Cancer Biology And Therapy

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • The #H2020 funded consortium is focussed on bio-orthogonal catalysis for #cancer therapy and brings together expert in the fields of chemistry, catalysis, cancer biology, and biomaterials.(More…)
  • Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields.Patients treated for Hodgkin’s disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age.(More…)

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Cancer Biology And Therapy
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description: National Cancer Institute selects ASU to lead revolutionary …

KEY TOPICS

The #H2020 funded consortium is focussed on bio-orthogonal catalysis for #cancer therapy and brings together expert in the fields of chemistry, catalysis, cancer biology, and biomaterials. [1] Dr. Shah and his team have pioneered major developments in the stem cell therapy field, successfully developing experimental models to understand basic cancer biology and therapeutic stem cells for cancer, particularly brain tumors. [2]

Written by leading scientists in the field, this book provides an essential insight into the current state of cancer therapy and treatment. [3] Users will be able to describe the types of systemic therapy used for the treatment of cancer and use correct and appropriate terminology in tumor biology and cancer treatments. [4] The Program in Cancer Biology provides students in the Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Group an opportunity to undertake concentrated study of the basic biological processes that underlie the control of cell growth and metabolism and how these controls are abrogated during the initiation and progression of cancer. [5] This course provides the basics of cancer biology and is intended as an introductory level course for those newer to oncology care. [4]

That’s worrying, he continued, because some patients received more intensive therapy because their lung lesions didn’t disappear, even though the lesions weren’t confirmed to have cancer cells. [6] “In a way, it’s a luxury that we’ve had such good outcomes with Wilms tumor and, in some cases, can pull back on therapy,” said Nita Seibel, M.D., head of Pediatric Solid Tumor Therapeutics in NCI’s Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, who helped design and launch the COG study before joining NCI. [6] The National Cancer Institute should be credited as the source and a link to this page included, e.g., “Some Children with Wilms Tumor Can Receive Less Therapy, Study Suggests was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” [6]

The Aird Lab studies the role of metabolism in cancer initiation, progression, and response to therapy. [7] A branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer which includes the use of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, surgery and other procedures. [8] This treatment approach, the study leaders believe, could greatly reduce the risk of some of the common and potentially fatal late effects of radiation therapy, including breast cancer, heart failure, and lung scarring. [6] The findings from the trial, led by the Children’s Oncology Group (COG), suggest that nearly half of children whose cancer has spread to their lungs can be spared lung radiation therapy without harming their long-term survival. [6] Results from an NCI-sponsored clinical trial suggest that some children with advanced Wilms tumor, a form of kidney cancer, may be able to skip radiation therapy. [6]

Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields.Patients treated for Hodgkin’s disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. [9] With current combined-modality therapy using moderate doses of involved field of radiation and limited cycles of multiagent, risk adapted chemotherapy, serious cardiac complications and development of secondary cancers are expected to be greatly reduced. [9]

Giving combination chemotherapy together with radiation therapy may kill more cancer cells. [9] Radiation therapy uses high-energy x rays to kill cancer cells. [9]

Despite this important role in tumor biology and therapy, the full mechanisms by which cancer cells can activate macropinocytosis remain incompletely defined. [10] In the fight against cancer, Yale has been at the forefront of understanding the fundamental mechanisms of cancer biology and in developing effective therapies for cancer treatment. [11]

Patients with prostate cancer and DNA damage repair defects could be candidates for therapy involving poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, and there is strong justification for activating clinical trials in this space, according to Maha Hussain, MD, the Genevieve Teuton Professor of Medicine and deputy director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. [12] Work in this area focuses on the processes by which cancers arise, progress, and respond to therapy. [13]

