What Is Sustainable and Green Accounting?

What Is Sustainable and Green Accounting?
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link: http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/enhancing-sustainable-communities-green-infrastructure
author: EPA

C O N T E N T S:


  • Meeting high accounting standards and acting on that information can make cities bastions of low-carbon growth, and magnets for green jobs and sustainable enterprise.(More…)
  • The official information for this issue along with dates for submission etc will be announced shortly, but the aim here is to attract submissions which consider the future of SEA whether that be issues, theories, methods etc. Once again, this theme fits the ethos of the journal and our aim to create new academic literature in the broad field of social, environmental and sustainable development accounting, accountability, reporting and auditing.(More…)


  • Herman Daly has suggested three broad criteria for ecological sustainability: renewable resources should provide a sustainable yield (the rate of harvest should not exceed the rate of regeneration); for non-renewable resources there should be equivalent development of renewable substitutes; waste generation should not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment.(More…)
  • Today, our faculty members focus on corporate environmental strategy, operations and reporting; sustainable cities and infrastructure; the role of government and environmental policy; clean energy generation and demand-side energy efficiency; and the effective management of natural resources essential to human prosperity.(More…)
  • A percentage of savings from the Green Revolving Fund energy efficiency projects at the College are being allocated to the Green Community Fund.(More…)



Meeting high accounting standards and acting on that information can make cities bastions of low-carbon growth, and magnets for green jobs and sustainable enterprise. [1] At the local human scale, major sustainability benefits accrue from sustainable parks and gardens and green cities. [2] Buildings are central to creating more sustainable cities, and green ratings are often used to assess how well a building measures up against this goal. [3] Truly green plastic requires more than sustainable raw materials. [3] These databases have reports specifically dealing with business sustainability, green businesses, and sustainable development, and corporate sustainability. [4]

The Green Loan Principles may help sustainable investment growth By Paul A. Davies and Aaron E. Franklin The Loan Market Association and the Asia Pacific Loan Market Association recently announced the “Green Loan Principles” joint project. [5] How sustainable is green finance? And while we?re asking, what counts as green finance? We let the experts battle it out. [6] He has executed over 150 capital market offerings on behalf of corporate clients, including several green bonds and other sustainable financings. [6]

“Sustainable financing addresses long-term environmental and social impacts of development projects,” said Kate Lazarus, Senior Operation Officer and Team leader, Hydro Environmental and Social Advisory Project, IFC. “The hydropower sector is one key area in Lao PDR that can benefit from green financing to ensure that high environmental and social standards are met.” [7] Vientiane, Lao PDR, June 5, 2018– IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, and the Bank of Lao PDR introduced concepts on green credit policy at a workshop in Vientiane today, subsequently aiming to contribute to the advancement of sustainable financing across Lao PDR. Adopting sustainable financing policies would help the country improve environmental and social standards in high-risk sectors such as hydropower. [7]

Sustainable and green finance are becoming essential for financial market stability and new opportunities in emerging markets. [7] “To ensure the success of sustainable financing, relevant capacities should be built among officials and decision makers so that they are confident to implement green credit policies and regulations.” [7] Empowered by comprehensive, accurate data, cities will have the opportunity to stimulate a new green economy that leads the world in carbon mitigation and sustainable growth. [1] We have prepared a selection of topics ranging from green fashion to creating sustainable supply chains and logistics, and from sustainable energy policy to environmental market failures. [8]

The official information for this issue along with dates for submission etc will be announced shortly, but the aim here is to attract submissions which consider the future of SEA whether that be issues, theories, methods etc. Once again, this theme fits the ethos of the journal and our aim to create new academic literature in the broad field of social, environmental and sustainable development accounting, accountability, reporting and auditing. [9] Natural Capital Accounting for the Sustainable Development Goals recently summarised emerging examples from around the world. [10] Given the importance of PSOs to sustainable governance, we argue that PSOs should integrate relevant aspects of sustainable development into their accounting and accountability systems. [9] Accounting possesses a powerful set of practices that can play a number of important roles in sustainable governance systems, in particular rendering visible and governable the risks of unsustainability. [9] Accounting can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of those institutions responsible for sustainable governance. [9] Many of these attributes are shared with sustainable accounting and sustainable governance offering an alternative pathway to accounting hybridisation. [9]

While “Green GDP? is designed to quantify value of ecosystem services derived from the nature and measure the monetary costs of environmental damage caused by a country’s economic growth, green accounting (or natural resource accounting) is a methodology for capturing the value of natural capital and externalities by estimating their stock or net asset values so that they are within a common framework of value accounting for the nation. [11] India’s green GDP accounting exercise is proposed to be based on an integrated environmental and economic accounting system as a satellite system to its SNA. [11]

