How To Extract Hydrogen From Water

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • It has been proposed in a hypothetical renewable energy dominated energy system to use the excess electricity generated by wind, solar photovoltaic, hydro, marine currents and others to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water then combine it with CO 2 make methane (natural gas).(More...)
  • This involves splitting an oxygen molecule into two separate oxygen atoms that can then bind with hydrogen to form water -- an interaction that produces energy.(More...)
  • By separating hydrogen and oxygen, we can then recombine them to form water, which releases usable energy.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • Hydrogen would firstly be used onsite in fuel cells (CHP) or for transportation due to its greater efficiency of production and then methane created which could then be injected into the existing gas network to generate electricity and heat on demand to overcome low points of renewable energy production.(More...)
  • Just like hydrogen, two oxygen atoms join to form a molecule of oxygen gas.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

How To Extract Hydrogen From Water
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link: http://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Energetics-and-Chemistry-of-Hydrogen-Bonds-in-Water-Karhan/d48e81fb3a2a0652f89bfd14831bcf6cf414064c
author: semanticscholar.org
description: Energetics and Chemistry of Hydrogen Bonds in Water and at the ...

KEY TOPICS

It has been proposed in a hypothetical renewable energy dominated energy system to use the excess electricity generated by wind, solar photovoltaic, hydro, marine currents and others to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water then combine it with CO 2 make methane (natural gas). [1] While there is oxygen everywhere in the atmosphere (in the form of CO2) water for drinking and growing food (carbohydrates!) and for hydrogen for fuel (and perhaps other uses) on Mars might really need to come from water ice near the poles. [2] A controlled fire could be one way to get some water from gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, but that's hard to do and again you're using up valuable gaseous oxygen (and where's the hydrogen from? Fuel? Delta-v is pretty valuable in space, also). [3] Hydrogen produced by zero emission renewable energy sources such as electrolysis of water using wind power, solar power, hydro power, wave power or tidal power is referred to as green hydrogen. Hydrogen produced by non-renewable energy sources may be referred to as brown hydrogen. Hydrogen produced as a waste by-product or industrial by-product is sometimes referred to as grey hydrogen. [1] It's just not practical to use the method on a large scale because of the risks and because it's much more expensive to purify hydrogen and oxygen to feed the reaction than it is to make water using other methods, purify contaminated water, or simply condense water vapor from the air. [4] Hydrogen rich salines, hydrogen inhalation many use magnesium, and the magnesium intake will have an additive effect, however there are many studies using neutral h2 water via bubbling gas into the water. [5] Hydrogen as transportation fuel, however, is mainly used for fuel cells that do not produce greenhouse gas emission, but water. [1] Molecular hydrogen of the sort that can be used as a fuel does not occur naturally in convenient reservoirs; nonetheless it can be generated by steam reformation of hydrocarbons, water electrolysis or by other methods. [1] The former discusses the challenges of shipping water between the moon and the Earth, while the latter actually features a process of converting fuel to gaseous hydrogen and then gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into water in a closed system. [3] You can construct an apparatus the same way, as long as you are careful to control the flow rate of oxygen and hydrogen so that you don't try to form too much water at once (and use a heat- and shock-resistant container). [4] Merely mixing the two gases together at room temperature won't do anything, just like hydrogen and oxygen molecules in air don't spontaneously form water. [4] Water is the common name for dihydrogen monoxide or H 2 O. The molecule is produced from numerous chemical reactions, including the synthesis reaction from its elements, hydrogen and oxygen. [4] Reacting hydrogen and oxygen to produce water was an excellent oxidation reaction to study, because nearly all the mass of water comes from oxygen. [4] He devised an apparatus to form water from hydrogen and oxygen to observe the reaction. [4]