Therapy development, from my perspective, must focus on the totality of the biology if we want better care for our patients. [12]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Who should attend? The target audience for this conference is basic and translational scientists and clinicians, both senior and young investigators that want to have a broad and detailed overview of the most recent advances in the study of tumour biology, bioengineering and biochemistry, drug target validation, compound and antibody screening, toxicology, and patient-tumour profiling. [14] The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumour and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient). [15] “It’s good that there’s a group of patients for whom we can decrease treatment, but we need to better define the group that needs more intensive therapy,” she said. [6] “A challenge that remains is to identify those patients who, at diagnosis, need to get more therapy, including radiation, and those who do not,” she said. [6] “Our approach was to try to maintain excellent outcomes but de-escalate therapy in a proportion of patients,” Dr. Dix said. [6]

When the COG study began in 2007, the standard treatment for patients with stage IV Wilms tumor was chemotherapy and surgery, followed by radiation therapy to the lungs, explained David Dix, M.B., a pediatric oncologist at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital, who led the study. [6] Treatment with the combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy has increased 5-year survival rates for children with all stages of Wilms tumor from 40% in the 1950s to nearly 90% today. [6]

“And you’ve spared a number of patients the complications associated with radiation therapy,” Dr. Davidoff said. [6]

The four sections of the course covers the topics: 1) Causal Theories, 2) Systemic Therapy, 3) Staging of Tumors, 4) Grading of Tumors. [4] The therapy will enter first-in-human clinical trials in 2019. [16]

Patients in both trials were supposed to have cancer that had spread to their lungs. [6] In the small subset of patients in the COG study who underwent biopsy of their lung lesions after 6 weeks of chemotherapy, the majority of the lesions biopsied were found not to have cancer cells. [6]

About 10% of Wilms tumor cases are diagnosed as stage IV, where the cancer has spread beyond the kidney, most commonly to the lungs. [6] Wilms tumor, the most common type of kidney cancer in children, accounts for about 5% of all childhood cancers, with approximately 650 cases diagnosed in the United States each year. [6]

Many experimental cancer treatments are also under development. [15] Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. [8] Cancer develops when the old cells do not die and instead grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. [8]

We are looking for a postdoc to work on a funded project that focuses on the intersection between DNA damage response and metabolism in cancer. [7] Lung cancer and colorectal cancer affect both men and women in high numbers. [8] Six patients developed acute myelogenous leukemia or a myeloproliferative disorder after treatment including MOPP. Chemotherapy exposure varied among the 8 patients with lung cancers, 6 with gastrointestinal and 3 with other adenocarcinomas, 3 with sarcomas, 1 with diffuse large cell lymphoma, and 1 with melanoma. [9] The objective of this study was to evaluate whether stress imaging can identify severe, unsuspected coronary stenoses in patients who had prior mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease.We enrolled 294 outpatients observed at a tertiary care cancer treatment center after mediastinal irradiation doses 35 Gy for Hodgkin’s disease who had no known ischemic cardiac disease. [9] This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin’s disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites.Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin’s disease between 1961 and 1994. [9]

The purpose of this study was to differentiate the patterns of nasal fossa involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to clarify its prognostic influence on local control and survival after radiation therapy.Between November 1989 and July 1991, 218 patients with histologically proven local-regional NPC were treated with radiotherapy following the protocol at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Shantou University School of Medicine. [9] Early cardiovascular disease has also been observed and numerically exceeds second cancers as a cause of death in patients with early stage Hodgkin’s disease (49 v 47 cases). [9] Risks for breast cancer incidence and mortality were calculated by comparison with expected rates for a general female population matched by age and race.Twenty-five patients have developed invasive breast cancer, yielding a relative risk (RR) of 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.5-5.7). [9] Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race.Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. [9]

