The Science Of Elections

C O N T E N T S:


  • The maturation of election science as a field partially fulfills the political scientist David Easton’s aspiration of a science that actively protects “humane values of civilization” like political equality and justice.(More…)


  • By applying scientific principles to how elections are studied and administered, MEDSL aims to improve the democratic experience for all U.S. voters.(More…)


The Science Of Elections
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The maturation of election science as a field partially fulfills the political scientist David Easton’s aspiration of a science that actively protects “humane values of civilization” like political equality and justice. [1] Today, election science is one of the most advanced fields in the study of politics, as evidenced by the recent publication of The Oxford Handbook of Electoral Systems. [1] This special one-hour webinar, teaches you how to organize a successful event and help bring science to the midterm elections. [2] Being vigilant about the integrity of our elections has profound implications for all sciences. [1] We are pleased to announce that we are funding 8 proposals in 2018 as part of our New Initiatives Grants in Election Science Program. [3] Organize an activity that elevates the role of science in the midterm elections! Whether you invite your elected official to a backyard barbecue with your friends and neighbors or organize a more formal candidate forum, an event can motive candidates to stand up for science. [2] The Center for Election Science is a nonpartisan 501(c)(3) nonprofit comprising voting system experts and activists. [4] You can do your part through groups like Science Rising, organizing to fight back against efforts to sideline science and subvert democratic participation in the 2018 elections. [1]

The NAS recognizes and promotes outstanding science through election to membership; publication in its journal, PNAS ; and its awards, programs, and special activities. [5] Eric Rosenbach, Co-Director of Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, and former Chief of Staff to the Secretary of Defense and Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Global Security, testified to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on March 21, 2018, on Russian Interference in the 2016 U.S. Elections. [6]

The aim of the California project is to help local officials pinpoint any “anomalies” in their data, providing “metric-based evaluations” on the integrity of elections, according to Michael Alvarez, a Caltech political science professor. [7]


By applying scientific principles to how elections are studied and administered, MEDSL aims to improve the democratic experience for all U.S. voters. [3] “The voters preferred Coleman to both of the other candidates, and yet he lost the election,” Powers wrote. [8] Both potentially violate Condorcet’s Theorem–as in the philosopher-mathematician the Marquis de Condorcet, who in 1785 said in part that an election should be won by a candidate who?d beat all the other candidates head-to-head. (Sequential pairwise voting, in which you eliminate the losers March Madness style, gives you a clear Condorcet winner ? but that winner is different for every order you run the matchups.) [8] Indeed, some of the campaigning leading up to election day involved telling people which two candidates to vote for, regardless of order–basically, please vote against the other corner of the triangle. [8] Candidates will be campaigning near your town in the weeks and months leading up to the election. [2] From electoral system design in new democracies, to effects on party systems, election administration and the reformation of old institutions, our collective knowledge is expanding at a rapid pace. [1] Mail-in ballots merely had to be postmarked by election day, and as I write the city is reporting 87,000 votes yet to be processed. [8] Fun problem: In the same election with the same vote counts, plurality, antiplurality, and Borda count could all yield different winners. [8] Election methods vary by their complexity, their ability to produce optimal results, and their vulnerability to tactical voting. [4] In the 1950s the economist Kenneth Arrow set out to find the one best voting method, one election to rule them all. [8] It is no surprise that those who manipulate election laws to entrench themselves in office are the same actors trying to subvert scientific integrity and oversight in the public sphere. [1] San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee died in December of 2017; the election to replace him was Tuesday. [8]

Flip side, imagine how different American history might be if the 2000 presidential election (Al Gore virtually tied with George W. Bush, Ralph Nader and Pat Buchanan as spoilers) had been ranked choice. [8] Instead of splitting up other races by party, in California everyone goes onto the same ballot, and the top two vote-getters advance to the general election in November. [8]

Scientific American maintains a strict policy of editorial independence in reporting developments in science to our readers. [1] Democracy works, like science, through constant experiment. [1] This responsibility extends to all practitioners and lovers of science, for the operation of science depends on the operation of democracy. [1] Where democracy is strong, science is elevated and respected, because both share fundamental principles: respect for evidence, a commitment to openness and transparency, and not just tolerance but a “hunger for” opposing views, in the words of Harvard science and technology studies professor Sheila Jasanoff. [1]

