Biological Aging Definition

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KEY TOPICS

  • Elderly women who sit more than 10 hours a day have accelerated biological aging, according to an epidemiology paper.(More…)
  • Background: Senescence is an irreversible cell cycle arrest associated with sustained p16 INK4a ( p16 ) expression and biological aging.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • These studies suggest that targeting aging will coincidentally slow the appearance and/or lessen the burden of numerous diseases and increase health span (the portion of life spent in good health).(More…)
  • The damage is often a byproduct of normal cellular processes: the same metabolic processes we need to function and fight against disease are the same metabolic processes that cause aging.(More…)

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Biological Aging Definition
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description: Aging Biology and Geriatric Clinical Pharmacology …

KEY TOPICS

Elderly women who sit more than 10 hours a day have accelerated biological aging, according to an epidemiology paper. [1] Sutphin studies aging — the physiological decline of all of the biological functions of our cells, tissues, and organs that ultimately leads to disease and death. [2]

Senescence, or biological aging, refers to the general deterioration of physiological function of an organism, leading to an increased susceptibility to diseases and, ultimately, death. [3] This biological aging is under epigenetic control, damage reduction doe not stop aging, the element missing from this ‘damage is all’ picture. [4] In a number of species calorie restriction without malnutrition may slow the biological aging process, resulting in longer maintenance of youthful health and an increase in both median and maximum lifespan. [5] Pathway analyses were performed to explore possible biological mechanisms that may underlie the associations between the identified genes and aging pathways. [3] Hopefully this will lead to a personalized approach to the prevention of brain aging, based on individual biological, genetic and cognitive profiles. [6] As a potential role for caloric restriction, the diet imposes a low-intensity biological stress on the organism, eliciting a defensive response that may help protect it against the disorders of aging. [5]

The definition of “healthy aging” changes depends on who’s defining it. [7] To truly understand epigenetics and aging, one must move beyond the conventional molecular biologist definition as it is used to describe covalent chromatin and DNA modifications (i.e. death-switch) and think broader in terms of C.H. Waddington’s original “epigenetic landscape”. [4]

To reflect the minimum phenomena required, other biological definitions of life have been proposed, with many of these being based upon chemical systems. [8] Several other biological definitions have been proposed, and there are some borderline cases of life, such as viruses or viroids. [8]

While many approach healthy aging as an effort to turn back the biological clock and regain their youth, preventing the aging process is not necessarily possible. [7]

An introduction to biological aging theory theodore c goldsmith random changes that negatively affect biological systems aging could be the result of the and currently taught in introductory biology courses. [9] Aging biology it is important for aging to happen because it is a vital part of human societies reflecting the biological changes aging is the continuous damage of physiological functions that raises the likelihood of death biological theories of aging essay. [9] Aging is a series of biological changes that follow a natural progression from birth through maturity to old age and death for also appears to play a role in the process of aging and death leading to physiological aging. [9] Describe any four biological changes associated with aging list any three steps that individuals can try to undertake to achieve successful aging to what extent are the effects of biological and psychological aging the inevitable results of chronological aging. [9] Programmed theories describe how aging might be regulated by biological clocks that operate throughout the life span. [10]

I decided I?d better make sure I was heading down the right path, so I looked up the definition of aging. [10] This definition could shift Alzheimer’s disease from a description of symptoms to a description of biological dysfunction. [11]

Background: Senescence is an irreversible cell cycle arrest associated with sustained p16 INK4a ( p16 ) expression and biological aging. [12] The inability of senescent cells to proliferate suggests that biological aging may impair T-cell responses during cancer immunotherapy. [12] T-cell biological aging in melanoma: Impact on immunotherapeutic discontinuation. [12]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