Green accounting can lead to income sustainability (weak sustainability) ultimately leading to ecological (or stronger) sustainability. [11] Our Green Accounting and Bookkeeping Partner As My Green Marketplace continues to approach its grand opening it is developing partnerships with some great companies. [12] More recently -Beyond GDP, Potsdam 2007, the G8+5 Initiative, The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), Wealth Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (WAVES), and the Stieglitz/ Sen/ Fitoussi report, along with the Inclusive Green Economy Initiative -emphasise on looking for better measurements of changes in human well-being. [11]


Herman Daly has suggested three broad criteria for ecological sustainability: renewable resources should provide a sustainable yield (the rate of harvest should not exceed the rate of regeneration); for non-renewable resources there should be equivalent development of renewable substitutes; waste generation should not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment. [2] The sustainability goal is to raise the global standard of living without increasing the use of resources beyond globally sustainable levels; that is, to not exceed “one planet” consumption. [2] The graph shows what is necessary for countries to maintain an acceptable standard of living for their citizens while, at the same time, maintaining sustainable resource use. [2] Rather than simply measure and report changes in relative terms from one period to another, CBS makes it possible to compare the impacts of organizations to organization-specific norms, standards or thresholds for what they (the impacts) would have to be in order to be empirically sustainable (i.e., which if generalized to a larger population would not fail to maintain the sufficiency of vital resources for human or non-human well-being). [2] Accountability practices need to be embedded within robust governance systems in order to change policies or practices to protect the environment and human rights in the context of sustainable wealth creation and its distribution across generations. [9] While renewable energy is defined as energy sources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale, sustainable (often referred to as ‘clean’) energy must not compromise the system in which it is adopted to the point of being unable to provide for future need. [13]

“Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO 2 and H 2 O with renewable or nuclear energy”. [2] Geothermal energy is considered sustainable because that thermal energy is constantly replenished. [13]

While conventional economics is concerned largely with economic growth and the efficient allocation of resources, ecological economics has the explicit goal of sustainable scale (rather than continual growth), fair distribution and efficient allocation, in that order. [2] Specific types of sustainability include, sustainable agriculture, sustainable architecture or ecological economics. [2] The World Economic Forum (WEF) and Accenture found that a series of sustainable supply chain practices result in a 9 to 16 percent cost reduction and a revenue increase of 5 to 20 percent. [14] The Earth Charter speaks of “a sustainable global society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace”. [2] The transition required to reduce global human consumption to within sustainable limits involves much larger changes, at all levels and contexts of society. [2]

The use of sustainable biomaterials that come from renewable sources and that can be recycled is preferred to the use on non-renewables from a life cycle standpoint. [2] Sustainable best practices can involve the recycling of materials, such as the use of recycled plastics for lumber where deforestation has devastated a country’s timber base. [2] Another example of sustainable practices in poverty alleviation is the use of exported recycled materials from developed to developing countries, such as Bridges to Prosperity’s use of wire rope from shipping container gantry cranes to act as the structural wire rope for footbridges that cross rivers in poor rural areas in Asia and Africa. [2] This impact is reduced by not only consuming less but by also making the full cycle of production, use and disposal more sustainable. [2] The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines a “sustainable food system” as “one that provides healthy food to meet current food needs while maintaining healthy ecosystems that can also provide food for generations to come with minimal negative impact to the environment. [2] At the local level there are various movements working towards local food production, more productive use of urban wastelands and domestic gardens including permaculture, urban horticulture, local food, slow food, sustainable gardening, and organic gardening. [2] The concept of Circular flow land use management has also been introduced in Europe to promote sustainable land use patterns that strive for compact cities and a reduction of greenfield land take by urban sprawl. [2] Sustainable use of materials has targeted the idea of dematerialization, converting the linear path of materials (extraction, use, disposal in landfill) to a circular material flow that reuses materials as much as possible, much like the cycling and reuse of waste in nature. [2] “Sustainable development (1987-2005): an oxymoron comes of age”. [2] In the European Union there is a clear trend of promoting policies encouraging investments and financing for sustainable energy in terms of energy efficiency, innovation in energy exploitation and development of renewable resources, with increased consideration of environmental aspects and sustainability. [13] Bio-fuels may be defined as “renewable,” yet may not be “sustainable,” due to soil degradation. [13] Sustainable seafood is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired. [2] Feelings of authenticity at a tourist site are thus implicitly linked to sustainable tourism; as the maximisation of existential “felt” authenticity at sites of limited historical provenance increases the likelihood of return visits. [2]

Other approaches, loosely based around New Urbanism, are successfully reducing environmental impacts by altering the built environment to create and preserve sustainable cities which support sustainable transport and zero emission housing. [2] At the global level the environmental impact of agribusiness is being addressed through sustainable agriculture and organic farming. [2] Information generated by reports at the national, regional and city scales confirm the global trend towards societies that are becoming less sustainable over time. [2] Multiple reports have convincingly demonstrated that agroecology is the most promising pathway to sustainable food systems on all continents. [3] Concerns about the environmental impacts of agribusiness and the stark contrast between the obesity problems of the Western world and the poverty and food insecurity of the developing world have generated a strong movement towards healthy, sustainable eating as a major component of overall ethical consumerism. [2] A sustainable food system also encourages local production and distribution infrastructures and makes nutritious food available, accessible, and affordable to all. [2]

