What Is the Purpose Of Wind Turbines?

What Is the Purpose Of Wind Turbines?
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link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_turbine
author: Wikipedia

C O N T E N T S:


  • Small wind turbines may be used for a variety of applications including on- or off-grid residences, telecom towers, offshore platforms, rural schools and clinics, remote monitoring and other purposes that require energy where there is no electric grid, or where the grid is unstable.(More…)
  • Larger, more costly turbines generally have geared power trains, alternating current output, flaps and are actively pointed into the wind.(More…)


  • The power produced by wind has taken the energy industry by storm in recent years, but there is still much work to be done to fully leverage this renewable resource.(More…)



Small wind turbines may be used for a variety of applications including on- or off-grid residences, telecom towers, offshore platforms, rural schools and clinics, remote monitoring and other purposes that require energy where there is no electric grid, or where the grid is unstable. [1] The Danfoss power stacks reliably convert the kinetic energy from the wind turbine blades into a form that can be fed directly into the electrical power grid. [2] Energy harnessed by wind turbines is intermittent, and is not a “dispatchable” source of power; its availability is based on whether the wind is blowing, not whether electricity is needed. [1] This ensures that maximum energy is harvested from your wind turbine whilst offering durable and dependable electricity supply. [2] Wind turbine design is a careful balance of cost, energy output, and fatigue life. [1] Over 1,500 tons of carbon dioxide per year can be eliminated by using a one megawatt turbine instead of one megawatt of energy from a fossil fuel. 74 Being environmentally friendly and green is a large advantage of wind turbines. [1] As the demand for sustainable energy increases, there is a growing need for highly efficient, robust and reliable wind turbines. [2] Wind turbines provide a clean energy source, emitting no greenhouse gases and no waste product. [1] A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind’s kinetic energy into electrical energy. [1] The rotor, which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost, includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. [1] Materials that are typically used for the rotor blades in wind turbines are composites, as they tend to have a high stiffness, high strength, high fatigue resistance, and low weight. 46 Typical resins used for these composites include polyester and epoxy, while glass and carbon fibers have been used for the reinforcing material. 47 Construction may use manual layup techniques or composite resin injection molding. [1] Materials for wind turbine parts other than the rotor blades (including the rotor hub, gearbox, frame, and tower) are largely composed of steel. [1] The world currently longest wind turbine rotor blade, the 88.4 m long blade from LM Wind Power is made of carbon/glass hybrid composites. [1] One of the predominant ways wind turbines have gained performance is by increasing rotor diameters, and thus blade length. [1] Offshore wind turbines are built up to 8MW today and have a blade length up to 80 meters (260ft). [1] Largest capacity conventional drive The Vestas V164 has a rated capacity of 8MW, 79 later upgraded to 9 MW. 80 The wind turbine has an overall height of 220m (722ft), a diameter of 164m (538ft), is for offshore use, and is the world’s largest-capacity wind turbine since its introduction in 2014. [1] In July 2016, Siemens upgraded its 7 to 8MW. 81 Largest vertical-axis Le Nordais wind farm in Cap-Chat, Quebec has a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) named. ole, which is the world’s largest at 110m. 82 It has a nameplate capacity of 3.8MW. 83 Largest 1-bladed turbine Riva Calzoni M33 was a single-bladed wind turbine with 350kW, designed and built In Bologna in 1993. 84 Largest 2-bladed turbine The biggest 2-bladed turbine is built by Mingyang Wind Power in 2013. [1] The extremely harsh environments of the offshore wind farms lead to increased risk of pressure pulsation peaks and vibrations occurring in the ever larger wind turbines. [2] For large wind farms distances of about 15 rotor diameters should be more economical, taking into account typical wind turbine and land costs. [1] The generator, which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost, includes the electrical generator, 38 39 the control electronics, and most likely a gear box (e.g. planetary gear box ), 40 adjustable-speed drive or continuously variable transmission 41 component for converting the low-speed incoming rotation to high-speed rotation suitable for generating electricity. [1] Modern turbines use a couple of tons of copper for generators, cables, and such. 52 Smaller wind turbines have begun incorporating more aluminum based alloys into these components in an effort to make the turbines lighter and more efficient, and may continue to be used increasingly if fatigue and strength properties can be improved. [1] Small wind turbines may be as small as a fifty-watt generator for boat or caravan use. [1] Step-up gearboxes are being increasingly replaced with variable speed generators, increasing the demand for magnetic materials in wind turbines. 46 In particular, this would require an increased supply of the rare earth metal neodymium. [1] A few localities have exploited the attention-getting nature of wind turbines by placing them on public display, either with visitor centers around their bases, or with viewing areas farther away. 59 The wind turbines are generally of conventional horizontal-axis, three-bladed design, and generate power to feed electrical grids, but they also serve the unconventional roles of technology demonstration, public relations, and education. [1] Large three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT), with the blades upwind of the tower produce the overwhelming majority of windpower in the world today. [1] Currently, digital image correlation and stereophotogrammetry are used to measure dynamics of wind turbine blades. [1] Since it is the most widely used material for reinforcement in composites around the globe, the expansion of end use applications such as construction, transportation and wind turbines has fueled its popularity. [1] On most horizontal wind turbine farms, a spacing of about 6-10 times the rotor diameter is often upheld. [1] Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. [1] They will produce electricity at between two and six cents per kilowatt hour, which is one of the lowest-priced renewable energy sources. 72 And as technology needed for wind turbines continues to improve, the prices will decrease as well. [1] Today, the increasing energy demand and the need for a cleaner environment, has resulted in heavily investments in renewable energy world wide like Wind Turbines. [2] Environmental impact of wind power includes effect on wildlife, but can be mitigated if proper monitoring and mitigation strategies are implemented. 76 Thousands of birds, including rare species, have been killed by the blades of wind turbines, 77 though wind turbines contribute relatively insignificantly to anthropogenic avian mortality. [1] In his book Machinae Novae (1595) he described vertical axis wind turbines with curved or V-shaped blades. [1] In Germany, wind turbine blades are commercially recycled as part of an alternative fuel mix for a cement factory. [1] Wind turbines can be very large, reaching over 140 metres (460ft) tall and with blades 55 metres (60yd) long, 75 and people have often complained about their visual impact. [1] The general trend towards larger wind turbines at remote sites, often offshore, places new demands on the turbine equipment and sets new standards for maintenance during the turbine life cycle. [2] There is no competitive market for wind energy, as it does not cost money to get ahold of wind. 72 The main cost of wind turbines are the installation process. [1] Wind turbines convert wind energy to electrical energy for distribution. [1] Permanent magnets for wind turbine generators contain rare earth metals such as Nd, Pr, Tb, and Dy. [1] For every bird killed by a wind turbine in the U.S., nearly 500,000 are killed by each of feral cats and buildings. 78 In comparison, conventional coal fired generators contribute significantly more to bird mortality, by incineration when caught in updrafts of smoke stacks and by poisoning with emissions byproducts (including particulates and heavy metals downwind of flue gases). [1] It has a total height of 230m, and a hub height of 164m on 100m concrete tower bottom with steel tubes on top (hybrid tower). 88 Vestas V164 was the tallest wind turbine, standing in terild, Denmark, 220 meters tall, constructed in 2014. [1] Inside view of a wind turbine tower, showing the tendon cables. [1] The first automatically operated wind turbine, built in Cleveland in 1887 by Charles F. Brush. [1] In the autumn of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont. [1] A small Quietrevolution QR5 Gorlov type vertical axis wind turbine in Bristol, England. [1] Despite these diverse developments, developments in fossil fuel systems almost entirely eliminated any wind turbine systems larger than supermicro size. [1] One of the world’s most extensive ranges, Danfoss pressure switches for wind turbines are accurate, robust and built for life. [2] Reliable performance at the top with Danfoss temperature sensors safeguarding bearings in wind turbines. [2] Controlling the pressure with Danfoss pressure transmitters offering reliable and accurate measurement for wind turbines at all times. [2] An alternative is repowering, where existing wind turbines are replaced with bigger, more powerful ones, sometimes in smaller numbers while keeping or increasing capacity. [1] Due to data transmission problems, structural health monitoring of wind turbines is usually performed using several accelerometers and strain gages attached to the nacelle to monitor the gearbox and equipments. [1]