That’s why the attacks on science by both Congress and the Trump administration have real consequences on our local communities, especially those already facing greater risks to their safety. [9] We depend on federal agencies like the EPA and the FDA to use science to keep us safe and healthy. [9]

Join thousands of others who have made the pledge to vote for science. [2] UCS is a proud organizing partner of Science Rising, a nationwide movement that fights for science in our democracy. [2]

Over the past two years, we?ve watched our government sideline science from important decisions about climate change, vehicles emissions, missile defense, food safety, and more–putting our health, environment, and security at risk. [2]

Many first-time candidates with science, technology and engineering backgrounds say they are motivated to run by what they say is an attack on science by the Trump administration. [10] International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 13. [11] Through the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the NAS provides objective, science-based advice on critical issues affecting the nation. [5] He also works as managing editor of the Science team at KQED, the PBS and NPR station in San Francisco, and has taught science writing at UC Berkeley and UC Santa Cruz. [12]

American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 60, Issue. 4, p. 1026. [11] Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 273. [11] PS: Political Science & Politics, Vol. 47, Issue. 01, p. 125. [11]

Although business groups regularly battle with environmentalists in other states, many in the Bay Area and Southern California are increasingly finding common ground, said Larry Gerston, a professor emeritus of political science at San Jose State University. [12]

What is deadly serious is the prospect of a malicious actor — who could be a foreign government, domestic extremist group or a single individual — acting to degrade the integrity of elections in the U.K. [6] When we talk about the integrity of elections, we tend to think about voter registration, transparency of donations, or the secrecy of our ballots. [6] In the previous AGU election 2 years ago, nearly 6,000 comments were received from voters and reviewed, with 91% of voters indicating that they were satisfied or very satisfied. [13] Election results will be announced in October, and newly elected members of the Board and Council will be invited to observe the December 2018 Board and Council meetings held in conjunction with Fall Meeting in Washington, D. C. Elected members will serve 2 years, from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020. [13] All EBBS members in good standing position (those who have paid their EBBS fees) are eligible to vote in the election. [14] Deadline for the INE to declare the validity of the election in favor of the candidate who obtained the majority of the votes. [15] The American Geophysical Union (AGU) Governance Committee and section officers are pleased to announce the slate of candidates for the 2018 AGU election. [13] For the upcoming election, the committee made improvements to the highly successful candidate selection process used in previous ones. [13] Board candidates will compete for six open positions on the Board in this year’s election: president-elect, general secretary/treasurer, international secretary, and three directors. [13] Names of all new Coordinating Committee members will be released following the SIG elections. [16] Only SIG affiliates (ASHA Members, including those who joined SIGs as doctoral students) are eligible to participate in the elections. [16]

Emails with election information will go out to all eligible voters beginning in August. [13] Visit the Survey and Ballot Systems website to remove yourself from mailings from SBS ; please note that if you want to receive mailings for future SIG elections, you will have to contact SBS to have your name and e-mail address returned to the contact list. [16] I?m sharing my experience of the challenge we face in the United States not to argue about what might have happened in previous elections, but to encourage folks in both of our countries to come together with forward-looking solutions. [6] Across California and the Bay Area, environmental groups had one of their best elections ever. [12] The cube law was proposed around 1910 to express the conversion of a party’s vote shares into its seat share in two-party plurality elections with single-seat districts. [11]

Whether in the wake of the U.K.’s EU referendum in June 2016, the U.S. presidential election that November, or the 2017 British general election, newspapers have been filled with endless speculation about foreign governments attempting to influence the outcome of elections. [6] Most voters already know that Gavin Newsom and Dianne Feinstein who easily advanced to the November general election in their races for governor and U.S. senator were among the big winners in Tuesday’s California primary election. [12] I?m sure both would agree that the outcome of the next general election should be decided by the British voters, not by foreign hackers. [6] Political parties in the U.K. might have some resources centrally, but a general election with thousands of candidates contesting 650 constituencies presents a huge number of vulnerabilities for a determined attacker to strike at. [6] Deadline for the Superior Chamber of the Electoral Tribunal of the Judicial Branch to proceed with the final count for the presidential election, declare the validity of the results and grant the winning candidate the presidency. [15] The Electoral Tribunal is in charge of resolving any challenges to the presidential election. [15]

To be eligible to vote in the 2018 election, you must be a member in good standing, which requires joining AGU or renewing your membership by 1 August 2018. [13] The members below have been nominated to stand for election to the Committee. [14]