Our central theme is whether enhanced accountability will drive changes in organisational practices associated with more sustainable ways of living. [9] The reuse of materials is a sustainable practice that is rapidly growing among designers in Brazil. [2] “Anti-consumption as part of living a sustainable lifestyle: Daily practices, contextual motivations and subjective values” (PDF). [2]

Broad-based strategies for more sustainable social systems include: improved education and the political empowerment of women, especially in developing countries; greater regard for social justice, notably equity between rich and poor both within and between countries; and intergenerational equity. [2] Developed countries’ citizens consume an average of 16 tons of those four key resources per capita, ranging up to 40 or more tons per person in some developed countries with resource consumption levels far beyond what is likely sustainable. [2] Considerable progress is being made in the energy transition from fossil fuels to ecologically sustainable systems, to the point where many studies support 100% renewable energy. [13] Resilience-thinking evolved from the need to manage interactions between human-constructed systems and natural ecosystems in a sustainable way despite the fact that to policymakers a definition remains elusive. [2] Teaching water treatment to the poor by boiling their water with charcoal, would not generally be considered a sustainable strategy, whereas using PET solar water disinfection would be. [2] “Empirical investigation of the impact of using co-design methods when generating proposals for sustainable travel solutions”. [2] In sustainable architecture the recent movement of New Classical Architecture promotes a sustainable approach towards construction, that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design. [2] The general trend is for higher standards of living to become less sustainable. [2] Fungal bricks have the potential to create safer and more sustainable buildings. [10] It aims at defining and implementing a transformative agenda to greening the economy and the society as a whole so to make them sustainable. [2] European Commission vice-presidents Valdis Dombrovskis and Jyrki Katainen present new EC initiatives on sustainable finance in 2018. [3] Once a niche market, sustainable finance is now expanding and accelerating, yet too few universities have committed their finance programmes to these issues. [3]

While the United Nations Millennium Declaration identified principles and treaties on sustainable development, including economic development, social development and environmental protection it continued using three domains: economics, environment and social sustainability. [2] Using a systematic domain model that responds to the debates over the last decade, the Circles of Sustainability approach distinguished four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability ; this in accord with the United Nations, Unesco, Agenda 21, and in particular the Agenda 21 for culture which specifies culture as the fourth domain of sustainable development. [2] Since the 1980s sustainability has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most widely quoted definition of sustainability as a part of the concept sustainable development, that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987: “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. [2]

Integrating sustainable development into public sector accountability and sustainable governance systems is deemed necessary to create social, economic, cultural, political and environmental wellbeing for present and future generations. [9] Sustainable governance systems are concerned with managing the social, economic and environmental risks emerging from unsustainable practices. [9] Unusually for accounting-sustainability hybrids which are practices used to make visible and thinkable the sustainable governance of economic, ecological and social life, the OSM is adapted from public participation geographic information system (PPGIS). [9] Sustainable business practices, on the other hand, integrate ecological concerns with social and economic ones (i.e., the triple bottom line ). [2]

The 2005 World Summit on Social Development identified sustainable development goals, such as economic development, social development and environmental protection. [2] The organizing principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture. [13] Many companies, states and countries now recognise sustainability to be strongly linked to business growth and sustainable development still a hot topic. [9] Sustainability science is the study of sustainable development and environmental science. [13] The idea of sustainability as a business opportunity has led to the formation of organizations such as the Sustainability Consortium of the Society for Organizational Learning, the Sustainable Business Institute, and the World Council for Sustainable Development. [2]

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment. [2] Sustainable development, is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Report for the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) introduced the term of sustainable development. [2]

The United Nations has recognised the central role of education, and have declared a decade of education for sustainable development, 2005-2014, which aims to “challenge us all to adopt new behaviours and practices to secure our future”. [2] Adopted by the 189 United Nations member states at the time and more than twenty international organizations, these goals were advanced to help achieve the following sustainable development standards by 2015. [2] The World Business Council for Sustainable Development states that “business cannot succeed in societies that fail”. [2]

A study from 2005 pointed out that environmental justice is as important as sustainable development. [2]