These studies suggest that targeting aging will coincidentally slow the appearance and/or lessen the burden of numerous diseases and increase health span (the portion of life spent in good health). [13] Sutphin learned the fundamentals of longitudinal aging studies from JAX’s aging experts, following individual mice over years and years to assess their health in response to a variety of pharmaceuticals, dietary, and genetic interventions. [2] Studies have demonstrated that genetics can play a major role in aging. [14] Studies from the basic biology of aging using laboratory animals–and now extended to human populations–have led to the emergence of theories to explain aging. [13] Goal A: Better understand the biology of aging and its impact on the prevention, progression, and prognosis of disease and disability. [13] “The broader scientific community is becoming increasingly aware of aging as a primary context for understanding disease and the underlying cellular processes,” notes Sutphin. [2] Understanding these processes is important because many of the effects of aging are first noticed in our body systems. [14] The first group states that aging is natural and programmed into the body, while the second group of aging theories says that aging is a result of damage which is accumulated over time. [14] Stem Cells: These cells can become any type of cell in the body and hold promise to repair damage caused by aging. [14] Some of these reactions cause damage and, ultimately, aging in the body. [14] Aging affects all of the cells, tissues, and organs in our bodies similarly: they lose their ability to resist damage and repair errors. [2] Immune System Aging: T cells take longer to replenish in older people and their ability to function declines. [14] Muscle Aging: Muscle tone declines about 22 percent by age 70, though exercise can slow this decline. [14] Hearing and Aging : As people age, the ability to hear high frequencies declines. [14] Body Fat and Aging: Body fat increases until middle age and then weight typically begins to decrease. [14] Heart Aging: The heart muscle thickens with age as a response to the thickening of the arteries. [14] Lung Aging: The maximum capacity of the lungs may decrease as much as 40 percent between ages 20 and 70. [14] Arteries and Aging: Arteries usually to stiffen with age, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood through them. [14] Bone Aging: Starting at age 35, our bones begin to lose density. [14]

Programmed Longevity: Aging is caused by certain genes switching on and off over time. [14] While there is no single ‘key’ to explain aging, these studies have demonstrated that while the passage of time is not altered, the rate of aging can be slowed. [13] While aging is going to remain the biggest risk factor for diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease, obesity will soon overtake smoking as the number two. [1] Our goal is to focus our diverse expertise in biology and genomics on the problems and disorders associated with aging. [2] Error Theories assert that aging is caused by environmental damage to our body’s systems, which accumulates over time.? [14] Kidney Aging: The kidneys become less efficient at cleaning waste from the body. [14] Bladder Aging : The total capacity of the bladder declines and tissues may atrophy, causing incontinence. [14] The study of aging – gerontology – is a relatively new science that has made incredible progress over the last 30 years. [14] Goal B: Better understand the effects of personal, interpersonal, and societal factors on aging, including the mechanisms through which these factors exert their effects. [13] JAX’s long history as the leader in mouse genetics, along with the expertise in the Aging Center, made it the ideal place for Sutphin to undertake postdoctoral training. [2] Aging is a complex interaction of genetics, chemistry, physiology, and behavior. [14]

If lifespan and aging were controlled genetically, it was reasonable to suspect that they could be manipulated — through pharmaceuticals or other therapeutic interventions. [2] In the past, scientists looked for a single theory that explained aging. [14]

From a therapeutic perspective, Sutphin says broader health benefits would come from slowing down the aging process rather than treating the individual diseases. [2]

Programmed Theories assert that the human body is designed to age and there is a certain biological timeline that our bodies follow. [14] Synthetic biology includes the broad redefinition and expansion of biotechnology, with the ultimate goals of being able to design and build engineered biological systems that process information, manipulate chemicals, fabricate materials and structures, produce energy, provide food, and maintain and enhance human health and the environment. [8] The study of artificial life imitates traditional biology by recreating some aspects of biological phenomena. [8] Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. [8] Death is the permanent termination of all biological functions which sustain an organism, and as such, is the end of its life. [8] A systems view of life treats environmental fluxes and biological fluxes together as a “reciprocity of influence,” and a reciprocal relation with environment is arguably as important for understanding life as it is for understanding ecosystems. [8] Consumers can, however, take steps to slow the biological clock with the end goal to maintain quality of life, both physiologically and mentally. [7] In the past, there have been many attempts to define what is meant by “life” through obsolete concepts such as odic force, hylomorphism, spontaneous generation and vitalism, that have now been disproved by biological discoveries. [8]