Current best processes for water electrolysis have an effective electrical efficiency of 70-80%, so that producing 1kg of hydrogen (which has a specific energy of 143 MJ/kg or about 40 kWh/kg) requires 50-55 kWh of electricity. [1] Obviates the need for distribution infrastructure dedicated to hydrogen. $3.00 per GGE (Gallons of Gasoline Equivalent) Nuclear Provides energy for electrolysis of water. [1] There are many concerns regarding the environmental effects of the manufacture of hydrogen. Hydrogen is made either by electrolysis of water, or by fossil fuel reforming. [1] Demonstrated advances in electrolyser and fuel cell technology by ITM Power are claimed to have made significant in-roads into addressing the cost of electrolysing water to make hydrogen. Cost reduction would make hydrogen from off-grid renewable sources economic for refueling vehicles. [1] Until someone finds a cost-effective way to obtain large amounts of hydrogen from water using sunlight or wind power, fuel cells remain just another way of using fossil fuel. [6] High temperature (950-1000C) gas cooled nuclear reactors have the potential to split hydrogen from water by thermochemical means using nuclear heat. [1] A small part (4% in 2006) is produced by electrolysis using electricity and water, consuming approximately 50kilowatt-hours of electricity per kilogram of hydrogen produced. [1] While nuclear-generated electricity could be used for electrolysis, nuclear heat can be directly applied to split hydrogen from water. [1] There are 2 methods, the first is to use the electricity for water splitting and inject the resulting hydrogen into the natural gas grid. [1] In order to get the hydrogen you need to "simply" combine with oxygen to make water, you must first get the hydrogen from somewhere, and the only viable large scale source is from water itself, either directly or several steps removed. [7] To make water molecules, you first need to break some hydrogen and oxygen molecules into atoms. [7] Very high temperatures are required to dissociate water into hydrogen and oxygen. A catalyst is required to make the process operate at feasible temperatures. [1] While other scientists of the time were familiar with the process of forming water from hydrogen and oxygen, Lavoisier was the one to discover the role of oxygen in combustion. [4] The process for turning gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into water is called "burning", and fires are generally bad in space. [3] Extracting water from "air" requires first that the air actually have both hydrogen and oxygen in it, and while we can assume that life support atmosphere has oxygen, it wouldn't make a lot of sense to go through the trouble to put hydrogen in it. [3] Manufacturing elemental hydrogen does require the consumption of a hydrogen carrier such as a fossil fuel or water. [1] A quick scan through the answers shows that you CAN produce water from reacting hydrogen and oxygen directly - just burn it. [7] Perhaps that we could just create water in the middle of the desert for example? Plenty of oxygen there, but you?d have to find a way to bring in the hydrogen. At that point you might as well just fly in actual water from the nearest oasis. [7] Most hydrogen in the lithosphere is bonded to oxygen in water. [1] We certainly can create water easily from hydrogen and oxygen. However, you arent going to get a Nobel Prize for solving the world clean water shortages. [7] Oxygen combined with hydrogen is an explosive, but both elements are present in water. [7] How does bacteria interact with Hydrogen and oxygen in Water? Does the bacteria break few bonds between hydrogen and oxygen to place itself in. [7] Hydrogen can be made via high pressure electrolysis, low pressure electrolysis of water, or a range of other emerging electrochemical processes such as high temperature electrolysis or carbon assisted electrolysis. [1] This is saturating molecular hydrogen, a neutral gas, into water. [5] Its much easier to make clean water from dirty water than to make water by generating hydrogen and burning that gas to make water. [7] There are a handful natural sources around the world that produce hydrogen rich water. [5] Note that some abstracts do not mention the source of their "hydrogen" water so you may have to find the full study text and even then there may not be any mention. [5] Nearly every other available source (like hydrocarbons) originally got their hydrogens from reactions with water in the distant past. [7] They has successfully developed medical devices that make a hydrogen rich water source with more than sufficient amounts for humans. [5] Pulling the hydrogen out of that compound, so that you can use it to make your water, is hard work. [7] I can?t go into the scientific details yet, but we?ve developed an efficient way of cracking water molecules to liberate hydrogen. [8] The short answer is that nature has already used all the available hydrogen to make water and greedily didnt leave any for you to play with. [7] The extraction of hydrogen from water is traditionally a very inefficient process. [8] I am suspicious that all significant effects are due to magnesium and/or hydroxide in the water rather than from dissolved hydrogen. [5] They introduced an iron-sulfur complex into the layered arrangement, which when submerged in water and irradiated with light under a small electric current, produced hydrogen with an efficiency of 60%. [1] You need a lot of hydrogen to make even just a little water. [7] I have a Mobile Molecular Hydrogen Generator that turns potable water into super anti-oxidant water. [5] I read several of the studies referenced in the "hydrogen water" section of the the site. [5] Great article! One question: Are you happy with the product recommended here? (Anself Portable Hydrogen Rich Water Ionizer). [5] I have a Big Berkey for the filtration part (excellent filtration/sterilisation, mostly Steel and much cheaper over the years of life of the two huge Black filter sticks, and can have post filters added for nasty stuff like Fluorine and agricultural chemicals) and an Anself Portable Hydrogen Rich Water Ionizer, the resulting water read as -200mv on a brand new, quality ORP meter. [5] These videos show the technical measurement of ORP and ppm of hydrogen in water. [5] We can make water from hydrogen and oxygen--and in small quantities, chemists and educators often do make it. [4] Although you are correct that chemical alkaline water is not only a scam but it's dangerous for your health and the vast majority of ionizers on the market are a complete waste of money there is one that does make a non chemical alkaline water that is rich in hydrogen. Unfortunately there is a lot of false and misleading information online. [5]

The most expensive part is the electricity used to extract hydrogen from water. [9]

Today's industrial-scale fuel cells sold by Connecticut companies Fuel Cell Energy and Doosan Fuel Cell America, the latter a division of a Korean company, extract hydrogen from natural gas, mostly methane, delivered through a pipeline. [6] We have found a new way to extract hydrogen more efficiently than conventional processes. [8]

As of 2004 and 2016, 96% of global hydrogen production is from fossil fuels (48% from natural gas, 30% from oil, and 18% from coal ); water electrolysis accounts for only 4%. [1] High pressure electrolysis is the electrolysis of water by decomposition of water (H 2 O) into oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen gas (H 2 ) by means of an electric current being passed through the water. [1] All it takes is a spark to turn hydrogen gas and oxygen gas into water. [4] In theory, it's extremely easy to make water from hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. [4] In 2015, it was reported that Panasonic Corp. has developed a photocatalyst based on niobium nitride that can absorb 57% of sunlight to support the decomposition of water to produce hydrogen gas. [1] Another easy demonstration is to bubble hydrogen into soapy water to form hydrogen gas bubbles. [4] European largest (1 400 000kg/a, High-pressure Electrolysis of water, acaline technology) hydrogen production plant is operating at Kokkola, Finland. [1]