The metrics used for the measurement of sustainability (involving the sustainability of environmental, social and economic domains, both individually and in various combinations) are evolving: they include indicators, benchmarks, audits, sustainability standards and certification systems like Fairtrade and Organic, indexes and accounting, as well as assessment, appraisal and other reporting systems. [2] The paper is selected by the editorial board of SEAJ and is named in memory of Professor Reg Mathews, a leading figure in the development of social and environmental accounting. [9] This is it: you have just opened Pandora’s box! You realize that impact assessment is not completely different, not yet quite the same, as social and environmental accounting. [9] The Reg Mathews Memorial Prize is an annual award for the paper considered to have made the most significant contribution towards the social and environmental accounting literature published in Social and Environmental Accountability Journal (SEAJ). [9] Some of the best known and most widely used sustainability measures include corporate sustainability reporting, Triple Bottom Line accounting, World Sustainability Society, Circles of Sustainability, and estimates of the quality of sustainability governance for individual countries using the Environmental Sustainability Index and Environmental Performance Index. [2] In this way, sustainability can be concretely measured in human projects if there is a transparent accounting of the resources put back into the ecosystem to replace those displaced. [2] The Sustainability Standards Accounting Board (SASB), the independent standards-setting organization for sustainability accounting standards, was established in 2011. [14] News, events, thoughts and musings on sustainability accounting and accountability. [9] This paper evaluates the Nigerian Oil Spill Monitor (OSM), an innovative public sector accounting sustainability system created by a coalition of campaigning NGOs and the Nigerian National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) by exploring the OSM system along with interview evidence conducted with different stakeholders in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. [9] Editor’s note: This blog post is based on P Vik’s article ” What’s so Social about Social Return on Investment? A Critique of Quantitative Social Accounting Approaches Drawing on Experiences of International Microfinance “, for which he was awarded the Reg Mathews Memorial Prize in 2017. [9] In 1976 my first publication on social accounting appeared in the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland magazine The Accountant’s Magazine, titled “Social Accounting – Don’t Wait For It”. [9] It explores an interesting field, social accounting, which is beyond “technical” external and regulatory reporting. [9] Beware of revisionist histories! Trying to develop “social accounting” (whatever that was) in the 1970s and 1980s was a very lonely enterprise until I met Dave Owen, Keith Maunders, Lee Parker, James Guthrie and Reg Mathews and suddenly we were a gang – which is much more fun. [9]

To fill this information gap, interest in environmental accounting is growing. [10]

Anaerobic digestion, geothermal power, wind power, small-scale hydropower, solar energy, biomass power, tidal power, wave power, and some forms of nuclear power (ones which are able to “burn” nuclear waste through a process known as nuclear transmutation, such as an Integral Fast Reactor, and therefore belong in the “Green Energy” category). [13] Greater emphasis is now being placed on the improved management of blue (harvestable) and green (soil water available for plant use) water, and this applies at all scales of water management. [2] In California, Massachusetts and several other U.S. states, a new approach to community energy supply called Community Choice Aggregation has provided communities with the means to solicit a competitive electricity supplier and use municipal revenue bonds to finance development of local green energy resources. [13] The World Wide Fund for Nature and several green electricity labelling organizations created the (now defunct) Eugene Green Energy Standard under which the national green electricity certification schemes could be accredited to ensure that the purchase of green energy leads to the provision of additional new green energy resources. [13] The United States Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Center for Resource Solutions (CRS) recognizes the voluntary purchase of electricity from renewable energy sources (also called renewable electricity or green electricity) as green power. [13] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program that supports the organizational procurement of renewable electricity by offering expert advice, technical support, tools and resources. [13] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines green power as electricity produced from solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, biomass and low-impact small hydroelectric sources. [13] Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources. [13] Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit. [13]

Resources are also available for verifying the life-cycle of products and the producer or vendor level, such as Green Seal for cleaning products, NSF -140 for carpet production, and even labeling of Organic food in the United States. [2] Green economics is another market-based attempt to address issues of equity and the environment. [2] Information is gained from green computing, green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. [2] A recent UNEP report proposes a green economy defined as one that “improves human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities”: it “does not favor one political perspective over another but works to minimize excessive depletion of natural capital “. [2]

By this logic, market-based solutions to ecological crises ( ecological economics, environmental economics, green economy ) are rejected as technical tweaks that do not confront capitalism’s structural failures. [2]

In February 2016, Apple launched $1.5 billion in green bonds for renewable energy, energy efficiency, and circular economy projects. [14] The BusinessGreen Leaders’ Summit will bring together some of the UK’s top green executives, entrepreneurs, thought leaders, campaigners, and politicians to explore how the pace, reach, and adoption of green business innovation can be accelerated, and the barriers to adoption overcome. [15] There is no way the consumer can check whether or not the electricity bought is “green” or otherwise. [13] The planet has a natural capability to recover which means pollution that does not go beyond that capability can still be termed green. [13]

When energy is purchased from the electricity network, the power reaching the consumer will not necessarily be generated from green energy sources. [13] Individuals are usually assured that the electricity they are using is actually produced from a green energy source that they control. [13] By participating in a green energy program a consumer may be having an effect on the energy sources used and ultimately might be helping to promote and expand the use of green energy. [13] If insufficient green energy sources are available, the utility must develop new ones or contract with a third party energy supplier to provide green energy, causing more to be built. [13]

Those not satisfied with the third-party grid approach to green energy via the power grid can install their own locally based renewable energy system. [13] Some people, including Greenpeace founder and first member Patrick Moore, George Monbiot, Bill Gates and James Lovelock have specifically classified nuclear power as green energy. [13]