Genes and biological processes reported in this study could be added to the list of genes that increase lifespan when overexpressed or mutated (gerontogenes) and represent a valuable resource for examination of new candidate interventions that mimic gene evolution associated with natural changes in lifespan. [3] The problem with this approach is it can’t pinpoint the neuropathologic changes that define AD, nor can it identify those patients who are otherwise asymptomatic but have biological evidence of disease. [15]

The observation that most of the animals living in a natural environment rarely show that accumulation of diverse harmful changes occurring in cells and tissues simply because they die earlier for predation, disease, starvation, or drought indicates that aging is a phenomenon unique to humans. [16] Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse harmfull changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death (Harman 2003). [16]

With age, the metabolism slows the overall ability to absorb vital nutrients, according to the National Institute on Aging, making it crucial to take a proactive approach to health. [7] In the 2000s, the U.S. National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases mounted the CALERIE clinical trials with goals of 20%, 25% and 30% CR at three sites for six months to a year in Phase 1 and for two years in Phase 2. [5] In a 2017 collaborative report on rhesus monkeys by scientists of the U.S. National Institute on Aging and the University of Wisconsin, caloric restriction in the presence of adequate nutrition was effective in delaying the effects of aging. [5] Wound healing and blood coagulation categories, proposed by our evolutionary analysis in primates were also enriched in pleiotropic effects, highlighting that these genes are involved in multiple pathways and exhibiting the importance that these categories could have in the evolution of senescence, as predicted by the AP theory of aging. [3] Wound healing and blood coagulation, which are pathways identified here as having an evolutionary relationship to aging in primates, were also evaluated for enrichment in pleiotropies, and both turned out to be strongly enriched (wound healing, P 2.6e-09; and blood coagulation, P 2.33e-05) ( table 3 ). [3]

Both approaches allowed us to identify mutations, genes, and pathways that have putatively been fundamental to varying patterns of aging across primates. [3] To assess the relationship between rates of protein evolution and aging, we calculated root-to-tip ? values for each gene and species and evaluated their association with life-history traits using PGLS. For each gene, all the available primate sequences were used (at least n 17). [3] This is based, in part, on evidence in human and mouse that inherited deficiencies in DNA repair genes often cause accelerated aging. [17] The association between nucleotide excision repair capability and longevity is strengthened by the evidence that defects in nucleotide excision repair proteins in humans and rodents cause features of premature aging, as reviewed by Diderich. [17] One expectation of the theory (that DNA damage is the primary cause of aging) is that among species with differing maximum life spans, the capacity to repair DNA damage should correlate with lifespan. [17] The theory that DNA damage is the primary cause of aging, and thus a principal determinant of maximum life span, has attracted increased interest in recent years. [17] Further support for the theory that DNA damage is the primary cause of aging comes from study of Poly ADP ribose polymerases (PARPs). [17]

The consistent observation that calorie restriction reduces oxidative DNA damage lends support to the possibility that oxidative DNA damage is associated with aging. [5] In rodents, calorie restriction slows aging, decreases ROS production and reduces the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in multiple organs. [5]

