Artificial Intelligence on the Battlefield

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • The United States military must embrace artificial intelligence, robotics and other emerging technologies soon to maintain its edge on the battlefield, because other nations are already doing so, the army's chief of staff has said.(More...)
  • Enemy contact front?(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • The PLA will likely leverage AI to enhance its future capabilities, including in intelligent and autonomous unmanned systems; AI-enabled data fusion, information processing, and intelligence analysis; war-gaming, simulation, and training; defense, offense, and command in information warfare; and intelligent support to command decision-making.(More...)
  • Top U.S. intelligence chiefs on Thursday publicly expressed doubts about the global cybersecurity firm Kaspersky Labs because of its roots in Russia.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

Artificial Intelligence on the Battlefield
Image Courtesy:
link: http://www.theverge.com/2018/3/22/17150918/ea-dice-seed-battlefield-1-ai-shooter
author: theverge.com
description: EA has started training AI players in Battlefield 1 - The Verge

KEY TOPICS

The United States military must embrace artificial intelligence, robotics and other emerging technologies soon to maintain its edge on the battlefield, because other nations are already doing so, the army's chief of staff has said. [1] Battlefield 1 Image: EA DICE The term "AI" has been used in video games since their inception, but it rarely means true artificial intelligence. [2]

While the U.S. military possessed an early edge in technologies critical to information-age warfare, primacy in artificial intelligence (AI), likely integral in future warfare, could remain contested between the United States and China. [3] As part of an ambitious effort to restore his military to its former Soviet glory and likely beyond that, Russian President Vladimir Putin has prioritized not only electronic warfare, but also the use of artificial intelligence, which he famously called " the future, not only for Russia, but for all humankind " in a September 2017 back-to-school speech to students in Yaroslavl. [4] "Whether we like it or not, artificial intelligence is coming," General Mark Milley said on Wednesday, speaking at an Association of the United States Army's Institute of Land Warfare event, armed forces news site Military reported. [1] As the U.S. employed groundbreaking artificial intelligence in its own weapon systems, such as the advanced, yet oft-troubled, F-35 Lightning Jet II, it faced a new challenger that also sought to close the capabilities gap between its own military and that of the U.S.: Chinese President Xi Jinping. [4] In a piece published Tuesday by The Conversation, North Dakota State University assistant professor Jeremy Straub argued that unlike the nuclear weapons that dominated much of the 21st century arms race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, the use of cyberweapons and artificial intelligence largely remained "fair game," even as tensions again flared between the rivals. [4]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is fast heating up as a key area of strategic competition. [3] "I don't know if artificial intelligence is going to mean robots and machines replace humanity. but I do know the quantum computing and some of the IT technologies that are out there today are so significant and can help you rapid decision-making in complex decentralized environments--that if we don't take advantage of that in things like the network--then we would be fools because others are moving out quickly on that," he said. [1] Russia has also used artificial intelligence to build powerful exoskeletons that give soldiers a near superhuman advantage and to develop literal war-fighting robots that can dual-wield guns, drive vehicles and potentially even travel to space. [4] Xi has committed billions to becoming a global pioneer in artificial intelligence and has made major strides in recent years. [4]

We can divide computational military reasoning into two subcategories: strategic and tactical (Russian military dogma also adds a third category, 'grand strategy'); however, for now, let's concentrate on tactical artificial intelligence; or battlefield decisions. [5] The Washington-based Center for a New American Security is the latest think tank to weigh in on the nettlesome questions of how, where and in what form artificial intelligence should be deployed on the battlefield. [6]

What follows are key issues for thinking about the military consequences of artificial intelligence, including principles for evaluating what artificial intelligence "is" and how it compares to technological changes in the past, what militaries might use artificial intelligence for, potential limitations to the use of artificial intelligence, and then the impact of AI military applications for international politics. [7] The effect of artificial intelligence on military power and international conflict will depend on particular applications of AI for militaries and policymakers. [7]