Green energy consumers either obligate the utility companies to increase the amount of green energy that they purchase from the pool (so decreasing the amount of non-green energy they purchase), or directly fund the green energy through a green power provider. [13] Roughly one-quarter of the nation’s utilities offer green power programs to customers, and voluntary retail sales of renewable energy in the United States totaled more than 12 billion kilowatt-hours in 2006, a 40% increase over the previous year. [13]

In several countries with common carrier arrangements, electricity retailing arrangements make it possible for consumers to purchase green electricity ( renewable electricity ) from either their utility or a green power provider. [13] In some countries such as the Netherlands, electricity companies guarantee to buy an equal amount of ‘green power’ as is being used by their green power customers. [13] Throughout the country, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers now have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. [13]

European environmental NGOs have launched an ecolabel for green power. [13] In 2014, Arcadia Power made RECS available to homes and businesses in all 50 states, allowing consumers to use “100% green power” as defined by the EPA’s Green Power Partnership. [13] Customers often buy green power for avoided environmental impacts and its greenhouse gas reduction benefits. [13]

Green Energy is energy that can be extracted, generated, and/or consumed without any significant negative impact to the environment. [13] In the United States, one of the main problems with purchasing green energy through the electrical grid is the current centralized infrastructure that supplies the consumer’s electricity. [13] In many countries green energy currently provides a very small amount of electricity, generally contributing less than 2 to 5% to the overall pool. [13]

Some have argued that although green energy is a commendable effort in solving the world’s increasing energy consumption, it must be accompanied by a cultural change that encourages the decrease of the world’s appetite for energy. [13] Green energy includes natural energetic processes that can be harnessed with little pollution. [13]

Technologies promote sustainable energy including renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity, solar energy, wind energy, wave power, geothermal energy, bioenergy, tidal power and also technologies designed to improve energy efficiency. [13] This sets sustainable energy apart from other renewable energy terminology such as alternative energy by focusing on the ability of an energy source to continue providing energy. [13] Sustainable energy can produce some pollution of the environment, as long as it is not sufficient to prohibit heavy use of the source for an indefinite amount of time. [13] Climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices and increasing government support are driving increasing rates of investment in the sustainable energy industries, according to a trend analysis from the United Nations Environment Programme. [13] “A sustainable energy policy for Slovenia: Considering the potential of renewables and investment costs”. [13] According to UNEP, global investment in sustainable energy in 2007 was higher than previous levels, with $148 billion of new money raised in 2007, an increase of 60% over 2006. [13] Investment flows in 2007 broadened and diversified, making the overall picture one of greater breadth and depth of sustainable energy use. [13] Around the world many sub-national governments – regions, states and provinces – have aggressively pursued sustainable energy investments. [13] The mainstream capital markets are “now fully receptive to sustainable energy companies, supported by a surge in funds destined for clean energy investment”. [13] The increased levels of investment and the fact that much of the capital is coming from more conventional financial actors suggest that sustainable energy options are now becoming mainstream. [13]

Renewable energy technologies are essential contributors to sustainable energy as they generally contribute to world energy security, reducing dependence on fossil fuel resources, and providing opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. [13] Another common definition of sustainable energy is an energy system that serves the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their energy needs. Not all renewable energy is sustainable. [13] Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable energy. [13] Sustainable Energy has two key components: renewable energy and energy efficiency [13] Renewable energy and energy efficiency are sometimes said to be the “twin pillars” of sustainable energy policy. [13] Scientific production towards sustainable energy systems is rising exponentially, growing from about 500 English journal papers only about renewable energy in 1992 to almost 9,000 papers in 2011. [13]

Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects. [13] Environmental problems associated with industrial agriculture and agribusiness are now being addressed through such movements as sustainable agriculture, organic farming and more sustainable business practices. [2] Aligning public service accountability practices with sustainable development is critical for the governance of others to achieve an equitable redistribution of costs, risk, harm, resources and benefits across generations. [9] The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the current harmonized set of seventeen future international development targets. [2] The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replace the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which expired at the end of 2015. [2] The Official Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs, with the main paragraph (51) outlining the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and its associated 169 targets. [2] Australia’s business-as-usual plan will not be enough to achieve our 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. [3]

Sustainable Development and global performance are a logical evolution for the transparency of local authorities. [9] For me, it was interesting to compare the different methods of local authorities to integrate Sustainable Development in management tools. [9] In the broader context of sustainable development, there are three pillars, ecology, economy and society. [13] Any serious vision of a sustainable energy economy thus requires commitments to both renewables and efficiency. [13] Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5 (7): 032301. doi : 10.1063/1.4811283. [13]

