Environmental Transport Processes

C O N T E N T S:


  • This book is on the underlying foundations of polymer melt processing, which can be derived from relatively straightforward ideas in fluid mechanics and heat transfer; the level is that of an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course, and the material can serve as the text for a course in polymer processing or for a second course in transport processes.(More…)


  • The boundaries are expanding and now cover such areas as advanced materials, microelectronics, bioengineering and environmental issues, along with traditional topics including energy processing and production of bulk chemicals.(More…)


Environmental Transport Processes
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link: http://cdn-pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/es00063a001
author: cdn-pubs.acs.org
description: Subsurface transport of contaminants – Environmental Science …


This book is on the underlying foundations of polymer melt processing, which can be derived from relatively straightforward ideas in fluid mechanics and heat transfer; the level is that of an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course, and the material can serve as the text for a course in polymer processing or for a second course in transport processes. [1] Melt processing involves an interplay between fluid mechanics and heat transfer in rheologically complex liquids, and taken as a whole it is a nice example of the importance of coupled transport processes. [1] Among classical subjects are kinetics, catalysis, reaction engineering, transport processes, separations, polymers, thermodynamics and process control. [1]

Open-ended design of environmental processes including development of process flow diagrams, control strategies, process simulators, and financial analysis of processes. [2] The case example of a resource intense and heavy-weight product represents a typical product system with long transport distances and economic as well as environmental relevance. [3] The authors develop a decision tree approach to prioritize actions and derive environmental transport strategies depending on the time horizon and the influenceability of the decision criteria. [3]

The environmental impact of transport is significant because it is a major user of energy, and burns most of the world’s petroleum. [4] Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. [4]

Given that the purpose of many technologies is to exploit, control, or otherwise “improve” upon nature for the perceived benefit of humanity while at the same time the myriad of processes in nature have been optimized and are continually adjusted by evolution, any disturbance of these natural processes by technology is likely to result in negative environmental consequences. [4] The environmental impact of mining includes erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes. [4] The environmental impact of nuclear power results from the nuclear fuel cycle processes including mining, processing, transporting and storing fuel and radioactive fuel waste. [4]

This estimate included embodied energy used in production, such as energy used in manufacture and transport of fertilizer for feed production. (Non-solar energy is specified, because solar energy is used in such processes as photosynthesis and hay-drying.) [4] As evidenced by the Global Competitiveness and Logistics Performance Indexes, there is strong potential to close gaps in the quality of the Western Balkans transport systems or custom clearing processes. [5]

Regulations, generation, storage, transportation, disposal, classification, fate and transport of contaminants, environmental audits, pollution prevention and management facilities, remediation alternatives, physical-chemical treatment, bioremediation, stabilization/solidification, thermal processes. [6] The differences between the calculated historical distribution and the emission history may be caused by variabilities in the air transport processes. [7] A better understanding of the organic contaminant distribution within fjord environments is also very important since global changes are affecting the strength and directions of contaminant transport processes (Macdonald et al. 2005 ). [7] After the restriction of HCB production in most countries, the accumulated contaminant concentrations are affected mostly by transport processes from secondary sources. [7]

DBSA is distinguished by an established expertise in vadose zone processes, an often overlooked but necessary field of study for full understanding of contaminant fate, as well as transport and water resources planning. [8] The position requires advanced knowledge of river and floodplain ecology and river processes, including sediment transport, geomorphology, hydraulics, fish biology, current practices and principles in river and floodplain management and region-wide floodplain and salmon recovery strategies. [9] For those who do not know, a CSM is pictorial story of the biological, chemical, and physical processes which govern contaminant transport from a Site towards sensitive receptors. [10]

Topics include diffusion, membranes, water relations, ion transport, photochemistry, bioenergetics of energy conversion, photosynthesis, environmental influences on plant temperature, and gas exchange for leaves and whole plants. [11]


The boundaries are expanding and now cover such areas as advanced materials, microelectronics, bioengineering and environmental issues, along with traditional topics including energy processing and production of bulk chemicals. [1] A broad range of real-world applications relate key topics to contemporary issues, such as energy efficiency, environmental engineering and climate change, and further reinforce students’ understanding of the core material. [1]