A review of the effects of calorie restriction on the aging heart and vasculature concluded that “Data from animal and human studies indicate that, more drastic interventions, i.e., calorie restriction with adequate nutrition (CRAN), may have additional beneficial effects on several metabolic and molecular factors that are modulating cardiovascular aging itself (e.g., cardiac and arterial stiffness and heart rate variability).” [5] Although most studies on aging have so far focused on short-lived model organisms, recent comparisons of genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data across lineages with different lifespans are unveiling molecular signatures associated with longevity. [3] GDF15 has been previously associated to aging in model organisms (GenAge database), and BTBD9 in humans (LongevityMap database). [3] Although not directly associated to aging, a few other genes from the list of 25 hold promise for further experimental scrutiny, particularly considering their known functions or relation to aging phenotypes ( supplementary table 1, Supplementary Material online). [3] We used gene ontology (GO) annotation, which describes how gene products behave in a cellular context, to select GO categories encompassing mechanisms or functions corresponding to processes considered hallmarks of aging in Lez-Ot’n et al. (2013) ( supplementary table 7, Supplementary Material online). [3] This makes interpretations very difficult, as the existence of pleiotropic effects in genes involved in aging could lead to a reduced capacity for their identification in the framework of an evolutionary approach, given that multiple functions can be under the control of each gene. [3] We demonstrate that these pathways are highly enriched for pleiotropic effects, as predicted by the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging. [3] “Retarding effect of dietary restriction on the accumulation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in organs of Fischer 344 rats during aging”. [5] “Oxidative damage, mitochondrial oxidant generation and antioxidant defenses during aging and in response to food restriction in the mouse”. [5] The concept of an “epigenetic state”, which represents a system-level stable state that arises from various hierarchical interactions, is more encompassing of all the factors that need to be controlled in order to turn back biologic time and get beyond where damage removal will ever take us (i.e. aging as just another bio-attractor state like another: embryogeneis, morphogenesis, growth, development, etc.) [4]

Primates are an interesting order from the aging perspective, since they are evolutionary close to each other in terms of phylogenetic distances and have homogeneously slow life histories relative to other mammals, while displaying profound differences in lifespan. [3] Interestingly, p73 has been previously linked to senescence and aging ( Rufini et al. 2013 ) and the existence of cardiovascular phenotypes also found in the coevolution approach suggests that the same processes may have evolved along different routes to adapt to the long lifespans and slow development of primates. [3] We leveraged on the considerable variation in lifespans across the primate lineage to identify mutations and patterns of genic evolution that relate to aging. [3] To identify such changes it is necessary to compare phenotypic diversity in aging patterns among primates to changes in DNA or protein sequences that occurred independently on different lineages of the primate phylogeny ( O?Connor and Mundy 2009, 2013 ; Lartillot and Poujol 2011 ; Boddy et al. 2017 ). [3] Of particular interest are current patterns of human aging, which have changed markedly since our divergence with other primates. [3]

Villeneuve S, Jagust WJ. Imaging vascular disease and amyloid in the aging brain: implications for treatment. [6] Mean life span varies with susceptibility to disease, accident, suicide and homicide, whereas maximum life span is determined by “rate of aging”. [17] The differences in life span between species demonstrate the role of genetics in determining maximum life span (“rate of aging”). [17] Comparing genetic variation across species with their aging phenotypes will help understanding the molecular basis of aging and longevity. [3] Aging is a complex process affecting different species and individuals in different ways. [3] From an evolutionary perspective, aging is a polygenic and highly complex process whose expression evolves quite rapidly, with relatively close species displaying very different phenotypes. [3] “Relationship between susceptibility to protein oxidation, aging, and maximum life span potential of different species”. [17]

Aging Cell. 9 (2): 236-42. doi : 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00553.x. [5] Mechanisms of Aging and Development. 98 (2): 95-111. doi : 10.1016/S0047-6374(97)00076-6. [17] The Future of Aging. pp.367-438. doi : 10.1007/978-90-481-3999-6_12. [5]

