Wind 101: the Basics Of Wind Energy

Wind 101: the Basics Of Wind Energy
Image Courtesy:
link: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GreenMountainWindFarm_Fluvanna_2004.jpg
author: Wikimedia Commons

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • The table below includes basic holdings data for all U.S. listed Wind Energy ETFs that are currently tagged by ETF Database.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • A collaboration of 'Sustain Floyd' and Apple River Farm, it features talks on wind and solar technologies, strategies for energy efficiency and hands on help applying for a USDA grant to cut installation costs.(More...)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS

The table below includes basic holdings data for all U.S. listed Wind Energy ETFs that are currently tagged by ETF Database. [1]

The following table includes expense data and other descriptive information for all Wind Energy ETFs listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database. [1] The following table includes certain tax information for all Wind Energy ETFs listed on U.S. exchanges that are currently tracked by ETF Database, including applicable short-term and long-term capital gains rates and the tax form on which gains or losses in each ETF will be reported. [1] This page contains certain technical information for all Wind Energy ETFs that are listed on U.S. exchanges and tracked by ETF Database. [1] This page provides links to various analysis for all Wind Energy ETFs that are listed on U.S. exchanges and tracked by ETF Database. [1]

Based on a study carried out by the European Wind Energy Association, in the year 2010 alone, between 110 and 140 kilotons of composites were consumed by the wind turbine industry for manufacturing blades. 51 The majority of the blade material will eventually end up as waste, and in order to accommodate this level of composite waste, the only option is recycling. [2] The Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) predicts that wind energy will supply 15.7% of the world's total energy needs by the year 2020, and 28.5% by the year 2030. 50 This dramatic increase in global wind energy generation will require installation of a newer and larger fleet of more efficient wind turbines and the consequent decommissioning of aging ones. [2] Wind energy employed over 105,000 people in all 50 states, including more than 23,000 jobs in American factories (more than half the components in a typical American wind turbine are Made In The USA). [3] Turbine systems that have fewer failures, 92 require less maintenance, are lighter and last longer will lead to reducing the cost of wind energy. [2] By taking the place of power plants that use fossil fuels to generate electricity, American wind energy kept us from emitting 189 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. [3] You can use this tool to compare Wind Energy ETFs with each other or with other industry ETFs. [1] Wind Energy ETFs invest in stocks of companies involved in providing goods and services exclusively to the wind energy industry. [1] Wind Energy and all other industries are ranked based on their aggregate 3-month fund flows for all U.S.-listed ETFs that are classified by ETFdb.com as being mostly exposed to those respective industries. 3-month fund flows is a metric that can be used to gauge the perceived popularity amongst investors of Wind Energy relative to other industries. [1] Wind Energy and all other industries are ranked based on their AUM -weighted average 3-month return for all the U.S.-listed ETFs that are classified by ETFdb.com as being mostly exposed to those respective industries. [1]

The table below includes fund flow data for all U.S. listed Wind Energy ETFs. [1] WOODHULL -- About 100 people joined Invenergy officials Friday to celebrate the completion of the Bishop Hill Wind Energy Center, Phase 3. [4] WOODHULL -- A ribbon- cutting ceremony for Invenergy's new 132-MW Bishop Hill III Wind Energy Center in Henry County is planned at 11 a.m. Friday at the Woodhull Travel Plaza off Interstate 74 at 536 Oxford Ave., Woodhull. [5]

This is a list of all Wind Energy ETFs traded in the USA which are currently tagged by ETF Database. [1]

States from Massachusetts to Maryland are now working to build enough offshore wind energy to power over 3 million homes by 2030. [6] Nebraska is one of the top states in the country for potential wind energy generation, with a technical potential of approximately 880,000 megawatts (MW) according to NREL. Nebraska now has 1,426 MW of installed wind power and was the 18th state to join the "Gigawatt Club." [7] AWEA Wind Power on Capitol Hill is a rare opportunity for AWEA members and others who want to help advance wind energy to participate in advocacy training and then put that training to work to educate legislators and their staff on the wind industry's top policy initiatives at both the state and federal level. [6] Hydrogen produced from seawater -- like on the Energy Observer, for example -- involves the water being split into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis, the former being compressed and stored in cell-type batteries to be used when sun and wind energy isn?t enough. [8]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

