control and manage GSAs. [10] The SGMA directs the Department of Water Resources (“DWR”) to prioritize California’s 515 groundwater basins as high-, medium-, low-, or very-low-priority basins. [10]

In 2014, DWR identified 127 medium- and high-priority groundwater basins that account for approximately 96% of groundwater use in California. [10] Only twenty-six of California’s 515 groundwater basins have gone through adjudication, mostly in Southern California. [10]

Because California historically neglected comprehensive groundwater management, the need for reform became clear when the state’s historic drought began in 2012. [10] While the State’s requirements for a GSP’s content are the same for all GSAs, the McMullin Area’s issues and solutions will be very specific to the unique challenges within the groundwater management area that it serves. [12]

The sustainability of groundwater withdrawals is controlled, in part, by groundwater recharge, yet the conversion of rainfall into recharge remains inadequately understood, particularly in the tropics. [9] As such the results presented here are consistent with a growing body of evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa that indicate that the intensification of rainfall associated with global warming may enhance groundwater recharge. [9] This study examines a rare set of 19-25-year records of observed groundwater levels and rainfall under humid conditions (mean rainfall is ~1,200mmyear ?1 ) in three common geological environments of Benin and other parts of West Africa: Quaternary sands, Mio-Pliocene sandstone, and crystalline rocks. [9] The robustness of the results of this study is constrained by the representivity of the monitoring sites and frequency of the groundwater level measurements in the multi-decadal records. [9]

There is still uncertainty about how the SGMA will play out on (or rather, in ) the ground, and how much protection it will ultimately offer California’s groundwater resources. [10]

Aquifers that provide sustainable fresh groundwater to urban areas and for agricultural irrigation are typically close to the ground surface (within a couple of hundred metres) and have some recharge by fresh water. [13] The total amount of easily accessible freshwater on Earth, in the form of surface water ( rivers and lakes ) or groundwater (in aquifers, for example), is 14.000 cubic kilometres (nearly 3359 cubic miles). [14] Apart from the conventional surface water sources of freshwater such as rivers and lakes, other resources of freshwater such as groundwater and glaciers have become more developed sources of freshwater, becoming the main source of clean water. [14] USAID works with the Armenian government and local communities to improve the management and sustainability of groundwater reserves in the Ararat Valley, which sustain nearly 40 percent of the country’s agricultural GDP and provide cooling water for Armenia’s nuclear power plant, Metsamor. [15] Groundwater is water that has pooled below the surface of the Earth and can provide a usable quantity of water through springs or wells. [14] The bad news, however, is that groundwater is the main source of drinking water for about 1 million people in the study area. [16] Abstracting from groundwater sources that are non-renewable could lead to exhaustion if not properly monitored and managed. 27 Another concern of increased groundwater usage is the diminished water quality of the source over time. [14] Reduction of natural outflows, decreasing stored volumes, declining water levels and water degradation are commonly observed in groundwater systems. 23 Groundwater depletion may result in many negative effects such as increased cost of groundwater pumping, induced salinity and other water quality changes, land subsidence, degraded springs and reduced baseflows. [14] Under regular groundwater pumping conditions, the arsenic in the clay remains suspended, but when too much water is pumped, it becomes mobile, increasing the arsenic in the aquifer. [16] In California’s agricultural heartland, the San Joaquin Valley, excessive pumping of groundwater has resulted in subsidence, damaging crucial infrastructure, including roads, bridges and water conveyance. [16] The study concluded that, “Land subsidence due to overpumping increases the probability that groundwater is contaminated beyond the drinking water standard by a factor of two to three for the San Joaquin Valley.” [16]

Groundwater can be found at nearly every point in the Earth’s shallow subsurface to some degree, although aquifers do not necessarily contain fresh water. [13] “When people pump a lot of groundwater it drops the pressure in the aquifers a lot and when the pressure is really low that pulls the water out of the clays, when normally it wouldn?t come out of the clays,” explained Smith. [16] Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater. [14] Some of this arsenic has ended up in groundwater, contaminating drinking water, and some of it is trapped in clay layers underground. [16] “You?re overstressing the groundwater system and that causes water to be drawn out of the clays and the water in the clays tend to have higher arsenic concentrations so you?re essentially bringing arsenic out of the clays into the groundwater system in the aquifer.” [16] This and many other questions around groundwater are inherently ethical and thus the Botin Foundation became increasingly active in the field of Water Ethics. [5]