Covers the principles of microbiological methods pertinent to environmental engineers with an emphasis on applications in drinking water treatment, wastewater treatment, and soil remediation. [2] Application of engineering principles to the analysis of environmental problems. [2] The Environment core focuses on Earth’s systems and cycles, introducing students to principles in environmental chemistry, microbiology, fluid mechanics and hydrology. [12]

Innovation opportunities are vast including introducing new forms of energy like solar, wind and nuclear into our homes and offices; inventing new modes of transportation like autonomous vehicles on our highways; and tracking and analyzing environmental health data in densely-packed cities. [12]

Use of engineering analyses and sustainable principles to design projects and minimize their environmental impact. [2] Engineering principles for the selection and design of treatment processes. [2] Principles and design of unit operations and processes for the treatment of hazardous waste and contaminated soils. [2] Principles and design of microbial processes for treatment of municipal and hazardous wastes. [2] Design of water and wastewater treatment facilities including physical, chemical, and biological processes. [2] Chemical Engineering: An Introduction is designed to enable the student to explore the activities in which a modern chemical engineer is involved by focusing on mass and energy balances in liquid-phase processes. [1] ‘Chemical engineering is the field of applied science that employs physical, chemical, and biological rate processes for the betterment of humanity’. [1]

It examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today’s market. [1] Colloidal suspensions are encountered in a multitude of natural, biological and industrially relevant products and processes. [1] With this unique and comprehensive text, readers will gain the quantitative tools needed to engineer the particulate processes and products that are ubiquitous in modern life. [1] Topics covered include a range of particle design processes such as crystallization and precipitation, granulation, grinding, aerosol processes and spray drying, as well as forms of delivery such as granules, tablets, dry powders, and aerosols. [1] Covering a series of particle and particulate delivery form design processes, with emphasis on design and operation to control particle attributes, and supported by many worked examples, it is essential reading for students and practitioners. [1] Scientists interested in the design of biopharmaceutical processes will find useful practical methodologies, in particular for single-column and multi-column chromatographic processes. [1] Addressing all aspects of the design, modeling and simulation of chromatographic processes, this result-oriented primer provides a practical guide to all the necessary approaches, methodologies and tools. [1] This overview of diffusion and separation processes brings unsurpassed, engaging clarity to this complex topic. [1] Theoretical and empirical analysis of several unit operations, use of formal work processes, safety, teamwork, oral and written communication, and personal accountability. [2]

Study of air pollution sources, transport, and control, including engineering, chemical, meteorological, social, and economic aspects. [2] Different mechanisms of extracellular electron transport are used by Geobacter and Shewanella spp. to reduce insoluble Fe(III) minerals. [13]

Innovative topics include – but are not limited to – environmental engineering, bioengineering, ceramics processing, catalyst design, complex fluids, molecular theory and pattern formation. [1] A critical examination of topics selected by the instructor from among topics not covered in other environmental engineering courses. [2] View a sample course roadmap for our Environmental Engineering track. [12] Choose the Environmental Engineering Science track to combine academic rigor with applications to understand and protect our land, oceans, air, and health. [12] Open to all students interested in learning about the Environmental Engineering undergraduate program and potential career opportunities. [2] In addition to taking core environmental engineering classes, study microbiology, chemistry, materials, and physics. [12]