Older age of onset, female sex, lower body weight and fat mass, reduced food intake, diet quality, and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors associated with fewer disorders of aging and with improved survival rates. [5] Low body weight in the elderly can be caused by pathological conditions associated with aging and predisposing to higher mortality (such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, or depression) or of the cachexia (wasting syndrome) and sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass, structure, and function). [5] For a whole-body approach to healthy aging, ingredients considered most important in healthy aging and longevity impact joint and bone, cognitive and neurological, and heart and cardiovascular function, as well as healthy inflammatory response. [7]

Supplementation is shown to improve health span in mouse models of muscle aging and cognitive decline. [16] A whole-body approach to healthy aging includes consuming ingredients that address joint, bone, cognitive and heart health. [7]

Sperling RA, Aisen PS, Beckett LA, Bennett DA, Craft S, Fagan AM, Iwatsubo T, Jack CR, Kaye J, Montine TJ, Park DC, Reiman EM, Rowe CC, Siemers E, Stern Y, Yaffe K, Carrillo MC, Thies B, Morrison-Bogorad M, Wagster MV, Phelps CH. Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s association workgroup. [6] “Calorie restriction limits the generation but not the progression of mitochondrial abnormalities in aging skeletal muscle”. [5] In some cases, dietary restriction requires mitochondrial respiration to increase longevity (chronological aging), and in some other cases not (replicative aging). [5] “Caloric restriction: powerful protection for the aging heart and vasculature”. [5]

The top genes ( n 26) with a nominal P value <1e-04 from all assessed traits are particularly enriched in aging genes (empirical P 0.005) from the GenAge database ( supplementary table 3, Supplementary Material online). [3] This is more than what would be expected by chance ( P 6e-04) and highlights the role of these genes in increasing aging via subtle amino-acid modifications. [3]

They provide useful and important insights for the understanding of physiological changes occurring with aging. [16] These results link reduced oxidative DNA damage to slower aging. [5] “Oxidative and other DNA damages as the basis of aging: a review”. [5] Cancer and aging as consequences of un-repaired DNA damage. [17]

One of the most intriguing and fundamental questions in biology is why and how such a dazzling array of aging rates exists in nature ( Jones et al. 2014 ). [3] Sphingosine-1-phosphate is primarily involved in supporting growth and survival, and it might contribute to aging by AP-like effects ( Huang et al. 2014 ). [3] Growing older can be a positive experience using targeted nutrients for effective support to help counteract or decelerate the internal aging processes. [7] “Extrachromosomal rDNA circles–a cause of aging in yeast”. [5] Over the long haul all that really matters is progress in medicine: building new classes of therapy to repair and reverse the known root causes of aging. [4]

“Manipulation of a nuclear NAD+ salvage pathway delays aging without altering steady-state NAD+ levels”. [5] Using the list of pleiotropies provided by Rodr’guez et al. (2017), we could confirm that aging pathways follow this expectation, with 5 out of the 9 curated hallmarks of aging ( Lez-Ot’n et al. 2013 ) showing a significant enrichment of pleiotropic hits when compared with the genome-wide distribution of pleiotropies. [3]

An experimental paradigm for the study of slowly aging organisms. [3]

In agreement with our results, it has been largely documented that all phases of wound healing become delayed with age ( Yanai et al. 2015 ; Keyes et al. 2016 ) and that imbalances in the hemostatic system are a common feature of the aging process ( Franchini 2006 ; Mari et al. 2008 ). [3] Long-term caloric restriction at a level sufficient for slowing the aging process is generally not recommended in children, adolescents, and young adults (under the age of approximately 21), because this type of diet may interfere with natural physical growth, as has been observed in laboratory animals. [5]

By another definition, however, maximum life span corresponds to the age at which the oldest known member of a species or experimental group has died. [17] Another systemic definition called the operator theory proposes that “life is a general term for the presence of the typical closures found in organisms; the typical closures are a membrane and an autocatalytic set in the cell” and that an organism is any system with an organisation that complies with an operator type that is at least as complex as the cell. [8] The current definition is that organisms are open systems that maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, have a life cycle, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, reproduce and evolve. [8]

