Keystone Species Definition Biology

C O N T E N T S:


  • A keystone species is one whose presence is key to maintaining biodiversity within an ecosystem and to upholding an ecological community’s structure.(More…)
  • Due to its very high abundance in rocky shores kelp forests ( Foss1991 ; Utne-Palm et al. 2015 ), and because most of the Nordic coastlines are rocky shores ( Figure 2 ), G. flavescens is a keystone species in coastal ecosystems ( Foss1991 ; Giske et al. 1991 ; Nordeide and Salvanes 1991 ; Hop et al. 1992 ).(More…)


  • Functional ecology sits at the nexus of several disparate disciplines and serves as the unifying principle between evolutionary ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics and genomics, and traditional ecological studies, and attempts to understand species’ “competitive abilities, patterns of species co-occurrence, community assembly, and the role of different traits on ecosystem functioning”.(More…)


Keystone Species Definition Biology
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description: Keystone taxa as drivers of microbiome structure and functioning …


A keystone species is one whose presence is key to maintaining biodiversity within an ecosystem and to upholding an ecological community’s structure. [1] Some flagship species are keystone species, like the African lion, a top predator : it used to control the populations of large herbivores, protecting ecosystems across the entire landscape. [2] The lion’s ability to serve as a keystone species is decreasing as its population and range decline. [2] Community structure is described by its foundation and keystone species. [1] Another keystone species is the banded tetra, a fish in tropical streams, which supplies nearly all of the phosphorus, a necessary inorganic nutrient, to the rest of the community. [1] Keystone Species assignment (individual) Due May 14/15 (after AP test) unless you plead your case that you have other AP tests. [3] “Ecosystem-level effects of keystone species reintroduction: a literature review”. [2]

Some of these species, including keystone species, have ecosystem-wide effects that are disproportionate to their abundance. [4] With the mounting pressures of climate change, ecological surprises and rapid collapse of both keystone species and ecosystems are emerging. [5]

Include a brief summary of all 3 case studies along with notes on: generalist species, specialist species (draw a picture). 5 major roles: Native (endemic is native to only one particular ecosystem); invasive, indicator, keystone, foundation. [3] Conservation by proxy: indicator, umbrella, keystone, flagship, and other surrogate species. [2] “Mobilizing metaphors: the popular use of keystone, flagship and umbrella species concepts”. [2] Know your flagship, keystone, priority and indicator species”. [2]

Most scientists accept this definition, but some restrict the term to only those species that are mutualistic, where both individuals benefit from the interaction. [1] Several definitions have been advanced for the flagship species concept and for some time there has been confusion even in the academic literature. [2]

The WWF uses flagship species as one of its species classification categories, along with keystone and indicator species. [2]

“Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: Is single-species management passin the landscape era?”. [2]

Rather than define traits as proxies for organism performance, as Darwin did, modern ecologists favor a more robust definition of traits often referred to as “functional traits”. [6] Before one can classify organisms by traits, the definition of ‘trait’ must be settled. [6]

Due to its very high abundance in rocky shores kelp forests ( Foss1991 ; Utne-Palm et al. 2015 ), and because most of the Nordic coastlines are rocky shores ( Figure 2 ), G. flavescens is a keystone species in coastal ecosystems ( Foss1991 ; Giske et al. 1991 ; Nordeide and Salvanes 1991 ; Hop et al. 1992 ). [7] In addition to calculating the proximate impacts of proposed scientific activities, we also calculate the ultimate impacts extended through the ecosystem and over time by taking into account: 1) effects on species with important ecological roles–e.g. keystone predators or foundational species; and, 2) the recovery times of impacted populations and habitats. [4] Scientific activities can be lethal or non-lethal, have inadvertent effects on non-targeted species or communities, and produce impacts that extend throughout communities, particularly if a study affects species with important ecological roles, such as ecosystem engineers, dominant species, keystone predators, or other foundation species (sensu ). [4] Ecosystem The species that invade a bare area are called Keystone Extinct Pion. [8]

Our working definition of recovery time for populations and assemblages was replacement of the abundance (density or percent cover) and size-structure of individuals removed, to reflect the lost density- and size-dependent functional roles of impacted species. [4] Definitions Population – A group of organisms from the same species who are living together at the same time in the same place that if. [8]

The science of plant morphology: Definition, history, and role in modern biology. [9] Biodiversity and Conservation Definition Biodiversity (Gk, bios-life; diversity-forms) or Biological diversity can be defined as the vast. [8]

Phenology, abundance and consumers of figs ( Ficus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest: Evaluation of a potential keystone resource. [9]