The conservation of mass principle and the first law of thermodynamics (i.e., conservation of energy) dictate that whenever material resources or energy are moved around or manipulated by technology, environmental consequences are inescapable. [4] Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification ), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse. [4] Human activity is causing environmental degradation, which is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction ; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution. [4] Environmental engineers assess the impact of engineering projects on the environment, including waterways, soil, air and noise levels, and advise on ways to minimise this impact. [14] Rapidly advancing technologies can achieve a transition of energy generation, water and waste management, and food production towards better environmental and energy usage practices using methods of systems ecology and industrial ecology. [4] Environmental impacts associated with meat production include use of fossil energy, water and land resources, greenhouse gas emissions, and in some instances, rainforest clearing, water pollution and species endangerment, among other adverse effects. [4] The environmental impact of roads includes the local effects of highways (public roads ) such as on noise, light pollution, water pollution, habitat destruction /disturbance and local air quality ; and the wider effects including climate change from vehicle emissions. [4] The environmental impact of irrigation includes the changes in quantity and quality of soil and water as a result of irrigation and the ensuing effects on natural and social conditions at the tail-end and downstream of the irrigation scheme. [4] The environmental impact of agriculture involves a variety of factors from the soil, to water, the air, animal and soil diversity, plants, and the food itself. [4]

In the U.S., in a comparison of 32 industries, the livestock industry was found to have a relatively good record of compliance with environmental regulations pursuant to the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act, but pollution issues from large livestock operations can sometimes be serious where violations occur. [4] Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns. [15] When landslides destroy communities or sea levels rise how do governments move people out of harm’s way? “Planned relocations” is the term being used to describe the process of moving people in order to protect them from disasters or from the effects of environmental change. [5] David Attenborough described the level of human population on the planet as a multiplier of all other environmental problems. [4]

Applications in aerodynamics, chemical, environmental, and mechanical engineering, and physics. [16] Besides creating environmental damage, the contamination resulting from leakage of chemicals also affect the health of the local population. [4]

A number of our buildings are currently going through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification process. [17] Adverse environmental and sociological impacts have also been identified during and after many reservoir constructions. [4] Environmental regulations in developed countries have reduced the individual vehicles emission; however, this has been offset by an increase in the number of vehicles, and more use of each vehicle. [4] The environmental impact of biodiesel includes energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and some other kinds of pollution. [4] The applications of technology often result in unavoidable and unexpected environmental impacts, which according to the I PAT equation is measured as resource use or pollution generated per unit GDP. Environmental impacts caused by the application of technology are often perceived as unavoidable for several reasons. [4] The environmental impact of the oil shale industry includes the consideration of issues such as land use, waste management, and water and air pollution caused by the extraction and processing of oil shale. [4] The environmental impact of reservoirs is coming under ever increasing scrutiny as the world demand for water and energy increases and the number and size of reservoirs increases. [4] The main environmental impacts of artificial light are due to light’s use as an information source (rather than an energy source). [4] The environmental impact of energy harvesting and consumption is diverse. [4] Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impact of wind power is relatively minor. [4]

Nanotechnology’s environmental impact can be split into two aspects: the potential for nanotechnological innovations to help improve the environment, and the possibly novel type of pollution that nanotechnological materials might cause if released into the environment. [4] The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gas emissions and oil pollution. [4] There are two types of indicators of environmental impact: “means-based”, which is based on the farmer’s production methods, and “effect-based”, which is the impact that farming methods have on the farming system or on emissions to the environment. [4] The environmental impact of fishing can be divided into issues that involve the availability of fish to be caught, such as overfishing, sustainable fisheries, and fisheries management ; and issues that involve the impact of fishing on other elements of the environment, such as by-catch and destruction of habitat such as coral reefs. [4] The environmental impacts of nuclear power plant disasters such as the Chernobyl disaster, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and the Three Mile Island accident, among others, persist indefinitely, though several other factors contributed to these events including improper management of fail safe systems and natural disasters putting uncommon stress on the generators. [4]

Haiti is among the countries that are most vulnerable to natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes–the result of a combination of factors that include high exposure to natural hazards, vulnerable infrastructure, environmental degradation, institutional fragility, and a lack of adequate investment in resilience. [5] The scientists stated that the decline was a result of overfishing, pollution and other environmental factors that were reducing the population of fisheries at the same time as their ecosystems were being degraded. [4] A prolonged pattern of overconsumption leads to environmental degradation and the eventual loss of resource bases. [4] Some mining methods may have significant environmental and public health effects. [4] General military spending and military activities have marked environmental effects. [4]