Ten-year disease-specific survival was as follows: in-situ disease, 100%; stage I, 88%; stage II, 55%; stage III, 60%; and stage IV, zero.The risk of breast cancer is increased after Hodgkin’s disease. [9] Eight hundred eighty-five women were evaluated for secondary breast cancer, prompting a subsequent analysis of risk of secondary cancer among 694 pediatric patients.The probability of cure of Hodgkin’s disease has dramatically improved over the past 40 years. [9] To evaluate the incidence, detection, pathology, management, and prognosis of breast cancer occurring after Hodgkin’s disease.Seventy-one cases of breast cancer in 65 survivors of Hodgkin’s disease were analyzed.The median age at diagnosis was 24.6 years for Hodgkin’s disease and 42.6 years for breast cancer. [9] The relative risk for invasive breast cancer after Hodgkin’s disease was 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 6. 0) compared with an age-matched cohort. [9] Second cancers with significant increase in risk include leukemia (acute nonlymphocytic), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lung/pleural cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, soft tissue and bone sarcomas, stomach cancer, salivary gland tumors, thyroid cancer, and pancreatic cancer. [9] Five second malignancies have occurred after PAVe/RT only: one myelodysplastic syndrome, one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and two solid tumors including a case of non-small cell lung cancer and an in situ carcinoma of the cervix. [9] The Cell study found that this dormancy, thought to be a major cause of drug resistance and disease relapses in cancer, might be relatively easy to reverse when it is induced by acidity. [17] Morbid events may include cancer, graft coronary artery disease, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. [9]

Irradiation immunosuppression; total body irradiation;, psychosocial effects of cancer treatment; treatment of lymphoma;, mycosis fungoides. [9] Sixty patients with Hodgkin’s disease, refractory to or at first recurrence after chemotherapy, received cytoreductive therapy followed by high-dose etoposide, cyclophosphamide and either total body irradiation or carmustine and autografting (median follow-up, 3.6 years; range, 1.1 to 7.5 years). [9] Reduction in total doses of chemotherapy as well as dose and extent of radiation should limit potential long-term toxicity. 4) Very selected patients with asymptomatic limited nodal relapse may be “salvaged’ with XRT, but published reports include only a small number of patients and this should not be considered a standard approach. 5) XRT may be used as total body, total lymphoid, or local field in high-dose therapy programs. [9] Thirty-seven patients were treated with various combinations of radiation and chemotherapy; 17 patients received no initial therapy. [9] A retrospective analysis was undertaken to determine the indications for, the efficacy of, and the long-term complications of two courses of total skin electron beam therapy for mycosis fungoides.A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of mycosis fungoides treated in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Stanford University Medical Center between 1968 and 1990 was performed. [9] To compare the efficacy of total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) with or without adjuvant topical nitrogen mustard (+/- HN2) with topical nitrogen mustard (HN2) alone as initial management of T2 and T3 mycosis fungoides (MF).A retrospective analysis of 148 patients presenting to Stanford from January, 1970 through January, 1995 within 4 months of pathologic diagnosis of MF. Fifty-five patients with T2 and 27 with T3 disease received TSEBT +/- HN2. [9] Selected patients with advanced SL received no initial therapy; these patients had a 10-year survival that was not statistically different from the immediately treated stage III and IV patients. [9] No significant statistical differences in terms of survival and FFR were noted in patients treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or XRT. The outcome of patients treated with triple-modality therapy was similar to those treated with double-modality therapy and to patients treated with XRT alone. [9] Local therapy included surgery alone in 6 patients, radiotherapy alone in 7, and surgery plus radiotherapy in 12. [9] Pretreatment evaluation, radiotherapy treatment parameters, and use of combined modality therapy were assessed.Ann Arbor stage for the 275 patients was as follows: IA, 69 (25%); IB, 7 (3%); IIA, 123 (45%); IIB, 36 (13%); IIIA 23 (8%), IIIB, 14 (5%); unknown, 3 (1%). [9] Patients with the nodular form (n 32) had significantly more relapses, which were independent of stage or treatment and equally distributed up to 10 years after initial therapy. [9] Twenty-nine patients (24%) had failed induction therapy and 35 (29%) had progressive HD within 1 year of initial chemotherapy. [9] The outcome of combined-modality therapy and central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis has not been fully determined.We retrospectively reviewed our experience with 16 consecutive, carefully defined patients, all treated with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy.There were 11 men and five women, mean age 52. [9] This brief chemotherapy was combined with radiation therapy (RT) to bulky disease sites.Since May 1989, 65 previously untreated patients were treated for stage II HD with bulky mediastinal involvement (n 21) or for stage III or IV HD (n 44). [9] PURPOSE: This phase 2 trial is studying how well giving combination chemotherapy together with low-dose radiation therapy works in treating patients with stage I or stage IIA Hodgkin’s lymphoma. [9] To examine the costs and benefits of routine follow-up evaluation in patients treated with radiation therapy for early-stage Hodgkin’s disease.We retrospectively examined patterns of follow-up evaluation and methods of relapse detection among 709 patients with stage I and II Hodgkin’s disease treated with primary radiotherapy between 1969 and 1994. [9] Stage I patients achieved 81% survival and 78% FFR, and Stage II patients had 72% survival and 70% FFR. In univariate and multivariate analyses, a favorable outcome was associated with the CTX-XRT-CTX sequence of therapy (p 0.001), low LDH (p 0.01), and small tumor bulk (p 0.04). [9] In a subset analysis, the use of combined modality therapy (CMT) was associated with an improved FF2ndR and survival in patients from the intermediate and unfavorable relapse groups. [9] The majority of these patients may be treated most effectively with combined modality therapy; however, a carefully selected group may be treated successfully with irradiation alone. [9] Combined modality therapy included MOPP (prednisone deleted after mediastinal irradiation) in 15, ABVD in 14, and PAVe in 19 patients. [9] Two of five patients who failed to achieve an initial complete response were treated successfully with alternative chemotherapy.Routine combined modality therapy is the treatment of choice for patients with Hodgkin’s disease who have large mediastinal masses. [9] Long-term observations from large populations of treated patients have disclosed a variety of late effects of the disease and its therapy have contributed morbidity and excess mortality to Hodgkin’s disease survivors. [9] One hundred nineteen patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s disease (HD) received high-dose therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation. [9] All patients underwent reduction in immunosuppressive therapy and received other individualized treatments. [9] The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of the drug, HuMax-CD4, in patients with mycosis fungoides(MF) and sezary syndrome who are intolerant to or do not respond to treatment with Targretin and one other standard therapy. [9] This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of LBH589B in adult patients with refractory/resistant Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma and prior HDAC inhibitor therapy. [9] A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the outcome of high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphomas beyond first remission. [9] In a preliminary analysis on a subset of patients, female and male fertility appears to be preserved.These preliminary results indicate that the Stanford V chemotherapy regimen with or without RT is well-tolerated and effective therapy for bulky, limited-stage, and advanced-stage HD. Less cumulative exposure to alkylating agents, doxorubicin, and bleomycin and limited use of radiation is expected to decrease risks for second neoplasms and late cardiopulmonary toxicity. [9] The abbreviated chemotherapy regimen, Stanford V, in combination with RT is well tolerated and highly effective therapy for bulky, limited stage and advanced stage HD. Lower cumulative exposure to alkylating agents, doxorubicin, bleomycin and limited use of radiation is expected to improved the prospects for fertility and decrease the risks for second neoplasms and late cardiopulmonary toxicity. [9]