Functional ecology sits at the nexus of several disparate disciplines and serves as the unifying principle between evolutionary ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics and genomics, and traditional ecological studies, and attempts to understand species’ “competitive abilities, patterns of species co-occurrence, community assembly, and the role of different traits on ecosystem functioning”. [6] Once genetic markers for functional traits in individuals are identified, predictions about the functional diversity and composition of an ecosystem can be made from the genetic data of a few species in a process called “reverse ecology”. [6] Functional diversity is widely considered to be “the value and the range of those species and organismal traits that influence ecosystem functioning” In this sense, the use of the term “function” may apply to individuals, populations, communities, trophic levels, or evolutionary process (i.e. considering the function of adaptations). [6] Reductions in functional diversity broadly impact the survivability of organisms in an environment regardless of functional group, trophic level, or species, implying that the organization and interaction of communities in an ecosystem has a profound impact on its ability to function and self-sustain. [6] Ecosystem Functions are drastically reduced with decreases in the diversity of genes, species and functional groups present within an ecosystem. [6] Functional diversity was conceived as an alternative classification to schemes using genetic diversity or physiological diversity to measure the ecological importance of species in an environment, as well as a way to understand how biodiversity affects specific ecosystem functions, where in this context, ‘biodiversity’ refers to the diversity of ecosystem functions present in a given system. [6] In the 1990’s, biodiversity became better understood as the diversity of species’ ecological functions within an ecosystem, rather than simply a great number of different species present. [6]

All vocabulary of ecosystems, energy, trophic levels, food webs, natural selection, genetic diversity, biodiversity, hotspots, grey wolves of yellowstone, grizzly bears, galapagos finches, california salamanders, marine vocabulary, ecosystem roles vocabulary (indicator species, for example), ecosystem relationships, ways to sustain terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. [3] Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is the variety of life either in a particular place or on the entire Earth, including its ecosystems, species, populations, and genes. [10]

Socio-political issues like this make extensive use of the sciences of population ecology (the study of members of a particular species occupying a particular area known as a habitat) and community ecology (the study of the interaction of all species within a habitat). [1] Symbiotic relationships, or symbioses (plural), are close interactions between individuals of different species over an extended period of time which impact the abundance and distribution of the associating populations. [1] Relative species abundance is the number of individuals in a species relative to the total number of individuals in all species within a habitat, ecosystem, or biome. [1] The number of species occupying the same habitat and their relative abundance is known as species diversity. [1] Species diversity is determined not only by the number of species within a biological community–i.e., species richness–but also by the relative abundance of individuals in that community. [10] Biodiversity describes a community’s biological complexity: it is measured by the number of different species (species richness) in a particular area and their relative abundance (species evenness). [1] Such numbers capture some of the differences between places–the tropics, for example, have more biodiversity than temperate regions–but raw species count is not the only measure of diversity. [10] In addition to diversity among species, the concept of biodiversity includes the genetic diversity within species. [10] Biodiversity encompasses the genetic variety within each species and the variety of ecosystems that species create. [10] Charles Darwin’s On The Origin of Species is one of the first texts to directly comment on the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem health by noting a positive correlation between plant density and ecosystem productivity. [6] Functional ecology is a branch of ecology that focuses on the roles, or functions, that species play in the community or ecosystem in which they occur. [6] If functional ecology is considered, new species (not necessarily extinct) can be introduced into ecosystem where a species has become functionally extinct before any de-extinction action ever needs to be taken. [6] Understanding ecosystems via functional diversity is as powerful as it is broadly applicable and gives insight into observable patterns in ecosystems, such as species occurrence, species competitive abilities, and the influence of biological communities on ecosystem functioning. [6] To avoid reintroducing a species that is rendered functionally redundant by one of its ancestors, a functional analysis of global ecosystems can be performed to determine which ecosystems would benefit most from the added functional diversity of the reintroduced species. [6] When holistically analyzing an environment, the systematic error of imperfect species detection can lead to incorrect trait-environment evolutionary conclusions as well as poor estimates of functional trait diversity and environmental role. [6] Considering more traits in a classification scheme will separate species into more specific functional groups, but may lead to an overestimation of total functional diversity in the environment. [6] Approaching ecosystems with theoretical maps of functional relationships between species and groups can reduce the likelihood of improper detection and improve the robustness of any biological conclusions drawn. [6] Invasive species are non-native organisms that, when introduced to an area out of their native range, threaten the ecosystem balance of that habitat. [1] Foundation species may physically modify the environment to produce and maintain habitats that benefit the other organisms that use them. [1] Studies have shown that when this organism is removed from communities, populations of their natural prey (mussels) increase, completely altering the species composition and reducing biodiversity. [1] The idea of biodiversity also encompasses the range of ecological communities that species form. [10] Communities are complex entities that can be characterized by their structure (the types and numbers of species present) and dynamics (how communities change over time). [1] Communities respond to environmental disturbances by succession (the predictable appearance of different types of plant species) until a stable community structure is established. [1] “Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity”. [6] While some functions have been recovered by evolution, as is the case with many extinct terrestrial species, some functional gaps have widened over time. [6] Function ecology can be applied to strategically assess the resurrection of extinct species to maximize its impact on an environment. [6] Rather than defining species by genetic proximity alone, organisms can be additionally classified by the functions they serve in the same ecology. [6] Over time the area will reach an equilibrium state, with a set of organisms quite different from the pioneer species. [1] Some recent initiatives have developed flagships based on the conservation value of particular areas or species. [2] “Identifying Cinderella species: uncovering mammals with conservation flagship appeal” (PDF). [2] The use of a flagship may have limited effect, and the approach may not protect the species from extinction: all of the top ten charismatic groups of animal including tigers, lions, elephants and giraffes are endangered. [2] Less charismatic but locally significant species include the use of the Pemba flying fox as a flagship in Tanzania, and of the Chesapeake blue crab as a flagship in the USA. [2] This work relates to the biogeography of micro-organisms and uses particular species because “eyecatching “flagships” with conspicuous size and/or morphology are the best distribution indicators”. [2]