To have a more sustainable energy profile, the United States must move towards implementing changes to the electrical grid that will accommodate a mixed-fuel economy. [13] And, “The solution will lie in finding sustainable energy sources and more efficient means of converting and utilizing energy [13] Hydroelectric dams are one of the most widely deployed sources of sustainable energy. [13] “Increasing the energy yield of generation from new and sustainable energy sources”. [13]

Lighting the way: Toward a sustainable energy future p. xvii. [13]

Impact assessment appears to you as a sort of post-modern form of accounting, that would have digested ANT and institutional theory, to be able to acknowledge that “yes, global warming is a fact, but no, financial performance does not exist ‘out there.'” [9] One such project is my paper on the use of accounting in the U.S. as the cannabis industry transitions from the black to the gray market. [9] From the perspective of accounting hybridisation, there are a number of common attributes associated with PPGIS. These include making invisible data visible, connecting high level concepts with specific geographic localities, presenting information from different sources, co-production, filling critical information gaps, stakeholder inclusion, and visualising complex relationships for intra-generational engagement and intergenerational equity (Brown et al., 2012). [9] I decided to focus on the key accounting concept in integrated reports: “the capitals “. [9] He has received funding from the World Bank and United Nations for work on environmental-economic accounting. [10]

Today, our faculty members focus on corporate environmental strategy, operations and reporting; sustainable cities and infrastructure; the role of government and environmental policy; clean energy generation and demand-side energy efficiency; and the effective management of natural resources essential to human prosperity. [16] Bruce leads Coca-Cola North America’s environmental efforts focused on water stewardship, climate protection and energy efficiency, packaging and recycling and sustainable agriculture. [6] We shall strive to achieve a sustainable society and promote business growth and development by balancing environmental conservation with business activities. [17] David Clark leads Amcor’s sustainability programmes and is closely involved with integrating sustainable design and social responsibility into Amcor’s product development and innovation processes. [6] Ron is the Co-Founder and Managing Director of Closed Loop Partners, an investment platform that invests in sustainable consumer goods, recycling and the development of the circular economy. [6] Measures aim to establish consistent criteria for sustainable investments, as well as clear market standards for investors. [5]

Morningstar also offers Sustainability Ratings for “Sustainable Investing” funds and tools such as the Portfolio Carbon Risk Score?. [18] Kim Frankovich is the VP Cocoa Sustainability for Mars Wrigley Confectionery where she is responsible for developing the cocoa sustainability strategy and delivery of the Mars Sustainable in a Generation commitments for cocoa. [6]

A 20-year veteran of the recycling field, Keefe’s experience includes a wide range firms, governments, and organizations active in the recycling arena, producing groundbreaking outreach campaigns, new ways to measure recycling’s economic impacts, and fostering corporate commitment to sustainable materials management. [6] This is a sector (Food & Ag) rich in traditional practices and ripe for positive change as stakeholders and consumers present their expectations for the firms to be more sustainable – and accountable to society. [18] Through Michelle’s leadership, the chapter has successfully piloted innovative approaches to water quality improvements through the implementation of wetland restoration sites along the Illinois River, by working with agricultural partners to develop sustainable farming practices that reduce harmful runoff, and controlling and preventing the spread of aquatic invasive species. [6] We are tackling climate change; conserving lands, waters and the ocean at an unprecedented scale; providing food and water sustainably, and helping make cities more sustainable. [6] We shall engage in environmental protection activities, such as by each person actively using resources in a sustainable manner, addressing climate change, protecting biodiversity and ecosystems, and preventing pollution. [17]

Her passion for building a cleaner and more sustainable world has been portrayed in her previous roles with packaging procurement and our Global Procurement Office where she worked on centralizing secondary packaging categories and re-designing global supply markets. [6] Mr Clark is also chairman of the Plastic Recycling Corporation of California, serves on the external advisory board of the Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise at the University of Michigan, and is an Aspen Institute First Movers Fellow. [6]

This friendly competition promoted safe, smart, and sustainable practices when using a fume hood. [19] The October 2017 issue’s cover story was about sustainable mutual funds based on data provided by Morningstar using Sustainalytics data – 37% of the 203 funds achieved a “high” or “above average rating” and beat the S&P 500 Index returns. (Only 28% of all large-cap mutual funds managed to do that.) [18] The narrative captures highlights of a recent webinar by Fund X and Morningstar and explains some of the latter’s approach to the new Sustainable Funds ratings for you. [18] And, of course, sustainability-focused ratings/scores/rankings/best for mutual funds and ETFs quickly followed here in the 21st Century as “sustainable” funds expanded. [18]

Before his appointment as Chief Executive Benjamin led WCA’s strategic and business planning, and headed WCA’s advocacy work energy poverty, sustainable development and climate change issues. [6]

Jennifer Turner has been the director of the China Environment Forum at the Woodrow Wilson Center for 18 years where she creates meetings, exchanges and publications focusing on a variety of energy and environmental challenges facing China, particularly on water, energy and green civil society issues. [6] Focusing first on the apparel industry in China, Linda created NRDC’s Clean by Design Program, a green supply chain initiative that significantly reduces the use of water, energy and chemicals in manufacturing while saving money. [6]