“The areas that are most at risk here are people who are using private domestic wells because they are not checking them for groundwater quality regularly and there is not a lot they can do if the arsenic levels exceed the safe standards and there are a number of those communities in this study area in the Tulare Basin,” said Smith. [16] The goal is to reduce the rate of groundwater extraction in the Ararat Valley to sustainable levels. [15] SGMA, however, provides an important framework for Californians to think about how to achieve the sustainable management of groundwater, said Knight. [16] I?m hopeful that these kinds of data can promote more sustainable groundwater management.” [16] The IWVGA serves as a Groundwater Sustainability Agency (GSA) in compliance with the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) of 2014 to protect existing surface water and groundwater rights. [17] Implementation of California’s 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act ( SGMA ) aims to curb overpumping, especially in the San Joaquin Valley, but new agencies governing groundwater have two decades before sustainability goals need to be achieved. [16]

A study last year from NASA ‘s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, found overpumping of groundwater since the 1920s had caused parts of the San Joaquin Valley to sink as much as 28ft. [16] Overpumping of groundwater has caused subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley and a new study says that it is also causing increased concentrations of arsenic in the aquifer. [16]

The Great Artesian Basin situated in Australia is arguably the largest groundwater aquifer in the world 11 (over 1.7millionkm 2 or 0.66millionsqmi). [13] These areas where groundwater is collected are also known as aquifers. [14] Although groundwater sources are quite prevalent, one major area of concern is the renewal rate or recharge rate of some groundwater sources. [14] By integrating the role of groundwater as a sink or source for nutrients, the project will investigate the ecosystem services provided by this compartment, identify the main present and future criticalities, and evaluate the potential and time frame for a natural attenuation of the contamination. [4] The INTEGRON project aims at evaluating the role of groundwater as a temporary or permanent sink or as a source in nutrient mass balances at the catchment scale in two key sub-basins of Po River, the Adda, and the Ticino. [4] The Botin Foundation (BF) began activity in the field of water resources in 1998 when it launched the Groundwater Project (Proyecto Aguas Subterraneas or PAS), one of the first interdisciplinary assessments of groundwater governance. [5] The main originality of the project is the integrated approach, which considers both surface and groundwater and addresses both N and P, two key nutrients whose dynamics and mutual relationships are rarely examined together at the catchment scale. [4] An innovative and integrated approach is proposed, considering both surface and groundwater, combining hydrogeology and biogeochemistry, and targeting both N and P species. [4]

Until recent 2015, groundwater was not a highly utilized resource. [14] “We need to stop pumping as much groundwater and we need to avoid overstressing the aquifer system,” said Smith. [16] “A lot of the groundwater pumping is being done by the agricultural industry, but the people that are being most strongly affected by it are those who are living in this area and need groundwater for their drinking water.” [16]

An aquitard is a zone within the Earth that restricts the flow of groundwater from one aquifer to another. [13] In unconsolidated aquifers, groundwater is produced from pore spaces between particles of gravel, sand, and silt. [13] In the 1960s, more and more groundwater aquifers developed. [14]

The following table displays the average annual renewable freshwater supply by country including both surface-water and groundwater supplies. 33 This table represents data from the UN FAO AQUASTAT, much of which are produced by modeling or estimation as opposed to actual measurements. [14] The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that subsidence has affected more than 17,000 square miles in 45 U.S. states, 80 percent of it due to groundwater usage. [14] To estimate the drainage requirement, the use of a groundwater model with an agro-hydro-salinity component may be instrumental, e.g. SahysMod. [13] Groundwater overpumping may have another serious side effect, according to a study published June 5 in the journal Nature Communications. [16] “There is a huge societal impact behind this study, because not only is overpumping depleting our groundwater, it’s also contaminating it,” said Ryan Smith, coauthor of the study and a doctoral student in geophysics at Stanford University. [16]