Countless species and ecosystems could benefit from synthetic biology besides coral reefs. [11] In the class textbook, the section is 4.6 and is titled, “What Roles do Species Play in an Ecosystem”. (This might be slightly different in the on-line textbook) Arrange your notes between the right and left sides as fits your style. [3] Considering too few traits runs the risk of classifying species as functionally redundant, when they are in fact vital to the health of the ecosystem. [6] These arguments suggest that reintroducing an extinct species could be drastically harm an ecosystem if conclusions about its function or the functions of the species it is intended to replace are incorrect. [6] Even if an extinct species’ function is well understood de-extinction could be equally harmful if the function served by the extinct species is no longer needed by the ecosystem. [6] One factor in determining species richness is latitude, with the greatest species richness occurring in ecosystems near the equator, which often have warmer temperatures, large amounts of rainfall, and low seasonality. [1] Species richness is the term that is used to describe the number of species living in a habitat or biome. [1] Earth’s 25 terrestrial hot spots of biodiversityAs identified by British environmental scientist Norman Myers and colleagues, these 25 regions, though small, contain unusually large numbers of plant and animal species, and they also have been subjected to unusually high levels of habitat destruction by human activity. [10] You will be recording a description of the plants and animals (insects) you are counting in your sampling areas and the number of each type of species. [3] How many different species were identified in the grass area outside the pond areas? In the muddy wetland area? How does this number compare to the number of different species identified in the lawn area of the NCHS campus. [3] In some areas of the Mississippi River, Asian carp species have become the most predominant, effectively outcompeting native fishes for habitat. [1] Areas differ in the biodiversity of species found only there. [10] Field Study of NCHS wetlands: Biodiversity and species interactions within a community. [3] From just a few well-studied species, it is clear that genetic variability can be substantial and that it differs in extent between species. (The loss of biodiversity as a result of human activity and various methods aimed at preventing this loss are discussed in the article conservation.) [10] Although examining counts of species is perhaps the most common method used to compare the biodiversity of various places, in practice biodiversity is weighted differently for different species, the reason being that some species are deemed more valuable or more interesting than others. [10] Simply counting species must be, at best, an incomplete measure of biodiversity, for most species cannot be counted within a reasonable time. [10] Succession describes the sequential appearance and disappearance of species in a community over time. [1] Ecology is studied at the community level to understand how species interact with each other and compete for the same resources. [1] Functional ecology also has broad applications to the science of and debate over de-extinction, the resurrection of extinct species. [6] Functional extinction is defined as “the point at which a species fails to perform its historical functional role”. [6] While functional arguments for reintroduction of extinct species, may paint thoughtful reintroduction as a ecological boon, the ethical and practical debate over de-extinction has not left functional approaches unscathed. [6] A functional approach to defining traits can even help species classification. [6] It focuses on traits represented in large number of species and can be measured in two ways. [6] The first being screening, which involves measuring a trait across a number of species, and the second being empiricism, which provides quantitative relationships for the traits measured in screening. [6] Trait focused schemes of taxonomy have long been used to classify species, but the number and type of ‘trait’ to consider is widely debated. [6] Of the approximately 1.9 million species now described, perhaps two-thirds are known from only one location and many from examining only one individual or a limited number of individuals, so knowledge of the genetic variation within species is even more constrained. [10] Genetic variety within a plant species may include the differences in individual plants that confer resistance to different diseases. [10] The Hawaiian Islands, for example, have about 1,000 plant species, a small number compared with those at the same latitude in continental Central America. [10] The development of more complex structures allows a greater number of species to coexist with one another. [10] The number of interacting species in these communities and the complexity of their relationships exemplify what is meant by the term “biodiversity.” [10] Estimates of the total number of living species cluster around 10 million, which means that most species have not been discovered and described. (These estimates omit bacteria because of the practical problems in defining bacterial species.) [10] The count of animal species that live on land is much higher than the count of those that live in the oceans because there are huge numbers of terrestrial insect species; insects comprise many orders and families, and they constitute the largest class of arthropods, which themselves constitute the largest animal phylum. [10] The numbers of species found in these places may be smaller than almost anywhere else, yet the species are quite distinctive. [10] To assist in the daunting challenge of protecting species, a number of biologically rich but threatened regions containing high numbers of endemic species have been identified and mapped. [10] These considerations are important because, while many species currently being considered for de-extinction are terrestrial, they are also functionally redundant in their former ecosystems. [6] Reintroducing extinct species has the potential to close these gaps, making richer, more balanced ecosystems. [6] Species that engineer ecosystems such as beavers are particularly unique functionally; their absence from an ecosystem could be devastating. [6] It is generally accepted that an area having, say, both forests and prairies is more diverse than one with forests alone, because each of these assemblages is expected to house different species. [10] Communities include all the different species living in a given area. [1] A common measure of this variety, called species richness, is the count of species in an area. [10] The lowest species richness occurs near the poles, which are much colder, drier, and thus less conducive to life in Geologic time (time since glaciations). [1] The study of island biogeography attempts to explain the relatively high species richness found in certain isolated island chains, including the Galápagos Islands that inspired the young Darwin. [1] The competitive exclusion principle states that two species cannot occupy the same niche in a habitat. [1] Resources are often limited within a habitat and multiple species may compete to obtain them. [1] Endemic species are much more vulnerable to human activity than are more widely distributed species, because it is easier to destroy all the habitat in a small geographic range than in a large one. [10] For Estuary, define/describe, summarize why it is important, list the different types of habitats, list examples of some of the different species. [3] Two species cannot exist in the same habitat competing directly for the same resources. [1] We started out with an introduction to a Biodiversity Index (measures both # of different species as well as how many individuals of each species). [3] We will also document the biodiversity of our wetland ponds, by cataloguing the # of different species. [3] A second way to weight species biodiversity is to recognize the unique biodiversity of those environments that contain few species but unusual ones. [10] “a species used as the focus of a broader conservation marketing campaign based on its possession of one or more traits that appeal to the target audience”. [2] When detecting species, ecologically important traits, such as plant height, influence the probability of detection during field surveys. [6] The first plants to grow back are usually annual plants followed within a few years by quickly growing and spreading grasses and other pioneer species. [1] The idea that the population cycling of the two species is entirely controlled by predation models has come under question. [1] One of the many recent proliferations of an invasive species concerns the growth of Asian carp populations. [1] Foundation species are considered the “base” or “bedrock” of a community, having the greatest influence on its overall structure. [1] Structures arise within communities as species interact, and food chains, food webs, guilds, and other interactive webs are created. [10] This conclusion, however, is indirect–i.e., it is likely based on differences in vegetation structure or appearance rather than directly on lists of species. [10] Before a species goes extinct in the classical sense of the word, keeping a functional perspective in mind can avoid “functional extinction”. [6] The greater an ecosystem’s diversity, the more resilient it is to changes in species composition (e.g. extinction events or invasive species) and extraneous changes to environmental conditions (e.g. logging, farming, and pollution). [6] They may not be the last–extinction rates lie somewhere between 1,000 and 10,000 times higher than the background rate, meaning up to 0.1% of all species could depart annually. [11] They can skew the management and conservation priorities in their favour, to the detriment of more threatened but less charismatic species. [2] They note that this remains true despite the the intense focus of conservation efforts on these particular species. [2] “species that have the ability to capture the imagination of the public and induce people to support conservation action and/or to donate funds”. [2] “popular, charismatic species that serve as symbols and rallying points to stimulate conservation awareness and action”. [2] It chooses between these when selecting a priority species to represent the conservation threats facing a certain region. [2] “What are “charismatic species” for conservation biologists?”. [2] ‘Guilds’ would be re-termed ‘functional groups’, and classification schemes began to focus more on interactions between species and trophic levels. [6] A commensal relationship occurs when one species benefits from the close, prolonged interaction, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed. [1] A second type of symbiotic relationship is called mutualism, where two species benefit from their interaction. [1] Perhaps the classical example of species interaction is predation: the hunting of prey by its predator. [1] Foundation species often have the highest relative abundance of species. [1] One example is our own species, for we differ in a wide variety of characteristics that are partly or wholly genetically determined, including height, weight, skin and eye colour, behavioral traits, and resistance to various diseases. [10] Thankfully, correlations between environmental change and evolutionary adaptation is are much larger than the effects of imperfect species detection. [6] Different species cannot coexist in a community if they are competing for all the same resources. [1] Over 150 years, the forest will reach its equilibrium point where species composition is no longer changing and resembles the community before the fire. [1] Many species use their body shape and coloration to avoid being detected by predators. [1] Some species use coloration as a way of warning predators that they are not good to eat. [1] Although the only species in a genus carries more genetic novelty, a species belonging to a large genus might possess something of the evolutionary vitality that has led its genus to be so diverse. [10] As species adapt to one another and to their communities, they form niches and guilds. [10]