Just a day later, a pair of papers outlined new ways to pull water from the air, one by harvesting fog more effectively and another that can extract moisture even in the driest deserts. [10] The Water Abundance XPRIZE was set up to challenge teams to create technology that could extract 2,000 liters of water a day from the air for no more than 2 cents (1.4 pence) per liter. [10] Even more because it may be nonlinearly more difficult to extract any water from nearly dry 2% rock than from a nice juicy vein or layer of polar ice. [2]

Using electricity produced by photovoltaic systems offers the cleanest way to produce hydrogen. Water is broken into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis--a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) process which is also named artificial photosynthesis. [1] Drinking hydrogen water also stimulates energy metabolism (as measured by oxygen consumption and CO2 production). [5] A recent study in mice showed that the neuroprotective effects of oral hydrogen water are mediated mainly by enhanced production of ghrelin by the stomach. [5] The study concluded that drinking hydrogen water is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in the blood. [5] In a study on patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant liver tumors, drinking hydrogen water (1.5 - 2 L/day) suppressed oxidative stress (as measured by elevation of total hydroperoxide levels) and prevented the loss of appetite. [5] In a study on rats that were surgically induced with a bladder obstruction, drinking hydrogen water significantly suppressed bladder weight increase and oxidative stress. [5] In a study on patients with the potential for metabolic syndrome, drinking hydrogen water (1.5 - 2 L/day) for 8 weeks showed an increase in HDL-cholesterol ("good" cholesterol) and a decrease in total cholesterol. [5] The study concluded that drinking hydrogen water may increase longevity in humans. [5] In a study on mice with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a devastating muscle disease, hydrogen water prevented abnormal body mass gain and increased the production of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase. [5] Hydrogen water restored the natural growth of brain cells in mice. [5] In human tongue and connective tissue cancer cells, hydrogen water suppressed tumor colony growth by reducing oxidative stress. [5] Hydrogen water also inhibited angiogenesis (blood vessel growth) in cultured human lung cancer cells. [5] Hydrogen water also reduced human skin cell damage from ultraviolet (UV) rays. [5] Studies in guinea pigs found that hydrogen-rich saline and water prevented the death of cochlear hair cells after noise exposure, indicating that hydrogen water may protect against noise-induced hearing loss. [5] Because antidepressants increase adult neurogenesis, hydrogen water may be used for improving depression and some mental disorders. [5] Drinking hydrogen water eliminated an immediate-type allergic reaction in mice. [5] MANY very competent scientists are drinking hydrogen water and sharing how to make their own without buying a machine. [5] Drinking hydrogen water prevented the development of Parkinson's disease in an experiment on rats. [5] Drinking hydrogen water improved mortality and body weight loss caused by an anti-cancer drug, cisplatin, and reduced kidney toxicity in mice. [5] Drinking hydrogen water also reduced inflammation and blood pressure in hemodialysis patients. [5] In an experiment with young athletes, drinking hydrogen water reduced lactic acid build-up during heavy exercise and decreased muscle fatigue. [5] Long-term drinking of hydrogen water controlled body fat and weight in rats, despite no change in food and water intake. [5] Clinical studies have shown that drinking hydrogen water directly protects the mitochondria and improves the outcome of mitochondrial disorders. [5] A clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance showed that drinking hydrogen water (900 mL) for 8 weeks decreased cholesterol, normalized glucose tolerance and improved insulin resistance in a majority of the treated patients. [5] A study found that hydrogen water may improve oral hygiene because of its antibacterial effect against cavity and gum disease-causing bacteria. [5] The study concluded that hydrogen water may be helpful for relieving nerve pain in a clinical setting. [5] Hydrogen water prevented both the development and progression of neural degeneration, and also suppressed neuronal loss in another Parkinson's disease mice study. [5] In a study on patients with Parkinson's disease, it was found that the intake of hydrogen water reduces neurotoxic damage, which agrees with previous studies on animals. [5] In a study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory disease, drank.5 L/day of hydrogen water for 4 weeks. [5] A study in rats showed that hydrogen water was able to prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). [5] A study found that pre-treating mice with hydrogen water before irradiation exposure increased survival rates and protected the heart from radiation-induced damage. [5] Bathing in hydrogen water for 3 months significantly improved wrinkles in the skin in a human study. [5] Hydrogen water consumption in rats had a protective effect against lung tissue injury by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress (through reduction of NF-?B activity). [5] There were also no adverse effects from the hydrogen water at high doses (1000 mL/day). [5] Treating diabetic mice with hydrogen water significantly improved heart muscle function, indicating that molecular hydrogen could be useful for diabetic heart muscle disease. [5] Have anyone tried Izumio hydrogen water from Japan ? It has a 2.6ppm, any comments will be appreciated.some people told me that Hydrogen machine easily get moldy and the water source is not as clean. [5] During the following readings I was consuming hydrogen water as my primary water source, first meal of day was fat-rich, unless noted otherwise, carbohydrates were concentrated in evening. [5] Hydrogen water contains hydrogen molecules that act as powerful antioxidants. [5] Hydrogen water in the form of a preservation solution reduced the damage of a variety of organs during transplantation. [5] Hydrogen water reduced oxidative stress and prevented cognitive impairment associated with dementia and Parkinson's disease. [5] Hydrogen water also significantly improved liver function and reduced oxidative stress in patients with chronic hepatitis B. [5] These results suggest that hydrogen water could help patients with a bladder obstruction by decreasing oxidative stress. [5] Hydrogen-rich water alleviated stomach mucosal injury induced by aspirin in rats (by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation), indicating that hydrogen water may protect healthy individuals from gut damage caused by oxidative stress. [5]