By 2018, it was clear that U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) had significantly contributed to the growth of green building, and over its 25-year history had become a powerful brand in the construction sector with its Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard. [16] Libby holds a M.A.S. in Civil (Environmental) Engineering and a B.A. in Chemistry and Biology from the University of Delaware, and is a licensed Professional Engineer and LEED AP accredited by the U.S. Green Building Council. [6]

The Office for Sustainability encourages labs to participate in the pilot phase of the Green Labs certification program. [19] The action plan recommends leveraging London’s leading role in global green finance to grow green opportunities. [5] Numbers from Moody’s indicate that global green bond issuance could rise to 260 billion USD in 2017 after a record high of 93.4 billion in 2016. [6]

Intern or Volunteer to Green Campuses Nationwide! Introduction Use your skills, experience, knowledge, creativity and talent to green campuses and communities, and help save the planet. [20] The Green Labs Program conducted UVA’s first Shut the Sash competition in October 2017 for the following buildings: MR5, Pinn Hall, the Chemistry Building, and the Physical Life Sciences Building. [19] Prior to founding Bright Power, Jeff worked with Greg Kats at Capital E, with whom he co-authored “The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings,” a ground-breaking report that used economic cost/benefit analysis to show that building healthy, energy-efficient, and environmentally responsible buildings makes economic sense. [6]

At UVA, labs account for over 30% of the University’s energy use despite accounting for only approximately 16% of the square footage. [19] Mr. Mangan is also founder of the United States Business Council for Sustainable Development, a non-profit association of businesses launched in 1993. [6] Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 Plan for sustainable development could help to change this picture in dramatic terms. [18]

As we continue to be encouraged by the rising interest in sustainable investing by mainstream institutions, and the broadening interest of corporate executives and boards in corporate sustainability, responsibility, citizenship, ESG (et al), we are also intrigued by the more complex questions that arise. [18] Editor Beverly Goodman explained: “As a team of seven writers and I began work on Barron’s first special edition devoted entirely to sustainable investing, we realized something – we could not get people to stop talking about it! CEO’s wanted to tout the strides they are making in labor practices and protecting the environment. [18] The feature about Larry Fink is entitled, ” In Defense of Social Purpose ” – and his argument for sustainable investing that editors say has “ignited a burning debate about his concept?and him.” [18] There is a ” Getting Started in Sustainable Investing ” guide for readers, including a Glossary and suggestions for mutual funds “with a purpose”. [18] “We are only in Version 1.0 of sustainable investing – 2.0 is where ESG is not a separate category but a natural part of active management.” [18]

The writer set out characterizing the global coffee industry as one that has been mostly “unsustainable” but lately, major coffee producers have been working to create more sustainable business models. [18]

The case provides background on the USGBC and the evolution of its LEED standard, including how the standards are set, and green building benefits and costs. [16] USGBC faced two significant challenges moving forward: maintaining LEED’s leadership position as the green building standard in the U.S., and increasing the proportion of building stock that met the LEED standard. [16]

A percentage of savings from the Green Revolving Fund energy efficiency projects at the College are being allocated to the Green Community Fund. [21] The Green Revolving Fund (GRF) is an investment fund that finances energy efficiency, renewable energy, waste reduction, and other sustainability projects on campus, including waste reduction. [21] The Green Revolving Fund will function as an independent fiscal entity managed by the Sustainability Task Force. [21] The plan calls for achieving Green Restaurant Association certification by 2019 and developing a Sustainability Certificate Program by 2020. [21]

That is the conclusion of the second report from the UK Government’s cross-party Environmental Audit Committee (EAC) following a Green Finance Inquiry. [22]

Integrating sustainable finance policy into the 8th National Socio-Economic Development Plan (NSEDP 2016-2020) is a priority for Lao PDR. It will help the country better manage its natural resources and protect the environment. [7] To continue this very promising development the world needs courageous people and business leaders to lead the way towards a more sustainable way of doing business.We aim to contribute to furthering this development by the education of young professionals, creating knowledge and bringing together people who believe that sustainable management is the future of business. [8] CSR and Sustainable Management have been considered to be strange fields of interest on the fringes of business administration and management. [8] It is not about managing sustainability as add on anymore, but rather about sustainable management of the whole company. [8] The company’s newly published 2017 Sustainable Impact Report shows a 38% year-over-year increase in sales bids with sustainability requirements. [23] It’s not just cereal anymore: Chief sustainability officer Diane Holdorf on how Kellogg’s is building a building a more sustainable food system. [24] The 2015 Climate Action and Sustainability Plan, Attainable Sustainable, serves as our road map. [21] The Sustainability Task Force is charged for a two-year period to serve as the governing body responsible for Attainable Sustainable, the College’s sustainability program, and for ensuring ongoing improvement of the initiative through a closed loop methodology that consists of these key functions: (Re)assess, Plan, Implement, and Measure. [21] Do you have a sustainability project idea or solution that you or a team would like to implement? Submit a project idea to the Sustainability Task Force by emailing Senior Director of Sustainable Enterprises Stuart Leckie. [21]