Wind-electric systems operating in lower average wind speeds will produce less energy than those in higher average speeds. Remember, the cubic relationship between wind speed and watts means that doubling the wind speed available to your wind turbine will increase the available power eightfold. [3] Wind turbines generate electricity by capturing the wind’s energy as it rotates two or three propeller-like blades attached to a generator that produces electricity when it spins. [3] Watch a wind company owner do the maths for the future of wind turbines, even he admits that within a period of 25 years it is impossible to produce the energy needed from UNrenewables. [4] Even a single wind turbine can produce significant amounts of energy, given the right conditions. [3] A wind turbine is a machine for converting the mechanical energy in wind into electrical energy. [5] MHI Vestas earlier this year supplied two of its 8.4 MW wind turbines, fine-tuned to 8.8 MW, to the European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre (EOWDC) in Aberdeen Bay, Scotland. [6] Offshore wind turbine manufacturer and developer MHI Vestas announced on Wednesday that its flagship V164 9.5 megawatt (MW) offshore wind turbine, the world’s most powerful wind turbine, has been awarded an S class type certificate, paving the way for installations to begin in late 2019. [6]

Wind turbine power curve, indicating the power produced by the generator at various wind speeds. [3] Generators using the enabled auto power feature will not power down when the wind turbine kicks back on. [7] Turbulence is very hard on wind turbines, creating lots of stress on bearings and the tower without much power to show for it. [3] After some server resets you may need to destroy and place wind turbines again to get them to power electrical grids. [7] There is no wind strength in Aberration and will not allow Wind Turbine to generate power due to said reason. [7] A standard, unmodified wind turbine can work at full power only up to an outside temperature of 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit). [8] Through our industry-leading smart data capabilities and unparalleled close to 76 GW of wind turbines under service, we use data to interpret, forecast, and exploit wind resources and deliver best-in-class wind power solutions. [9] We design, manufacture, install, and service wind turbines across the globe, and with 92 GW of wind turbines in 79 countries, we have installed more wind power than anyone else. [9] Other wind-electric devices range from small rooftop wind machines to vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) designs. [3] Most small wind turbines employ an “upwind” configuration, meaning the rotor spins in front of the tower, oriented into the wind by a tail vane downwind of the rotor. [3] If your wind turbine has a rotor diameter of 10 units (the units may be any measure of length), the radius is 5 units. [3] Above: Onshore wind turbines from GE Renewable Energy installed around the world have the capacity to generate 60,000 MW — enough to theoretically supply all of Indonesia. [8] The company will continue to out-do itself in the short-term, announcing this week that its 9.5 MW flagship V164 wind turbine has passed final certification and will now move towards installation at sites in late 2019. [6] This is the real nugget of information you’ll want to use when estimating the value of a wind turbine at your site. [3] If you?re considering wind-electric generation, take a moment to assess potential sites for a wind turbine on your property. [3] Note: Many wind turbines don’t start turning until the wind speed overcomes the inertia of the system, often between 7 and 10 mph. [3] Until recently, there was no standard for small wind turbine performance ratings. [3] In terms of evaluating the potential performance of a wind turbine, swept area is the most important factor. [3] The wind turbine was purchased used from the University of North Dakota. [4] The interior of any wind turbine needs to stay below the crucial level of 55 degrees Celsius (131 degrees Fahrenheit). [8] “Heat and sand make it difficult for normal wind turbines to operate in the desert,” says Rebeca Calderon, a program manager at GE Renewable Energy in Barcelona. [8] May 20, 2016 – A Finnish invention, a vertical axis Savonius wind turbine can be further improved shows a new study. [5]

Larger, more costly turbines generally have geared power trains, alternating current output, flaps and are actively pointed into the wind. [1] These turbines have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind. [1] Despite these advantages, upwind designs are preferred, because the change in loading from the wind as each blade passes behind the supporting tower can cause damage to the turbine. [1] Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a yaw system. [1] One advantage of this arrangement is that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective, which is an advantage on a site where the wind direction is highly variable. [1] “Wind Turbine – Materials and Manufacturing Fact Sheet”. psu.edu. [1] A trip throughout the western portion of the United States unveils large-scale wind farms full of large turbines designed and built to trap wind energy for the purpose of producing large amounts of electric power. [10] Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually three-bladed. [1] Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. [1] Turbines can be placed on ridges or bluffs to maximize the access of wind they have, but this also limits the locations where they can be placed. 72 In this way, wind energy is not a particularly reliable source of energy. [1] Today we are focused on utilizing wind energy to meet our planet’s critical energy needs through the use of turbines. [10] If the height of a rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building height it is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence. [1] A study of the material consumption trends and requirements for wind energy in Europe found that bigger turbines have a higher consumption of precious metals but lower material input per kW generated. [1] “Optimal turbine spacing in fully developed wind farm boundary layers”. [1] For safety purposes, the turbine shuts down automatically if the wind speed exceeds 55 miles per hour. [11] When a turbine is mounted on a rooftop the building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. [1]