Legal definitions of life have also been described and debated, though these generally focus on the decision to declare a human dead, and the legal ramifications of this decision. [8] Since there is no unequivocal definition of life, most current definitions in biology are descriptive. [8] A major strength of this definition is that it distinguishes life by the evolutionary process rather than its chemical composition. [8] He argues that an ecosystemic definition of life is preferable to a strictly biochemical or physical one. [8] While life is, by definition, alive, artificial life is generally referred to as data confined to a digital environment and existence. [8] The definition of life has long been a challenge for scientists and philosophers, with many varied definitions put forward. [8] Philosophical definitions of life have also been put forward, with similar difficulties on how to distinguish living things from the non-living. [8] One systemic definition of life is that living things are self-organizing and autopoietic (self-producing). [8]

This definition is extended by the apparition of novel functions over time. [8]

The common goal is the design and construction of new biological functions and systems not found in nature. [8] After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, several biological processes appeared as particularly enriched ( fig. 3 ), including blood coagulation and intrinsic pathway and fibrin clot formation (adj P 3.12e-02), negative regulation of hemostasis (adj P 3.57e-02), wound healing (adj P 3.57e-02), and regulation of body fluids levels (adj P 3.57e-02). [3] Living processes can be viewed as a delay of the spontaneous diffusion or dispersion of the internal energy of biological molecules towards more potential microstates. [8]

Synthetic biology is a new area of biotechnology that combines science and biological engineering. [8] Biological features are explained not by looking at future optimal results, but by looking at the past evolutionary history of a species, which led to the natural selection of the features in question. [8] “Biological responses to space: results of the experiment “Exobiological Unit” of ERA on EURECA I”. [8] It can occur as a result of an accident, medical conditions, biological interaction, malnutrition, poisoning, senescence, or suicide. [8]

Biological Reviews. 73 (03): 203-66. doi : 10.1111/j.1469-185X.1998.tb00030.x. [8] The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. [8] This would make sense from a biological perspective, since flexible and adjustable control of coagulation mechanisms is required for species that live longer. [3] Though Aristotle’s work in zoology was not without errors, it was the grandest biological synthesis of the time and remained the ultimate authority for many centuries after his death. [8] In time, this biological approach may help decide which tests are most appropriate for clinical diagnosis. [15]

Specifically, he identified the “nonfractionability of components in an organism” as the fundamental difference between living systems and “biological machines.” [8]

In the 19th century, the advances in cell theory in biological science encouraged this view. [8] Such a general theory would arise out of the ecological and biological sciences and attempt to map general principles for how all living systems work. [8]

Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 65 (7): 695-703. doi : 10.1093/gerona/glq042. [5] Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1784): 20140298. doi : 10.1098/rspb.2014.0298. [17]

Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (44): 46204-12. doi : 10.1074/jbc.M406739200. [5]