The purpose of this study is to determine if vorinostat combined with low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) offers superior clinical benefit (efficacy & safety) over low-dose TSEBT alone in participants with mycosis fungoides (MF) Treatment in this study is TSEBT +/- vorinostat, with participants stratified by MF stage. [9] The mean dose for the total skin treatment for the first course was 32.6 Gy and 23.4 Gy for the second course of treatment.Following the first course of total skin electron beam therapy, 11 of 15 had a complete response, with a mean duration of 11.6 months. [9] The long-term side effects in the two living patients include pigmentation changes, alopecia, and diffuse xerosis.Delivery of two courses of total skin electron beam therapy is technically feasible, tolerable, and efficacious. [9] All patients received adjuvant therapies between the first and second courses of high-dose total skin electron beam therapy. [9] Patients were restaged prior to commencement of their second course of high-dose total skin electron beam therapy, resulting in upstaging in six. [9] To examine the efficacy and safety of total skin electron beam therapy to a dose of 12 Gray (TSEBT 12 Gy) in patients who have mycosis fungoides (MF) staged as IB to IIIA. [9]

Forty-five of these patients participated in prospective trials for which eligibility criteria were (1) less than 25% curability with conventional therapy; (2) achievement of minimal disease state with conventional therapy; and (3) transplantation early in the course of disease. [9] Patients who had a more favorable response to therapy may have had a biologically less aggressive disease than their less fortunate counterparts. [9] Eleven patients (10%) had a complete response to therapy resulting in a significantly improved median survival compared with patients with a partial or no response (1.70 v 0.91 years, P.047 and 1.70 v 0.57 years, P.011, respectively). [9] Our observation challenges prior belief that patients with HD remain immunodeficient following therapy and argues that the clinical significance of the EBV-specific immune response in EBV-negative HD should be further investigated. [9] Modifications in patient management and treatment have greatly reduced the serious late effects observed from prior therapy. [9] At the most recent follow-up, 3 patients were in complete remission and 1 had residual disease.In this study, PTLD lesions presenting in the skin responded to therapy. [9] The duration of study treatment was 6 cycles although pts who showed an objective response or stable disease could continue to receive therapy, at the discretion of the investigator, until disease progression or another withdrawal criterion was met. [9] By multivariate analyses, factors associated with recurrence were pleural disease (p 0.02), multiple pulmonary nodules (p 0.03), and a poor response to cytoreductive therapy (p 0.001). [9] The primary therapy for patients with patch/plaque disease without extracutaneous involvement is a topical regimen, whereas chemotherapy or other aggressive systemic regimens are reserved for those with recalcitrant disease or extracutaneous involvement. [9] Total-skin electron beam therapy is an important form of management, especially for patients who have thick generalized plaque or tumorous disease. [9] Application of factors used by the GHSG defined a less favorable subset for FFP but with no impact on OS. As therapy for early-stage disease moves to further reductions in therapy, these factors take on added importance in the interpretation of current trial results and design of future studies. [9]

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence that accurate MR detection of chest wall and pleural disease has on the type and extent of radiation therapy subsequently performed in patients with thoracic lymphoma.MR images and CT scans of the chests of 57 patients who had biopsy-proved lymphoma were retrospectively examined for evidence of involvement of the chest wall and pleura. [9] The purpose of the study is to assess the response rate of patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or transformed low-grade, CD20-positive, B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma to Iodine-131 (I-131) tositumomab (Bexxar) therapy plus local palliative radiation therapy (XRT). [9] Fourteen patients underwent surgery, 21 had radiation therapy (XRT), and 10 patients received chemotherapy. [9] Six of seven relapsed patients received high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation. [9] In 37 patients, TLI was administered for intractable allograft rejection despite conventional therapy while 10 patients received TLI prophylactically. [9] Major remaining challenges for high-dose therapy are a more inclusive strategy for all poor-risk patients and the need to reduce posttransplant relapses. [9] There were no relapses or deaths among the 21 patients receiving the “sandwich” sequence (CTX-XRT-CTX) of therapy. [9] Myeloablative therapy followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has proven to be curative therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies. [9] Individualized therapy is often a key consideration for the management of these patients. [9]

From July 1981 to July 1985, 20 patients with bulky mediastinal Hodgkin’s Disease (maximum mediastinal width divided by the maximum intrathoracic diameter for a mediastinal mass ratio (MMR) greater than 0.33 were treated at Stanford University with definitive radiation therapy alone. [9] The authors conclude that radiation therapy alone is effective in the management of selected patients with Hodgkin’s disease who have extensive mediastinal involvement, even when the MMR exceeds 1/3. [9]

The majority of these patients were selected to receive radiation therapy because they had the more favorable characteristics of minimal extralymphatic involvement, mediastinal masses that were superior and central in location, and a MMR less than or equal to 0.50. [9]

All of our patients were successfully treated with skin-directed therapies including topical steroids, topical nitrogen mustard, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, narrow-band ultraviolet B, and radiation therapy. [9] Twenty patients with solitary plasmacytoma of bone were treated by radiation therapy. [9]