Thorntonbank Wind Farm, using 5 MW turbines REpower 5M in the North Sea off the coast of Belgium. [1]

Keep in mind that the actual power output of a turbine varies with the swept area and generator capacity, but wind velocity and power always maintain the same relationship. [3] The turbines are mounted on towers 100 feet tall or taller to take advantage of the faster, stronger, and less turbulent wind at that height. [3] It’s not worthwhile to try to capture winds below about 8 mph; in addition, winds above 30 mph are likely to damage a turbine that’s still trying to generate electricity with them. [3] Most turbines have mechanisms to limit speed and protect themselves in high winds. [3] Avoid subjecting your turbine to unnecessary turbulence by locating it well away from wind obstructions. [3] The 21 MW Viinamäki project is the first order for the V150-4.2 MW turbines, featuring 175-meter towers and Vestas’ Cable Stayed Tower technology, which unlocks greater wind potential at higher hub heights. [9] Beograd has placed an order for 20 V126-3.45 MW turbines for the 69 MW Kosava I wind park. [9]

Proposals for a scaled back 14 turbine Kildare wind farm are up for discussion as Element Power plans to embark on a major public consultation campaign. [4] We discuss how wind energy developments affect people’s perception of landscape through the number, composition, and size of turbines in wind farms. [12] We discuss the issues of very large turbines in relation to landscapes, and how a proactive design approach can make a positive contribution to the wind farm industry. [12] Jul 9, 2018: SPAIN: Siemens Gamesa will supply 92 turbines with a combined capacity of 289MW for ten wind farms across the country. [13] The N ational Renewable Energy Laboratory has produced some excellent wind resource maps (estimated for turbines placed 80 meters aboveground) that others are using to build estimating tools. [3]

Although wind turbines cost a lot of money to construct, they can be used as a part of alternative energy harnessing strategies, especially in pragmatic areas feasible for the functioning of these machines. [14] In order to harvest the energy from this wind turbine, it’s necessary to add an alternator to the rotor, as well as a method of storing the electricity, but it could also be used simply for the mechanical rotation, such as to pump water or spin a flywheel for other applications. [15] The first and the commonly used type is the horizontal axis wind turbine, which has a tower and blades that turn to generate electricity. [14] While there are a number of variables that can affect the output of this DIY wind turbine, including the efficiency of the alternator used (and obviously the speed of the wind where it’s located), according to Connell, using a “50% efficient car alternator (the simplest and cheapest option) should produce 158 watts of electricity in a 50 km/h wind, and 649 watts at 80 km/h” with this design. [15] This homebrewed wind turbine isn’t necessarily going to be powering your home (although a series of these could potentially be used to generate enough electricity to charge a battery bank for modest home use), it might be a great hands-on school project or homeschool activity about wind energy. [15] SOUTH PORTLAND — Land-based wind turbines now generate more than 6 percent of the nation’s electricity and larger, more-efficient equipment that drastically cuts costs will continue to fuel expansion after a key federal tax credit expires next year, according to data presented Tuesday at the American Wind Energy Association’s Northeast regional conference. [16]

HAWT or horizontal axis wind turbines give better energy returns only at areas with high and fairly constant wind speeds, and are very expensive to build and transport. [14] A wind turbine is essential in homesteading, especially in areas far from a mainstream energy source. [15] Even if you’re closer to these energy sources, it still pays to know the basics of a DIY wind turbine. [15] Wind turbines are being constructed, and wind farms are being developed to harvest energy all over the globe. [14] We’ve previously covered Daniel Connell’s open source concentrated solar collector plans, but now he’s back with another great DIY renewable energy project, a vertical axis wind turbine based on the Lenz2 lift+drag design. [15] Want to know how to build a DIY wind turbine with as low as $30? If you want a source of renewable energy in your homestead, this wind turbine for the home project is for you! There are different types and designs for wind turbine but we will take on the more common vertical wind turbine. [15]

Getting started with home wind energy projects can set you back a pretty penny if you buy a finished product, but if you’re a little bit handy and don’t mind scrounging for materials and getting creative in the garage or backyard, you can try your hand at building one of these DIY wind turbines for about $30 in materials. [15] Are wind turbines competent tools of harnessing energy? As with all machines and energy conversion tools, there is some loss of energy in the windmills, and it does not convert all the wind energy to electrical energy. [14] His company’s enormous “barge on legs,” which can operate at ocean depths up to 350 feet, can accommodate fully assembled wind turbines of 10 MW or larger with blades at least 300 feet long. [17] MONITOR TOWNSHIP (WJRT) – (6/25/2018) – Hundreds packed the Monitor Township Hall on Monday evening for a chance to voice their opposition to a wind turbine farm development that is now on hold. [18] The second and lesser known design is the vertical axis wind turbine or VAWT, where the rotor is arranged in a vertical direction, and is not pointed towards the direction of the wind. [14] It’s a small wind turbine which could set the stage for more DIY wind turbine projects for you. [15] Engineers have designed a marine vessel versatile enough to be used to install wind turbines and also decommission oil and gas rigs. [17] According to Connell’s notes, this DIY wind turbine, which can be built in either a three vane or six vane version, has successfully survived sustained winds of 80 km/h (three vanes) and up to 105 km/h for the six vane version. [15]

In case you are wondering to use the electricity generated by the turbine to power the coaches – that isn?t possible as there is no guarantee that enough wind will be always present. [19] The average salary for “wind turbine technician” ranges from approximately $16.07 per hour for Service Technician to $22.38 per hour for Senior Technician. [20] Technology improvements have led to larger turbines on taller towers, Wanner said, allowing wind farms to produce more energy and boost their average capacity factors – the amount of time they’re actually generating power – to between 40 and 50 percent. [16] Deepwater Wind counted on a European ship when it installed the five turbines of the nation’s first marine wind farm off Rhode Island, but transporting those vessels and other materials across the Atlantic is cost-prohibitive, McClellan says. [17] A turbine can convert a maximum of about 59% of the wind energy to electrical energy. [14]

The current largest offshore wind turbines are 9.5 gigawatts in capacity, but theoretically they could reach a size of 50 MW. This scale could drastically reduce cost and improve capacity factor (the amount of time the wind turbine produces power). [21] Offshore wind turbines produce power more consistently, which often makes their electricity have more value. [21]