GRIPP further called upon the representatives of the respective custodian agencies to make an extra effort to further improve the step-by-step methodologies for the monitoring of SDG 6 target indicators, explaining that the currently proposed methodology generally recognizes the role of groundwater but may need to clearly specify the contribution of groundwater in the weighted calculations. [3] In light of the study’s findings, authorities should urgently make testing for uranium a routine part of groundwater quality monitoring, says Vengosh. [18] Along the coastlines of certain countries, such as Libya and Israel, increased water usage associated with population growth has caused a lowering of the water table and the subsequent contamination of the groundwater with saltwater from the sea. [13] Excessive withdrawal of groundwater across India is not only lowering the water table, it is also contaminating water with uranium. [18]

New methods of groundwater management such as artificial recharge and injection of surface waters during seasonal wet periods has extended the life of many freshwater aquifers, especially in the United States. [13] Avner Vengosh, professor of geochemistry and water quality at Duke University in North Carolina, United States, who is the lead author of the study, tells SciDev.Net that “the decline in groundwater levels accelerates uranium mobilisation to groundwater”. [18]

Vengosh suggests that India’s water agencies make groundwater management a priority to protect people from the harmful effects of exposure to uranium, which include a higher risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). [18] Explore opportunities to import water to supplement supplies in the Indian Wells Valley Groundwater Basin. [17] Lead development of the Coordination Agreement for the Indian Wells Valley Groundwater Basin. [17] The project under the leadership of Prof. Llamas had Spain as a showcase for many of the ethical dilemmas faced in countries across the world, like the intensive use of groundwater resources for development. [5] Changes in knowledge, technology and funding have allowed for focused development into abstracting water from groundwater resources away from surface water resources. [14]

At the 2000 Millennium Summit, the United Nations addressed the effects of economic water scarcity by making increased access to safe drinking water an international development goal. [14] The primary risk to this resource is human development over the recharge areas. [13] Providing feedback in the online public dialogue, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) underscored that all investment in planned sanitation infrastructure, in collaboration with local and regional governments, can have positive externalities for human development and the achievement of SDG 6 and SDG 11 (sustainable cities and communities). [3] In Australia, water consumption declined by 40% between 2001 and 2009 while the economy grew by more than 30%. 13 The International Resource Panel of the UN states that governments have tended to invest heavily in largely inefficient solutions: mega-projects like dams, canals, aqueducts, pipelines and water reservoirs, which are generally neither environmentally sustainable nor economically viable. [14] MDG 7 sets a target for reducing the proportion of the population without sustainable safe drinking water access by half by 2015. [14] Waterlution’s purpose is to inspire pattern-making and pattern-breaking change towards a healthy and sustainable relationship with water. [5]

The project supports sustainable water resource management and sustainable practices of water use through the use of science, technology, innovation and partnerships (STIP) approaches. [15] The Blue Peace framework developed by Strategic Foresight Group in partnership with the Governments of Switzerland and Sweden offers a unique policy structure which promotes sustainable management of water resources combined with cooperation for peace. [14]

Improved governance of water resources and services, such as through enhanced integrity, transparency, accountability and honesty, increases the chances of sustainable and equitable use of water and the expansion and effective delivery of water supply and sanitation. [5]

In 2013, she was awarded an EU Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship to develop a three-year project at the Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment (LRAE) of National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS), Tunisia, aimed at promoting a participative approach to sustainable groundwater management in rural areas. [4] The GSA will develop the Groundwater Sustainability Plan (GSP) for the Indian Wells Valley region based on accurate data and input from interested parties. [17] The GSA is working to improve groundwater management by gauging its usage and depletion, improving groundwater recharge and increasing the number and effectiveness of storage facilities for the betterment of our communities and businesses. [17]

Many desert areas have limestone hills or mountains within them or close to them that can be exploited as groundwater resources. [13]