When will militaries use artificial intelligence? A key aspect often lost in the public dialogue over AI and weapons is that militaries will not generally want to use AI-based systems unless they are appreciably better than existing systems at achieving a particular task, whether it is interpreting an image, bombing a target, or planning a battle. [7] What could artificial intelligence mean for militaries? What might militaries do with artificial intelligence, though, and why is this important for international politics? Put another way, what challenges of modern warfare might some militaries believe that artificial intelligence can help them solve? Three potential application areas of AI illustrate why militaries have interest. [7] What does this really mean, especially when you move beyond the rhetoric of revolutionary change and think about the real world consequences of potential applications of artificial intelligence to militaries? Artificial intelligence is not a weapon. [7]

It is incumbent we think through the military possibilities of these technologies given that China is racing to field a dominant military largely based on artificial intelligence and Russia is well aware of the potential strategic implications of AI-based military advantage. [8] A team of U.S. technologists has developed an artificial intelligence tool that it says can help soldiers identify potential threats around them during combat missions. [9] Thinking of robotic systems coupled with artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics as an existential threat to humanity as (for example) Elon Musk, Stephen Hawking and other scientists have done recently is at best premature, and at worst that thought process threatens to cede U.S. military advantage to hostile and aggressive state competitors. [8] These discussions span academia, business, and governments, from Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom's concern about the existential risk to humanity posed by artificial intelligence to Tesla founder Elon Musk's concern that artificial intelligence could trigger World War III to Vladimir Putin's statement that leadership in AI will be essential to global power in the 21st century. [7] Artificial intelligence (AI) is having a moment in the national security space. [7] While the public may still equate the notion of artificial intelligence in the military context with the humanoid robots of the Terminator franchise, there has been a significant growth in discussions about the national security consequences of artificial intelligence. [7] Artificial intelligence, from a military perspective, is an enabler, much like electricity and the combustion engine. [7] Nordin predicts artificial intelligence will one day defeat human opponents in a limited competitive game mode featuring smaller maps, focused teams, and clear objectives. [10] This article focuses on "narrow" artificial intelligence, or the application of AI to solve specific problems, such as AlphaGo Zero, an AI system designed to defeat the game "Go." [7] Central to a more competitive, lethal, Joint Force will be the technologies of the third offset strategy --most notably robotic systems, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and human-machine teaming--and the associated joint and service concepts that will bring these technologies to life in wartime. [8] Kannan worked with a group of artificial intelligence and machine learning experts from the University of Southern California on the project. [9] That's the introduction to the White House's October report on the future of artificial intelligence. [11] Hacking could also lead to the exploitation of algorithms trained on more secure networks, illustrating a critical interaction between cybersecurity and artificial intelligence in the national security realm. [7]

France's intelligence community is already using AI to improve the speed and reliability of data processing, believing that this can help improve the performance of the French military on the battlefield. [7] Warfare is a competitive endeavor, and just as militaries and intelligence organizations attempt to hack and disrupt the operations of potential adversaries in peacetime and wartime today, the same would likely be true of a world with AI systems, whether those systems were in a back office in Kansas or deployed on a battlefield. [7]

At the Visualizing Multi Domain Battle 2030-2050 Conference, Georgetown University, 25-26 July 2017, Mad Scientists addressed the requirement for United States policymakers and warfighters to address the ethical dilemmas arising from an ever-increasing convergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and smart technologies in both battlefield systems and embedded within individual Soldiers. [12] Robotics and artificial intelligence will be in widespread use on the battlefield as soon as within the next decade, which is why the Army is investing in those technologies now, the Army's top leaders told a Senate committee. [13] READ THE REPORT In "Battlefield Singularity: Artificial Intelligence, Military Revolution, and China's Future Military Power," a December 2017 report from the Center for a New American Security's Technology and National Security Program, adjunct fellow Elsa Kania asserts that the US-China artificial intelligence race will have defense implications. [14]

TRADOC is watching 12 trends as it looks toward the future including: big data; power generation and storage; cyber and space; collective intelligence; technology, engineering and manufacturing; climate change and resource competition; artificial intelligence; human computer interaction; demographics and urbanization; increased levels of human performance; economic rebalancing; and robotics. [15] For years, states and NGOs have discussed how advances in artificial intelligence are making it increasingly possible to design weapons systems that could exclude humans altogether from the decision-making loop for certain military actions. [16] Over the weekend, experts on military artificial intelligence from more than 80 world governments converged on the U.N. offices in Geneva for the start of a week's talks on autonomous weapons systems. [16] Last year, 116 founders of robotics and artificial intelligence, including Elon Musk, the billionaire founder of Tesla Inc. and SpaceX, sent a letter to the United Nations urging a ban on lethal autonomous weapons. [17]