Wind turbines are one of the machines that utilize wind energy to generate electric power. [22] Since early recorded history, humans have been harnessing the energy of wind through various devices, such as wind turbines. [22] Offshore wind turbines keep getting bigger and better, which means lower cost and perhaps more importantly more consistent wind power production. [21] The study objectives of this report are: To analyze and study the global Offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessel capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025); Focuses on the key Offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessel manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future. [23] This report studies the global Offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessel market status and forecast, categorizes the global Offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessel market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. [23] The global Offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessel market is valued at xx million US$ in 2017 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2018-2025. [23] FRANCE: The country’s first offshore wind turbine — a 2MW Vestas unit mounted on Ideol’s Floatgen floating platform — is now in place and undergoing final tests off the coast of Brittany. [24] Offshore wind turbines can be much larger than onshore wind turbine because they can be built in harbors and transported by large ships. [21] Self-propelled jack-up vessel is a vessel specifically designed for the installation of offshore wind turbines. [23] Wind Turbine Mechanical Engineer Location: Portland, OR Position Type: Full-Time Functional Area: Engineering … technical support for Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) mechanical engineering. [25] As the Wind Turbine Generator Engineering Manager, you will: Build and lead a global team of 10+ engineers for wind turbine… characteristics protected by law. [25] Among the Middle Eastern & African countries, South Africa is likely to remain at the forefront in terms of demand for wind turbine gear oil, owing to large installed wind power capacity. [22] Turkey is increasingly turning toward renewable energy sources, such as wind turbines, etc., which will also pull in new investments and reinforce the growth of the wind turbine gear oil market. [22] Wind turbine gear oil is indispensably used to maintain the proper functioning of a wind turbine gearbox. [22] The study used publically available data from a 2013 public health survey commissioned by the Canadian government, called the Community Noise and Health Survey, which is the only large-scale study on both subjective (self-reported symptoms) and objective (cortisol levels, blood pressure, heart rate, sleep monitoring) health outcomes in relation to living near wind turbines. [26] Recently, a new study using retrospective data reported that stress, as measured by hair cortisol levels, was not associated with proximity to wind turbines. [26] Though because there is no baseline data for the sample, Sulsky said, it’s difficult to distinguish whether respondents were dissatisfied before the wind turbines were installed. [26] Experience with wind turbine blades as it relates to historical repairs… change out programs of large sub component pieces of the wind turbine. [25] Despite significant advancements in wind turbine gearbox designs, it remains a high maintenance cost driver, owing to high associated repairing costs. [22] The main sources of oil contamination in wind turbines include solid particles, moisture, and entrained air. [22] In one instance, an air traffic controller attributed a near-fatal mistake on the insomnia and stress he experienced after a wind turbine was installed near his home in Falmouth, Massachusetts. [26] This requires the Area Manager to occasionally climb wind turbines in the assigned area. [25] From 2011 to 2016 electricity generated from wind turbines rose from 120 million to 226 million megawatt hours in the United States–a rise that also has not produced an increase in evidence of adverse health outcomes. [26] Wind turbines consist of various components, such as nacelles, brakes, rotors, yaw systems, drive systems, and wind turbine gearboxes. [22] The Wind Turbine will soon become a building item in Rust, and will be first implemented into the all-new electrical system proposed in the future. [27] Substantial demand for wind turbine gear oil is poised to endure in the forthcoming years. [22] Geographic-specific specifications resul in more stringent performance standards for wind turbine gear oil. [22] New and high-performance synthetic wind turbine gear oils are subject to the tests of OEMs in order to meet a number of universal standards. [22] Wind turbine gear oil should possess necessary characteristics such as viscosity, pour point, foaming characteristics, steel/copper corrosion, and scuffing load resistance. [22] This proliferates lucrative growth opportunities for the wind turbine gear oil market. [22] There has been encouraging demand for wind turbine gear oil on the back of the substantial replacement rate of gear oil. [22] Importantly, two main drivers that influence the wind turbine gear oil market are specifications and changes in wind turbine gearboxes. [22] In the future, biodegradable wind turbine gear oils with increased service life may carve out a place in the market. [22] A drop in the demand for wind turbines may likely impede the growth of the wind turbine gear oil market. [22] Existing manufacturers of wind turbine gear oil face strong competition in the wake of emerging suppliers, particularly in China. [22] The global wind turbine gear oil market can be segmented on the basis of sales channel, application, and region. [22] The aforementioned factors are likely to bolster the growth of the wind turbine gear oil market. [22] The demand for wind turbine gear oil in China is estimated to slow down, partly due to lower subsidies pertained to wind turbines. [22] China is an economy that witnesses fast economic growth and rapid transformation, thereby supporting the growth of the wind turbine gear oil market. [22] Brazil is set to head the wind turbine gear oil market in Latin America, despite an anticipated drop of wind turbine installations in the country. [22] In places like Massachusetts, New York, and Vermont where industrial wind turbine projects have recently been introduced, residents have reported symptoms such as nausea, sleep disorders, fatigue, and increased stress that they account to a low-frequency hum–a combination of audible bass sounds and inaudible vibrations–generated by the turbines. [26] It also has a slender ship shaped hull to achieve a quick turnaround time with the vessel carrying several foundations or wind turbines each time. [23]

The qualified candidates will be responsible for the operations and maintenance of wind turbine… on a variety of variable pitch, variable speed turbine brands. [25] In one case, a resident named Luann Therrien, who lives less than a mile from a 400-foot turbine, said she initially supported the wind projects. [26] These turbines are part of the Xcel Energy Courtenay Wind Farm in south-central North Dakota. [28] Summary: The Sr. Wind Analyst will be responsible for meteorological campaigns, layout design, turbine selection and optimization… and quality control, wind energy production estimates, turbine suitability and power performance testing. [25]


The power produced by wind has taken the energy industry by storm in recent years, but there is still much work to be done to fully leverage this renewable resource. [10] Unlike other methods of harnessing energy, wind does not harm the environment and is recognized as one of the cleanest and safest methods of generating renewable electricity. [10]

The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and is self-starting. 33 The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque; a wide, relatively flat torque curve; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation in turbulent winds; and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. [1] In high winds, the blades can also be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. [1] Typically, the glass/epoxy composites for wind blades contain up to 75 weight% glass. [1]

The organization reports that ancient mariners sailed to distant lands by making use of winds, while farmers used it to pump water used for grinding grains. [10] Downwind machines have been built, because they don’t need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind. [1] Notably, the relative available output from wind and solar sources is often inversely proportional (balancing) citation needed. [1] Wind is defined as the movement of air from high pressure areas to low pressure areas and is actually caused by uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun. [10] Land, whbich might not be considered a material, is an important resource in deploying wind technologies. [1] Therefore, an increase in wind production would increase the demand for these resources. [1]