An example of a significant and sustainable carbonate aquifer is the Edwards Aquifer 15 in central Texas. [13] “This could be used as a guide to be thinking about how much pumping is reasonable, how much pumping is sustainable. [16] Marshes, bogs and riparian zones are more obviously dependent upon sustainable water supply, but forests and other upland ecosystems are equally at risk of significant productivity changes as water availability is diminished. [14]

Remain current on, review, analyze, and determine impact of legislative developments, state legislation, state and federal regulations, local ordinances, trends, practices and procedures in the field. [17] During this time, they drafted the Millennium Development Goals and all 189 UN members agreed on eight goals. [14] Direct the operations and general administration of the GSA including budget development and oversight, short and long-range planning, and policy development and implementation (budget work includes tracking expenditures that are charged to the grant). [17] From 2009 to 2011, she has collaborated with UNESCO-IHP for the development of the Moroccan Pilot case study of the GEF-UNEP/MAP MEDParnership initiative. [4] SciDev.Net is the world’s leading source of reliable and authoritative news, views and analysis on information about science and technology for global development. [18] The project promotes rural economic development in Armenia. [15]

Shah T (2005) Groundwater and human development: challenges and opportunities in livelihoods and environment. [6] Point sources do not just contaminate surface water; they can contaminate groundwater as well. [19] Even in cases where irrigated agriculture depends mostly on surface water, groundwater impacts therefore need to be accounted for when assessing water conservation efforts (and vice versa). [20] Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. [21] With almost a quarter of freshwater withdrawals for irrigated agriculture being made up of groundwater supplies–corresponding to 70% of total groundwater withdrawals–, agricultural water use is also a major contributing factor to aquifer overexploitation. [20] India is the world’s largest user of groundwater, with World Bank reporting that more than 60 per cent of irrigated agriculture and 85 per cent of drinking water are dependent on the resource, which is pumped up through borewells. [22]

The farmers are mainly depending on groundwater for irrigation in non-monsoon period in the study area; as such it is important to know how much rainfall recharge is occurring to the groundwater table. [6] It is important to know how much rainfall recharge is occurring to the groundwater table (Wu et al. 1996 ; Shah 2005 ). [6] Since there is very less pumping of groundwater for irrigation during monsoon period, the rise in water table is primarily due to the rainfall recharge. [6] The deeper the groundwater table, the more the recharge that has occurred. [6]

Sep. 30, 2015 – New water-tracing technology has been used in the Sydney Basin for the first time to determine how groundwater moves in the different layers of rock below the surface. [21] Siva Prasad Y, Venkateswara Rao B (2018) Groundwater depletion and groundwater balance studies of Kandivalasa river sub basin, Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh, India. [6] The Groundwater Authority’s reason for establishing the fee is simple: it needs the cash flow in order to develop the sustainability plan, which has an approximately $930,000 budget gap. [23] Cooper DJ, Wolf EC, Ronayne MJ, Roche JW (2015) Effects of groundwater pumping on the sustainability of a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California. [6] A December 2017 California Supreme Court decision ruled that groundwater pumping fees aren’t taxes and aren’t required to go before either voters or property owners for approval. [23] The California Department of Water Resources identified the Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Subbasin as one of the state’s 21 critically over-drafted subbasins. [24] The Groundwater Authority’s legal team — IWV Water District counsel Jim Worth, Ridgecrest city attorney Keith Lemieux, and water resources manager Steve Johnson — fielded questions from a long line of residents after providing background on a planned pumping fee. [25]

The SDWA has also developed a nationwide program for the states to implement wellhead protection programs in an effort to protect groundwater sources. [19] The geological formation can be a source of groundwater contamination; there are various rock formations that contain minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, arsenic and various radiologicals. [19] There are two types of groundwater contamination sources: point sources and non-point sources. [19] Point sources that can contaminate groundwater include landfill leachate and leaking underground storage tanks. [19]