In conservation biology, a flagship species is a species chosen to raise support for biodiversity conservation in a given place or social context. [2] The foremost nature conservation organization, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), is already on the case, currently assessing how synthetic biology, gene drives, and genome editing technology could impact biodiversity preservation. [11] These groups and others suggest that biotech tools can be successful in conservation settings, paving the way for countries to use synthetic biology techniques to prevent irreversible ecosystem transformation. [11] “Synthetic biology provides new optimism for conservation groups to stop the decline rather than just slow it down. [11] This is a promising step forward, but the IUCN report will only help nations begin to prepare for an equally important internal discussions about whether to adopt synthetic biology for conservation at all. [11]

It is simplest to treat synthetic biology as a catchall term for the high-tech tools and principles that have allowed 21 st -century biology to become an engineering discipline on top of its traditional role as the field that studies life. [11] A functional approach to understanding and dealing with environments provides numerous benefits to our understanding of biology and its applications in our lives. [6] We serve as members on the recently formed Task Force on Synthetic Biology and Biodiversity that will deliver a comprehensive technology assessment and policy position to serve as the basis of future international discussions. [11]

All species have an ecological niche in the ecosystem, which describes how they acquire the resources they need and how they interact with other species in the community. [1] Flagship species can represent an environmental feature (e.g. a species or ecosystem), cause (e.g. climate change or ocean acidification), organization (e.g. NGO or government department) or geographic region (e.g. state or protected area). [2] Flagship species projects have sometimes been successful in saving the species and its habitat, as with the American bald eagle and the manatee. [2] A major challenge for the utilization of several flagship species in non-Western contexts is that they may come into conflict with local communities, thereby jeopardizing well-intended conservation actions. [2] “Selection criteria for flagship species by conservation organizations”. [2] The flagship species concept appears to have become popular around the mid 1980s within the debate on how to prioritise species for conservation. [2] The use of flagship species has been dominated by large bodied animals, especially mammals, although members of other taxonomic groups have occasionally been used. [2] Because flagship species are selected according to the audience they are hoping to influence, these species can also belong to traditionally uncharismatic groups, if the cultural and social content is right. [2] At larger spatial scales, more environmental heterogeneity may increase opportunities for species to exploit more functional groups. [6] The notions of functional ecology have beneficial implications for species detection and classification. [6]

Work in microbiology has started to use flagship species in a distinct way. [2] “Birds as tourism flagship species: a case study of tropical islands”. [2] This is illustrated by the differences in recommendations made for flagship species selection targeting different target audiences such as local communities and tourists. [2]

The exoskeletons of living and dead coral make up most of the reef structure, which protects many other species from waves and ocean currents. [1]

Scientific activities have the potential to impact the abundances, demographic structure, or behavior of species and modify their habitat depending on the specific procedures used, and the spatial extent and frequency of their application. [4] Whereas the impacts of study methods, ecological roles, and recovery times are likely to be relatively consistent inside and outside of protected areas, species and habitat abundances are specific to an MPA, and should be estimated for each MPA where proposed scientific work is to be undertaken in order to determine the proportionate impacts on which our models are based. [4] Impacts of study methods: Scientists use a large variety of methods in performing their studies and these methods can have impacts on macrobiota and habitat depending on the nature of the project and the particular species, assemblage, or habitat being studied. [4] The population model does not estimate unintentional or incidental impacts of targeted take on the community and is not applied to study methods that are designed to sample multiple species or entire assemblages; both of these impacts are considered in the impacts on assemblages model. [4] Impacts on assemblages: The assemblage model assesses the community-wide impacts of the proposed scientific activities, including the incidental impacts of studies targeting individual species, and the impacts of study procedures that are designed to affect multiple species or sample a cross-section of the community. [4] The assemblage model also assesses direct impacts in cases where no target is identified, and study procedures are instead designed to affect multiple species or sample a cross-section of the community (e.g. beach seining to sample the fish assemblage or clearing plots of all organisms in the rocky intertidal to investigate succession). [4]