” 11 years of wind data shows surprising production decrease ” (in Danish) Ingenien, 1 November 2013. [1]

The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 16/27 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. [1]

The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. [1] It is a calculation of the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, and is tabulated for different heights above ground. [1] Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator. 25 Some turbines use a different type of generator suited to slower rotational speed input. [1] Marine life is affected by water intakes of steam turbine cooling towers (heat exchangers) for nuclear and fossil fuel generators, by coal dust deposits in marine ecosystems (e.g. damaging Australia’s Great Barrier Reef) and by water acidification from combustion monoxides. [1] Prestressed concrete has been increasingly used for the material of the tower, but still requires much reinforcing steel to meet the strength requirement of the turbine. [1] Most horizontal axis turbines have their rotors upwind of its supporting tower. [1] The turbine has parted rotor blades with 2 sections for transport. [1] Retrofitting current turbines with larger blades mitigates the need and risks associated with a system-level redesign. [1] For instance, the spar cap, a structural element of a turbine blade, commonly experiences high tensile loading, making it an ideal candidate to utilize the enhanced tensile properties of carbon fiber in comparison to glass fiber. 47 Higher stiffness and lower density translates to thinner, lighter blades offering equivalent performance. [1] A subtype of Darrieus turbine with straight, as opposed to curved, blades. [1] They did not address requirements for small turbines or offshore turbines since those were not widely deployed in 2008, when the study was created. [1] It is a SCD6.5MW offshore downwind turbine, designed by aerodyn Energiesysteme. 85 86 87 Largest swept area The turbine with the largest swept area is the Samsung S7.0-171, with a diameter of 171m, giving a total sweep of 22966m 2. [1] Largest capacity direct drive The Enercon E-126 with 7.58MW and 127m rotor diameter is the largest direct drive turbine. [1] “Eggbeater” turbines, or Darrieus turbines, were named after the French inventor, Georges Darrieus. 31 They have good efficiency, but produce large torque ripple and cyclical stress on the tower, which contributes to poor reliability. [1] Usual tubular steel towers of multi megawatt turbines have a height of 70 m to 120 m and in extremes up to 160 m. [1] Systems that use magnetic direct drive turbines require higher amounts of rare metals. [1] These include E-glass/carbon, E-glass/aramid and they present an exciting alternative to pure glass or carbon reinforcements. that the full replacement would lead to 80% weight savings, and cost increase by 150%, while a partial (30%) replacement would lead to only 90% cost increase and 50% weight reduction for 8 m turbine. [1] Modern turbines usually have a small onboard crane for hoisting maintenance tools and minor components. [1] Conservation of mass requires that the amount of air entering and exiting a turbine must be equal. [1] This calls for ultimate performance of all turbine components. [2] Local activists in Germany, nascent turbine manufacturers in Spain, and large investors in the United States in the early 1990s then lobbied for policies that stimulated the industry in those countries. [1]

A report by the United States Geological Survey estimated the projected materials requirement in order to fulfill the U.S. commitment to supplying 20% of its electricity from wind power by 2030. [1] By the 1930s, wind generators for electricity were common on farms, mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. [1]

Wind energy in the 21st century: economics, policy, technology and the changing electricity industry. [1] A quantitative measure of wind energy available at any location is called the Wind Power Density (WPD). [1] In Europe alone, the installed wind power is expected to reach 213 GW by 2020 according to the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA). [2]

Wind power was probably used in Persia (present-day Iran) about 500-900 AD. 2 The windwheel of Hero of Alexandria marks one of the first recorded instances of wind powering a machine in history. 3 4 However, the first known practical wind power plants were built in Sistan, an Eastern province of Iran, from the 7th century. [1] Wind power first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages. [1]

To protect components from undue wear, extracted power is held constant above the rated operating speed as theoretical power increases at the cube of wind speed, further reducing theoretical efficiency. [1] While wind speeds within the built environment are generally much lower than at exposed rural sites, 29 30 noise may be a concern and an existing structure may not adequately resist the additional stress. [1]

“Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27”. [1] Among one of the best alternatives to using non-renewable resources for our country’s energy consumption is wind energy. [10]

Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of wind velocity and air density. [1]

Rather than being overly concerned with the maximum power rating (watts), you’ll want to know how much energy (kilowatt-hours) a generator will deliver at your site and in your wind conditions. [3] Combine wind and solar energy resources with storage for flexible delivery of power. [9] Energy expert Paul Scheckel offers practical advice on the fundamentals of solar, wind, water, and biofuel energy production in The Homeowner’s Energy Handbook. [3] Be wary of advertising that claims energy performance values in winds below 6 mph — it just isn’t going to happen! Likewise, performance claims above about 30 mph indicate that someone wants to sell you a machine that may end up tearing itself apart in high winds. [3] To accommodate the site’s specific wind conditions and maximise energy production, Vestas developed a solution with site-specific towers. [9]

Jul 12, 2018: New York’s Governor Andrew M. Cuomo announced that the New York State Public Service Commission has set a course for the state’s first procurements of offshore wind to support New York’s goal of 2,400 MW of new offshore wind generation by 2030 — enough to power 1.2 million New York households. [13] This first phase of… The post New York sets plan for procuring about 800 MW of offshore wind by 2019 appeared first on Windpower Engineering & Development. [13]

Jul 13, 2018: UNITED STATES: New York state will hold a solicitation for 800MW of offshore wind capacity in the fourth quarter of 2018. [13]

There’s no place on the planet where wind and solar power perform anything like the overblown rhetoric that surrounds them. “” action”/ajax/ufi/modify.php” onsubmit”return window.Event && Event. [4] Relying on subsidised, intermittent and unreliable wind and solar results in rocketing power prices. [4] Fears about man-made carbon dioxide gas (not the stuff that spews out of volcanoes and swamps) is the reason that solar and wind took prominence in the electricity generation domain, in the first place. [4] There has been widespread adoption of wind and solar generation, with some areas, such as California, New England and New York, reaching the point where the reliability of the grid is being threatened. [4] Says Calderon: “There are lots of sites across the region that have extreme hot weather and sandy areas, where wind may be an option now because of this design.” [8] A wind turbine’s only real drawback is its need for a large open area clear of trees, mountains, buildings, roofs and other tall constructions. [29] The Beaufort scale only works in the moment, and you’ll need long-term data; the Griggs-Putnam index can be useful if you have a lot of conifers around, as they’re especially susceptible to permanent deformation in consistent winds. [3]