This involves splitting an oxygen molecule into two separate oxygen atoms that can then bind with hydrogen to form water -- an interaction that produces energy. [11] Hydrogen is produced by electrolysis, the process of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen, and requires large amounts of electricity. [12] Hydrogen is considered a clean energy source because fuel cells emit only water as a byproduct. [11] Green ribbons and blue lines respectively represent the backbone and Thr residues of TmAFP, while oxygen and hydrogen atoms of water are represented as red and white dots, respectively. [13] Another benefit of an alkaline infusion is that it contains higher levels of oxygen. When water has a pH reading of 7, it has an evenly balanced concentration of hydroxyl (OH-) ions and hydrogen ions (H+). [14]

For such a simple molecule that occurs everywhere, like in water, hydrogen is very hard to extract efficiently. [15] Note that the distance between ordered water molecules of ice surface is ~0.45 nm, which is in the minimum-distance range of 0.4~0.6 nm for TmAFP and TmAFP-m1, implying that Thr residues need to be densely spaced for the formation of strong hydrogen bonds. [13] To check this, we calculated average lifetimes of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and Thr residues on the ice-binding sites of mutated TmAFPs. [13] To compare the strengths of hydrogen bonds on the ice-binding and non-ice-binding sites and test the ability of different FFs to predict this, we calculated average lifetimes of hydrogen bonds between Thr residues and water molecules, which is the inverse of the rate constant for hydrogen-bond kinetics (breaking) described by the autocorrelation function of the hydrogen-bonding existence functions (either 0 or 1) averaged over all hydrogen bonds. [13] Experimental results have shown that the ice-binding site of AFP consists of many Thr residues and thus forms more hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water than does the non-ice-binding site of AFP, implying that the strengths of those hydrogen bonds may also differ. [13] Average lifetimes of hydrogen bonds between Thr residues and water molecules. [13] Dalal et al. observed that the extent of hydrogen bond does not significantly differ in the ice-water interface and bulk water, implying that the protein-ice binding is mainly due to van der Waals forces. [13] To test the ability of different FFs to predict the strength of hydrogen bonds between AFPs and TIP4P/Ice water, simulations of TmAFP with TIP4P/Ice water were performed using different FFs such as CHARMM, AMBER, and OPLS. Fig 1 shows snapshots for simulations of TmAFP with the growing ice as a function of simulation time. [13] Analyses of hydrogen-bond lifetime show that CHARMM FF more clearly distinguishes the strengths of hydrogen bonds in the ice-binding and non-ice-binding sites of TmAFP than do other FFs, which favorably compares with experiments, implying that CHARMM FF can be reasonably chosen to reproduce experimental observations on the secondary structure of AFP and its interaction with TIP4P/Ice water. [13] CHARMM FF more clearly distinguishes the strengths of hydrogen bonds in the ice-binding and non-ice-binding sites of TmAFP than do other FFs, in agreement with experiments, implying that CHARMM FF can be a reasonable choice to simulate proteins with TIP4P/Ice water. [13]

By separating hydrogen and oxygen, we can then recombine them to form water, which releases usable energy. [16] Photoelectrolysis, also known as water-splitting, uses electrolysis of water by light, where photoelectrodes actuate the process of splitting the hydrogen from oxygen by mimicking photosynthesis. [15] This hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen, and the only by-product is water. [15] They can electrolyze water to split the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen gas. [16] Fact: Water spontaneously dissociates into hydrogen and oxygen gas @ temperatures above 2500 C. [17] In theory, the water vapor first reaches 4532 F at which point it becomes atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen gas. [17] To better understand how hydrogen fuel cells work, here is some simple science about hydrogen, oxygen, and water. [16] It is less reactive than the other alkali metals with water, oxygen, and halogens and more reactive with nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. [18] H 2 O means two atoms of hydrogen combined with one atom of oxygen. It is the formula for one molecule of water. [16] At this temperature (4532 F and above), electrical input is reduced or unnecessary because water breaks down to hydrogen and oxygen through thermolysis. [17] We use simple test strips to test and add about 2 cups of hydrogen peroxide per 1000 gallons of water every couple of weeks. [19] They react vigorously, and often violently, with water to release hydrogen and form strong caustic solutions. [18] The novel p-type LaFeO3 photoelectrode results in spontaneous hydrogen evolution from water without any external bias applied. [15] When a flame of pure hydrogen gas (H2) burns in air, it reacts with oxygen (O2) to form water (H2O) and releases energy, which can be used as a fuel. [15] 2 molecules of water plus 4 electrons (electricity) creates 2 molecules of hydrogen gas and 1 molecule of oxygen gas. [16] The reaction involves equimolar mixtures (that is, equal numbers of atoms or molecules ) of the alkali metal and water to form a mole (an amount equal to that of the reactants) of alkali metal hydroxide and half a mole of hydrogen gas. [18]

Atomic hydrogen (the proton) does indeed continuously extract virtual energy from the active vacuum, integrate it into real observable energy, and radiate that real EM energy outward." [17]

