3D Optical Microscope Technology

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Bruker's 3D optical microscopes provide precise non-contact metrology for a wide range of parameters, including shape, surface roughness, sidewall angles, thermal properties, and much more.(More...)
  • Various illumination techniques used in optical microscopes include bright field, dark field, cross-polarized light, and phase contrast illumination.(More...)
  • Note that C-ODT is able to reconstruct the object RI by computing hundreds of digital holograms and then performing 3D deconvolution with the complex optical transfer function of the microscope.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • The other challenge is that with microscopes, traditional ways of imaging used points of light millions of times brighter than the Sahara on a sunny day, creating a harsh environment that can damage or even kill the cells scientists are trying to study.(More...)
  • Using a special microscope and new lighting techniques, a team from Harvard and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute captured zebrafish immune cell interactions with unheard-of 3D detail and resolution.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

3D Optical Microscope Technology
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KEY TOPICS

Bruker's 3D optical microscopes provide precise non-contact metrology for a wide range of parameters, including shape, surface roughness, sidewall angles, thermal properties, and much more. [1] Bruker's 3D optical microscope products deliver precise, non-contact metrology for capacitive ink layer heights, and ITO features, as well as film thickness metrology to the production floor for touch panel and display manufacturing needs. [1]

Bruker's advanced 3D optical profiling technology enables, in a single characterization tool, undisturbed measurement over flexible membranes with high throughput and sub-nanometer vertical resolution accuracy. [1] Bruker's 3D optical microscopy systems measure PSS for next-generation R&D and production of both high-brightness light-emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). [1]

Analytical instruments manufacturer, Bruker offers specialized 3D optical microscopes that are ideal for precision 3D surface measurements in the automotive, LED, aerospace, semiconductor, solar, and medical device manufacturing industry. [2] LONDON, June 14, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- About 3D Optical Microscope 3D optical microscope is used to magnify the images captured by the microscope in a 3D surface representation. [3] A new market study, titled "Global 3D Optical Microscope Market 2018-2022", has been featured on WiseGuyReports. [4] The market is divided into the following segments based on geography: ? Americas ? APAC ? EMEA Technavio's report, Global 3D Optical Microscope Market 2018-2022, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. [3] Covered in this report The report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global 3D optical microscope market for 2018-2022. [3] The analysts forecast the global 3D optical microscope market to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% during the period 2018-2022. [4]

Various illumination techniques used in optical microscopes include bright field, dark field, cross-polarized light, and phase contrast illumination. [2] Optical microscopes use transparent lenses and visible light to enable viewing of objects in the micrometer scale, e.g., red blood cells, human hair. [2] The resolution for a standard optical microscope in the visible light spectrum is about 200nm laterally and 600nm axially. [5] Light sources commonly used in optical microscopes include arc-discharge lamps, incandescent tungsten-halogen bulbs, LEDs, and lasers. [2]

Results from testing water samples for pathogens including Giardia lamblia and Cyrptosporidium parvum using the technology were compared with results obtained using a tabletop optical microscope. [6] Instead of using traditional motorized means such as stepper motors or piezo devices, ZeeScope uses a proprietary optical assembly for 3D scanning integrating the latest advances of digital lens technology, leading to accurate and highly repeatable z-steps for 3D acquisition and analysis. [7]

Optical, navigation, and simulation information are streamed into the microscope's eyepiece and projected on large monitors in the operating room, providing a detailed perspective for the operating room staff, including co-surgeons, surgical assistants, and medical residents, who can all view the high-resolution images in real time. 3D glasses provide an enhanced visualization of neuroanatomy. [8] The technique allows more information to be harvested from fluid, tissue and other samples, but not everyone has access to an optical microscope that can use fluorescence. [6]

Technavio's report, Global 3D Optical Microscope Market 2018-2022, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. [9] Technavio's analysts forecast the global 3D optical microscope market to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% during the period 2018-2022. [9]