One manufacturer might rate the output of its machines in 24 mph winds, while another might rate its machines’ output in 28 mph winds. [3] This doesn’t mean the wind blows 10 mph or more all the time; it’s an average of the wind velocities occurring throughout the year. [3] Sometimes the wind is at 0 mph, while other times it may blow at gale force. [3]

Tower height (taller towers provide access to faster, more consistent winds than those available closer to the ground). [3] Increasing your turbine’s aboveground height will offer access to faster, more consistent, less turbulent winds. [3]

Jul 10, 2018: BRAZIL: Oil and gas giants Petrobras and Total have extended their partnership with a new memorandum of understanding to investigate wind and solar opportunities in Brazil. [13] Solar devotees ignore sunset in the same way that wind nuts close their eyes and ears to forecasts of calm weather. [4]

A tiny north-east community is celebrating after winning a David vs Goliath battle against a major wind f. arm development. [4]

While the peak power rating of a wind generator may help you understand the relative size and capacity of the unit, it’s not the best measure for comparing different machines, because it has little bearing on how much energy will be delivered over time. [3] For this reason, it’s best to compare wind machines by swept area and the test results of energy production at various average wind speeds, rather than by rated power output. [3] Power increases cubically with velocity, so doubling the wind speed increases the available energy eightfold. [3]

The nacelle is the box at the top of a turbine tower that houses the power production kit: the gearbox, generator and controller. [8] The Moray West Offshore Windfarm aims to deploy 90 turbines off the coast of the Moray Firth which could provide power for more than 900,000 homes. [4] Jul 11, 2018: SOUTH AFRICA: Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy (SGRE) has been awarded the turbine supply contract for two projects in South Africa being developed by Mainstream Renewable Power. [13] Power increases proportionally with swept area; under the same conditions, a turbine with twice the swept area of another will produce twice the power, too. [3] Multiple turbines in a single power grid can function independently of each other. [7] Turbines will “snap” to existing power grids with cross, angled, or straight cables. [7] Careful though, turbines may give false snap signals while around pillars, walls, gates, and the new giant hatch doors for the roof, never actually snapping to the power lines themselves. [7] “Turbine” generally refers to the combination of blade set and generator assembly, while “generator” refers specifically to the electricity-producing unit. [3] Solar generators or farming plots (that are not set to grow trees) can be placed in the exclusion zone without blocking the turbine. [29] A generator 30 lengths away, and a turbine on the opposite end will not work. [7] The turbine must be within 29 cable lengths of the generator. [7] Calderon says that the self-cooling, vented turbine can produce electricity at 100 percent of its generation capacity until the outside temperature reaches 40 degrees Celsius. [8] Desert-resistant turbines can open up huge swathes of barren, unused land in North Africa and the Middle East for renewable electricity generation. [8] This is not the first time GE engineers designed a turbine to deal with extreme weather. [8] “Announcing the world’s most powerful turbine and then receiving final certification one year later is no small achievement,” added Head of Product Management, Henrik Baek Jorgensen. [6] Rusting, crumbling turbines littering skylines as they gradually slide, over decades, into bogs; overgrown borrow pits and quarries; and sites dangerous to access. [4] Today, a handful of manufacturers produce wind-electric turbines for both grid-tied systems and off-grid battery-charging applications. [3] The turbine, which is no longer operational, stopped working in November and the cost to fix and continually maintain it is prohibitive. [4] Left to right: An upwind HAWT, the most common turbine design; a downwind HAWT, an unusual but effective design; and two common VAWT designs. [3] That application for 47 turbines was refused by An Bord Pleana due to concerns about the spaced out nature of that development and the extensive cabling resulting in major road disruption. [4] “In a sandstorm, sand is flying in all directions, but this system keeps the air that is circulating through the top of the turbine filtered and clean,” Calderon says. [8] These angled air vents at either end of the turbine keep the whole structure cooler by allowing air to rise and circulate. [8]

Leveraging Vestas’ extensive experience from more than 100 turnkey projects globally, the order includes civil and electrical works, supply and commissioning of 31 V126-3.6 MW turbines as well as a 25-year Active Output Management 5000 (AOM 5000) service agreement. [9] MHI Vestas’ uprated 8 MW turbine can sometimes reach 9 MW, but only when specific site conditions are met. [6] The certification was awarded a year after the company announced its 9.5 MW turbines which are larger than the mammoth London Eye Ferris wheel. [6]

A new American Wind Energy Association performance and safety standard specifies 24.6 mph as the speed at which output power is rated. [3] Manufacturers publish power curves showing their machines’ power output, in watts, at various wind speeds. A power curve is mostly useful for determining whether, when, and to what extent the machine will protect itself in high winds. [3] The additional power produced at higher wind speeds might make the 28 mph machine look somehow better than the other. [3] If the power curve drops off steeply at wind speeds above 25 mph, the turbine’s over-speed protection mechanism has likely activated, and the rotor will furl, or turn itself out of the wind, and stop producing. [3] It’s tempting to judge wind generators by their maximum power output; however, this measurement is taken at a specific (but arbitrary) wind speed. [3]

This device measures wind speed along with the duration of specific speed ranges and stores the data electronically, allowing you to quantify the “wind regime” at your site accurately and to estimate long-term energy production. [3] The amount of energy that can be captured from moving air is a function of wind speed, wind collector area (called the swept area), and air density. [3] Air density has a relatively smalleffect on available energy when compared with wind speed, but basically, there’s more energy available in a flow of cold, dry air at low altitude than from warm, humid air high in the mountains. [3] The energy curve indicates how many kilowatt-hours are produced over a specific period of time, given the average wind speed at the turbine’s location. [3]

In areas where solar energy is less reliable, wind power may be a profitable choice for homeowners. [3] In general, a minimum average annual wind speed of 10 to 12 mph is the point at which wind power generation makes economic sense, depending on the cost of electricity in your area. (There are, of course, other values you might want to place on wind power.) [3]

If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator. [5] Simply put, the greater the swept area, the more energy a wind generator will produce, given the same wind resource. [3]

Jul 13, 2018: DENMARK: Pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk and biotechnology firm Novozymes will source their power consumption from Denmark’s largest offshore wind farm. [13] When it comes to renewables, a hot desert can be an oasis for solar power, but there are two big reasons why wind farms rising among sand dunes were — until recently — just a mirage. [8] Now wind farm developers EDP Renewables have confirmed they are now longer considering the site. [4] Jul 10, 2018: ISRAEL: A consortium led by Enlight Renewable Energy has secured funding for a 96MW wind farm to be built in the Golan Heights, northeast Israel. [13]