A collaboration of 'Sustain Floyd' and Apple River Farm, it features talks on wind and solar technologies, strategies for energy efficiency and hands on help applying for a USDA grant to cut installation costs. [9] There are a number of presentations: Wind, solar, energy efficient home systems and solar storage. [9] The maximum theoretical power output of a wind machine is thus 0.59 times the kinetic energy of the air passing through the effective disk area of the machine. [2] Wind turbine design is the process of defining the form and specifications of a wind turbine to extract energy from the wind. 1 2 A wind turbine installation consists of the necessary systems needed to capture the wind's energy, point the turbine into the wind, convert mechanical rotation into electrical power, and other systems to start, stop, and control the turbine. [2] Operating closer to their optimal tip speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings. [2] The shape and dimensions of the blades of the wind turbine are determined by the aerodynamic performance required to efficiently extract energy from the wind, and by the strength required to resist the forces on the blade. [2] In December 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy published a report stating critical shortage of rare-earth elements such as neodymium used in large quantities for permanent magnets in gearless wind turbines. 20 China produces more than 95% of rare-earth elements, while Hitachi holds more than 600 patents covering Neodymium magnets. [2] Braking of a small wind turbine can be done by dumping energy from the generator into a resistor bank, converting the kinetic energy of the turbine rotation into heat. [2] This project represents the third phase of Invenergy's Bishop Hill Energy Center in Henry County, following the 211.4-megawatt Bishop Hill I and 81-megawatt Bishop Hill II wind projects. [5]

By minimizing the yaw angle (the misalignment between wind and turbine pointing direction), the power output is maximized and non-symmetrical loads minimized. [2] The lowest velocity at which the turbine develops its full power is known as rated wind velocity. [2] A fully stalled turbine blade, when stopped, has the flat side of the blade facing directly into the wind. [2] A fully furled turbine blade, when stopped, has the edge of the blade facing into the wind. [2] Standard modern turbines all furl the blades in high winds. [2] Considering wind, it is expected that turbine blades go through ~10^9 loading cycles. [2] Vallies focuses on what's known as "distributed wind power,? small scale producers with turbines, making electricity for themselves and sending the excess to the grid. [9] Wind provided more than 30 percent of the electricity in four states (Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma and South Dakota) and more than 10 percent in ten other states. [3]

Stalling is simple because it can be made to happen passively (it increases automatically when the winds speed up), but it increases the cross-section of the blade face-on to the wind, and thus the ordinary drag. [2] The ratio between the speed of the blade tips and the speed of the wind is called tip speed ratio. [2] The turbine's rotation can be kept at a safe speed in faster winds while maintaining (nominal) power output. [2] Older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades, which have higher inertia, and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines. [2] Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed, to match power line frequency, which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. citation needed Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently. [2] Use of aluminum and composite materials in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia, which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up, keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. [2]

A major problem in desert environments is erosion of the leading edges of blades by wind carrying sand, which increases roughness and decreases aerodynamic performance. [2] Wind helped avoid the use of 95 billion gallons of water, which fossil fuel-powered plants need in large quantities. [3] Failure in ultimate loading of wind-turbine rotor blades exposed to wind and gravity loading is a failure mode that needs to be considered when the rotor blades are designed. [2]

Course notes from Scoraig Wind Electric, used in courses at the Centre for Alternative Technology. [2] The smallest having power production less than 10kW are used in homes, farms and remote applications whereas intermediate wind turbines (10-250kW ) are useful for village power, hybrid systems and distributed power. [2] With 53 wind turbines, the wind farm will be able to power as many as 53,000 homes and businesses. [5] New wind turbine designs push power generation from the single megawatt range to upwards of 10 megawatts using larger and larger blades. [2] Further design questions arise when integrating wind turbines into electrical power grids. [2] The speed at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for efficient power generation and to keep the turbine components within designed speed and torque limits. [2] A wind turbine is designed to produce power over a range of wind speeds. The cut-in speed is around 3-4m/s for most turbines, and cut-out at 25m/s. 3 If the rated wind speed is exceeded the power has to be limited. [2] Because the power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed, turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. [2] Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. [2] At night time, or when the atmosphere becomes stable, wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase. [2] Labor and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size, so to minimize costs, wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials, and siting requirements. [2] Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length. 9 The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material. [2]

Materials selection strategy and surface treatment of polymer composites for wind turbine blades fabrication. [2] Job Description: Inspect and repair wind turbine composite components (blades, nose cones, hatches etc.) by using industry… 50 lbs. [10] The majority of current commercialized wind turbine blades are made from fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs), which are composites consisting of a polymer matrix and fibers. [2] A fixed-speed HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine) inherently increases its angle of attack at higher wind speed as the blades speed up. [2] A natural strategy, then, is to allow the blade to stall when the wind speed increases. [2]