By the early 2000's he was working on Hydrogen extraction from water, electrolysis, and trying to find more efficient ways to get fuel energy from water, than electrolysis could deliver. [20] This process uses renewable electricity to generate hydrogen from water, and then combines it with CO? captured from the atmosphere to produce hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel, gasoline, and Jet-A. It gives us a way to produce global scale quantities of clean fuels that are compatible with today's transportation infrastructure and engines, but add little or no fossil carbon emissions to the atmosphere. [21] A moon expedition would produce huge amounts of oxygen. The main use for this would be to transport it to low-Earth orbit and pair it with hydrogen launched from Earth (or collected elsewhere) for fuel or for water. 1 ton of water contains 888.9kg oxygen and 111.1kg hydrogen; 1t of hydrogen from earth could be paired with 9t of oxygen from the Moon to yield 10 tons of fuel or water; this 10:1 ratio provides significant savings. [22] Using this ISRU water source to make up roughly half of the needed water to fuel the Sabatier processor will require roughly two gigawatt-hours of power to mine, produce, and deliver the makeup hydrogen for a single BFR propellant load. [22] Oxygen generators on board the International Space Station produce oxygen from water using electrolysis ; the hydrogen produced was previously discarded into space. [22] Looking at molecular masses, we have produced sixteen grams of methane and 64 grams of oxygen using four grams of hydrogen (which would have to be imported from Earth unless Martian water was electrolysed), for a mass gain of 20:1; and the methane and oxygen are in the right stochiometric ratio to be burned in a rocket engine. [22]

This is driven primarily because this process can exploit the extremely high availability of carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere to create both the methane fuel and water, which can be broken down into useful hydrogen and the oxygen oxidizer needed to run the BFR engines. [22] Hydrogen is combined with CO 2 from the atmosphere, with methane then stored as fuel and the water side product electrolyzed yielding oxygen to be liquefied and stored as oxidizer and hydrogen to be recycled back into the reactor. [22] This scenario assumes use of Lightsails; asteroidal resources would remain attractive even using ion engines, deployable solar sails, or chemical rockets burning liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) from electrolyzed asteroidal water. [22] Besides its obvious uses, water was the raw material from which oxygen and hydrogen were electrolyzed. [22]

Byproducts of the process are hydrogen and water, and Monolith will sell the hydrogen produced to NPPD as fuel. [23] In the Belt they know they can reach civilization and civilization's byproducts: stored air and water, hydrogen fuel, women and other people, a new air regenerator, autodocs and therapeutic psychomimetic drugs. [22] Unfortunately, for every 44 kilograms of carbon dioxide that is converted into 16 kilograms of methane in the Sabatier process, you need four kilograms of hydrogen. The Sabatier process only produces 36 kilograms of water in the balanced reaction. [22] It involves the reaction of hydrogen with carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures (optimally 300-400C) and pressures in the presence of a nickel catalyst to produce methane and water. [22] NASA is using the Sabatier reaction to recover water from exhaled carbon dioxide and the hydrogen previously discarded from electrolysis on the International Space Station and possibly for future missions. [22] A partial source that can be used to obtain the needed hydrogen is through the electrolysis of the water by-product that results from the Sabatier reactor. [22] P22-Hyd both breaks the chemical bonds of water to create hydrogen and also works in reverse to recombine hydrogen and oxygen to generate power. [22] This creates a nearly-closed cycle between water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide which only requires a relatively modest amount of imported hydrogen to maintain. [22] Water sourcing and further propellant processing to obtain the needed hydrogen and to produce propellant oxygen oxidizer is covered in section 3 below. (Authors clarification note: For purposes of this first order analysis, the extremely small amounts of water obtained from the Martian atmosphere are an infinitesimal contribution to water supplies needed and are not included in the results). [22] When charged with hydrogen and atmospheric carbon dioxide, it produces water and methane. (The similar Bosch reactor uses an iron catalyst to produce elemental carbon and water.) [22] Scientists at Indiana University have created a highly efficient biomaterial that catalyzes the formation of hydrogen -- one half of the "holy grail" of splitting H 2 O to make hydrogen and oxygen for fueling cheap and efficient cars that run on water. [22] Products of this early mission would be water, hydrogen, oxygen, base metals, possibly ceramics and possibly semiconductors. [22] Water can be used straight (instead of hydrogen) by a nuclear thermal rocket, abet with a performance penalty. [22] Assuming you have access to huge amounts of water for hydrogen to feed fusion reactors to power the geegees. [22] That air was mostly hydrogen and helium, but rich in methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide, water vapor; less full of ethylene, benzene, formaldehyde, and a dozen other organics, but nonetheless offering them in abundance. [22] The original hydrogen could be transported from Earth or separated from martian sources of water. [22] An additional source of water is needed to obtain the make-up hydrogen feed stock for the Sabatier reactor. [22] Comets have the most water ice of all small bodies (although it has other nasty stuff like hydrogen cyanide). [22] This input would be reduced with hydrogen to form iron metal, titanium dioxide and water. [22] In the1990s, scientists obtained data from the Lunar Prospector probe that shook their confidence: the neutron current from the satellite surface was indicative of a larger fraction of hydrogen at the near-surface soil of some regions of the moon, which one could interpret as a sign of the presence of water. [22]