Modern wind machines use high-efficiency generators or alternators and highly refined blade designs and materials for maximum efficiency. [3] Most residential systems use towers about 30 meters tall, which will operate with somewhat lower wind speeds. [3] Before building an expensive addition to the list of things you need to maintain, obtain long-term (at least one year’s worth) wind speed data for the specific site you’re considering. [3] Wind speed frequency distribution, based on data showing how many hours during the year the wind blows within a certain speed range (this range of combined data points is called bin data). [3] The Swedish Wind Power Association (SWPA) says their members are on track to generate 18 terawatt-hours of electricity every year by the end of 2018, putting the nation on track to reach their goal 12 years early. [13] The latest wind power news headlines from our wind energy and industry news sources. [13] Jul 12, 2018: UNITED STATES: Utility Duke Energy has abandoned plans to source 500MW of wind energy in the Carolinas due to financial concerns. [13]

You can calculate the wind energy available at a particular site with a particular machine yourself, but be sure to stick to one set of units — metric or imperial — when working with formulas. [3] Many locations have some potential for capturing wind energy, but the resource varies widely with location, season, and time of day. [3] In addition to this historical data, there are other online resources that offer reasonable estimates of wind energy availability in many places around the country. [3]

Residential wind generators range in peak power generation from 50 watts to 10 kilowatts or more, and may cost between $3 and $5 per peak “rated” watt. [3] Large utility-scale generators and residential grid-tied systems produce alternating current (AC), but a number of DC wind generators can be used as battery chargers for off-grid applications. [3] Oman is building a 13-turbine wind farm in Dhofar, which will produce a maximum of 50 MW when it comes online in July 2019. [8] Jul 12, 2018: UK: More than 40GW of offshore wind farms could be installed in UK waters by 2050, according to the country’s grid operator, National Grid. [13] The com. pany revealed last week that it had hand delivered letters to 180 homes in the Drehid area informing local residents that it is proposing to apply for permission for the 50mw Drehid section of the previously refused Maighne Wind Farm. [4] Hated for their lies, detested for the. ir corrupt connections to those in power and despised for the contempt they dish out to wind farm neighbours, those that people wind power outfits have earned a reputation right up there with paedophiles and insurance salesman. [4] Jul 9, 2018: WORLDWIDE: Large project financings caused total investments in wind power to surge in the first half of 2018, while those in solar PV slowed, according to new figures. [13] CleanTechnica is the #1 cleantech-focused news & analysis website in the U.S. & the world, focusing primarily on electric cars, solar energy, wind energy, & energy storage. [6]

The life of the projected super wind farms is 25 years. 65m over that period equates to 1.625bn. [4] A tiny north-east community was celebrating yesterday after winning a David verses Goliath battle against a major wind farm development. [4]

The most accurate way to measure site-specific wind resources is to use a recording anemometer. [3] You’ll need concrete data to confirm the wind resource available to you. [3] Once you’ve made the decision to add a wind generator to your property, one of your initial considerations will need to be where to locate the wind generator for optimal performance. [3] Consider obstacles in the path of your wind generator; houses, outbuildings, trees, and other windbreaks may all impede the performance of your wind generator. [3]

Cutting the wind speed in half will result in one-eighth the performance. [3] Wind speed is expressed in miles per hour (mph) or meters per second (mps); 1 mph is equivalent to 0.447 mps, conversely, 1 mps is equivalent to 2.24 mph. [3] The National Centers for Environmental Information maintain long-term records of wind speeds in various locations around the United States. [3]

The Small Wind Certification Council is working independently to verify test results and to certify and label wind machines to the AWEA standard so that consumers have a better understanding of performance ratings and comparisons. [3] One such effort is the Distributed Wind Site Analysis Tool, which guides you through selecting your site and a wind machine. [3] Before buying anything, assess not only wind-electric systems, but also the wind resource at your proposed site. [3]

Wind power in the form of windmills has been around for a long time. [3] For accurate measurements, place the anemometer at the same height as your proposed wind generator. [3]

Tradewind Energy, Inc. is one of the largest utility-scale wind and solar project development companies in the U.S. We deliver long-term projects that tap in to nature’s resources to produce sustainable energy for our nation – real power that will keep our energy costs low. [30] With the backdrop of increasingly unsustainable fossil fuel use and the consequent environmental impacts, wind proves to be a cost-effective, clean and renewable source of energy. [31] Alana Duerr, offshore wind lead with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), said a slump in the oil and gas industry helped spur its crossover to offshore wind. [17] BVG’s report, ” U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind,” was prepared for a group of public agencies and organizations in Massachusetts, New York and Rhode Island dedicated to clean energy. [17] Clean energy advocates say offshore wind is not being taken seriously enough as an option amid discussions of transmission lines and natural gas pipelines. [17] Nearby, New Jersey has committed to providing 3,500 MW of its power from offshore wind by 2030 and New York has vowed to deliver 2,400 MW by that same year. [17] It’s the first phase of a state law requiring utilities to acquire 1,600 MW of offshore wind by 2027. [17] Gulf Coast entrepreneurs say they are not deterred by the failure of Cape Wind, the Bay State’s first attempt at offshore wind. [17] A linchpin to her venture’s success is cultivating buy-in from businesses 1,500 miles away in the Gulf Coast, where entrepreneurs are reshaping their expertise to meet the siting, construction, installation, and maintenance needs of a nascent, but promising, offshore wind industry. [17] We have all followed with great interest the extraordinary breakthrough in European offshore wind over the past few years. [32] Francis said his company is pursuing other offshore wind projects in the Northeast. [17] DOE demonstration-scale offshore wind projects provide prime opportunities for traditional oil and gas companies to branch out, Duerr says. [17] Duerr says such innovation will prosper as a just-launched DOE consortium dedicated to offshore wind R&D advances. [17] As offshore wind pick up, Duerr expects more such champions to speak up and aid the blossoming of an East Coast supply chain. [17] “They are interested in diversification and we want them with us,” says McClellan, leader of the independent Special Initiative on Offshore Wind. [17] McClellan, who leads the Special Initiative on Offshore Wind, emphasizes that the 8 GW of wind now in the Northeast pipeline is a tiny fraction of what could exist. [17] “Those companies were looking for new avenues,” she says, adding that the timing worked well for offshore wind. [17] “It makes economic sense for U.S. offshore wind developers to leverage the proximity and expertise of the U.S. oil and gas sector.” [17] “The way we get to the next wave of commitment is to make offshore wind a U.S. industry,” she says. [17] “We?re aiming to solve all the technical challenges for offshore wind in the United States.” [17]