Potential negative environmental impacts caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are rising global air temperatures, altered hydrogeological cycles resulting in more frequent and severe droughts, storms, and floods, as well as sea level rise and ecosystem disruption. [4] The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behaviour at both business and personal levels. [4] Changes in livestock production practices influence the environmental impact of meat production, as illustrated by some beef data. [4] The environmental impact depends on the production practices of the system used by farmers. [4] “The environmental impact of beef production in the United States: 1977 compared with 2007”. [4]

The environmental impact of pesticides is often greater than what is intended by those who use them. [4] The intensity and duration of grazing use vary greatly and these, together with terrain, vegetation and climate, influence the nature and importance of grazing’s environmental impact, which can range from severe to negligible, and in some cases (as noted below) beneficial. [4] The environmental impact of electricity generation is significant because modern society uses large amounts of electrical power. [4] Measures can be taken to reduce environmental impact, including accurately estimating paint quantities so that wastage is minimized, use of paints, coatings, painting accessories and techniques that are environmentally preferred. [4]

Surface mining of oil shale deposits causes the usual environmental impacts of open-pit mining. [4] As indicated by the IPAT equation, environmental impact (I) or degradation is caused by the combination of an already very large and increasing human population (P), continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence (A), and the application of resource-depleting and polluting technology (T). [4] As well as the cost to human life and society, there is a significant environmental impact of war. [4]

“The temporal stability and developmental differences in the environmental impacts of militarism: the treadmill of destruction and consumption-based carbon emissions”. [4] The environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative. [4] The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming. [4] “Evaluation of the environmental impact of agriculture at the farm level: a comparison and analysis of 12 indicator-based methods”. [4]

Various measures have been suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, among others, which can help reduce livestock damage to streamwater quality and riparian environments. [4] Legislation passed by the U.S. Congress in 1990 required the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue a plan to alleviate toxic air pollution from coal-fired power plants. [4]

The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materials used to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a few months. [4] Energy use and emissions vary largely between modes, causing environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-powered transport, and increase transport electrification and energy efficiency. [4] Other anthropogenic GHG emissions associated with livestock production include carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption (mostly for production, harvesting and transport of feed), and nitrous oxide emissions associated with use of nitrogenous fertilizers, growing of nitrogen-fixing legume vegetation and manure management. [4] The health impact of transport emissions is also of concern. [4] Impact of storm-induced cooling of sea surface temperature on large turbulent eddies and vertical turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer of Hurricane Isaac. [15] Surface trajectories of oil transport along the northern coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. [15] A framework to quantify uncertainty in simulations of oil transport in the ocean. [15] Extracting quasi-steady Lagrangian transport patterns from the ocean circulation: An application to the Gulf of Mexico. [15] Dissipative inertial transport patterns near coherent Lagrangian eddies in the ocean. [15]

The domination of road transport in the freight sector comes with several adverse consequences, including unpredictable journey times, high logistics costs, congestion, as well as high levels of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. [5] This creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide, for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector. [4] This course will focus on physical principles underlying semiconductor devices: electrons and holes in semiconductors, energies and bandgaps, transport properties of electrons and holes, p-n junctions, transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, solar cells and thermoelectric devices. [16] All living matter is made up of large molecules called proteins, which provide support and coordinated movement, as well as storage and transport of small molecules, and, as catalysts, enable chemical reactions to take place rapidly and specifically under mild temperature, relatively low concentration, and neutral conditions (i.e., neither acidic nor basic). [18] Oil droplets transport due to irregular waves: Development of large-scale spreading coefficients. [15] Oil droplet transport under non-breaking waves: An Eulerian RANS approach combined with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. [15] Observations of near-surface current shear help describe oceanic oil and plastic transport. [15]

On the parameterization of surface momentum transport via drag coefficient in low wind conditions. [15] Total net sheet flow transport was greater than net suspended sediment transport for 13 of the 19 wave cases. [19] Intra-wave and wave-averaged observations of sediment flux profiles and transport rates in the lower half of the water column on the sandbar crest are also presented for 19 different wave and sediment cases. [19] The total sediment transport rate was partitioned into suspended sediment (SS) and sheet flow (SF) components to quantify the relative contributions of SS and SF to the total sediment transport rate. [19] Net suspended sediment transport rates were greater than net sheet flow transport rates for the positive half-cycle in 14 of 19 cases, compared to 100% (19 of 19) for the negative half-cycle. [19]