In cases where no target species or group is identified, the population model is omitted, and all impacts are estimated using the assemblage (second) and habitat (third) models. [4] The ultimate impacts, which are used for decision-making, additionally incorporate the ecological importance of a species or assemblage by evaluating its ecological role (the interaction index) and the duration of the impact by accounting for the recovery time of the affected species, assemblage or habitat. [4] The design of the impact framework, however, facilitates setting simple protected area-wide thresholds because the calculations of ultimate impacts already consider the most relevant factors (recovery time and ecological role) that could influence impact thresholds for individual species, assemblages, or habitats. [4] We acknowledge that better understanding of the effects of species interactions and better predictions of the time required for functional recovery of ecological roles could improve the accuracy of our ecological impact predictions, but believe that our approach is precautionary and conservative wherever possible. [4] Although we use empirical data from the scientific literature when available, in its absence rely on expert judgment to make working estimates of model parameters including mortality rates, habitat impacts, species interactions, and recovery times ( S1 – S4 Appendices ). [4] In development of our models and threshold guidance, we borrowed several aspects of the PBR approach: 1) our conservative estimates of species abundance (lower quartile of bootstrapped distribution of annual means) was derived from the use of minimum population size, 2) the recovery times used in calculating ultimate impacts function similarly to the population growth rates, and 3) we used the PBR framework to put the potential impact thresholds in context. [4] Once calculated, the proximate impacts for each assemblage are then extended by incorporating the ecological roles of species within the assemblages and the assemblage recovery times to derive an estimate of ultimate impacts ( Eq 2.2 ). [4] By incorporating these two factors into the estimates of ultimate impacts, we have generated a framework that can, with a single protected area-wide impact threshold, provide conservative protection for even sensitive species, assemblages, and habitats. [4] We extrapolate species abundances using habitat-specific density or cover estimates, and assume that assemblages are habitat-specific and uniformly distributed across the habitat. [4] Ideally, estimates of density or percent cover of a species or taxonomic group will be available for an MPA. However, if existing data are unavailable, limited, or likely inaccurate, the best available abundance estimates for the MPA should be obtained either empirically through non-destructive pilot surveys, from the literature, or from data taken from surveys performed in nearby, comparable habitat. [4] If 25 individuals of a fish species are to be taken by hook and line on three occasions during the year, how much habitat will need to be sampled? In such cases, A samp hab i is calculated based on the number of individuals targeted ( N targ i ), the abundance of the target species ( Dens or % cover targ i ), and an ad-hoc scalar to account for sampling inefficiencies, as shown in Eq 2.1a. [4] For studies that don?t use an explicit spatial design, particularly those that target a particular species, an investigator may have difficulty estimating how much habitat will be sampled to obtain the required number of organisms. [4] Terrestrial, freshwater and marine protected areas ( page 8) are important management tools for protecting species, habitats, ecosystems, and biodiversity. [4] A single policy-based impact threshold set for a protected area should apply and confer similar protections to any species, assemblage or habitat. [4] We assess the proximate impacts of all scientific activities proportionately because MPAs vary widely in the size and composition of species, assemblages and habitats. [4]