By shifting to a new excitation wavelength, our fiber-based multimodal nonlinear optical microscope achieves fast and simultaneous visualization of the rich intrinsic molecular information within fresh human breast tissue. [10]

Note that C-ODT is able to reconstruct the object RI by computing hundreds of digital holograms and then performing 3D deconvolution with the complex optical transfer function of the microscope. [11] A new scanning helium microscope offers the potential for capturing images with finer resolution than optical microscopes, but without damaging samples as with electron microscopes. [12]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

The other challenge is that with microscopes, traditional ways of imaging used points of light millions of times brighter than the Sahara on a sunny day, creating a harsh environment that can damage or even kill the cells scientists are trying to study. [13] Incorporating a technique he helped develop in 2014 called lattice light sheet, the new microscope uses a sheet of light to scan the cells like a Xerox machine. [13]

Bruker's automated, non-contact optical profiling provides superior 3D geometric information, complete with customized in-line wafer-handling. [1] "Cryogenic optical localization provides 3D protein structure data with Angstrom resolution". [5] Cryogenic Optical Localization in 3D (COLD) is a method that allows localizing multiple fluorescent sites within a single small- to medium-sized biomolecule with Angstrom-scale resolution. [5]

A diffraction-limited microscope with numerical aperture N.A. and light with wavelength ? reaches a lateral resolution of d ?/(2 N.A.) - a similar formalism can be followed for the axial resolution (along the optical axis, z-resolution, depth resolution). [5] Confocal scanning optical microscopy has significant advantages over conventional fluorescence microscopy: it rejects the out-of-locus light and provides a greater resolution than the wide-field microscope. [14]

NORM (near-field optical random mapping) microscopy is a method of optical near-field acquisition by a far-field microscope through the observation of nanoparticles' Brownian motion in an immersion liquid. [5] Laser microscopes are designed to generate high-resolution optical images as well as surface shape characterization quickly and accurately. [15]

Laser microscopes combine the advantages of magnified observation devices and measurement devices in order to obtain both full-focus images and reliable 3D shape analysis. [15]

Some of the company's microscopes combine field emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) technology and advanced analytics and can produce precise images of surfaces, particles, and nanostructures. [2] According to Betzig, the technology is complicated, expensive and cumbersome (the microscope Betzig's team used fills a table 10 feet, or 3 meters, long). [16]

Even when viewing cells individually, the microscopes most commonly used to study cellular inner workings are usually too slow to follow the action in 3-D. These microscopes bathe cells with light thousands to millions of times more intense than the desert sun, Betzig says. [17] A single, tiny source of light can be located much better than the resolution of a microscope: Although the light will produce a blurry spot, computer algorithms can be used to accurately calculate the center of the blurry spot, taking into account the point spread function of the microscope, the noise properties of the detector, and so on. [5] In 1978, the first theoretical ideas had been developed to break the Abbe limit using a 4Pi microscope as a confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope where the light is focused ideally from all sides to a common focus that is used to scan the object by 'point-by-point' excitation combined with 'point-by-point' detection. [5] A 4Pi microscope is a laser scanning fluorescence microscope with an improved axial resolution. [5] Although the resolving power of a microscope is not well defined, it is generally considered that a super-resolution microscopy technique offers a resolution better than the one stipulated by Abbe. [5] Omnipresent Localisation Microscopy (OLM) is an extension of Single Molecule Microscopy (SMLM) techniques that allow high-density single molecule imaging with an incoherent light source (such as Mercury arc lamp) and a conventional epifluorescence microscope setup. [5] "High-density superresolution microscopy with an incoherent light source and a conventional epifluorescence microscope setup". bioRxiv 121061 ?. [5]

Microscopes are of three basic types: optical, electron (or ion), and scanning probe. [2] Betzig hopes that the adaptive optical version of the lattice microscope will be commercialized, as was the base lattice instrument before it. [17] Light microscopes from Olympus, manufacturer of opto-digital products for the life science industry, are customizable with optical and digital imaging capabilities and are widely used in quality control and new product checking in the electronics, metals, and chemicals industries. [2]

Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), photo activated localization microscopy (PALM) and fluorescence photo-activation localization microscopy (FPALM) are super-resolution imaging techniques that utilize sequential activation and time-resolved localization of photoswitchable fluorophores to create high resolution images. [5] Several U.S. patents were issued to Guerra individually or with colleagues and assigned to Polaroid Corp. Licenses to this technology were procured by Dyer Energy Systems, Calimetrics Inc. and then Nanoptek Corp. for use of this super-resolution technique in optical data storage and microscopy. [5] This technique is called super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) and has been shown to be more precise than SMLM when the density of concurrently active fluorophores is very high. [5] These methods include Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) and all single-molecule localization methods (SMLM) such as SPDM, SPDMphymod, PALM, FPALM, STORM and dSTORM. [5]

"Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM)". [5] STORM has also been extended to three-dimensional imaging using optical astigmatism, in which the elliptical shape of the point spread function encodes the x, y, and z positions for samples up to several micrometers thick, and has been demonstrated in living cells. [5] There are techniques with other concepts than RESOLFT or SSIM, for example fluorescence microscopy using optical AND gate property of nitrogen-vacancy center. [5]

By combining two thousands images of the same cell, it is possible using laser optical precision measurements to record localization images with significantly improved optical resolution. [5] In this case however, "the optical resolution itself is not enhanced"; instead structured illumination is used to maximize the precision of distance measurements of fluorescent objects, to "enable size measurements at molecular dimensions of a few tens of nanometers". [5]

By applying suitable laser optical precision processes, position and distances significantly smaller than the half-width of the point spread function (conventionally 200-250nm) can be measured with nanometer accuracy between targets with different spectral signatures. [5] As the laser passes through the atmosphere, optical aberrations that distort its path are revealed and corrected by the adaptive optics. [18]

The distortions in the image of this "guide star" tell the team the nature of the optical aberrations along either pathway. [17] This SMI technique allows one to acquire light-optical images of autofluorophore distributions in the sections from human eye tissue with previously unmatched optical resolution. [5] SPDM is a localization microscopy which achieves an effective optical resolution several times better than the conventional optical resolution (approx. 200-250nm), represented by the half-width of the main maximum of the effective point image function. [5]

RESOLFT microscopy is an optical microscopy with very high resolution that can image details in samples that cannot be imaged with conventional or confocal microscopy. [5] Confocal scanning optical microscopy allows accurate non-invasive optical sectioning and further three-dimensional reconstruction of biological specimens. [14]

In laser scanning optical microscopy, the specimen is scanned by a diffraction-limited spot of laser light and the fluorescence emission (or the reflected light) is focused onto a photodetector. [14]

The second method is called lattice light-sheet microscopy, which repeatedly swipes a thin sheet of light over the target cell to capture a flurry of 2D images that can be stacked into a high-resolution, 3D composite. [16] Cells of interest are surrounded by tissues and other biological structures that scramble light coming from and returning to a microscope objective, which blurs and obscures important details. [18] Biological samples bend light in unpredictable ways, returning difficult-to-interpret information to the microscope and distorting the. [17] The phone microscope has already been tested by Orth and his CNBP colleagues in a number of applications, viewing samples including unlabelled cell nuclei, zooplankton and live cattle semen, in support of livestock fertility testing. [19] The resolution of the microscope is so powerful it can even capture subcellular details such as the dynamics of miniscule bubbles known as vesicles, which transport molecular cargo through to the cell. [18] While scientists have used microscopes to look at cells for centuries, the clearest views thus far have come from cells isolated on glass slides. [18] It means that the microscope can be used after one simple assembly step, with no need for additional illumination optics. [19] These microscopes can also be used to observe the surface layer, inside, and bottom layer of transparent targets and to measure film thickness. [15] Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) use a range of tools to produce images of surfaces and structures at the nanoscale level. [2] Here we review the recent technological aspects of the principles and uses of the confocal microscope, and we introduce the different methods of three-dimensional imaging. [14] The only metric by which a microscope should be judged is how many people use it, and the significance of what they discover with it," Betzig says. [17] "Almost all other phone-based microscopes use externally powered light sources while there's a perfectly good flash on the phone itself," he adds. [19]