Many proposals assume the use of a reactant gas (usually hydrogen) which will be recycled; this gas is used to extract oxygen at lower temperatures than would be required otherwise. [22] In line with the concept of circular economy which aim to use resources as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them, and regenerate materials at the end, the International Clean Energy Partnership Foundation Climate Technology Centre (ICEPS CTC) Bonn, Germany has showcased hydrogen fuel cell technology. [24]

It is being equipped to pump seawater into an H2 Global water energy conversion box, extract clean fuel energy to run the engines, and return the seawater, as pristine as it was, when it entered the process. [20] The mass of a plant that extracts 600 t/yr of water is estimated at about 86 t with a power requirement of about 1067 kWe. [22] The successful field test of their larger, next-generation harvester proved what the team had predicted earlier in 2017: that the water harvester can extract drinkable water every day/night cycle at very low humidity and at low cost, making it ideal for people living in arid, water-starved areas of the world. [25]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

Hydrogen would firstly be used onsite in fuel cells (CHP) or for transportation due to its greater efficiency of production and then methane created which could then be injected into the existing gas network to generate electricity and heat on demand to overcome low points of renewable energy production. [1] Other fuel cell technologies based on the exchange of metal ions (e.g. zinc-air fuel cells ) are typically more efficient at energy conversion than hydrogen fuel cells, but the widespread use of any electrical energy? chemical energy? electrical energy systems would necessitate the production of electricity. [1]

Using renewable energy source to generate hydrogen by electrolysis would require greater energy input than direct use of the renewable energy to operate electric vehicles, because of the extra conversion stages and losses in distribution. [1] And less explosively, it is possible to reduce the energy barrier by using a catalyst (platinum is good here) which allows the molecules to dissociate at room temperature and pressure by providing a surface onto which they can adsorb to form an intermediate between the catalyst and the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen - this requires far less energy than just pulling the molecules apart. [7]

An alternative to gaseous hydrogen as an energy carrier is to bond it with nitrogen from the air to produce ammonia, which can be easily liquefied, transported, and used (directly or indirectly) as a clean and renewable fuel. [1] In a similar way as with synthetic alcohol production, hydrogen can be used on site to directly (nonbiologically) produce greenhouse-neutral gaseous fuels. [1] The energy content of the produced hydrogen is less than the energy content of the original fuel, some of it being lost as excessive heat during production. [1] The energy content of a unit of hydrogen fuel must be manufactured, and so has a significant cost, on top of all the costs of refining, transportation, and distribution. [1] Natural-gas-powered vehicles already exist, and are known to be easier to adapt from existing internal engine technology, than internal combustion autos running directly on hydrogen. Experience with natural gas powered vehicles shows that methane storage is inexpensive, once one has accepted the cost of conversion to store the fuel. [1] A natural gas network may be used for the storage of hydrogen. Before switching to natural gas, the German gas networks were operated using towngas, which for the most part consisted of hydrogen. The storage capacity of the German natural gas network is more than 200,000 GWh which is enough for several months of energy requirement. [1] A study of the well-to-wheels efficiency of hydrogen vehicles compared to other vehicles in the Norwegian energy system indicates that hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (FCV) tend to be about a third as efficient as EVs when electrolysis is used, with hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) being barely a sixth as efficient. [1] In periods when there is surplus wind energy, the excess power is used for generating hydrogen by electrolysis. [1]

The Courant editorial "State Should Invest In Fuel Cells" implies that fuel cells are a source of "renewable energy" that run on "hydrogen and oxygen, no burning required". [6] Again the dilemmas of production sources and transportation of hydrogen can now be overcome using on site (home, business, or fuel station) generation of hydrogen from off grid renewable sources. [1] Captive-hydrogen-mediated production of greenhouse-neutral methane has been proposed (note that this is the reverse of the present method of acquiring hydrogen from natural methane, but one that does not require ultimate burning and release of fossil fuel carbon). [1] In 2004, the production of unit of hydrogen fuel by steam reformation or electrolysis was approximately 3 to 6 times more expensive than the production of an equivalent unit of fuel from natural gas. [1] If hydrogen is produced by electrolysis from fossil-fuel powered generators, increased carbon dioxide is emitted in comparison with direct use of the fossil fuel. [1] Hydrogen is industrially produced from steam reforming, which uses fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, or coal. [1] A theoretical alternative to address the same problem is to produce hydrogen centrally and immediately use it to make liquid fuels from a CO 2 source. [1] The energy that must be utilized per kilogram to produce, transport and deliver hydrogen (i.e., its well-to-tank energy use) is approximately 50 MJ using technology available in 2004. [1] Thermochemical production of hydrogen using chemical energy from coal or natural gas is generally not considered, because the direct chemical path is more efficient. [1] Producing hydrogen from primary energy sources other than coal, oil, and natural gas, would result in lower production of the greenhouse gases characteristic of the combustion of these fossil energy resources. [1] Hydrogen produced by steam reformation costs approximately three times the cost of natural gas per unit of energy produced. [1] Because some of the energy in HTE is supplied in the form of heat, less of the energy must be converted twice (from heat to electricity, and then to chemical form), and so potentially far less energy is required per kilogram of hydrogen produced. [1] Hydrogen can be generated from energy supplied in the form of heat and electricity through high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). [1]