Determining an acceptable level of ecological impact is a policy decision that may vary among species, ecosystems and MPAs, but it is only by comparing estimated impacts to this threshold, that the decision-support framework provides permitting guidance. [4] Between entanglement, ingestion and ecosystem damage, the threat of plastic pollution impacts marine species both large and small. [12] Species with important ecological roles: A primary goal of most protected areas is to protect not just individual species but the structure and function of entire ecosystems. [4] Examples of species with important ecological roles ( Table 3 ) include structural species and ecosystem engineers (sensu ) that form or influence biogenic habitat and alter the physical environment (e.g. mussel beds, kelp forests, corals, seagrass beds). [4] Some species are strong interactors whose interactions (predation, competition, facilitation) result in cascading effects that extend throughout much of the ecosystem. [4] This reinforces the importance of conducting studies in protected ecosystems where natural species interactions can more readily be quantified. [4] Few studies have quantified the strength of interactions among species, especially those interactions that extend through a community (e.g. trophic cascades). [4] In keeping with our precautionary approach, the interaction index used for each assemblage is equal to the highest interaction index of any species in the assemblage that may be susceptible to the study methods employed. [4] As a result of these two factors, the proximate impacts to both the target species and the fish assemblage as a whole are quite similar (0.27% vs. 0.19%) and remain quite similar when scaled to ultimate impacts by the recovery time and interaction index. [4] When the ultimate impacts to populations are calculated, incorporating recovery time and species ecological roles ( Fig 2D ), the ultimate impact at the population level is most sensitive to recovery time ( RT targ i ). [4] The population model ( Eqs 1.1 and 1.2 ) addresses direct impacts to the population(s) of targeted macrobiotic species or groups and is only used in cases where the scientific activity identifies a specific target. [4] PI targ i is the estimated proximate impact to the population of target species i in the MPA from Eq 1.1. [4] Species abundance: Estimating the impacts of scientific study procedures in our model requires density or percent cover data ( Dens targ or % cover targ ) on species abundances within an MPA in order to calculate the proportionate effects of the project. [4] Impacts on long-lived species or those with low reproductive rates or infrequent larval recruitment events are likely to have long-lasting ecological effects compared with impacts on short-lived species with high reproductive rates and frequent larval recruitment events. [4] Pp. 294-314, in Ricklefs, R. E., & Schluter, D. (eds), Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical perspectives. [9] Flower morphological diversity in Aframomum (Zingiberaceae) from Africa – the importance of distinct floral types with presumably specific pollinator associations, differential habitat adaptations and allopatry in speciation and species maintenance. [9] Land development in the state endangers the habitat and continued existence of native species in the area, leading to policy efforts to protect them. [13] The rate at which the habitat returns to pre-perturbed conditions, will vary with the composition of the habitat and the nature and spatial extent of the scientific activity just as the biotic recovery time will be species dependent. [4] Recovery time is estimated for each species based on life history parameters and is not determined by the extent of the impact. [4] The details of these procedures and examples of estimates of recovery time for a variety of species and assemblages are described in S4 Appendix. [4] To ensure that species and assemblage abundance estimates were as accurate as possible, we did not ignore substrate availability in this zone, but estimated it by interpolation using substrate information from the adjacent shoreline and offshore zones. [4] We conservatively apply parameter values by generalizing likelihoods of mortality to the assemblage level, using the high end of categorical ranges instead of precise numerical values for most parameters, and using conservative estimates of species abundance to populate our models. [4] In some protected areas, such as many in California’s MPA network, species abundance estimates are available from multiple sampling events that include spatial and temporal components. [4] Data describing species abundances are more likely to be available from protected areas that have previously supported considerable scientific work and less available for protected areas that have received little scientific attention. [4] The effect of soil-borne pathogens depends on the abundance of the host tree species. [9] Scientists also don?t always understand the direct or indirect effects of their proposed work on their target species or the broader ecosystem. [4] Ellison AM, Bank MS, Clinton BD, Colburn EA, Elliott K, Ford CR, et al. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. [4] However species and ecosystems within MPAs can also fall under other regulatory authorities. [4] Our procedures for treating interaction strength are described and estimates are provided for several common species and species groups in S3 Appendix. [4] For the sake of simplicity, we estimated the per capita mortality rates of particular scientific procedures for large groups of organisms, not individual species. [4] Examples of indirect effects include the unintended catch of other fishes with non-selective sampling methods (e.g. hook and line, nets) and incidental mortality or dislodgement of non-targeted sessile organisms, including epifauna, while collecting targeted sessile species with hand tools. [4] There is substantial, growing literature that details positive human health effects, psychological and physiological, of exposure to “nature,” including “green” and “blue space,” with evidence suggesting that diversity of species or environments may have specific positive human health benefits. [13] Mistletoe macroecology: Spatial patterns in species diversity and host use across Australia. [9] The Center for Biological Diversity works through science, law and creative media to secure a future for all species, great or small, hovering on the brink of extinction. [14] Out of the tropics, but how? Fossils, bridge species, and thermal ranges in the dynamics of the marine latitudinal diversity gradient. [9] Assessment of the diversity and species specificity of the mutualistic association between Epicephala moths and Glochidion trees. [9] Inverse latitudinal diversity gradients in species diversity. [9] Species turnover (β diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH 4 + uptake capacity. [9] Continental comparisons of temperate-zone tree species diversity. [9] Colleters in ten species belonging to three tribes of Rubiaceae: Morphoanatomical diversity and potential as useful characters