Up to now, the best quality in a 4Pi microscope was reached in conjunction with the STED principle in fixed cells and RESOLFT microscopy with switchable proteins in living cells. [5] Lateral coordinates of the given particle can be evaluated with a precision much higher than the resolution of the microscope. [5] The spot width is equivalent to the point spread function (~ 250nm) and is defined by the microscope resolution. [5] Like standard structured illumination, the SMI technique modifies the point spread function (PSF) of a microscope in a suitable manner. [5] The Vertico SMI microscope achieves structured illumination by using one or two opposing interfering laser beams along the axis. [5]

"Having both capabilities in such a small device is extremely beneficial and increases the range of activity that the microscope can be successfully used for." [19] By collecting the information from many frames one can map out the near field intensity distribution across the whole field of view of the microscope. [5]

Limitations of light microscopy such as its low resolution were an encouragement for the invention of the electron microscope in 1931. [2] Scanning electron microscopes from Zeiss provide high detection efficiency and sub-nanometer resolution. [2]

The electron microscope is extensively used in scientific laboratories globally to study biological samples such as cells, microbes, and biopsies, crystalline or metal structures, and surface characteristics of various materials. [2] The electron microscope uses an electron beam to form an image of the sample. [2] Electron microscopes use electromagnetic or electrostatic lenses and a beam of charged particles (instead of light) to view particles of size in the nanometer scale, e.g., atoms. [2]

Combining a super-resolution microscope with an electron microscope enables the visualization of contextual information with the labelling provided by fluorescence markers. [5] Scanning electron microscopes from FEI offer extremely high resolution and enhanced contrast at the sub-nanoscale. [2]

The team validated the new adaptive optics/lattice light-sheet microscope on a variety of biological samples, carrying out much of the work through the laboratories of Kirchhausen and Sean Megason, HMS associate professor of systems biology. [18]

The MultiSEM technology used in these products help achieve speeds of close to 91 parallel electron beams and they can image centimeter-scale samples at a nanometer resolution. [2] That technology rapidly and repeatedly sweeps an ultra-thin sheet of light through the cell while acquiring a series of 2-D images, building a high-resolution 3-D movie of subcellular dynamics. [17]

With this so-called SPDMphymod (physically modifiable fluorophores) technology a single laser wavelength of suitable intensity is sufficient for nanoimaging in contrast to other localization microscopy technologies that need two laser wavelengths when special photo-switchable/photo-activatable fluorescence molecules are used. [5] "The clip-on technology is unique in that it requires no external power or light source to work yet offers high-powered microscopic performance in a robust and mobile handheld package," they report. [19]

Comparison of the resolution obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy (top) and 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM-Microscopy, bottom). [5] SMI can be combined with other super resolution technologies, for instance with 3D LIMON or LSI- TIRF as a total internal reflection interferometer with laterally structured illumination. [5]

"Whole cell 3D STORM reveals interactions between cellular structures with nanometer-scale resolution". [5] By combining two high-tech imaging processes, the team captured unbelievably clear, 3D footage of individual cells going about their microscopic business inside living tissues. [16]

By employing algorithms known from electron microscopy, the 2D projections of fluorophores are reconstructed into a 3D configuration. [5] The NPFLEX™ provides the most flexible, non-contact, 3D areal surface characterization for such large samples as orthopedic medical implants and the larger parts in aerospace, automotive and precision machining industries. [20] Cryogenic stochastic localization microscopy reaches the required sub-molecular resolution to resolve the 3D positions of several fluorophores attached to a small protein. [5]