Excessive withdrawal of groundwater across India is not only lowering the water table, it is also contaminating water with uranium, says a new study. [22] The study also points to the possibility of nitrate pollutants, originating from chemical fertilisers and which makes uranium more soluble (as it is insoluble in its natural form), enhancing the build-up of uranium in groundwater. [22] The contour maps of groundwater fluctuations and rainfall data are prepared from the Surfer software (Jan et al. 2007 ). [6] The specific yield ( S y ) values of different formations are adopted from the values recommended by groundwater estimation committee (GEC 1997 ) based on local geology. [6] Certain groundwater contaminants do not breakdown easily and will persist in the environment for a long time. [19] In the light of the study’s findings it is urgent to make testing for uranium a routine part of the groundwater quality monitoring programme, says Vengosh. [22] Avner Vengosh, professor of geochemistry and water quality at Duke University, North Carolina, U.S., and lead author of the study, says that “the decline in groundwater levels accelerates uranium mobilisation to groundwater”. [22] Undesirable results include significant and unreasonable lowering of groundwater levels, reduction of groundwater storage, seawater intrusion, degraded water quality, land subsidence and depletions of interconnected surface water. [24] And, third, surface water and groundwater are closely linked in most parts of the world, with groundwater discharge contributing to the base flow of streams and surface water contributing to groundwater recharge, and these interactions are intensified by human action, in particular water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. [20] Sophocleous M (1991) Combining the soil water balance and water level fluctuation methods to estimate natural groundwater recharge: practical aspects. [6]

The groundwater legal team has noted that California Water Code Section 10730(a) allows that groundwater sustainability agencies may impose fees to help develop and implement a sustainability plan. [23] SGMA requires Groundwater Sustainability Agencies (GSAs) with critically over-drafted basins or subbasins to develop Groundwater Sustainability Plans (GSPs). [24] The Groundwater Authority was formed as part of a requirement by the 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act, which mandates all basins designated as high or medium priority in critical overdraft develop a sustainability plan and submit it to the Department of Water Resources by Jan. 31, 2020. [25] According to Groundwater Authority legal counsel Jim Worth, the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act exempts all three from fees needed to develop the sustainability plan. [23]

GSAs with critically over-drafted basins must implement their plans in 2020 to achieve sustainable, local groundwater management by 2040. [24] In 2014, Governor Brown signed into law the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA). [24]

Vengosh suggests that India’s water agencies make groundwater management a priority to protect people from the ill effects of uranium, which may include chronic kidney disease (CKD). [22] The groundwater authority expects a Proposition 1 grant worth $2,146,000 to cover a significant portion of the costs, as well as in-kind services provided by the Department of the Navy and member agencies, as well as a $500,000 advance made by the IWV Water District. [23] Groundwater Authority staff noted that as agricultural stakeholders likely use the lion’s share of water being pumped from the basin, they will be likely be the most impacted. [25] Well owners affected by the pump fee would be required to self-report the amount of water extracted, write a check and send it to the Groundwater Authority. [23]

A challenging area in agricultural water management is the assessment of policy and investment options in irrigated agriculture for conserving water and adapting to increasing water scarcity, in particular when the linkages to groundwater resources and their management are to be considered and incorporated. [20] Johnson noted that the eventual groundwater sustainability plan will include all the information, including how it arrived at its groundwater model and “the possibility bringing new water in and forcing water into the aquifer.” [25] Worth noted that SGMA grants groundwater sustainability agencies like the Groundwater Authority the ability to implement fees in order to finance the plan development. [25] Groundwater Authority board member Peter Brown suggested the $30 option, noting it might provide a balance for the money sought to cover a budget gap in the development of a groundwater sustainability plan. [23] The pump fee, according to Worth, will pay for the approximately $930,000 budget gap identified in the development of a groundwater sustainability plan. [25]

Kumar GNP, Srinivas P (2012) Evaluation of groundwater resources and estimation of stage of groundwater development in a basin–a case study. [6]

The CWA, as previously explained, aids in the development of programs to protect water sources. [19] The IAEA instructors shared the IAEA’s experience of over six decades in capacity building for development of sustainable energy strategies. [7] As with past projects, the members will implement a collaborative approach to encourage stakeholder and public participation in the development of its plan. [24] Thomas T, Jaiswal RK, Ravi G, Surjeet S (2009) Development of a rainfall-recharge relationship for a fractured basaltic aquifer in Central India. [6]