Hydrogen in a full "hydrogen economy" was initially suggested as a way to make renewable energy, in non-polluting form, available to automobiles. [1] To start this off you need to add some energy e.g. in the form of a spark (fun: actually a small platinum wire is enough: it will split some hydrogen molecules on its surface). [7] Although molecular hydrogen has very high energy density on a mass basis, partly because of its low molecular weight, as a gas at ambient conditions it has very low energy density by volume. [1] A German case study on storage of hydrogen in salt caverns found that if the German power surplus (7% of total variable renewable generation by 2025 and 20% by 2050) would be converted to hydrogen and stored underground, these quantities would require some 15 caverns of 500,000 cubic metres each by 2025 and some 60 caverns by 2050 - corresponding to approximately one third of the number of underground gas caverns currently operated in Germany. [1] Another study referenced by a European staff working paper found that for large scale storage, the cheapest option is hydrogen at 140/MWh for 2,000 hours of storage using an electrolyser, salt cavern storage and combined-cycle power plant. [1]

Using similar chemical processes to those used in paper mills, the CO2 is extracted then combined with hydrogen to create carbon-neutral fuels. [10] Many of the hybrid strategies described above, using captive hydrogen to generate other more easily usable fuels, might be more effective than hydrogen-production alone. [1] Joi Scientific has the means to break those limitations and make hydrogen available as an affordable fuel, to be generated at the point of use. [8] It is expected that the general public will be able to use hydrogen technologies in everyday life with at least the same level of safety and comfort as with today's fossil fuels. [1] Ultimate mature prices of fuels in the competing technologies are not presently known, but both are expected to offer substantial infrastructural savings over attempts to transport and use hydrogen directly. [1] "Japan plans to use imported liquefied hydrogen to fuel Tokyo 2020 Olympics". http://fairplay.ihs.com/. [1] As noted above, hydrogen can be produced from a number of feedstocks, in centralized or distributed fashion, and these afford more efficient pathways to produce and distribute the fuel. [1]

The process described would be to create hydrogen (which could partly be used directly in fuel cells) and the addition of carbon dioxide CO 2 possibly from BECCS (Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture & Storage ) via the (Sabatier reaction) to create methane as follows: CO 2 + 4H 2 ? CH 4 + 2H 2 O. [1] Captive hydrogen (and carbon dioxide from, for example, CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage)) may be used onsite to synthesize methane, using the Sabatier reaction. [1]

The distributed production of hydrogen in this fashion would be expected to generate air emissions of pollutants and carbon dioxide at various points in the supply chain, e.g., electrolysis, transportation and storage. [1] When excess electricity is available after the batteries are full, hydrogen is generated by electrolysis and stored for later production of electricity by fuel cell. [1] Even in the case where hydrogen fuel cells get their hydrogen from natural gas reformation rather than electrolysis, and EVs get their power from a natural gas power plant, the EVs still come out ahead 35% to 25% (and only 13% for a H 2 ICE). [1] Using the existing natural gas system for hydrogen Fuel cell maker Hydrogenics and natural gas distributor Enbridge have teamed up to develop such a power to gas system in Canada. [1] The Hydrogen Expedition is currently working to create a hydrogen fuel cell-powered ship and using it to circumnavigate the globe, as a way to demonstrate the capability of hydrogen fuel cells. [1] A joint venture between NREL and Xcel Energy is combining wind power and hydrogen power in the same way in Colorado. [1] Distributed energy generation schemes (such as small scale renewable energy sources) could be used, possibly associated with hydrogen stations. [1] Higher volumetric energy density liquid hydrogen or slush hydrogen may be used. [1] Because it is a cryogenic liquid, still more energy could be expected to be lost as the hydrogen boils away as it is warmed by heat leaking in from the outside environment during transport and storage. [1] The storage of large quantities of liquid hydrogen underground can function as grid energy storage. [1] This is even lower than hydrogen, but the storage costs drop by at least a factor of 3, because of methane's higher boiling point and higher energy density. [1] Its on-demand and on-board nature mean that hydrogen is converted into a gas at the point of use - thus, eliminating any requirements for specialized storage and transportation. [8] You can use hydrogen from a compressed gas tank or from any of several chemical reactions (e.g., reacting acid with metal). [4] General Atomics predicts that hydrogen produced in a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) would cost $1.53/kg. [1] Photo-fermentation with Rhodobacter sphaeroides SH2C can be employed to convert small molecular fatty acids into hydrogen. Electrohydrogenesis is used in microbial fuel cells where hydrogen is produced from organic matter (e.g. from sewage, or solid matter ) while 0.2 - 0.8 V is applied. [1] With biocatalysed electrolysis, hydrogen is generated after running through the microbial fuel cell and a variety of aquatic plants can be used. [1] Although hydrogen can be used in conventional internal combustion engines, fuel cells, being electrochemical, have a theoretical efficiency advantage over heat engines. [1] While hydrogen generation efficiency is likely to be lower than for centralized hydrogen generation, losses in hydrogen transport could make such a scheme more efficient in terms of the primary energy used per kilogram of hydrogen delivered to the end user. [1] A study by The Carbon Trust for the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change suggests that hydrogen technologies have the potential to deliver UK transport with near-zero emissions whilst reducing dependence on imported oil and curtailment of renewable generation. [1] Of the available energy of the feed, approximately 48% is contained in the hydrogen, 40% is contained in activated carbon and 10% in superheated steam. [1] By pressurising the hydrogen in the electrolyser, through a process known as chemical compression, the need for an external hydrogen compressor is eliminated, the average energy consumption for internal compression is around 3%. [1] "Introducing and energy analysis of a novel cryogenic hydrogen liquefaction process configuration". [1] In such a scenario, small regional plants or even local filling stations could generate hydrogen using energy provided through the electrical distribution grid. [1] Dark fermentation reactions do not require light energy, so they are capable of constantly producing hydrogen from organic compounds throughout the day and night. [1] While millions of tons of elemental hydrogen are distributed around the world each year in various ways, bringing hydrogen to individual consumers would require an evolution of the fuel infrastructure. [1] The mass of the hydrogen tanks needed for compressed hydrogen reduces the fuel economy of the vehicle. [1] "Safety of compressed hydrogen fuel tanks: Leakage from stationary vehicles". [1] Sjtr: Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, but its adoption has been limited by cost and availability. [8] If natural gas costs $6/million BTU, then hydrogen will be $18/million BTU. Also, producing hydrogen from electrolysis with electricity at 5 cents/kWh will cost $28/million BTU -- about 1.5 times the cost of hydrogen from natural gas. [1] This makes production of hydrogen via electrolysis cost competitive in many regions already, as outlined by Nel Hydrogen and others, including an article by the IEA examining the conditions which could lead to a competitive advantage for electrolysis. [1] "Chapter 3: Production of Hydrogen. Part 4: Production from electricity by means of electrolysis". [1] The Kvner-process or Kvaerner carbon black & hydrogen process (CB&H) is a method, developed in the 1980s by a Norwegian company of the same name, for the production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons (C n H m ), such as methane, natural gas and biogas. [1] In terms of EVs it is much better to have a process which produces the hydrogen as a gas on board the EV. This I would say is the Holy Grail of Transport. [8]