Chemical engineers design, develop and operate the processes and equipment used to change raw materials into useful products. [14] Metabolism, the sum of the chemical reactions that take place within each cell of a living organism and that provide energy for vital processes and for synthesizing new organic material. [18] Traditional painting materials and processes can have harmful effects on the environment, including those from the use of lead and other additives. [4] Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. [4] The course introduces ideas-to-innovation processes in a hands-on, project/product focused manner that balance engineering concepts with promising, real-world opportunities. [16] Course description: Microorganisms produce a diverse array of specialized small molecules as part of their metabolic processes. [16] Automation engineers design, program and improve high-tech computer-controlled equipment for large scale industrial processes such as milk processing and drying, rock crushing and mineral extraction, and processing logs into timber products and wood chips. [14] Students apply human-centered design processes (observing, interpreting, ideating, testing, refining, planning) to stimulate innovation, negotiate, strategize, and build and lead cooperative teams. [16] The energy changes associated with physicochemical processes are the province of thermodynamics, a subdiscipline of physics. [18] At the cellular level of organization, the main chemical processes of all living matter are similar, if not identical. [18] Experimental in-situ conversion processes and carbon capture and storage technologies may reduce some of these concerns in future, but may raise others, such as the pollution of groundwater. [4] Topics covered: linear programming, integer programming, branch-and-bound, branch-and-cut, Markov chains, Markov decision processes. [16] This is true for animals, plants, fungi, or bacteria ; where variations occur (such as, for example, in the secretion of antibodies by some molds ), the variant processes are but variations on common themes. [18] In past ages, green plants and small organisms that fed on plants increased faster than they were consumed, and their remains were deposited in Earth’s crust by sedimentation and other geological processes. [20] During the 20th century, comparisons between photosynthetic processes in green plants and in certain photosynthetic sulfur bacteria provided important information about the photosynthetic mechanism. [20] Introduction to micro- and nanofabrication processes used for photonic and electronic devices. [16] NO x produced by industrial processes, automobiles and agricultural fertilization and NH 3 emitted from soils (i.e., as an additional byproduct of nitrification) and livestock operations are transported to downwind ecosystems, influencing N cycling and nutrient losses. [4] Emphasis will be given to understanding the ways in which dysfunction in these systems gives rise to common human disease processes, with an introduction to biomedical devices designed to treat dysfunction. [16]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(20 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (62) Human impact on the environment – Wikipedia

2. (16) Cambridge Series in Chemical Engineering

3. (12) Environmental Engineering (ENVE) < Oregon State University

4. (10) publications « CARTHE: Consortium for Advanced Research on Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment

5. (8) Engineering Sciences Courses | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

6. (5) Undergraduate Degrees – MIT CEE

7. (5) metabolism | Definition, Process, & Biology | Britannica.com

8. (4) Sheet flow and suspended sediment transport processes on a surf zone sandbar

9. (4) Environment | World Bank Blogs

10. (3) Working in Engineering | Engineering New Zealand

11. (3) The history of hexachlorobenzene accumulation in Svalbard fjords | SpringerLink

12. (2) photosynthesis | Importance, Process, & Reactions | Britannica.com

13. (2) 1513875

14. (1) Conceptual Site Models – Nichols Environmental

15. (1) Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology | ScienceDirect

16. (1) NanoSIMS imaging of extracellular electron transport processes during microbial iron(III) reduction | FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Oxford Academic

17. (1) The Built Environment – Gucci Equilibrium

18. (1) Environmental Engineering (Ph.D.) | Doctoral Degree Program | University of North Dakota

19. (1) Environmental Litigation and Expert Services – Daniel B. Stephens

20. (1) Environmental Scientist III | Government Jobs