“CSRware provided Bloomberg with a cost-effective, Sustainable Supply Chain software to measure supplier performance & a software platform to aggregate Environmental, Social & Governance (ESG) data. [25] Unilever’s Sustainable Living Brands Pay Off With Big Growth by Alyssa Danigelis May 14, 2018 Unilever reports that its “sustainable living” brands grew 46% faster than the rest of the business and delivered 70% of its turnover growth. [23] June 25, 2018 Alyssa Danigelis HP Inc. says that sustainable impact was a key differentiator for more than $700 million in new business last year. [23]

This effort aims to increase the shares of sustainable private sector investments that adhere to good international industry practices. [7] A new report from FTSE Group finds that sustainable investments have grown as the fossil fuel sector has shrunk, presenting a massive opportunity. [24] With this Triango project, Bopro Sustainable Investments (BSI) has obtained the right to develop 15 ha of the Triangle de Gonesse. [1]

EcoManagers are paid student positions who educate in the residence halls by encouraging and promoting sustainable behavior changes while leading entrepreneurial projects, events, and competitions. [21] In many parts of the world sustainable management is becoming the new normal. [8]

As a systems ecologist, Heather studies the interactions of energy flows with a system (ecosystem, community, etc.) and then assesses the sustainability of the system with environmental accounting techniques. [26] Her focus is on using environmental accounting to quantify the value of ecosystem services. [26]

Complete accounting (of all emission types) will be particularly helpful for developed cities. [1]

It will further help attract public and private investment in green growth activities. [7] Currently, the government of Lao PDR is preparing a Green Growth Strategy — led by the Ministry of Planning and Investment — and revising a Commercial Bank Law led by the Bank of Lao PDR. [7] Drawing lessons from these experiences could help contribute to Lao PDR’s Green Growth Strategy, and gradually integrate green credit policies and guidelines into our banking system,” said Phongsavanh Phomkong, IFC Head of Office based in Vientiane. [7]

The mission of the Green Revolving Fund is to encourage environmentally sound technologies and practices on campus. [21] The College will promote and deploy five projects from the Green Revolving Fund. [21]

With support from the Australian Government, about 40 officials from the Bank of Lao PDR took part in the IFC training today to learn from the experiences of IFC’s SBN and the China Green Finance Committee – a non-for-profit organization coordinating green finance initiatives in China since 2015. [7] IDS 6235 – Economics and Finance for Sustainability (3) The course provides sustainability practitioners with an overview of how economics and finance are expanded in the green economy to optimize the triple bottom line of profits, people, and the environment. [26] To foster a green economy and make significant reductions in GHG emissions, cities must first understand and measure current baseline emissions. [1]

She believes these “alternative” communities are a rich source of information and can serve as models for sustainable development. [26] Topics we are working on are Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainable Business Transformation, Social Innovation and Sustainable Leadership. [8]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(26 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (61) Sustainable energy – Wikipedia

2. (61) Sustainability – Wikipedia

3. (27) Accountability, Transparency, Sustainability

4. (18) Sustainability Summit 2018 | The Economist Events

5. (12) Sustainability Update | Insights and Perspectives for Your Sustainability Journey

6. (10) Sustainability | Saint Josephs College

7. (10) IFC and Bank of Lao PDR Join to Discuss the Benefits of Green Credit Policy

8. (6) Sustainability – News, Research and Analysis – The Conversation – page 1

9. (6) Sustainability in Business, Economics & Finance

10. (5) Sustainable Cities: GHG Emissions Inventories as a First Step Towards a Successful Green Economy

11. (4) You probably missed the latest national environmental-economic accounts – but why?

12. (4) Greening The GDP: Realizing The ‘Hidden’ National Wealth Analysis Eurasia Review

13. (4) Business and Environment – Faculty & Research – Harvard Business School

14. (4) Green Labs Program – Sustainability at the University of Virginia

15. (4) Dr. Heather Rothrock | Concentration Director | PCGS | USF

16. (3) Capitalize Green

17. (3) Environmental Leader | Energy, Environmental & Sustainability News

18. (3) Green Finance | Environment, Land & Resources

19. (2) Philosophy and Policy for Environmental Activities : SHIMADZU CORPORATION

20. (2) Sustainable Development Goals / SDGs | GreenBiz

21. (1) My Green Marketplace News Archives – My Green Marketplace

22. (1) Plastics ban, circular design, zero emission deliveries: IKEA unveils new sustainability strategy

23. (1) 2018 Virtual Environmental Internships | Internships.com

24. (1) Towards sustainable business — Carol Adams

25. (1) CSRware Environmental, Social & Governance Solutions

26. (1) Articles and Databases – Sustainable Business – Research Guides at University of Southern California