Mook and I don?t agree on much politically, but one thing we are in lockstep on is that only U.S. voters should decide U.S. elections. [6]

Elections and public opinion; history of U.S. electoral politics; the problem of voter participation; partisanship and voting; accounting for voting decisions; explaining and forecasting election outcomes; elections and divided government; money and elections; electoral politics and representative democracy. [17] The United States Government, including the Central Intelligence Agency, had a strong influence on the 1953 elections, and candidates in the election fiercely competed with each other for U.S. support. [18] In October 2016, the U.S. government accused Russia of interfering in the 2016 United States elections using a number of strategies including the hacking of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) and leaking its documents to WikiLeaks, which then leaked them to the media. [18] According to the study, the U.S. intervened in 81 foreign elections between 1946 and 2000, while the Soviet Union or Russia intervened in 36. [18] One study indicated that the country intervening in most foreign elections is the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000 – an average of once in every nine competitive elections. [18] A 2016 study by Dov Levin found that, among 938 global elections examined, the United States and Russia combined had involved themselves in about one out of nine (117), with the majority of those (68%) being through covert, rather than overt, actions. [18]

Although it was recognized that negotiations were nearing a successful conclusion, the government of Iran delayed their release until after the election, potentially in retaliation for the decision of Carter to admit the deposed Iranian leader Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to the United States for cancer treatment. [18] Leaking the captured Polish government document failed to have its intended effect, and Republican presidential nominee Wendell Willkie lost the election. [18] In the primaries that year, barely more than 24% of eligible Democrats participated in the election, and even fewer Republicans cast a vote in their primary. [19] The ideological differences between these candidates connects the PA-07 Democratic primary to a broader conversation we’re having in 2018 about whether Democrats are moving left to try to win elections (note: according to a recent paper, that may not be such a good idea ). [20] A Democratic political operative for more than 40 years, Ms. Brazile encountered a firestorm of criticism last fall when she published her memoir of the 2016 election, Hacks: The Inside Story of the Break-Ins and Breakdowns That Put Donald Trump in the White House. [19] The presidency, Congress, the courts, political parties and elections, interest groups, and public opinion. [17]

In the Bolivian elections of 2002, the U.S., which had been financing the eradication of coca farms, instructed Ambassador Manuel Rocha to warn Bolivians against voting for socialist candidate Evo Morales, stating that doing so could “jeopardize American assistance and investment.” [18] Malware that would have displayed a graphic declaring far-right candidate Dmytro Yarosh the electoral winner was removed from Ukraine’s Central Election Commission less than an hour before polls closed. [18] Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. [18] Disputes over elections have proliferated on all sides in Trump’s America with heated debate about the key problems – whether the risks of electoral fraud, fake news, voter suppression, or Russian interference -and no consensus about the right solutions. [21] Neal Kelley, Orange County’s registrar of voters, said his office has applied additional defenses to protect elections since 2016. [7] The Voter Registration and Election Office is open Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., and additional hours on Saturday, June 2, and Saturday, June 9, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. [22] The South Vietnamese government, in consultation with the Nixon campaign, announced three days prior to the election that they would not be participating in the talks, and Nixon went on to win the vote by less than a percentage point. [18] In August 2017, Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdo?an called for all his “countrymen” in Germany to vote against the CDU/CSU, the SDP and the Green Party in the upcoming German federal election. [18] U.S. President George W. Bush objected to such election interference, and Hamas won, despite millions of clandestine dollars flowing from the Bush administration to Fatah during the closing weeks of the campaign. [18] Former Director of National Intelligence James Clapper said President Vladimir Putin’s objective during the 2016 election was to sow doubt in the U.S. and that Moscow’s efforts were significantly ramped up from previous elections. [7] “The long history of the U.S. interfering with elections elsewhere”, Washington Post (13 October 2016). [18]

Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon wanted to halt the elections if Hamas ran candidates. [18] In the 1948 Italian elections, described as an “apocalyptic test of strength between communism and democracy,” the administration of Harry Truman, allied with the Roman Catholic Church, funneled millions of dollars in funding to the Christian Democracy party and other right-leaning socialist parties through the War Powers Act of 1941 in addition to supplying military advisers, in preparation for a potential civil war. [18] In the 1953 election in the then British Guiana, the leftist People’s Progressive Party won a large majority. [18]