Nor will it affect the use of autonomy in other strategic areas, such as missile defense systems that use artificial intelligence to shoot down incoming projectiles faster than a human operator ever could. [16] China is making big investments in artificial intelligence, looking for military advantage--while the Pentagon is determined to maintain its edge. [18] Dr. Mark Gerken, Chief Scientist, Multi-Domain Operations Directorate, Polaris Alpha, said of the joint project: "We will be using advanced analytics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to quickly process enormous amounts of information. [19] Our approach is to build functioning prototypes and set up real creative experiences with emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, virtual- and augmented reality, and large-scale dynamic virtual worlds. [20] Campaigners say the risks could be even higher than those of nuclear weapons, as artificial intelligence brings with it a level of unpredictable complexity. [16]

While most member states called for a legally-binding process to ensure that some form of meaningful human control be maintained over these prospective weapons systems, there is a sense of distrust among states that could fuel an artificial intelligence and robotics arms race." [12] Referring to artificial intelligence as "the mother of all technologies," Milley said the Army, as well as the Navy and Air Force, are "investing monies" in artificial intelligence because adversaries such as China and Russia are investing "heavily and very quickly in the use of robotic vehicles in all the domains ? and we are doing the same now." [13] Artificial intelligence, machine learning in combination with robotics, Milley predicted, "will play a significant role in ground combat inside of a decade, decade and a half, in that range." [13] Artificial intelligence, machine learning and autonomy are central to the future of American war. [21] Washington's spies are not the only ones turning to AI for future advantage: Russian President Vladimir Putin declared last week that artificial intelligence is a key for power in the future. [22] Imagine personalized Artificial Intelligence (AI), where your smartphone becomes more like an intelligent assistant - recognizing your voice even in a noisy room, understanding the context of different social situations. [22] The time is now for Artificial Intelligence; strategic surprise featuring things like "data driven behavior change? or A.I. modulated denial of the electromagnetic spectrum will pose difficult challenges from which to recover. [21] Swamped by too much raw intel data to sift through, U.S. spy agencies are pinning their hopes on artificial intelligence to crunch billions of digital bits and understand events around the world. [22] A 2017 U.S. Department of Defense study of the future operating environment has described artificial intelligence as the most disruptive technology of our time. [23] A new artificial intelligence technology allows U.S. soldiers to learn 13 times faster than conventional methods. [24] Artificial intelligence is to be the crown jewel of the Defense Department's much-discussed Third Offset, the U.S. military's effort to prepare for the next 20 years. [21] Another thinks the next 10 years may mean the dawn of an Age of Artificial Intelligence. [21] To this end, I have assembled some resources that I have found useful as I have developed my knowledge of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and the application of these technologies. [23] Adversaries will also use artificial intelligence networks as proxies to deliver more deniable and innovative attacks. [25] Human-machine networks are defined by the integration of autonomy and narrow artificial intelligence to accelerate processes, collective understanding, and effects. [25] US-based Intel announced a deal to buy an artificial intelligence startup as the computer chip colossus looks to broaden its role in data centers and the expanding internet of things. [22] In that example, artificial intelligence -based computing can pick out key words and names but also find patterns in data and correlations to other events--and continually improve on that pattern finding. [22] The potential applications of artificial intelligence, and the deep learning capabilities it brings, may be one of the most profound artifacts of the fourth industrial revolution. [23] Visionary entrepreneur Elon Musk and Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg were trading jabs on social media over artificial intelligence this week in a debate that has turned personal between the two technology luminaries. [22] For our Women of Disrupt Breakfast, Silicon Valley Editor Connie Loizos moderated a conversation with female founders from Away and Science Exchange and Alice, an artificial intelligence platform for women. [26]