That makes wind competitive on price with natural gas power plants, Wanner said, and able to survive after the phased-down federal Product Tax Credit expires in 2019. [16] Michael Sage, DTE Energy’s program manager for the the development of wind and solar, said the company has secured 29,000 acres of land with 300 people. [18] New land-based wind development in the region has slowed, challenged in part by uncertainty over transmission line connections and competition between state clean-energy mandates. [16] In Maine, specifically, new wind development has largely stalled, held back in part by political opposition and technical challenges. [16]

Join our effort to make the case for wind: a powerful renewable energy choice to sustain the planet we all know and enjoy. [31] Building the 30 MW Block Island Wind, which began operating at the end of 2016, was a lesson for all in the urgency of creating a homegrown supply chain. [17] The same day in late May that Massachusetts officials chose Vineyard Wind, Rhode Island selected Deepwater Wind to add another 400 MW off its coast. [17] Earlier this month, Connecticut selected Deepwater Wind for a 200 MW installation that could come online as early as 2023. [17]

Turbines are also more reliable, making wind-generated electricity an increasingly important part of our nation’s energy mix. [30] “The turbine uses the ~40% mechanically efficient Lenz2 lift+drag design. [15] Cost efficiency can greatly depend on the type of turbine, its location, and design. [14] The same type of vessel can be used for year-round turbine maintenance. [17] The expense varies according to the type and size of the turbine that is being built. [14]

LePage and his administration took actions that forced the Norwegian energy company Statoil to leave the state in 2013 and cancel plans to build a pilot floating wind farm. [16] A new test for these state procurements is taking place in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island, which have required their utilities to buy huge amounts of power from offshore wind farms. [16] The real action is happening offshore, where Northeast states are cutting deals for giant wind farms. [16]

Earlier this month, the three members of the PUC appointed by the governor voted to reopen the terms of a previously negotiated power contract to test a patented technology for deep-water floating wind farms from Maine Aqua Ventus, a University of Maine-led project. [16] These contrasting snapshots form a broad outline of wind energy in the region today, as industry leaders and others gather in Maine for a two-day conference to explore the future of the power sector in the Northeast. [16]

Maine’s prior ambitions to be a leader in ocean energy have faded during the last seven years, largely due to opposition to wind power from Gov. Paul LePage. [16] VAWTs are cheaper to construct, and do not need unidirectional or constant wind speed, but may not give good energy returns on a large-scale basis. [14] With the growing need for alternative sources of energy, man is reusing an old method of tapping wind energy to produce electricity. [14] With blades factories in all major wind energy markets across four continents, our reach extends beyond anyone else and puts us in pole position to respond faster than competition to the needs of the market. [31]

Wind energy has been in use for quite a long time now, with windmills being used effectively to do mechanical work. [14] The Global Wind Energy Council, a trade association representing the global wind power sector, has appointed Ben Backwell its new CEO. Mr Backwell replaces Mr Steve Sawyer, who first joined GWEC as secretary general in 2007. [32] An extensive study on the feasibility of the project has to be carried out at the building site, to measure the wind power and its variation in speed. [14] On land, the 185-megawatt Bingham Wind project in western Maine, the largest wind farm in New England, began operating in 2016. [16] For instance, Louisiana-based Keystone Engineering used its know-how to craft extra-stable foundations for the 24-MW Atlantic City Wind Farm in coastal New Jersey. [17] In January, LePage announced a ban on new wind farms in most of the state, citing potential negative impacts on tourism. [16] On land, developers have erected 16 commercial wind farms over the last decade with a combined capacity of roughly 900 megawatts. [16]

These machines are usually designed to run at a specific wind speed, and any variation in wind velocity can lower their efficiency. [14] Installing a wind generator at home can cost you up to $4,000 to $9,000. [14] Making a simple homemade wind generator will cost you much lesser, and if you can afford it, you can then try to scale it up to a bigger size. [14]

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2. (68) Assess Your Site for Home Wind Power | MOTHER EARTH NEWS

3. (25) Oil industry expertise is helping to get offshore wind turbines in the water | Energy News Network

4. (23) Wind Turbine Gear Oil Market Outlook and Market Development Analysis Reveals Forecast for the Period 2018 to 2028 Newszak

5. (18) No More Wind Turbines – Home | Facebook

6. (16) Wind Turbines Cost

7. (14) Wind power to grow nationally, but its future in Maine is uncertain, experts say – Portland Press Herald

8. (13) Wind Power News

9. (13) Just Deserts: This Wind Turbine Can Handle Sandstorms And Desert Sun – GE Reports

10. (11) A $30 DIY Wind Turbine You Can Build For Your Homestead

11. (11) Wind turbine products | Wind turbine applications | Danfoss | Danfoss

12. (8) Wind Turbine (Scorched Earth) – Official ARK: Survival Evolved Wiki

13. (7) Harnessing Wind Energy | Realestate | dailyprogress.com

14. (7) WindAction | Can wind turbines make you sick?

15. (7) Worlds Largest Wind Turbine Passes Final Hurdle | CleanTechnica

16. (7) Vestas | Home

17. (6) Wind Turbine Engineer Jobs | Glassdoor

18. (5) Offshore Wind Turbine Installation Vessel Market – Global Indust – WMBFNews.com, Myrtle Beach/Florence SC, Weather

19. (4) The Lochness Monster, 2.4 Gigawatt-Hour Pumped Hydro Storage!!! | PlanetSave

20. (3) We are LM Wind Power – the leading rotor blade supplier to the wind industry

21. (3) Wind turbine

22. (2) Wind Turbines and Landscape – ScienceDirect

23. (2) Uninamous vote puts hold on wind turbine projects in Monitor Township

24. (2) Wind turbine – RimWorld Wiki

25. (2) Homepage – Tradewind Energy

26. (2) GWEC | Representing the global wind energy industry

27. (1) How a wind turbine works | Local News | enidnews.com

28. (1) Will it be economical and productive to install a vertical wind turbine on trains? Since the mass of the trains is way higher, will the air resistance really matter? – Quora

29. (1) Wind Turbine Technician Salaries in Minnesota | Indeed.com

30. (1) Wind farm project development | Windpower Monthly

31. (1) Wind Turbine | Rust Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

32. (1) Xcel wins approval for another major wind farm project | Duluth News Tribune