Concern about the integrity of American elections did not start with Trump’s election, by any means; flaws in procedures have gradually grown during recent decades. [21] Third-party reviews “are just as important to the overall integrity of our elections,” Kelley said in an email, noting that the Caltech partnership provides a “top-to-bottom” look at the election process. [7] I admit you played a role in the election and cast your vote for me [18] The United States planned to hold separate elections in the south of the peninsula, a plan which was opposed by Australia, Canada and Syria as members of the commission. [18] ” Former Soviet ambassador to the United States Oleg Troyanovsky confirms Kennedy’s acknowledgment, but also quotes Kennedy doubting whether the Soviet support made a difference: “I don’t think it affected the elections in any way.” [18]

“Obama administration announces measures to punish Russia for 2016 election interference”. [18] Channel One Russia “reported that Mr. Yarosh had won and broadcast the fake graphic, citing the election commission’s website, even though it had never appeared there.” [18] “US officially accuses Russia of hacking DNC and interfering with election”. [18] “US accuses Russia of trying to interfere with 2016 election”. [18]

They’re developing analytic tools that could help election officials review voting data for irregularities. [7] There’s a four-day break in voting until Election Day on Tuesday, June 26th. [19] Fancy Bear, another Russian conduit for cyberwarfare implicated in interference in several elections in Europe and North America. [18] ‘The UK’s election watchdog has now questioned Google over Russian meddling in Brexit’ (28 November 2017) Business Insider. [18]

Faced with this, UNTCOK eventually recommended the election take place only in the south, but that the results would be binding on all of Korea. [18] Although the aggressive pro-Yeltsin campaign boosted his approval rate from initial 6% to 35% that he got during the first round of elections, and later made him win the second round against the left-wing competitor with 54% to 40%, there were wide speculations about the rigged nature of the official results. [18] “The legitimacy of foreign intervention in elections: the Ukrainian response”. [18] In April, Facebook announced that it would invite scholars to study the impact of social media on elections. [23] Conversely the Soviet Union forbade such elections in the north of the peninsula all together. [18]

In the 5th Congressional District’s Democratic Primary, ten candidates are running to win the general election nod and face off against Republican Pearl Kim in the fall. [20] If Republican primary voters do allow Saccone to carry their baton, he could face backlash in the general election as part of this new district voted against him in the PA-18 special election in march. [20] The winner will go up against Republican Gov. Larry Hogan in the general election in November. [19] The winner of the primary will run unopposed in the general election. [19] Suffice to say, whoever wins the Democratic primary in this seat is the very likely favorite heading into the general elections. [20] Continuing our series of Conversations with the Candidates, our focus today is on the Democratic primary election later this month for Baltimore City State’s Attorney. [19] Today, we continue our series of Conversations with the Candidates, in the run-up to Maryland’s June 26th primary elections. [19]

Vincent Bollor a French billionaire close to then- French president Nicolas Sarkozy, allegedly gave financial support to presidential candidate Alpha Condin the 2010 Guinean presidential election. [18] We assess Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the U.S. presidential election. [18] The Republican Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee affirmed the conclusion of multiple intelligence agencies that the Russians did indeed act to support Donald Trump and discredit Hillary Clinton in the run-up to the U.S. presidential election of 2016. [19] In January 2017, following a British intelligence tip-off, the U.S. intelligence community expressed ” high confidence ” that Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign designed to interfere in the 2016 U.S. elections, undermine confidence in the U.S. democratic process, harm Secretary Hillary Clinton’s chances, and help Donald Trump win. [18] Interference in the 2016 and 2018 elections by entities connected to the Russian government was a scandal that dominated the news during the first half of the Presidency of Donald Trump. [18] The Russian government publicly attempted to influence the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election. [18] Throughout the 1980 presidential election, negotiations were ongoing between the administration of Jimmy Carter and the government of Iran regarding 52 American citizens who had been taken hostage in November 1979. [18] The same study found that “on average, an electoral intervention in favor of one side contesting the election will increase its vote share by about 3 percent,” an effect large enough to have potentially changed the results in seven out of 14 U.S. presidential elections occurring after 1960. [18] “This Kremlin leader bragged about tipping a U.S. presidential election”, Washington Post (January 6, 2017). [18]