Whether it's on the battlefield or in the boardroom, Cougaar Software, Inc. (CSI) provides Artificial Intelligence (AI) enhanced solutions for all your operations. [27] In November 2017, Shanahan called Project Maven "that pilot project, that pathfinder, that spark that kindles the flame of artificial intelligence across the rest of the department," and predicted it would take 24-36 months to get AI support onto the battlefield. [28] Viktor Bondarev, the chairman of Russia's Federation Council Defense and Security Committee, announced that Russia's military anticipates that artificial intelligence will one day replace soldiers and pilots, on the battlefield and a pilot in an aircraft cockpit. [29] Artificial intelligence, which promises to revolutionize transportation with the advent of self-driving cars and bring major advances to medicine, is also expected to have military applications that could alter the battlefield. [30] Russian officials are also contemplating the use of weaponized artificial intelligence on the battlefield. [31]

Enemy contact front? Envelop! Need to plan field logistics? Lay this template over semi-permissive terrain! If the product is an Excel workbook or a prefabricated PowerPoint slide, like intelligence preparation of the environment or battlefield calculus, an AI can probably do it better. [21]

Schmidt noted that China's national plan for the future of artificial intelligence, announced in July, calls for catching up to the United States in the coming years and eventually becoming the world's primary AI innovation center. [30] Tesla's CEO, Elon Musk, was one of 116 experts from robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) companies who are calling on the United Nations (UN) to ban autonomous weapons. [32] A group of leaders in the world of robotics and artificial intelligence are united in the fight to ensure lethal autonomous weapons does not become a new form of warfare. [32]

The future of warfare isn't soldiers on the battlefield--it's artificial intelligence. [29] As artificial intelligence gets more and more advanced, it's only natural that people in all walks of life will begin to consider how the technology will change the future. [33] It's more than a proven artificial intelligence technology product--it's a philosophy that reliably produces measurable results. [27] Looking for an innovative and collaborative partner for your next technology project? We offer diverse expertise in advanced automation, predictive analytics, and artificial intelligence decision support technology. [27] The Department of Defense spent $7.4 billion in fiscal year 2017 on cloud computing, big data and artificial intelligence technologies, according to a recent report by public-sector contracting analytics firm Govini. [28] He notes that the current state of artificial intelligence is just not advanced enough to be able to do the things it will have to be able to do in order to become "useful team-mates" for humans rather than just "tools." [33] Artificial intelligence refers to the ability of computers systems to perform tasks that normally require human intellect and judgment. [34] With a number of ambitious projects in development, Russia intends to make everything from unmanned vehicles to fully autonomous artificial intelligence into integral parts of its armed forces. [31] He also noted that running the Internet of Battle Things will likely take quite a lot of electricity, given that running artificial intelligence of any kind requires some serious computing and electrical resources. [33]

In the report's forward, Robert Work, former deputy secretary of defense, argued the successful militaries of the future will leverage a handful of emerging technologies to essentially automate the warfighter, not only for vehicles and aircraft but also for decision-making and battlefield intelligence. [28] Kott said today he envisions a battlefield in which all elements -- from weapons to munitions -- have some form of intelligence. [35]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

The PLA will likely leverage AI to enhance its future capabilities, including in intelligent and autonomous unmanned systems; AI-enabled data fusion, information processing, and intelligence analysis; war-gaming, simulation, and training; defense, offense, and command in information warfare; and intelligent support to command decision-making. [3] It's a generic term to describe a preprogrammed opponent or character that feigns intelligence but is really just following a narrow set of instructions. [2]

Nordin, acknowledging the prior AI work done in games like chess and Go, underscores the higher complexity of a first-person shooter like Battlefield. [2] "They won?t be in the next Battlefield because that's not very far away, but probably the one after that -- as a hybrid of classical AI and neural networks," he says. [2]

Certain PLA thinkers even anticipate the approach of a "singularity" on the battlefield, at which human cognition can no longer keep pace with the speed of decision-making and tempo of combat in future warfare. [3] EA's agents play hundreds and hundreds of Battlefield games at an accelerated pace and thus improve over time. [2] " Battlefield is a 64-player game, so to fully test it we need 64 players filling out a level, and AI agents can do that," says Nordin. [2]

