Bio Active Peptides

Bio Active Peptides
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link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation_(biology)
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C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS

  • Due to busy lifestyle and work culture, consumers in North America are opting for ready-to-eat and ready-to-drink food and beverages, which has given immense scope for manufacturers in the North America bio active protein and peptides market to develop products specially catering to the functional food and beverages segment.(More…)
  • The Bio Gro contains low molecular weight and micro concentrated Bio-Active Peptides found only in Bio-Gro products.(More…)

POSSIBLY USEFUL

  • In the present study, we found a new peptide, OA-GL21, from O. andersonii, which showed obvious wound-healing-promoting activity on both cell scratch and animal full-thickness skin wound models.(More…)

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES

KEY TOPICS

Due to busy lifestyle and work culture, consumers in North America are opting for ready-to-eat and ready-to-drink food and beverages, which has given immense scope for manufacturers in the North America bio active protein and peptides market to develop products specially catering to the functional food and beverages segment. [1] North America is a rapidly growing bio active protein and peptides market owing to increasing demand for sports and nutritional food. [1]

The dairy products segment will remain the dominating sub-segment amongst the animal source bio active protein and peptides segment owing to an increasing demand for whey proteins from the food and beverages industry. [1] Increasing health concerns and growing awareness of nutraceutical products among consumers are the primary factors expected to drive the global bio active protein and peptides market in the near future. [1] A growing aging population and increasing incidence of chronic diseases among the people globally are other factors anticipated to drive revenue growth of the global bio active protein and peptides market. [1] North America dominates the global bio active protein and peptides market and is expected to represent an incremental $ opportunity of US$ 16.8 Bn between 2016 and 2026. [1] Among regions, North America is anticipated to dominate the global bio active protein and peptides market over the forecast period. [1] A growing preference for bio active protein and peptides in cosmetics and personal care is likely to boost the global bio active protein and peptides market over the forecast period. [1] Stringent rules and regulations leading to increased operational costs and supply chain issues create a barrier for manufacturers operating in the global bio active protein and peptides market. [1] By source type, the animal source bio active protein and peptides segment is expected to remain the preferred segment in the global bio active protein and peptides market, accounting for a revenue share of 55% in 2016. [1] The report features some of the companies operating in the global bio active protein and peptides market. [1] The report states that the demand for bio active protein and peptides in the global market is estimated to increase 6.6% Y-o-Y in 2016. [1] Sales revenue of bio active protein and peptides in Japan is anticipated to increase at the highest Y-o-Y growth rate during 2016-2026 due to the presence of a large number of manufacturing units in the region. [1] Sales revenue of bio active protein and peptides in North America has been estimated to account for the largest market share of 35% by 2016 end. [1] North America is expected to remain the largest market for bio active protein and peptides globally, holding a revenue share of 35% in 2016. [1] Bio active protein and peptides display a number of physiological functionalities such as improving cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. [1]

Many bioactive active peptides produced using Pepsin or trypsin (produces calcium binding phosphopeptides and Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides). [2] Bioactive peptides are a form of prepropeptides, which are synthesized in the cell and modified to active proteins. [2]

The Bio Gro contains low molecular weight and micro concentrated Bio-Active Peptides found only in Bio-Gro products. [3] Uses patented methodologies for Bio Gro peptide collection. [3]