Below rated wind speed, the generator torque control is active while the blade pitch is typically held at the constant angle that captures the most power, fairly flat to the wind. [2] When the wind speed is below rated, generator torque is used to control the rotor speed in order to capture as much power as possible. [2] With different control schemes a wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator can provide or consume reactive power. [2] In that way the wind turbine will not consume reactive power, which is the most common problem with wind turbines that use induction machines. [2] Small wind turbines (under 50kW) with variable- pitching generally use systems operated by centrifugal force, either by flyweights or geometric design, and employ no electric or hydraulic controls. [2] This article covers the design of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) since the majority of commercial turbines use this design. [2] There are patents that present designs with additional blades, such as Chan Shin's Multi-unit rotor blade system integrated wind turbine. 26 Aerodynamic efficiency increases with number of blades but with diminishing return. [2] The efficiency of a wind turbine is maximum at its design wind velocity, and efficiency decreases with the fluctuations in wind. [2]

Wind turbines developed over the last 50 years have almost universally used either two or three blades. [2] In conventional wind turbines, the blades spin a shaft that is connected through a gearbox to the generator. [2] Usually the rotational speed of the wind turbine is slower than the equivalent rotation speed of the electrical network: typical rotation speeds for wind generators are 5-20 rpm while a directly connected machine will have an electrical speed between 750 and 3600 rpm. [2] For large, commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines, the electrical generator 15 is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower, behind the hub of the turbine rotor. [2] The use of lighter materials in the tower could greatly reduce the overall transport and construction cost of wind turbines, however the stability must be maintained. 67 Higher grade S500 steel costs 20%-25% more than S335 steel (standard structural steel ), but it requires 30% less material because of its improved strength. [2] Wood is being investigated as a material for wind turbine towers, and a 100 metre tall tower supporting a 1.5 MW turbine has been erected in Germany. [2] As of 2003, typical modern wind turbine installations use towers about 210ft (65 m) high. [2] New type of wind turbine tower Metal Industry, 8 August 2011. [2] A 100 m prototype tower with TC bolted 18mm 'plank' shells has been erected at the wind turbine test center Hse in Denmark and certified by Det Norske Veritas, with a Siemens nacelle. [2] Currently, the majority of wind turbines are supported by conical tubular steel towers. [2]

While aligning the wind turbine to changes in wind direction (yawing), each blade experiences a cyclic load at its root end depending on blade position. [2] Development of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings for wind turbine blades. [2]

The generator in a wind turbine produces alternating current (AC) electricity. [2] "The History and State of the Art of Variable-Speed wind Turbine Technology". 2003. p. 130-131. [2] In 2006, Invenergy received 266 special use permits from Henry County to construct three phases of wind turbines. [4] Several modern wind turbines use rotor blades with carbon-fibre girders to reduce weight. [2]

In the case of wind turbines, due to the high wind and environmental loads experienced there is a significant horizontal dynamic load that needs to be appropriately restrained. [2] Loads can be reduced by making a structural system softer or more flexible. 4 This could be accomplished with downwind rotors or with curved blades that twist naturally to reduce angle of attack at higher wind speeds. These systems will be nonlinear and will couple the structure to the flow field - thus, design tools must evolve to model these nonlinearities. [2] In simple designs, the blades are directly bolted to the hub and are unable to pitch, which leads to aerodynamic stall above certain windspeeds. In other more sophisticated designs, they are bolted to the pitch bearing, which adjusts their angle of attack with the help of a pitch system according to the wind speed to control their rotational speed. 25 The pitch bearing is itself bolted to the hub. [2] In addition to aerodynamic design of the blades, design of a complete wind power system must also address design of the hub, controls, generator, supporting structure and foundation. [2]

Above rated wind speed, the generator torque is typically held constant while the blade pitch is active. [2]

Particularly at low-to-medium wind speeds, yawing can make a significant reduction in turbine output, with wind direction variations of 30 being quite common and long response times of the turbines to changes in wind direction. [2] To protect components from undue wear, extracted power is held constant above the rated operating speed as theoretical power increases at the cube of wind speed, further reducing theoretical efficiency. [2] As wind speed increases, rotor speed should increase proportionally. [2]