The U.S. military has also expressed concern that it was falling behind the pace of an ever-changing battlefield, and experts have urged the U.S. to quickly catch up. [4]

At GDC today, EA announced that it's been training AI agents in 2016's WWI shooter Battlefield 1. [2]

He sounded the alarm, though, on one potential military application of AI, stating that he is "dead against" using AI to kill on the battlefield. [7] AI could enable a variety of new military concepts of operation on the battlefield, such as the oft-discussed "loyal wingman" idea, which posits a human airplane pilot or tank driver who could coordinate a number of uninhabited assets as well. [7] Militaries run based on reliability and trust--if human operators, whether in a command center or on the battlefield, do not know exactly what an AI will do in a given situation, it could complicate planning, making operations more difficult and accidents more likely. [7] From data processing to swarming concepts to battlefield management, AI could help militaries operate faster and more accurately, while putting fewer humans at risk. [7]

As military professionals, it is incumbent to discount breathless reports of our imminent extinction at the claws of our silicon superiors and understand the concrete reality of robotic systems and AI on the battlefield to solve specific military problems. [8] Tactical AI is divided into two parts: analyzing or reading the battlefield and acting on that information by creating a set coherent orders (commonly known as a COA or Course of Action) that exploit the weaknesses in our enemy's position that we have found during our battlefield analysis. [5] Evolving AI Debate Shifts to the Battlefield Your browser is obsolete and does not support this webpage. [6]

The Internet of Battle Things, as it's being called, is a vast battlefield network of machines and humans -- and the U.S. Army is working to make it a reality. [36] I've only covered how my programs (TIGER / MATE) analyze a battlefield in one particular way (does my enemy OPFOR in military terms have an exposed flank that I can pounce on?) and there is a lot more battlefield analysis to be performed. [5] With the machine-learning-powered solution, soldiers are able to decipher battlefield information more quickly, such as identifying explosive devices or analysing images to locate potential threat zones. [9] AI systems deployed against each other on the battlefield could generate complex environments that go beyond the ability of one or more systems to comprehend, further accentuating the brittleness of the systems and increasing the potential for accidents and mistakes. [7]

"The agent is pretty proficient at the basic Battlefield gameplay, and has taught itself to alter its behavior depending on certain triggers, like being low on ammo or health," he says. [10] From the way the longbow broke the power of mounted knights to the way naval aviation ended the era of the battleship, history is littered with great powers that thought they were still in the lead--right up until a major battlefield defeat. [7]

Without this adversarial intelligence, the battle things will not survive long enough to be useful. [36]

The program aims to create a tool for use by warfighters that will process information and intelligence from fast-changing, chaotic, dangerous situations and provide interpretations as to what is really happening. [19] "Some people envision something with human-level intelligence, like a Terminator. [16] At best, the statistical classifier used did supervised learning, i.e. somebody with actual intelligence defined a fitness function and then the classifier trained on that function. [37]

The future battlefield is at the center of a new U.S. Army study about the warfare over the next few decades. [15] In the next evolution of combat, the U.S. Army is heading down a path that may lead humans off the battlefield entirely. [17] The results are an "agent" that, while inferior to human players, "is pretty proficient at the basic Battlefield gameplay." [37] The agent is pretty proficient at the basic Battlefield gameplay, and has taught itself to alter its behavior depending on certain triggers, like being low on ammo or health. [20] This was back in 2015, and it got me thinking about how much effort it would take to have a self-learning agent learn to play a modern and more complex first person AAA game like Battlefield. [20] I'm 99% sure that the majority of game play in Battlefield is actually just 12 year old's screaming at each other. [37] Besides, it's running in Battlefield, a game with famously elaborate game mechanics. [20] If I remember correctly, even the first Battlefield game had at least some simplistic ballistic simulation, which made it different from your old school first person shooters. [37] In battlefield, obviously the numbers are much smaller, but a single squad with a good officer under the direction or a good commander can easily swing the game. [37]

Israel already has a fully autonomous loitering munition called the Harop, which can dive-bomb radar signals without human direction and has reportedly already been used with lethal results on the battlefield. [16]