Pro-Russian hackers launched a series of cyberattacks over several days to disrupt the May 2014 Ukrainian presidential election, releasing hacked emails, attempting to alter vote tallies, and delaying the final result with distributed denial-of-service attacks. [18] In the last months of the presidential election between Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey, President Lyndon Johnson announced an October surprise, intended to aid Humphrey, by declaring a cessation to bombing in the ongoing Vietnam War and a new round of peace negotiations. [18]

One can also add in the generic ballot polling for a given year — below, I’m using polls in May of the election year — to predict the swing in November Democratic vote share alongside the changing environment indicated by special election polling. [20] Though the relationship between the average swing in special elections and swing in November vote share is fairly strong, it is not the only tool we have available to predict the national vote in the congressional races in past year. [20] Democrats in 2018 have so far had a very good year in special elections, beating their margin in contested seats in 2016 by 13.3 points on average. [20] Welcome to another week of primary elections, this time in Idaho, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Oregon, and featuring a few special elections in The Keystone State and Alabama. [20] The special election in the 68th state house district is unlikely to be competitive, so I wouldn’t put any of your valuable attention on that race. [20]

In Alabama, there are two more special elections tonight, but both are in seats held 50 points by either party and are likely to be snoozers compared to the main event. [20]

The primary election will be held on June 12, and the general election is on November 6. [22] The last time Maryland held a primary election for important offices like Governor, County Executive, or State’s Attorney was in 2014. [19] Of the nine Democrats whose names will appear on Maryland’s gubernatorial ballot on primary election day, seven are considered serious contenders. [19]

I say verify: Let's send in an army of scientists to study its role in the upcoming 2018 elections. [23]

The Political Science Department offers a variety of courses that focus on four major areas of study: American politics, comparative politics, political theory, and international relations studies. [17] The book is designed to be useful in the fields of American politics, comparative political science, electoral administration, electoral law, state and local government, electoral studies and political behavior, and studies of democracy. [21]

She received a Presidential Scholarship from Tuskegee University where she graduated with a BA in Political Science. [19] He is a 1973 graduate of Hemingway High School, a 1977 graduate of Charleston Southern University, where he earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Political Science and a 2001 graduate of Webster University, where he received a Master of Arts Degree in Business Management. [22]

Such “A/B tests” — which, say, expose a treatment group to one headline and a control group to another — are standard practice in data science. [23]

Sexual harassment is rampant in academic science, and colleges and universities that train new scientists need a system-wide culture change so women won’t be bullied out of the field, a national advisory group said Tuesday. [24] Ben has a bachelors degree in Social Sciences and is pursuing a Master of Public Policy with a focus on civic engagement and electoral policy. [25]

After the election, participants were asked not only their party affiliation, but also a series of questions that measured their emotional reaction to the electoral outcome, their self-esteem and the strength of identification to their political party. [24] In a two-stage experimental study, they explored how Democrats and Republicans allocated resources to their political friends and foes before and after the election. [24] As party affiliation is a salient part of our social identity, especially around elections, authors expected that the results were experienced as an ego shock both by Democrats (negatively) and Republicans (positively). [24] Democrats were higher than Republicans in hatred, hostility, anger, fear, paranoia and suspicion and lower in self-esteem, and showed a behavior more similar to Republicans’ before the election, allocating 56 cents on a dollar to homogeneous groups and only 38 cents to groups with two Republicans. [24] When did Republican followers behave as viciously as Democratic Racket followers when they lost an election? Democratic Racket followers rampaging through the streets of Washington, breaking windows, starting fires, accosting people, on Inauguration Day. [24]

New Mexico Voter FAQ (NM Secretary of State) Learn about election dates, voter registration, voting (and view sample ballots), etc. [26] Bernalillo County Clerk Election Information Voting info, sample ballots, etc. ? [26] Their website provides all kinds of information about elections and voting in NM. [26] Her areas of expertise include American elections, campaigns, the U.S. presidency, and women and African Americans in U.S. politics, as well as identity politics. [27] Elections. the American Way (Library of Congress) A K-12 teacher’s resource providing basic information on the electoral process. [26]