Molecular hydrogen (H2) can protect cells and tissues from oxidative damage by selectively reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). [5] Molecular hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from oxidative damage. [5]

Hydrogen treatment also inhibited irradiation-induced death in cultured human white blood cells, suggesting that hydrogen may be used as an effective radioprotective agent. [5] The buses' fuel cells used a proton exchange membrane system and were supplied with raw hydrogen from a BP refinery in Kwinana, south of Perth. [1] No-one I noticed has stated that this is the basis of the hydrogen / oxygen fuel cell (though perhaps alluded to n the reference to the movie "The Martian"). [7] Then you have to store that hydrogen. You dont need to store the oxygen. You can just grab that from the air as and when it is required. [7] In the late 1990s it was discovered that if the algae is deprived of sulfur it will switch from the production of oxygen, i.e. normal photosynthesis, to the production of hydrogen. [1] French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier named hydrogen (Greek for "water-forming") based on its reaction with oxygen (another element Lavoisier named, which means "acid-producer"). [4]

Liquid methane has 3.2 times the energy density of liquid hydrogen and is easier to store compactly. [1]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(33 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (208) Hydrogen economy - Wikipedia

2. (83) 27 Surprising Hydrogen Water Health Benefits - Selfhacked

3. (37) Mining - Atomic Rockets

4. (36) Structures, dynamics, and hydrogen-bond interactions of antifreeze proteins in TIP4P/Ice water and their dependence on force fields

5. (32) Water woo - RationalWiki

6. (24) Off The Grid Hydrogen Powered Generator

7. (24) How to Make Water From Hydrogen and Oxygen

8. (22) A new inexpensive and easy to produce catalyst for hydrogen fuel cells - Innovation Toronto

9. (22) Untitled 1

10. (20) Why can we not simply create water if it's the simple combination of hydrogen and oxygen? - Quora

11. (13) mars - Is there any economical way to move the water from the Martian poles to the people? - Space Exploration Stack Exchange

12. (13) Extracting hydrogen from water " H2-international

13. (11) plot explanation - Why is water so scarce in "The Expanse"? - Movies & TV Stack Exchange

14. (10) How to Minimize Chlorine Exposure When Swimming | Wellness Mama

15. (9) Pulling Water, Fuel, and Power From Thin Air Is Getting Practical

16. (9) alkali metal | Definition, Properties, & Facts | Britannica.com

17. (8) Indian-Origin Scientist Leads Team That Finds Way to Make Fuel From Sunlight! | EQ Intl Magazine

18. (7) How Can Hydrogen Rich Water Change Your Future Health? " filkaline

19. (5) The Truth About Fuel Cells - Hartford Courant

20. (4) World's Largest Artificial Sun Now Shining in Germany

21. (4) 2018-06-16 Moray King and Walter Jenkins The Hyperdimensional Energy of Water . The Other Side of Midnight

22. (3) NPPD to burn hydrogen at Sheldon Station near Hallam | Local | journalstar.com

23. (3) HORIBA - Oxygen/Nitrogen/Hydrogen Analyzer

24. (3) Water-based battery with potential to store solar and wind energy developed by researchers

25. (3) Hydrogen Gas - June 6th, 1918 - A Year of War

26. (2) Waste-to-energy: Centre showcases hydrogen fuel cell technology Ecogreen News

27. (2) Carbon dioxide as fuel may be future | Science | The Journal Gazette

28. (1) Carbon Engineering: CO2 capture and the synthesis of clean transportation fuels

29. (1) In desert trials, next-generation water harvester delivers fresh water from air

30. (1) News About Energy Technology

31. (1) Oxygen | FrackinUniverse Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

32. (1) Energy and Resources News -- ScienceDaily

33. (1) Hydro Boost Water Gel | Ulta Beauty

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