The system was blacklisted from all Battlefield 1 servers; and then, once EA's License Enforcement team discovered the IP address was from within the company, they forcibly powered-down the system - leading to the complete loss of the AI. [37] One of your latest projects has been to train a self-learning agent to play Battlefield 1 multiplayer. [20]

"It's clear that the U.S., Russia and China are vying for pole position in the development of sophisticated artificial intelligence." [16]

Top U.S. intelligence chiefs on Thursday publicly expressed doubts about the global cybersecurity firm Kaspersky Labs because of its roots in Russia. [22] AI can "expand the aperture" of an intelligence operation looking for small bits of information that can prove valuable, according to Chris Hurst, the chief operating officer of Stabilitas, which contracts with the U.S. intelligence community on intel analysis. [22] The challenge, U.S. officials said, is gaining trust from the "consumers" of their intelligence product--like policy makers, the White House and top generals--to trust reports that have a significant AI component. [22]

"Human behavior is data and AI is a data model," he said at the Intelligence Summit. [22] Dawn Meyerriecks, the Central Intelligence Agency's deputy director for technology development, said this week the CIA currently has 137 different AI projects, many of them with developers in Silicon Valley. [22] The volume of data that can be collected increases exponentially with advances in satellite and signals intelligence collection technology. [22] The U.S. National Security Agency, which operates this ultra-secure data collection center in Utah, is one of the key U.S. spying operations turning to artifical intelligence to help make sense of massive amounts of digital data they collect every day. [22] Small, short timeline endeavors like Project Maven, recently created to use machine learning for wading through intelligence data, must provide the network integration experience needed for building larger programs of record. [21] These range from trying to predict significant future events, by finding correlations in data shifts and other evidence, to having computers tag objects or individuals in video that can draw the attention of intelligence analysts. [22]

The global competition for machine intelligence dominance is becoming a key element of both the changing character of war and technical threat to strategic stability. [25] The Obama administration has tightened rules governing how the FBI, CIA and other intelligence agencies use Internet and phone communications of foreigners collected by the National Security Agency. [22]

The transformative impact of AI, robotics, and autonomy on our Soldiers and networks in future conflicts is further addressed in Redefining the Role of Soldiers on the Future Battlefield. [25] Future battlefield networks at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels will leverage these aforementioned technologies to radically change the character of war, increasing the reach, speed, and lethality of conflict. [25]

"Fully autonomous weapons with no human in the loop will be employed on the battlefield in the near future. [12] This means Soldiers will likely encounter autonomous weapons that can target, slew, and fire on their own on the future battlefield. [12] Policy must address these dilemmas and discussion must be framed in a battlefield where autonomous weapons operating at machine speed are the norm." [12]

AI has widespread functions, from battlefield weapons to the potential to help quickly rebuild computer systems and programs brought down by hacking attacks, as one official described. [22] Call it the War Algorithm, the holy grail of a single mathematical equation designed to give the U.S. military near-perfect understanding of what is happening on the battlefield and help its human designers to react more quickly than our adversaries and thus win our wars. [21] It must also be prepared to deal with a future battlefield where it is at a distinct disadvantage as its adversaries can fire with speed and accuracy unmatched by humans. [12] Topics include visualizing the future, smart cities and future installations, multi-domain organizations and formations, and potential ethical dilemmas on the future battlefield. [12] In recent testimony before the Senate Appropriations Committee, Army Secretary Mark T. Esper and Chief of Staff Gen. Mark A. Milley outlined a future scenario in which the Army will have manned and unmanned combat vehicles on the battlefield. [13] The Multi-Domain Battle concept addresses the extended battlefield and large-scale combat through Joint reconnaissance, offensive, and defensive operations to reach positions of relative advantage. [25]

"Human enhancement will undoubtedly afford the Soldier a litany of increased capabilities on the battlefield. [12] EA agents analyze hundreds of Battlefield games at an accelerated pace and improve over time. [38] From our Disrupts, Hardware Battlefield at CES and the Crunchies to our inaugural Sessions and Battlefield X events, we set out to ensure that we had a diverse roster of speakers, judges and contestants. [26] To date, we have tracked the gender and racial breakdown of our speakers, judges and Battlefield contestants through observed traits. [26] We continue to make strides in ensuring diverse attendance numbers in all facets of participation, from speakers, judges, Battlefield contestants and nonprofit groups. [26]