Of the 15 patients who received radiation therapy, three (20%) had treatment planning altered, either by increasing the area exposed to radiation or by increasing the radiation dose, because of findings noted only on MR images.Chest wall and pleural sites of disease that may be detected only on MR images can be important in designing appropriate radiation portals and dosage for patients who have chest lymphoma. [9] Radiation therapy may also be used selectively for treatment of extracutaneous disease. [9] Our observations confirm that Woringer-Kolopp disease carries an excellent prognosis, and support that the most effective and appropriate treatment for recalcitrant or severe Woringer-Kolopp disease is localized radiation therapy. [9] A history of the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease with radiation therapy and chemotherapy is presented. [9] Overall survival for Hodgkin’s disease in the national practice is excellent, reflecting the dissemination of complex treatment programs and radiation therapy technology to the oncologic community at large. [9] Eight patients experienced a second relapse despite salvage therapy, and all eight expired with recurrent Hodgkin’s disease. [9] Among the 17 patients with TFL, 13 (76%) transformed at first relapse, and only 6 patients (35%) achieved complete remission with salvage therapy prior to HDT. For TFL patients, the 4-year estimate of OS was 50% (95% CI, 24%-76%) and of DFS 49% (95% CI, 20%-78%). [9] Factors analyzed included initial stage, age, time to first relapse, histology, sex, extent of initial irradiation, sites of relapse, relapse stage (RS), average relative dose intensity (ARDI) of chemotherapy, and type of salvage therapy. [9] These lymphomas are responsive to a broad range of therapies including irradiation, single agent or multi-agent chemotherapy, or combined modality therapy. [9] Common modalities include psoralen photochemotherapy (PUVA), topical chemotherapy (nitrogen mustard) and total skin electron beam therapy. [9] Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a highly effective treatment for mycosis fungoides (MF). [9] Techniques of electron beam therapy have been developed that permit treatment of the entire skin. [9] Changes in treatment programs can reduce the long-term excess risk of death from complications of therapy. [9] Autologous bone marrow transplantation should be evaluated as first-line therapy for those at high risk of relapse. [9] The duration of complete response increased with longer maintenance therapy; however, after completion of therapy, the response duration or relapse rate was similar regardless of maintenance regimen. [9] Even if the response is incomplete or relapse occurs, substantial and very important palliation is generally achieved with topical therapy. [9] Age, gender, extent of cutaneous involvement, and initial response to therapy had no statistically significant effect on survival. [9] Of 12 complete responses, six relapsed, all at distant sites, and two died during initial therapy. [9] The second course of therapy resulted in six complete responses and nine partial responses. [9] The dose to the total skin was reduced for the second course of therapy in all cases. [9] The mean interval between the first and the second courses of therapy was 41.3 months. [9]

There is no evidence that early aggressive systemic therapy is preferable to conservative therapy in the management of limited disease. [9] It is possible that if baking soda can be used to reawaken such dormant cells, tumors might become far more sensitive to therapy. [17] Combining chemotherapy with radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells. [9] Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. [9]

The results show that maintenance immunosuppressive drug therapy can be reduced after TLI as compared with conventional drug regimens that use prednisone in combination with cyclosporine and/or azathioprine. [9] Whether these results are superior to an initial approach of deferred therapy until clinically indicated is currently unknown. [9]

In this era of combined-modality therapy we have reached the point of near-total conquest of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but challenges remain. [9] Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for “salvage” therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy. [9] Levels of IgM, IgA, and IgG rheumatoid factors and C3 concentrations in blood and synovial fluid samples did not change significantly after therapy with total lymphoid irradiation. [9]

Combined-modality therapy with CNS prophylaxis improves outcome compared with radiotherapy alone; however, prognosis remains poor. [9] The malignant cells of LPHD are CD20+ and therefore rituximab may have activity with fewer late effects than standard therapy. [9] Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). [9] Close follow-up is helpful to detect early relapse or manage complications of therapy. [9] Three preparatory regimens, selected on the basis of prior therapy and pulmonary status, were employed. [9] Cytoreduction with conventional therapy was attempted before administration of the preparatory regimen. [9]