Samantha is very passionate about dialogue, higher education, and voter registration, so she has loved working with colleges and universities across Iowa on election engagement. [25] FairVote as a reform catalyst, develops and promotes practical strategies to improve elections at the local, state, and national levels. [26] Previous to joining the Virginia Department of Elections, Jessica worked as a Government Relations Manager at Williams Mullen Law Firm in Richmond. [28] Black Republicans trust the United States government more than other political groups, finds a new study from the University of British Columbia, ahead of the mid-term U.S. elections to be held on November 4. [24] After the unexpected results of the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, the way Americans treat each other changed as a function of their party affiliation, a new study by Celia Moore (Bocconi University) and colleagues, published in PLOS ONE, documents. [24] U.S. Electoral College (National Archives and Records Administration) Information on the Electoral College and its involvement in presidential elections including: historical information, links to voting resources, etc. [26] More information: Burak Oc et al, When the tables are turned: The effects of the 2016 U.S. Presidential election on in-group favoritism and out-group hostility, PLOS ONE (2018). [24]

Congratulations to the winners, and many thanks to all the candidates who stood for election. [29] Resources for Voters (US Election Commission) A central resource for election information with FAQs, voter registration links, election calendars, voter’s guides in many languages, etc. [26] Perhaps because hustings were fairly high off the ground, British politicians today tend to stand for election, while Americans, moving from stump to stump, run for office. [30]

Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD) established in 1987 to ensure that debates, as a permanent part of every general election, provide the best possible information to viewers and listeners. [26] Jacob is a Missouri native returning to work with colleges and universities in his home state during the 2018 election. [25]

Previously he attended Iowa State University, where he received his BA in Political Science and Women’s and Gender Studies. [25] Rachael is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Political Science at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities studying American politics and political psychology. [25] Samantha Bayne is a junior studying Political Science, Law, Politics, and Society, and Philosophy at Drake University in Des Moines, IA. She joined the Iowa Campus Compact and CEEP team in October 2017. [25] Jessica grew up in Carroll County, VA and earned her B.S. in Political Science from Christopher Newport University, where she graduated cum laude. [28] Prior to moving to the Twin Cities, she lived in South Carolina and attended Coastal Carolina University for a B.A. in Political Science and a B.A. in Communication. [25] Abby recently graduated from Capital University with a B.A. in Political Science. [25]

We’ve partnered with three academic associations for the midterms project: the American Sociological Association, the Midwest Political Science Association, and the National Women’s Studies Association. [27] Her interests lie at the intersection between women’s studies and political science as the fields relate to American political and social development. [27]

With a specialty in international politics and affairs, he looks forward to improving the quality of political science articles for the public. [27]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(30 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (40) Foreign electoral intervention – Wikipedia

2. (11) Elections | WYPR

3. (10) The Science of Elections – Scientific American Blog Network

4. (10)

5. (9) Study shows that electoral outcomes affect the way we treat other people

6. (9) Elections Don?t Work at All. You Can Blame the Math | WIRED

7. (8) Staff – Campus Election Engagement Project

8. (8) General Elections & Voting – Election Information (US) – Research Guides at University of New Mexico

9. (8) U.S. Elections are Under Threat from Cyberattacks — And So Are Yours | Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

10. (7) Upcoming Leadership Elections – Eos

11. (6) How to Get Involved in the 2018 Midterm Elections | Union of Concerned Scientists

12. (5) Reformulating the Cube Law for Proportional Representation Elections | American Political Science Review | Cambridge Core

13. (5) California Taps Data Scientists in Election Monitoring Bid – Bloomberg

14. (4) Election 2018: Environmental measures big winners

15. (4) Academics to improve Wikipedia articles related to midterm elections Wiki Education

16. (3) Mexico 2018 Elections Timeline

17. (3) 2018 SIG Coordinating Committee Elections

18. (3) | Summer Sessions | Courses | Political Science | Columbia University School of Professional Studies

19. (3) Electoral Integrity in America — The Electoral Integrity Project EIP

20. (3) Primary election lineup, plus a look at what’s on the ballots | News |

21. (3) Let’s Send Facebook Some Election Observers – Bloomberg

22. (2) Elections 2018 | European Brain and Behavior Society

23. (2) Deputy Commissioner | Virginia Department of Elections

24. (2) Home Page | MIT Election Lab

25. (2) The Center for Election Science | We Make Democracy Smart.

26. (2) National Academy of Sciences

27. (2) Science Questions to Ask Candidates in the 2018 Midterm Elections | Union of Concerned Scientists

28. (1) Scientists become first-time politicians in 2018 elections – NBC News

29. (1) Results of the Recent APA Elections | Blog of the APA

30. (1) So many words to talk about elections –

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