This is a private event specifically for female speakers, female judges, Battlefield female founders and the TechCrunch editorial team. [26] By contrast, for the first time in a Hardware Battlefield, minority founders were represented equally, with 50 percent. [26]

Their employment may not necessarily be by the United States, but they will be present on the battlefield by 2050. [12]

The number of women who appeared onstage at Disrupt New York in May 2017 improved over the prior year, with an increase in judges (6 percent) and Battlefield founders (8 percent). [26] In January 2017, we once again hosted a Hardware Battlefield at CES. Female representation for speakers, judges and Battlefield founders were down slightly from 2016. [26]

During the GDC 2018 exhibition, Electronic Arts told how it trains AI agents with Battlefield 1. [38]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(38 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (19) The promise and peril of military applications of artificial intelligence | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

2. (16) Data swamped US spy agencies put hopes on artificial intelligence

3. (9) 4. Ethical Dilemmas of Future Warfare Mad Scientist Laboratory

4. (8) The 2017 TechCrunch Include Progress Report TechCrunch

5. (7) The New Arms Race: Killer Robots Mark Revolution in Warfare | Time

6. (7) EA has started training AI players in Battlefield 1 - The Verge

7. (7) Info Ops Officer Offers Artificial Intelligence Roadmap « Breaking Defense - Defense industry news, analysis and commentary

8. (6) Future battlefield networks Mad Scientist Laboratory

9. (6) EA Created An AI That Taught Itself To Play Battlefield - Slashdot

10. (6) Will Robots Fight the Next War? U.S. and Russia Bring Artificial Intelligence to the Battlefield

11. (5) Teaching AI-agents to Play Battlefield 1

12. (4) Make Way for Robots on Battlefield | Association of the United States Army

13. (4) Battlefield Singularity | Center for a New American Security

14. (4) How to Beat Russia and China on the Battlefield: Military Robots | The National Interest Blog

15. (3) U.S. Army Chief Wants Robots and Artificial Intelligence Forces to Play a Bigger Role on the Battlefield

16. (3) War Books: AI for the Military Generalist--A Reading List - Modern War Institute

17. (3) Cougaar Software From the battlefield to the boardroom

18. (3) Pentagon spending more on emerging tech -- Defense Systems

19. (3) Internet Of Battle Things: How Military AI Is The Future Of Warfare

20. (3) Computational Military Reasoning (Tactical Artificial Intelligence) Part 1 | General Staff

21. (3) US army develops battlefield AI for troop safety | Internet of Business

22. (2) EA Taught an A.I. to Play 'Battlefield 1' Multiplayer - Rolling Stone

23. (2) How Would The Future Battlefield Look Like? - iHLS

24. (2) The U.S. Army is planning new, more complex battlefield robots | Information Management

25. (2) DARPA, Polaris Alpha teaming to develop AI for the battlefield - Military Embedded Systems

26. (2) Russia's AI Killer Robots Will Change War Forever

27. (2) China racing for AI military edge over U.S.: report | Reuters

28. (2) Russia has serious ambitions for military robotics - Business Insider

29. (2) Elon Musk Is Speaking Out Against the Use of Artificial Intelligence in Warfare | Architectural Digest

30. (2) Military documents reveal how the US Army plans to deploy AI in future wars

31. (2) EA trains artificial intelligence with Battlefield 1Game playing info

32. (2) Evolving AI Debate Shifts to the Battlefield

33. (1) AI, Autonomy, and the Future Battlefield

34. (1) CNAS Battlefield Singularity: Artificial Intelligence, Military Revolution, and Chinas Future Military Power - Defense & Aerospace Report

35. (1) The New Arms Race in AI - WSJ

36. (1) Artificial Intelligence Could Help US Soldiers Learn 13 Times Faster on the Battlefield | Electronics360

37. (1) How Agencies Should Prep for Artificial Intelligence - Nextgov

38. (1) ARL chief scientist: Intelligent battlefield will present challenges for warfighter | InsideDefense.com

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