for taxonomy. [9] One species, many terpenes: Matching chemical and biological diversity. [9] Interaction targ i is an index of the ecological importance of target species i. [4] In situations of uncertainty, we conservatively assumed susceptibility of all species in the assemblage and used the strongest interaction score. [4] Important species interactions for macrobiota that should be accounted for when estimating ultimate impacts. [4] To ensure that important species interactions are accounted for in assessing ultimate impacts. [4] We addressed this consideration in our ecological impact assessment models through the calculation of ultimate impacts, which take into account effects on species with important ecological roles. [4] Termites amplify the effects of wood traits on decomposition rates among multiple bamboo and dicot woody species. [9] An experimental comparison of chemical traits and litter decomposition rates in a diverse range of subarctic bryophyte, lichen and vascular plant species. [9] Co-existing ericaceous plants species in a subarctic mire community share fungal root endophytes. [9] The distribution of plant mating systems: Study bias against obligately outcrossing species. [9] “We found that all known species of sea turtle, and more than half of all species of marine mammal and seabird had been affected by marine debris and that number has risen since the last major study,” explains Sarah Gall, one of the report’s authors. [12] They sampled all of the insects in the study area and found that 60 insect species are flightless and 19 are macropterous (able to fly). [15] Uncovering the spatio-temporal drivers of species trait variances: A case study of Magnoliaceae in China. [9] Leading dimensions in absorptive root trait variation across 96 subtropical forest species. [9] Using the PBR approach, Wade generated values for a variety of pinnipeds and cetaceans and these values range from 6% of the minimum population estimate removed annually for relatively abundant species of concern (sea lions, elephant seals, harbor porpoises) to 0.01% for rare cetaceans (blue whale). [4] We used a suite of alternative approaches for estimating recovery time based on the natural mortality rates of individual species using the equations developed by Hoenig to estimate natural mortality based on other life history parameters. [4] Rates of recovery by propagules depend on a complex combination of factors, and generic estimates are available only for a handful of species. [4] This approach is consistent with a fundamental tenet of ecosystem-based management–to adopt measures that ensure the ecological functions of species are sustained. [4] Structure and function of the elaiosome in some angiosperm species. [9] Taxonomic treatments of Camellia (Theaceae) species with secretory structures based on integrated leaf characters. [9] The structure of colleters in several species of Simira (Rubiaceae). [9] Divergence in structure and activity of phenolic defenses in young leaves of two co-occurring Inga species. [9] Shoot anatomy and secretory structures in Hypericum species (Hypericaceae). [9] Inordinate fondness multiplied and redistributed: The number of species on earth and the new Pie of Life. [9] Ancestral chromosome blocks are triplicated in Brassiceae species with varying chromosome number and genome size. [9] The evolution of regional species richness: The history of the southern African flora. [9] The evolution of genome size and rDNA in diploid species of Chenopodium s.l. (Chenopodiaceae). [9] The evolution of antiherbivore defenses and their contribution to species coexistence in the tropical tree genus Inga. [9] Developmental morphology of the caulescent species Streptocarpus pallidiflorus (Gesneriaceae), with implications for evolution of monophylly. [9] Molecular evolution of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and phylogenetic relationships among species of the family Cucurbitaceae. [9] Evolution and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci. [9] Comparative anatomy of root meristem and root cap in some species of Podostemaceae and the evolution of root dorsiventrality. [9] Floral development of dioecious species and trends of floral evolution in Piper sensu lato. [9] Reticulate evolution, cryptic species, and character convergence in the core East Asian clade of Gaultheria (Ericaceae). [9] By default, any species not identified as a strong interactor receives an interaction index equal to one. [4] As more knowledge is accrued, the ability to quantify species interactions will improve and the values needed to populate our model will become more refined. [4] M hand non-targ is the proportionate mortality caused by handling non-target species within assemblage i. [4] Like microbeads, microfibers can pass through water treatment plants unaltered and enter into waterways and the ocean where they are ingested by marine species. [12] Morphology and morphogenesis of ensiform leaves, syndesmy of shoots and an understanding of the thalloid plant body in species of Apinagia, Mourera and Marathrum (Podostemaceae). [9] How many species of flowering plants are there? Proc. Royal Soc. [9] Molecular systematics of Trilliaceae II. Phylogenetic analysis of Trillium and its allies using sequences of rbc L and mat L genes of cpDNA and internal transcribed spacers of 18S-26S nrDNA. Plant Species Biol. 14: 75-94. [9] Species of Ustilaginales, especially of the genus Anthracoidea, as tools in plant taxonomy. [9] Comparative transcriptome atlases reveal altered gene expression modules between two Cleomaceae C 3 and C 4 plant species. [9] Phosphorus limitation, soil-borne pathogens and the coexistence of plant species in hyperdiverse forests and shrublands. [9] The considerable genome size variation of Hordeum species (Poaceae) is linked to phylogeny, life form, ecology, and speciation rates. [9] If two species are close competitors, and one species is experimentally removed from the community, the remaining species would be expected to _____. [15] Comparative study of ovule and fruit development in species of Hypolytrum and Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae, Poales). [9] Comparative studies of the androecium of Monsonia species from the sections Olopetalum and Sarcocaulon (Geraniaceae). [9] Ecophysiological studies on orchids of Madagascar: Incidence and plasticity of crassulacean acid metabolism in species of the genus Angraecum Bory. [9] Developmental studies in orchid flowers I: Epidendroid and vandoid species. [9] Developmental studies in orchid flowers IV: Cypripedoid species. [9] Studies on comparative wood anatomy of 16 species of vines and trees in Celastraceae. [9] Coexisting orchid species have distinct mycorrhizal communities and display strong spatial segregation. [9] RT targ i is the estimated recovery time for target species i. [4] Macroecological correlates of global monocot species richness. [9] Species richness and resource availability: A phylogenetic analysis of insects associated with trees. [9] The latitudinal species richness gradient in the New World woody angiosperms is consistent with the tropical conservatism hypothesis. [9]