SPDM (spectral precision distance microscopy) is a family of techniques in fluorescence microscopy which gets around this problem by measuring just a few sources at a time, so that each source is "optically isolated" from the others (i.e., separated by more than the microscope's resolution, typically ~200-250nm). [5] One technique, adaptive optics, involves intentionally deforming the microscope's mirror to compensate for distortions in the incoming picture. (This method is regularly used in telescopes for astronomy.) [16]

Leica Microsystems, imaging equipment maker, offers automated light microscopes with choice of illumination between halogen and LED. [2]

Modeling has shown that under suitable conditions regarding the precision of localization, particle density etc., the "topological resolution" corresponds to a " space frequency " which in terms of the classical definition is equivalent to a much improved optical resolution. [5] On October 8, 2014, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Eric Betzig, W.E. Moerner and Stefan Hell for "the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy," which brings " optical microscopy into the nanodimension ". [5]

The new microscope uses an adaptive optical system - similar to what astronomers use to unscramble the view of distant stars through Earth's swirling atmosphere - to create and maintain a thinly illuminating lattice light sheet that penetrates within an organism. [21] Since a microscope is first and foremost an optical device, quality optics are of primary importance in selecting an instrument. [22]

The Department of Neurosurgery at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is one of the first hospitals in the country to use the ZEISS KINEVO ® 900 microscope, a new surgeon-driven, robotic visualization system that merges the functionality of a surgical microscope with 4K resolution and 3D visualization along with specialized robotic control. [8] The all-in-one 3D microscope comes with GetPhase software including comprehensive tools for Z depth measurement, 3D surface topography, roughness and step height measurements. [7] ZeeScope is a cost effective stand-alone 3D microscope especially designed for R&D and quality control laboratories. [7]

Microscopy is used in many fields and microscopes are useful for different types of imaging. [22] The resolution limit of a microscope is determined by the objective lens characteristics, including the wavelength of light used to illuminate the specimen, the angular aperture and the refractive index in the space between the objective front lens and the specimen. [22] While conventional tabletop microscopes shine light through the sample from above, the Shih lab's technology launches the light from the side of the slide, which is about one millimeter thick. [6] Electron Microscopes use an electron beam (instead of a light beam) to produce an image of the sample; because the wavelength of an electron is around 100,000 times shorter than that of a photon of light, images can be viewed with a resolution down to around 50pm. [22]

Dr. Bederson says one advantage to projecting real-time images of the brain onto a video screen is that information sources from outside the microscope can be overlaid on the monitor. [8] KINEVO ® 900 has several features that are the first of their kind, including a specialized robotic control system called PointLock, which enables the surgeon to focus on a particular point in the surgical field and move the microscope in a spherical arch without losing focus, with the use of a foot pedal. [8]

Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and transmission electron microscopes (TEM) are the two main types of electron microscopes and they can be used for cell surface imaging, trace evidence analysis and single particle analysis. [22] The three main categories of microscopy are defined by the method used to magnify the sample and they are: optical, electron and scanning probe. [22] ZeeScope integrates a LED coaxial illumination, a high resolution camera and an optical Z-scanner digitally controlled by USB connection. [7]

Using techniques borrowed from astronomy, biologists have developed a new microscopy technique that delivers extraordinary 3D video of cells moving around inside living tissue. [21] The result is an extraordinarily high-definition set of 3D point clusters that can be used to create stunning video footage of cellular motion within living tissue. [21]

Light Microscopes are ideal for viewing living or dead samples looking at either the surface or a cross-section of the sample. [22]

It is world's leading trade show gathering all kinds of the latest technologies required to Design and Manufacture Medical Devices, such as metal/plastic processing technology, manufacturing equipment, electronic components, resin/plastic, ceramics, rubber, glass, metal (titanium/stainless) composite material, medical components, medical automation technology, measuring technology, image technology, packaging technology and various IT solutions. [4] At Medgadget we report on the latest medical technology news, interview leaders in the field, and file dispatches from medical events from around the world. [4]