In the present study, groundwater recharge is assessed in KRSB covered with khondalitic terrain near Cheepurupally mandal, Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh, India, by collecting the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater levels at 41 observation wells and rainfall data of five mandals (an administrative unit of the district) covering the entire basin for the years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. [6] The study revealed in the basin that the per cent of rainfall converting to the groundwater recharge is 11.12, 13.18, 9.51 and 12.80% for the years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. [6]

By using rainfall data during the study period, the influence of pre-monsoon groundwater levels over the rainfall recharge to groundwater (Venkateswara Rao et al. 2007 ) in the basin is also analysed and discussed. [6] The study has also revealed that the deeper the pre-monsoon groundwater level, the more the recharge that has occurred in the basin. [6]

The study has also revealed that the heavy rainfall events with prolonged time lead to the rise in the groundwater levels, thereby increasing the groundwater recharge. [6] Groundwater recharge is increased due to the events of heavy rainfall with prolonged time during study period (Table 3 ). [6] The total groundwater recharge by rainfall infiltration method by applying the infiltration factor to the basin is presented in Table 2. [6] The total groundwater recharge by WTF method by applying the suitable specific yield to the basin is presented in Table 2. [6] Since there is no continuous rainfall of more than 10 mm per day for over many days in the year 2015, it could be the reason for less groundwater recharge (11.3 MCM) when compared to the other three years by WTF method (Table 2 ). [6] By using the recharge values obtained in Million Cubic Metre (MCM) from the both WTF method and RIF method, the per cent of rainfall converted into groundwater recharge for the years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 is calculated with the help of the set of criteria adopted from the GEC norms. [6]

The per cent of rainfall converted into groundwater recharge for the years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 is shown in Table 2. [6] The groundwater recharge is also less in WTF method in the year 2015 when compared to other three years (Table 2 ). [6]

As per local geology of study area, the recommended value of 3% is adopted for calculating the groundwater recharge (Table 1 ). [6] It is found that heavy precipitations are major sources for increasing the groundwater recharge in the study area. [6]

Groundwater recharge is estimated from the Kandivalasa river sub-basin at east coast of India covered with khondalitic suite of rocks by using a methodology developed by Groundwater Estimation Committee of Central Ground Water Board of India. [6] Venkateswara Rao B, Varalakshmi V, Vijayasarada ST (2009) Groundwater recharge in hard rock areas of Musi basin. [6] Venkateswara Rao B, Varalakshmi V, Rajesh N, Pavan Kumar K, Satyanarayana B (2007) Estimation of groundwater recharge for the upper Musi basin using water table fluctuation method by GIS applications. [6] The groundwater recharge has been calculated using both water table fluctuation method and rainfall infiltration method. [6] Rainfall infiltration factor method (RIF) is also the indirect method for estimating the groundwater recharge (Bhuiyan et al. 2009 ; Jasrotia and Kumar 2014 ). [6] Ngounou et al. ( 2007 ) estimated the groundwater recharge from the rainfall infiltration method from the southern border of Lake Chad in Cameroon. [6] The impact of changing rainfall intensities on groundwater recharge is carefully studied by Owor et al. ( 2009 ) in the Upper Nile Basin. [6] Owor M, Taylor RG, Tindimugaya C, Mwesigwa D (2009) Rainfall intensity and groundwater recharge: empirical evidence from the Upper Nile Basin. [6]

This means that, irrespective of the total amount of annual precipitation in the basin, continuous high precipitation events exceeding a rainfall of 300 mm in any particular year have led to the rise of groundwater levels in that year. [6] To estimate the groundwater level rise in the basin, the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon groundwater levels at 42 locations covering entire basin are collected during the years 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. [6] The influence of pre-monsoon groundwater levels over the groundwater recharge in the basin is also analysed and discussed. [6] Groundwater recharge studies are indicating that the amount of groundwater recharge is directly proportional to the pre-monsoon groundwater levels in the basin. [6]