The damage is often a byproduct of normal cellular processes: the same metabolic processes we need to function and fight against disease are the same metabolic processes that cause aging. [10] Environmental insults cause damage to DNA, tissues, and cells, and over time these accumulated assaults cause aging. [10] Dopaminergic neurons are particularly sensitive to aging processes and are the critical cells lost during Parkinson’s disease development. [18] The mammalian comparative aging project uses cells and tissues from a wide variety of mammal species, carefully chosen for their longevity, the evolutionary relationships among one another, and their body size, to evaluate hypotheses concerning the cellular, molecular, and endocrinological pathways that affect mammalian aging rate. [19] As your body ages, you can expect it to undergo gradual changes, at its own pace how your body ages depends in part on your family (genetic) patterns of aging however, your lifestyle choices have a more powerful impact on how well your body ages fortunately, you can control your lifestyle choices. [9] Development in late adulthood late adulthood (old age) an interdisciplinary field that studies the process of aging and the aging population, involves psychology, biology a variety of physiological changes may occur. [9] Effects of aging on the musculoskeletal system and bone, joint biology of the musculoskeletal system as people age, their joints are affected by changes in cartilage and in connective tissue. [9] Understanding of physiological changes of ageing biology essay there has been a great increased in the apprehension of physiological alterations of ageing physiological changes of aging biology essay. [9] Gene profile analysis implicates Klotho as an important contributor to aging changes in brain white matter of the rhesus monkey. [18] Nagai T, Yamada K, Kim H-C, Kim Y-S, Noda Y, Imura A, et al. Cognition impairment in the genetic model of aging klotho gene mutant mice: A role of oxidative stress. [18] Park S-J, Shin E-J, Min SS, An J, Li Z, Hee Chung Y, et al. Inactivation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling axis and downregulation of M1 mAChR cause cognitive impairment in klotho mutant mice, a genetic model of aging. [18] It didn?t take me long in my wanderings to run into progeria, a rare genetic disease that causes premature aging. [10] While any number of genetic manipulations can affect mouse lifespan, what was particularly profound about the KL-deficient mouse was that short lifespan was accompanied by an array of disorders normally associated with human aging. [18] Uchida A, Komiya Y, Tashiro T, Yorifuji H, Kishimoto T, Nabeshima Y, et al. Neurofilaments of Klotho, the mutant mouse prematurely displaying symptoms resembling human aging. [18] Klotho, The Key to Healthy Brain Aging? – IOS Press You are viewing a javascript disabled version of the site. [18] KL regulates hippocampal functions from cognition, to neurogenesis, to synaptic plasticity and thus holds potential to function as a novel therapeutic target to protect this sensitive brain region from both the deleterious effects of normal aging and the ravages of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. [18] Based on new guidelines from the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association, these biomarkers include amyloid protein buildup, tau protein buildup, and neurodegeneration in the brain. [11]

In the meantime, an array of questions and brain areas remain to be explored to understand the basic biology of the KL protein and how its various forms act to support healthy life and healthy aging. [18] I came across intriguing titles such as “Scientists Say They?ll Soon Extend Life “Well Beyond 120.? ” I found a whole series of articles about how tech billionaires are donating to the cause of “solving” aging. [10]

One of the fundamental questions still under investigation is whether aging is programmed, meaning it’s built into our genes, or stochastic, meaning it’s the result of cumulative and potentially preventable environmental damage. [10] One thing that the scientists do agree on is that aging probably results from more than one process: It’s both programmed and stochastic, regulated and random. [10] Know how to write aging term papers aging is an inevitable phenomenon the following ideas can be of help for your aging term paper, take advantage of them the physical change – aging can result many physical change. :: 3 works cited : 1792 words (51 3 question 3 evidence 1 3 evidence 2 3 evidence 3 4 background 4 question 4 evidence 1 4 evidence 2 4 evidence 3 4 essay introduction this essay will address the. [9] Aging and depression the changes of aging can sometimes lead to depression the interface between physical and mental health care call for papers/proposals/nominations (26) council policy (23) psychology topic (22. [9] Physical changes with aging and geriatrics – learn about from the merck manuals – medical professional version. [9]

Wolkowitz, O.M., Reus, V.I., Mellon, S.H. (2011) Of sound mind and body: depression, disease, and accelerated aging. [20] The hippocampus is also intensively studied for its sensitivity to dysfunction caused by normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. [18] Biochemical and functional characterization of the klotho-VS polymorphism implicated in aging and disease risk. [18]