Using a special microscope and new lighting techniques, a team from Harvard and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute captured zebrafish immune cell interactions with unheard-of 3D detail and resolution. [23] Oct 2017 CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Gradient light interference microscopy (GLIM), an add-on module to a commercial differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope, could provide a novel technique for extracting 3D information from thin and thick unlabeled specimens. [24] Scientists can use the microscope to render 3D images of a range biological phenomena in real-time. [25] A portable holographic field microscope developed by UConn optical engineers could provide medical professionals with a fast and reliable new tool for the identification of diseased cells and other biological specimens. [26] Special components and optical technologies inside the microscope split the light beam into two beams in order to record a digital hologram of the red blood cells in the sample. [26] Students will have direct hands-on experience with state-of-the-art microscopes, a variety of digital cameras, and image processing software provided by major optical, electronics, and software companies. [27] The holographic microscope was developed in UConn's new Multidimensional Optical Sensing & Imaging Systems or MOSIS lab, where Javidi serves as director. [26]

The following microscopy methods are available through the Optical Imaging & Vital Microscopy Core. [28]

The device, featured in a recent paper published by Applied Optics, uses the latest in digital camera sensor technology, advanced optical engineering, computational algorithms, and statistical analysis to provide rapid automated identification of diseased cells. [26] Discover how this novel 3D imaging technology can provide deeper insight into cleared whole mounts. [28] Discover how ?CT technology can generate 3D images from unlabeled samples. [28] The hybrid technology allows scientists to probe deeper into tissue and cells by scanning a less-powerful layer of diffused light across biological samples. [25] Scientists successfully adapted the technology to work with a lattice light sheet microscope on much smaller scales. [25]

An image sensor, such as a digital webcam or cell phone camera, connected to the 3-D microscope captures the hologram. [26] The UW microscope can both image large tissue surfaces at high resolution and stitch together thousands of two-dimensional images per second to quickly create a 3-D image of a surgical or biopsy specimen. [29] Their open-top arrangement, which places all of the optics underneath a glass plate, allows them to image larger tissues than other microscopes. [29] "While it is possible to scan microscope slides for digital pathology, we digitally image the intact tissues and bypass the need to prepare slides, which is simpler, faster and potentially less expensive." [29] Current pathology techniques involve processing and staining tissue samples, embedding them in wax blocks, slicing them thinly, mounting them on slides, staining them, and then viewing these two-dimensional tissue sections with traditional microscopes -- a process that can take days to yield results. [29] The techniques associated with the holographic microscope also are non-invasive, highlighting its potential use for long-term quantitative analysis of living cells. [26]

As part of the initial tests, scientists used the microscope to survey the cells of a zebrafish. [25] The new microscope can be used to study almost any biological process or system in any kind of living organism. [25]

Learn more about how our confocal microscopes can improve your fluorescence images. [28] A laser is beamed through the target tissue, and by comparing the beam's appearance before and after it passes, the microscope can calculate the distortion and correct it. [23] When it comes to identifying patients with malaria, here's how the device works : A thin smear from a patient's blood sample is placed on a glass side, which is put under the microscope for analysis. [26] One potential field application for the microscope is helping medical workers identify patients with malaria in remote areas of Africa and Asia where the disease is endemic. [26]

By contrast, the UW open-top light-sheet microscope uses a sheet of light to optically "slice" through and image a tissue sample without destroying any of it. [29] This comparison shows images of breast tissue taken by the open-top light-sheet microscope (left), traditional pathology techniques (middle) and frozen sectioning during surgery (right). [29] UW Medicine pathologists Larry True (left) and Nicholas Reder (right) prepare a tissue sample for imaging on the light-sheet microscope. [29] Mechanical engineering postdoctoral fellow Adam Glaser assembles the next generation of the light-sheet microscope, which will provide greater resolving power and imaging depth than the first system. [29]

The light-sheet microscope also offers advantages over other non-destructive optical- sectioning microscopes on the market today, which process images slowly and have difficulty maintaining the optimal focus when dealing with clinical specimens, which always have microscopic surface irregularities. [29] Conventional light microscopes only record the projected image intensity of an object, and have limited capability for visualizing the detailed quantitative characterizations of cells. [26]