If the Groundwater Authority fails to submit a plan by the deadline, the state may place the basin on a probationary list and impose its own sustainability measures. [23] Resident Chester Cornelius asked what the condition was for the $1.5 million grant the Groundwater Authority received from the state and why couldn’t the Authority complete the plan for that amount. [25] The Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Authority, in partnership with its 17 member agencies, is developing a single Groundwater Sustainability Plan for the subbasin with a goal for approval, adoption and implementation in 2020. [24] The Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Authority members have worked together for decades on water resources planning and groundwater management projects. [24] Stetson Engineers president Steve Johnson, the Indian Wells Valley Groundwater Authority water resources manager, speaks during the Thursday groundwater authority meeting at Ridgecrest City Hall. [23] The Indian Wells Valley Groundwater Authority board cut the proverbial child down the center Thursday when it split the difference on a planned pump fee ordinance for major well owners in the basin. [23] Some asked how many private wells will be affected, or whether the groundwater authority has an idea of the number of wells in the basin. [25] The Indian Wells Valley Groundwater Authority team faced a group of hundreds as people filled most of the seats at the Kerr McGee Center’s main banquet room. [25] Well owner Harold Manis noted that, perhaps, the Groundwater Authority should implement a tiered structure on agriculture users, which would have a conservation component in it. [25] Other people were critical of the notification system the Groundwater Authority used to alert people of the meeting, or the lack of a private well owner on the agency’s board. [25]

Johnson noted that the Groundwater Authority formed stakeholder committees — policy advisory and technical advisory — to help develop and provide input on the plan and represent the various segments of the local communities. [25] He said the groundwater authority — not the public or the pumpers — has the burden of proving compliance with Proposition 26, a 2010 voter-approved law that requires a supermajority vote by the state legislature to pass any new taxes or fees passed at the state level, and the same for certain fees at the local level. [23]

The overall expenditures also include a USGS recharge study, groundwater authority support costs, administrative costs, legal costs, reimbursable costs to the city of Ridgecrest, and a reserve, for a total expenditure of $4.96 million. [23] A 2016 estimate provided by the IWV Cooperative Groundwater Management Group shows the average annual pumping is 21,600 acre-feet, whereas various models estimate recharge is between 5,000 and 10,000 acre-feet per year. [23] In the year 2016 also as in the case of 2013 and 2014, the deeper the groundwater levels more the recharge that has occurred. [6] Pre- and post-monsoon groundwater levels are observed in the study area for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. [6] This heavy rainfall for a particular year has led to the groundwater levels rise. [6] It has been observed that the heavy rainfall events of more than 300 mm with prolonged time lead to the rise of the groundwater levels thereby increasing the groundwater recharge. [6] The soil-moisture balance study indicated that the groundwater recharge is more dependent on the continuous heavy rainfall of the total annual volume of rainfall (Sethi et al. 2009 ). [6] Sethi RR, Kumar A, Sharma SP (2009) Quantification of groundwater recharge in a hard rock terrain of Orissa: a case study. [6]