Therapy consisted of a mid-plane dose of 8 Gy administered with a 6-MeV linear accelerator using an anterior-posterior opposed technique. [9]

Pediatric patients experienced no significant toxic effects with topical nitrogen mustard therapy.Topical nitrogen mustard remains an effective primary initial or salvage therapy in mycosis fungoides for patients with T1 and T2 disease. [9] The clinical response to topical nitrogen mustard as salvage therapy was similar to initial response rates. [9]

Important prognostic factors included ‘relapse stage’ (IA vs. II-IIIA vs. I-IIIB or IV) and type of salvage therapy (combined modality vs. chemotherapy alone). [9] In general, the method of relapse detection did not have a significant impact on the likelihood of successful salvage therapy. [9] Restaging at the time of relapse provides a useful prognostic indicator and may help in the selection of salvage therapy. [9]

The success of radiation therapy (XRT) in the management of early-stage Hodgkin’s disease (HD) has led to its use in a variety of programs for the management of advanced disease. [9] Radiation therapy as a component of high-dose salvage strategies in Hodgkin’s disease. [9] Radiation therapy is a very effective local-regional modality in Hodgkin’s disease. [9]

Radiation therapy is the most effective single agent for the treatment of mycosis fungoides. [9]

The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. [9] The significant disease-specific survival differences between different clinical stages validate the usefulness of the present MF clinical staging system of the National Cancer Institute. [9] Lenalidomide may stop the growth of mantle cell lymphoma by blocking blood flow to the cancer. [9] Among those who do not survive, approximately half die of Hodgkin’s disease, 20% of new cancers, and 14% of cardiovascular complications. [9] The major causes of mortality (other than Hodgkin’s disease) are secondary cancers and cardiac disease. [9]

Secondary cancers have continued to accrue, and the risk relative to the general population has increased to 6.4 (95% confidence intervals: 5.5 to 7.3) in updated experience at Stanford University. [9] We classified LN pathologic results according to National Cancer Institute (LN1-4) and World Health Organization (WHO 1-3) criteria. [9]

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. [9] RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as doxorubicin hydrochloride, bleomycin sulfate, vinblastine, dacarbazine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, and prednisone, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. [9]

Combining tumor antigens with an immunostimulant can induce the immune system to specifically eliminate cancer cells. [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(17 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (133) Richard Hoppe, M.D.’s Profile | Stanford Profiles

2. (16) Less Therapy Okay for Some with Wilms Tumor? – National Cancer Institute

3. (4) Cancer Cell Biology | Global Events | USA| Europe | Middle East|Asia Pacific

4. (3) Principles of Oncology and Systemic Therapy | ASCO University

5. (2) DNA Repair Deflects Strong Targets for Prostate Cancer Therapy

6. (2) Cancer Therapy & Treatments | Global Events | USA| Europe | Middle East|Asia Pacific

7. (2) How Might Baking Soda Boost Cancer Therapy? – PR News

8. (2) Postdoctoral Scholar in Cancer Biology, Penn State College of Medicine job with [email protected] | 481454

9. (1) http://twitter.com/biogelx/status/1001861981714907138

10. (1) The Canonical Wnt Pathway Drives Macropinocytosis in Cancer | Cancer Research

11. (1) Home > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of Medicine

12. (1) The Rockefeller University Research Areas and Laboratories

13. (1) Natureevents Directory: Science Events – 3rd EACR Conference on Goodbye Flat Biology: In Vivo Inspired Cancer Biology and Therapy

14. (1) Wadas Recognized for Precision Imaging and Cancer Therapy Research | North Carolina Biotechnology Center

15. (1) Postdoctoral Research Fellow , Employment | SfN

16. (1) Recent Advances in Cancer Research and Therapy | ScienceDirect

17. (1) University of Pennsylvania || Cell & Molecular Biology Graduate Group || Cancer Biology Program