Here I discuss using optical tweezer based active microrheology to measure the mechanical cues that may influence disseminated tumor cells in different organ microenvironment. [10] I will describe our progress applying diffuse optical monitoring techniques to measure hemodynamics, metabolism, and autoregulation in brain and breast tissues. [10]

A comprehensive report on the MOSIS lab's work with 3-D optical imaging for medical diagnostics was published last year in Proccedings of the IEEE, the top-ranked journal for electrical and electronics engineering. [26] The UW team achieved these improvements by configuring various optical technologies in new ways and optimizing them for clinical use. [29] Learn more about how our custom built OPT solutions provide fast optical sectioning for biological specimens. [28] "Our optical instrument cuts down the time it takes to process this information from days to minutes," says Bahram Javidi, Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the microscope's senior developer. [26]

At the largest condenser aperture, it can be used as a tomography method for obtaining time-lapse 3D information of thick samples. [24] It can be used to produce images from multiple depths that can then be composited into a single 3D image. [24] The team co-opted technology normally used to correct astronomical images called "adaptive optics." [23]

For the first time, scientists have peered into living cells and created videos showing how they function with unprecedented 3D detail. [23]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(29 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (40) Super-resolution microscopy - Wikipedia

2. (16) Optical, Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopy

3. (11) Portable Microscope Makes Field Diagnosis Possible - UConn Today

4. (10) Microscope can scan tumors during surgery and examine cancer biopsies in 3-D | UW News

5. (7) Microscopes | Biocompare.com

6. (6) New microscope captures detailed 3-D movies of cells deep within living systems

7. (5) Microelectronics - 3D Optical Metrology - 3D Surface Measurement | 3D Industrial Optical Microscopy | Bruker

8. (5) Microscope's 3-D movies of cells open new frontier for researchers Harvard Gazette

9. (5) 3D-printable 'clip' converts smart phone to microscope

10. (5) Watch: New microscope captures cells functioning inside organisms - UPI.com

11. (5) Optical Imaging & Vital Microscopy Core | Research | Baylor College of Medicine | Houston, Texas

12. (4) Confocal scanning optical microscopy and three-dimensional imaging - ScienceDirect

13. (4) Scientists Built A New Microscope To Watch Cells, And The Footage is Breathtaking

14. (4) Advanced microscope shows cells at work in incredible 3D detail

15. (4) Global 3D Optical Microscope Market Growing With More than 7% CAGR by 2022 - Top Players are AMETEK, Bruker, Danaher, Olympus and ZEISS | Medgadget

16. (4) Phaseview ZeeScope

17. (4) State-of-the-Art Microscope Technology Provides 4K and 3D Visualization Beyond the Surface of the Brain | Mount Sinai - New York

18. (3) Microscopy, Histopathology and Analytics | Meetings & Exhibits | The Optical Society

19. (3) 3D Laser Scanning Microscopes | KEYENCE America

20. (3) New microscopy technique creates stunning 3D video of life at the cellular level

21. (3) Microscopy Technique Images Thick, Multicellular Samples in 3D | BioScan | Oct 2017 | BioPhotonics

22. (3) Global 3D Optical Microscope Market 2018-2022 - MSNewsNow.com - Jackson, MS

23. (3) DIY: Scientists Release a How-To for Building a Smartphone Microscope - University of Houston

24. (2) New Microscopic Technology Images Cells in 3-D, Within Living Organisms

25. (2) Global 3D Optical Microscope Market 2018-2022

26. (1) Fast label-free microscopy technique for 3D dynamic quantitative imaging of living cells

27. (1) Electron microscopy - News, Research and Analysis - The Conversation - page 1

28. (1) NPFLEX 3D Optical Microscope from Bruker : Get Quote, RFQ, Price or Buy

29. (1) Optical Microscopy & Imaging in the Biomedical Sciences

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