POSSIBLY USEFUL

In the present study, we found a new peptide, OA-GL21, from O. andersonii, which showed obvious wound-healing-promoting activity on both cell scratch and animal full-thickness skin wound models. [4] We purified a peptide with cellular level wound-healing-promoting activity from the skin secretions of O. andersonii (indicated by an arrow in Figure 1 B). [4] In order to confirm its primary structure, we determined the amino acid sequence of this peptide by Edman sequencing, and got a sequence ‘GLLSGHYGRVVSTQSGHYGRG’ ( Figure 2 A) from N-terminus to C-terminus, and then successfully screened the cDNA encoding this peptide from an O. andersonii skin cDNA library. [4] Then the high-purity peptide was directly subjected to Edman degradation on a PPSQ-31A protein sequencer (Shimadzu, Japan) to obtain the complete amino acid sequence according to the manufacturer’s standard GFD protocols provided by the manufacturer, and data were analyzed using the provided software package. [4] A pure form of proteolytic enzyme is used to hydrolyze the protein to produce short peptide sequences. [5] Oral nanoparticle formulations increase bioavailability of bioactive proteins and peptides, and improve treatment compliance in the long run. [5] GELITA is a leading global company for manufacturing and marketing collagen proteins (gelatine and collagen peptides) – providing solutions to the global pharmaceutical, health & nutrition and food industries. [6] Single-blind case-control studies have demonstrated that marine collagen peptides improve skin elasticity and sebum production in healthy participants. [5] Wang Y., et al. (2016) Novel peptides from skins of amphibians showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. [4] Barra D. and Simmaco M. (1995) Amphibian skin: a promising resource for antimicrobial peptides. [4] Yang X., Lee W.H. and Zhang Y. (2012) Extremely abundant antimicrobial peptides existed in the skins of nine kinds of Chinese odorous frogs. [4] Li X., et al. (2018) OM-LV20, a novel peptide from odorous frog skin, accelerates wound healing in vitro and in vivo. [4] Liu H., et al. (2014) A short peptide from frog skin accelerates diabetic wound healing. [4] Marine peptides also have skin protection and wound healing properties. [5] These results suggested that OA-GL21 induced HaCaT and HSF cell wound healing by influencing the cell migration, rather than through the induction of proliferation, which was quite different with many of other prohealing peptides inducing both the migration and the proliferation of cells. [4] The small stable peptide OA-GL21, identified from the skin secretions of O. andersonii, effectively shortening the process of wound healing and inducing much less formation of scar, may be a potential biological agent for developing new wound-healing drugs for clinical use on chronic wounds. [4] In the present study, we identified a new 21-resiude peptide, OA-GL21, from the skin secretions of O. andersonii, and determined its sequence as ‘GLLSGHYGRVVSTQSGHYGRG’. [4] After a BLASTp in the NCBI database, no same sequence was retrieved, so this peptide was believed completely new and named OA-GL21 accordingly ( Figure 2 C). [4] Because the overall structure of OA-GL21 and other bioactive peptides from amphibian skin had been found similar ( Figure 2 C), we tested other relative activities of OA-GL21 according to these bioactive peptides. [4]

The prepropeptide of OA-GL21 kept the same highly conservative template with other amphibian skin bioactive peptides, consisting of an N-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide, an acidic segment, and mature peptides at the C-terminal. [4]

Zhang M., et al. (2016) Electrospun poly(l-lactide)/zein nanofiber mats loaded with Rana chensinensis skin peptides for wound dressing. [4] Opioid peptides are short amino acid sequences with similar pharmacological activity as opium. [5] Typical opioid peptides have the same N-terminal sequence of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, while atypical opioid peptides have varying amino acid sequences at their N-terminal region with conserved tyrosine residue. [5] By the process of Edman sequencing and cDNA cloning, the mature sequence of this peptide was determined to be ‘GLLSGHYGRVVSTQSGHYGRG’ ( Figure 2 A), and no post-translational modifications were observed. [4] Comparing the result of MS analysis with secondary HPLC chromatographic results ( Figure 1 B), we speculated that this sample possessed an ideal purity of >90%, and was mainly composed of a peptide with a molecular mass of 2188.0 Da. [4] Raaymakers C., et al. (2017) Antimicrobial peptides in frog poisons constitute a molecular toxin delivery system against predators. [4] Chen Z., et al. (2012) Two novel families of antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of the Chinese torrent frog, Amolops jingdongensis. [4] Conlon J.M. (2011) Structural diversity and species distribution of host-defense peptides in frog skin secretions. [4] The purpose of the present study was to identify new type of wound healing peptides from the skin secretions of O. andersonii. [4] Only several wound-healing-promoting peptides in amphibian skin secretions were reported. [4] Zhou C., et al. (2018) Discovery of two bombinin peptides with antimicrobial and anticancer activities from the skin secretion of Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis. [4] Yang X., et al. (2013) Antimicrobial peptides from the venom gland of the social wasp Vespa tropica. [4] These bacteria or yeast secrete their proteolytic enzymes in due course to release peptides from the proteins. [5] The mature OA-GL21 peptide (GLLSGHYGRVVSTQSGHYGRG) was commercially synthesized by Wuhan Bioyeargene Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Wuhan, China). [4] Then the same volume of human erythrocytes (1% as the terminal concentration) and various doses of the OA-GL21 peptide were incubated together at 37°C in a water bath for 30 min. After centrifugation at 3000 g for 5 min at room temperature, absorbance of the supernatant was measured at 540 nm. [4]

The 21-residue mature peptide was produced by post-translational processing of a 67-residue prepropeptide ( Figure 2 A, GenBank accession number: MG860487). [4] The theoretical molecular weight of this peptide was 2188.39 Da (calculated at http://web.expasy.org/compute_pi/ ), which matched well with the observed molecular weight, indicating that there were no post-translational modifications. [4] Low molecular weight peptides (<10 kDa) are effective anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative agents that find commercial application to produce peptides in bulk than high molecular weight peptides. [5] Tang J., et al. (2014) A small peptide with potential ability to promote wound healing. [4]