Crosbie RS, Binning P, Kalma JD (2005) A time series approach to inferring groundwater recharge using the water table fluctuation method. [6] Varni M, Comas R, Weinzettel P, Dietrich S (2013) Application of the water table fluctuation method to characterize groundwater recharge in the Pampa plain, Argentina. [6] Healy and Cook ( 2002 ) stated that, out of physical-based techniques, water table fluctuation (WTF) method is based on recharge effect and is being widely used more than chemical-based techniques for estimating groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions. [6] Out of various methods for estimating the groundwater recharge, methods based on the groundwater levels are widely used (Sophocleous 1991 ; Crosbie et al. 2005 ; Healy 2010 ) due to the abundance of groundwater level data and the simplicity of the analysis of data to estimate the groundwater recharge (Bhuiyan et al. 2009 ). [6] Nichols and Verry ( 2001 ), Delin et al. ( 2007 ) and Crosbie et al. ( 2005 ) described that the WTF method is based on the rise in groundwater levels due to groundwater recharge. [6] Varni et al. ( 2013 ) applied the WTF method to characterize groundwater recharge in the Pampa Plain, Argentina. [6] The groundwater recharge has been calculated using both RIF method and WTF method as per methodology recommended by Groundwater Estimation Committee (GEC 1997 ). [6] Thomas et al. ( 2009 ) estimated the groundwater recharge based on the Groundwater Estimation Committee (GEC) norms for a fractured basaltic aquifer in Central India. [6] Ngounou NB, Jacques M, Reynauld JS (2007) Groundwater recharge from rainfall in the southern Border of Lake Chad in Cameroon. [6] Jan CD, Chen TH, Lo WC (2007) Effect of rainfall intensity and distribution on groundwater level fluctuations. [6] From Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9, it can be observed that the amount of recharge is directly proportional to the pre-monsoon groundwater levels (Venkateswara Rao et al. 2009 ). [6] Healy RW, Cook PG (2002) Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge. [6]

Areas between successive contours of groundwater level fluctuations are estimated by using the ArcGIS software. [6] From the graph in Fig. 8, there is less linear correlation ( R 2 0.33) between pre-monsoon groundwater levels and groundwater level rise in the year 2015 and also there is no much groundwater level rise. [6] From Fig. 9 it can be observed that in the year 2016, the positive and linear correlation ( R 2 0.61) is shown between pre-monsoon groundwater levels and the rise in groundwater levels. [6]

“We recognize the need for an effective groundwater sustainability plan for this basin but the authority’s cash flow issues doesn’t excuse it from complying with California’s constitutional requirements,” Hoffman said. [23] The groundwater authority meets at 10 a.m. on July 19 at the Ridgecrest City Hall council chambers, 100 W. California Ave. People can also watch online at www.ridgecrest-ca.gov/live, which redirects to the city’s YouTube channel. [25] “I think the main difference is that. local citizens and businesses have the ability to directly work with the Groundwater Authority and express their concerns,” Worth said. [25]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(25 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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2. (32) Implementing California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act | Stay Informed | K&L Gates

3. (28) WaterWired: Groundwater and Hydrogeology

4. (19) Water scarcity – Wikipedia

5. (18) Toxic Trap: Groundwater Overpumping Boosts Arsenic in California — Water Deeply

6. (14) Groundwater Authority mulls over, approves ordinance first reading – News – Ridgecrest Daily Independent – Ridgecrest, CA – Ridgecrest, CA

7. (14) Groundwater authority fields questions in 2nd town hall meeting – News – Ridgecrest Daily Independent – Ridgecrest, CA – Ridgecrest, CA

8. (11) SGMA Groundwater Management

9. (11) Aquifer – Wikipedia

10. (8) Eastern San Joaquin Groundwater Authority > Home

11. (7) General Manager at Indian Wells Valley Groundwater Authority | CA Water Jobs

12. (7) Groundwater Contamination: Sources & Prevention | Water Quality Products

13. (7) Viviana Re: Groundwater Processes in Nutrient Budgets on GeoProject Series

14. (6) Groundwater Sustainability Plan Development | McMullin Area GSA

15. (6) India’s groundwater shows uranium contamination – SciDev.Net South-East Asia & Pacific

16. (6) Organizations | Water Ethics Network

17. (5) Uranium “widespread? in India’s groundwater

18. (4) Economic Growth | Armenia | U.S. Agency for International Development

19. (4) Groundwaters | IntechOpen

20. (4) water scarcity | World Bank Blogs

21. (4) Stakeholders Respond to SDG 6 Synthesis Report | News | SDG Knowledge Hub | IISD

22. (4) At UN Forum, IAEA Highlights its Energy Planning Tools and Nuclear Science for Development | IAEA

23. (3) Groundwater pollution and sustainable development of the Collo plain; Northeastern AlgiaInternational network for natural sciences research journal

24. (2) Groundwater

25. (2) BWD Letter to CPC on Rudyville – Borrego Sun