The St. Leon Wind Farm in Manitoba, Canada, has a total rating of 99MW and is estimated to need up to 3MW (around 3% of capacity) of station service power a few days a year for temperatures down to ?30C (?22F). [2] Rattlesnake Creek is a $430 million wind farm being built southwest of Sioux City across a 32,000-acre area in Dixon County between the towns of Allen, Emerson and Wakefield by Enel Green Power North America Inc., a subsidiary of the multinational Enel Group. [11] WAKEFIELD, Neb. -- Facebook and Adobe struck a friendly deal to share power generated from the Rattlesnake Creek Wind Project, developer of the wind farm under construction in Northeast Nebraska announced. [11]

State Rep. Daniel Swanson, R-Alpha, said Illinois contractors received $20.4 million from the wind farm project since Phase 3 construction began in August. [4] Once operational, the 101-turbine wind farm will distribute $80 million in property tax and landowner payments over the first 20 years of its existence and be one of the largest wind farms in Nebraska, according to Enel. [11]

U.S. wind power capacity has more than tripled in the past decade, and the cost of electricity from wind has dropped by two-thirds in recent years. [3] Wind Power: Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business (second ed.). [2] He noted Invenergy now has been involved in 14 projects that have created 1,600 megawatts of energy serving 570,000 homes. [4] In August, Invenergy announced WPPI Energy had entered into a power purchase agreement to buy electricity from the facility through mid-2040. [5] At Friday's event, representatives from Invenergy, WEC Energy Group and WPPI Energy will be joined by Woodhull Mayor David Holmes; state Reps. [5] Critical Materials Strategy permanent dead link United States Department of Energy, December 2011. [2]

He says, "Solar energy is one of those industries where people ask, "what's the return on investment? but they never ask what's the return on investment on an oil furnace or a Harley Davidson motorcycle. [9] WEC Energy of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, announced it was buying 80 percent ownership interest in Bishop Hill Three for $148 million. [4]

By purchasing all of its power from Rattlesnake Creek, the social media giant's new data center will run exclusively on renewable energy. [11] "Powering our data centers with 100 percent clean and renewable energy is not just a goal for Facebook, it is a requirement of our business," Bobby Hollis, director of global energy at Facebook, said in a release. [11] "When I first moved here 10 years ago one of the things that attracted me to Floyd was that there was a center on Renewable Energy, The Association of Energy Conservation Professionals (AECP), and from them he learned that SE systems had been in place there for 20 years. [9]

Charlie Johnson is with Apex Clean Energy, a wind power company in Charlottesville, which has installed several wind farms out west, where the winds blow strong. [9]

Solar Thermal Magazine - Solar Thermal Power & Clean Energy Technology meta name"description" content"Daily clean energy news for solar thermal and PV, wind, wave, tidal and bio-fuels. [12] For more than 30 years our efforts have been devoted to raising the profile of wind as a mainstream energy source. [13] The first two objectives synthesize literature on variables attractive to species within wind development areas and estimate impacted ranges outside of Texas, based on studies examining wind energy's environmental impacts. [14] Assuming areas with higher wind speeds have potential for wind development, PHI values were calculated for 31 avian and ten bat species, based on an analysis of species range data obtained from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and wind data obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [14] Southwest Windpower - Xzeres Renewable energy where you need it: The world's leading supplier of small wind turbines & wind-solar hybrid systems for homes, businesses, industry, sailing & more. [15]

Nebraska's wind potential, combined with manufacturing expertise, could make the state a powerhouse for the wind industry while providing savings for electricity customers. [7] The state lies in the Southwest Power Pool (SPP), where wind power saved electricity customers $1.2 billion in 2013. [7]

Wind power - Wikipedia Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.Wind power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little land. [15] Wind turbine composite materials refer to the composite materials used for making wind turbines. [16] In Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska and certain parts of Texas, wind turbines can generate electricity at a lower cost, even without subsidies, than any other technology. [7]

Over the past decade, Wells Fargo has teamed with NextEra Energy on 14 wind projects throughout the U.S. that will collectively generate more than 5 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of clean energy each year. [7] SAN FRANCISCO( BUSINESS WIRE )Following Wells Fargo's (NYSE: WFC) $200-billion low-carbon commitment announced last week, its Renewable Energy and Environmental Finance unit today announced the completion of $70 million in tax-equity funding for the Pacific Plains wind projects, including facilities in Indiana, Nebraska, and California. [7]