These models consider both targeted and incidental impacts to the ecosystem and include consideration of the vulnerability of targeted species, assemblages, and habitats, based on their recovery time and ecological role. [4] Parameterizing the three ecological impact models requires inputs on: 1) impacts of study methods; 2) macrobiota abundance; 3) habitat abundance; 4) species with important ecological roles; and 5) recovery times for species, assemblages, and habitats. [4] Recovery time for species and assemblages: The duration of impacts from scientific activities will vary greatly depending on the rate at which affected species and assemblages are able to recover their abundances and ecological roles. [4]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(15 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (83) An ecological framework for informing permitting decisions on scientific activities in protected areas

2. (69) General Literature I-L

3. (42) Functional ecology – Wikipedia

4. (40) 45.6: Community Ecology – Biology LibreTexts

5. (32) Flagship species – Wikipedia

6. (29) biodiversity | Definition & Facts |

7. (10) Farr, Claire / Unit 5. Ecosystems and Biodiversity

8. (8) Catastrophic risk to ecosystems puts biotechnology fixes on the table

9. (3) 700 Marine Species Might Go Extinct Because of Plastic Pollution. Here Are 5 Ways You Can Help! – One Green Planet

10. (3) Wetland Breaking News – Current Issue

11. (3) part 2 – Biology 144 with Arts at Ryerson University – StudyBlue

12. (3) MCQ Biology Easy – Home | Facebook

13. (2) Center for Biological Diversity

14. (1) Boden Research Conference 2018 | IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

15. (1) Sex roles and sexual selection: lessons from a dynamic model system | Current Zoology | Oxford Academic