KL-deficient brains show premature neurogenic aging with decreased proliferation, decreased number of stem cells and immature neurons, and delayed maturation of immature neurons. [18] Stem/progenitor cell proliferation factors FGF-2, IGF-1, and VEGF exhibit early decline during the course of aging in the hippocampus: Role of astrocytes. [18] The hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of a few brain regions where neurogenesis continues throughout adulthood; however, neurogenic decline may be the first brain “aging” phenotype. [18] Finch CE, Austad SN. (2012) Primate aging in the mammalian scheme: the puzzle of extreme variation in brain aging. [19] Katsimpardi L, Litterman NK, Schein PA, Miller CM, Loffredo FS, Wojtkiewicz GR, et al. Vascular and neurogenic rejuvenation of the aging mouse brain by young systemic factors. [18] Role of serum insulin-like growth factor I in mammalian brain aging. [18] Cotman CW, The role of neurotrophins in brain aging: A perspective in honor of Regino Perez-Polo. [18] Shahmoon S, Rubinfeld H, Wolf I, Cohen ZR, Hadani M, Shimon I, et al. The aging suppressor klotho: A potential regulator of growth hormone secretion. [18] Kurosu H, Yamamoto M, Clark JD, Pastor JV, Nandi A, Gurnani P, et al. Suppression of aging in mice by the hormone Klotho. [18]

Although hydra had previously been reported to avoid aging altogether, under certain environmental conditions, they begin to age rapidly. [19] Leukocyte telomere length has been typically used in clinical studies as a marker of cellular aging. [20] Animal studies have also been conducted in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder-mediated accelerated aging. [20]

There is no one solution to solve the problem of aging, but there are many ways to slow the process of aging. [10] By comparing non-aging and rapidly aging forms of the same species, we should be able gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that modify aging rate. [19] Aging results in reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, diminished olfactory neurogenesis, and deficits in fine olfactory discrimination. [18] Hydra offer the opportunity to discover novel molecular pathways modulating aging that are not available in current model systems. [19] The aging process is still a mystery to even the experts, and the science of aging is a murky jungle overgrown with studies on all kinds of genes, proteins, and reaction pathways implicated in aging in all kinds of organisms. [10] Barbosa IG, Rocha NP, Alpak G, Vieira ELM, Huguet RB, Rocha FL, et al. Klotho dysfunction: A pathway linking the aging process to bipolar disorder? J Psychiatr Res. 2017;95: 80-3. [18]

Oxidative damage is associated with the aging process, while markers of oxidative stress correlate with the decreased activity of an enzyme called telomerase. [20]

These biological clocks might be genetic: Variants of certain genes, such as the FOXO3A gene, are found much more frequently in humans who live longer lives. [10] A new way of defining Alzheimer’s disease looks to frame it around the presence of “biomarkers,” or biological markers. [11]

As there is no current effective treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, a diagnosis based on such a new definition could change the way people perceive their time and their future. [11] More needs to be understood about the relationship between these biomarkers and Alzheimer’s disease for this definition to move forward into general medical practice. [11]

Video: physical, psychological and emotional changes in adults as an adult you establish a unique this stage takes place from approximately 20 to 35 years of age major physical changes may not occur what is annealing – definition, biology & process accounting 303: cost accounting. [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(20 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

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2. (30) Biological Processes Modulating Longevity across Primates: A Phylogenetic Genome-Phenome Analysis | Molecular Biology and Evolution | Oxford Academic

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4. (21) Theories and Effects of Aging on Our Bodies

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6. (12) Maximum life span – Wikipedia

7. (12) Physiological changes of aging biology essay Custom paper Academic Service trtermpaperlcxl.skylinechurch.us

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9. (8) The future of aging

10. (7) Key Nutrients for Healthy Aging | Natural Products INSIDER

11. (5) New definition of Alzheimer’s disease based on biomarkers, but questions remain

12. (5) Understanding the Dynamics of the Aging Process

13. (5) Steven N Austad, PhD | Nutrition & Obesity Research Center

14. (4) The Aging Process | TimelessLife

15. (4) Does Depression Accelerate Aging? | Brain Blogger

16. (4) An Interview with Jim Mellon, and Update on Juvenescence Fight Aging!

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20. (2) A Biological Definition for Alzheimer’s – AACC.org