This webinar highlights two winning programs from CESA's 2018 "State Leadership in Clean Energy Awards": Massachusetts? Advancing Commonwealth Energy Storage (ACES) Program, and Rhode Island's Block Island Offshore Wind Farm. [6] Overall, the bulk of funding would come from a construction loan and investor equity, but also helping to fund the project would be about $6.5 million in federal and state historic tax credits and $3.5 million in Property Assessed Clean Energy financing (PACE is a new financing tool used to upgrade energy, water and utility systems in commercial properties). [7] The event provides an opportunity to highlight the contributions to our local energy economy made by Nebraska businesses that have invested in solar technology and have helped to grow the number of clean energy jobs in our state. [7] Have you ever wondered how you can transition into a clean energy future? Join ReVision Energy for a complimentary lunch to learn about the benefits of solar technology, and why you should make the switch to renewable energy. [6] Have you ever wondered how you can transition into a clean energy future? Over the past 10 years, solar technology has dropped in price by more than 75% making today, more than ever, a great time to invest. [6] Join us at the Pomerleau Residence / 140 Farm on July 31st to experience the solar-powered, clean energy lifestyle! Solar technology costs have dropped by more than 75% over the past 10 years, making solar energy an affordable investment opportunity. [6] As some of the owners have expressed in newspaper and broadcast media interviews, their decision to "go solar" is also benefitting them and their families, reducing energy costs in their business or farm operations, while also protecting the environment where they live and work. [7] The U.S. Department of Energy defines community-based solar as a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation that falls within 100 miles of its electricity offtakers and is grid connected in the same utility service territory of these offtakers. [7] Owner Jay McFarland will join ReVision Energy as we tour a solar array, talk electric cars, and industry trends. [6]

As noted energy expert Hal Harvey, the CEO of San Francisco's Energy Innovation said in 2016, "a clean future now costs less than a dirty one." [7] One of ReVision Energy's solar design professionals will also be available to discuss current trends, how solar energy works, and how you can make the exciting transition to 100% clean power. [6] The U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force branches have each established a goal of developing one gigawatt of renewable energy to power their installations by 2025, enough to power about 700,000 U.S. homes. [12] Wells Fargo plans to invest US$200 billion by 2030 in sustainability projects, including at least $100 billion in green bonds and clean energy technologies, including renewable energy, EVs and batteries. [7] It's described as a low-cost, long-term financing mechanism for energy efficiency or renewable energy projects. [7] Eligible projects include renewable energy systems and the purchase, installation and construction of energy efficiency improvements. [7]

For an insider perspective about the current state of renewable energy, we called upon Lenae Shirley, Senior Director, Technology Innovation and Market Adoption for Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). [7]

Now, Beatrice is being asked to consider Property Assessed Clean Energy financing, or PACE, as another tool for economic development. [7] ReVision Energy will give you all the tools you need to know for a clean energy transition at your home. [6] Each year the Northeastclean energy industry comes together in celebration of the industry's growth and accomplishments, and our mission to create a world-class clean energy hub delivering global impact with economic, energy and environmental solutions. [6]

The Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) announced May 30 that Southern Current, a national solar project developer, is now a member of SEIA's board of directors. [17]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(17 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (72) Wind turbine design - Wikipedia

2. (16) Financing | Nebraskans for Solar

3. (11) Top Wind Energy ETFs

4. (10) Clean Energy Events | MassCEC

5. (6) 2nd Annual Floyd Energy Fair July 14th | WVTF

6. (5) PROGRESS: Construction of Facebook-Adobe wind farm in Dixon County underway | Progress :Area & Ag | siouxcityjournal.com

7. (5) Wind Energy Fast Facts | Electric Nation: Powered By Wind

8. (5) Invenergy celebrates Phase 3 of Bishop Hill wind farm | Local | qconline.com

9. (5) Invenergy marks new Bishop Hill wind farm phase Friday | Business | qconline.com

10. (2) Solar Thermal Magazine - Solar Thermal Power & Clean Energy Technology

11. (2) Wind Energy-related Wildlife Impacts: Analysis and Potential Implications for Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species of Birds and Bats in Texas - Digital Library

12. (2) Wind Energy 101 OIL 101, Oil Resources, Latest Oil News, Oil Prices, Oil Exploration, Oil Futures, Price of Gas OIL Information and Oil News, Opec, Oil Exploration, Oil Prices

13. (1) Wind turbine Jobs in Houston, TX | Glassdoor

14. (1) Find Vestas

15. (1) Composite Materials in the Wind Energy Market 2018 Global Indust - News9.com - Oklahoma City, OK - News, Weather, Video and Sports |

16. (1) Renewable Energy Tax Credit News Briefs - July 2018 | Novogradac & Company LLP

17. (1) Toyota Energy Observer Hydrogen Ship World Tour | InsideHook

s2Member®
Skip to toolbar