In view of many bioactive peptides having direct damaging effects on normal cells, we tested whether OA-GL21 had hemolytic activity and acute toxicity before further studies. [4] Considering the sequence of OA-GL21 was similar to some known bioactive peptides, which exerted direct microbe-killing or antioxidant abilities, we also tested the antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity of OA-GL21. [4] Some bioactive peptides such as those extracted from Canastra artisanal Minas cheese have been studied extensively for its potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. [5] The type of N- and C-terminal amino acid, the peptide chain length, charge character, and composition of the amino acids determines the biological activity of bioactive peptides. [5] Marine-derived bioactive peptides, such as jellyfish collagen peptides, protein hydrolysates from muscles of goby fish and sardines are used for their hypotensive, anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic activities. [5] Human salivary proteins, including statherin, histatin 3, histatin 1, proline-rich proteins and musin 7 can generate bioactive peptides with anti-microbial, anti-viral, and other therapeutic activities. [5] The skin of the odorous frog can secrete a variety of bioactive peptides, which provides an infinite amount of possibilities for the discovery of new bioactive peptides. [4] In the long-term process of natural selection, amphibians gradually evolved a unique and highly efficient skin peptide defense system, such as antibacterial peptides defending against pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant peptides preventing the frogs from strong oxidative damage. [4] Yang X., et al. (2016) Rich diversity and potency of skin antioxidant peptides revealed a novel molecular basis for high-altitude adaptation of amphibians. [4] Cao X., et al. (2018) Cathelicidin-OA1, a novel antioxidant peptide identified from an amphibian, accelerates skin wound healing. [4] After long-term natural selection, the amphibians have evolved a unique and highly efficient skin peptide defense system, which is mainly composed of antibacterial peptides, antioxidant peptides, lectin, and protease inhibitors. [4]

Yu H., et al. (2015) Identification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides involved in redox homeostasis of frog, limnonectes fragilis. [4] This sub-field of proteomics involves developing novel bioactive peptides and generation of peptide databases for industries that produce dairy products. [5] Milk derived bioactive peptides and their impact on human health – A review. [5] With increasing consumer awareness on the health-promoting effects of nutraceuticals, it is imperative to conduct robust clinical trials to provide enough evidence to show that bioactive peptides are useful functional agents to prevent and treat diseases. [5] Therefore, bioactive peptides have become a natural pharmaceutical resource bank in the field of drug development. [4]

Borcel E, Perez-Alvarez L, Herrero AI, Brionne T, Varea E, Berezin V, Bock E, Sandi C, Venero C (2008) Chronic stress in adulthood followed by intermittent stress impairs spatial memory and the survival of newborn hippocampal cells in aging animals: prevention by FGL, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule. [7] Dallerac G, Zerwas M, Novikova T, Callu D, Leblanc-Veyrac P, Bock E, Berezin V, Rampon C, Doyere V (2011) The neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide FGL facilitates long-term plasticity in the dentate gyrus in vivo. [7]

Kohler LB, Christensen C, Rossetti C, Fantin M, Sandi C, Bock E, Berezin V (2010) Dennexin peptides modeled after the homophilic binding sites of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) promote neuronal survival, modify cell adhesion and impair spatial learning. [7] Klementiev B, Bichevaja N, Novikova T, Chebotar N, Bock E, Berezin V (2002) A peptide agonist of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), C3, protects against developmental defects induced by a teratogen pyrimethamine. [7] Kiryushko D, Kofoed T, Skladchikova G, Holm A, Berezin V, Bock E (2003) A synthetic peptide ligand of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), C3d, promotes neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis and modulates presynaptic function in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. [7] Foley AG, Hartz BP, Gallagher HC, Ronn LC, Berezin V, Bock E, Regan CM (2000) A synthetic peptide ligand of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) IgI domain prevents NCAM internalization and disrupts passive avoidance learning. [7] Ronn LCB, Olsen M, Ostergaard S, Kiselyov V, Berezin V, Mortensen MT, Lerche MH, Jensen PH, Soroka V, Saffells JL, Doherty P, Poulsen FM, Bock E, Holm A (1999) Identification of a neuritogenic ligand of the neural cell adhesion molecule using a combinatorial library of synthetic peptides. [7] Rn LCB, Doherty P, Holm A, Berezin V, Bock E (2000) Neurite outgrowth induced by a synthetic peptide ligand of neural cell adhesion molecule requires fibroblast growth factor receptor activation. [7] Aonurm-Helm A, Berezin V, Bock E, Zharkovsky A (2010) NCAM-mimetic, FGL peptide, restores disrupted fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) phosphorylation and FGFR mediated signaling in neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-deficient mice. [7] Chen Y, Li S, Berezin V, Bock E (2010) The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) agonist FGF1 and the neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide FGL activate FGFR substrate 2alpha differently. [7] Cox FF, Berezin V, Bock E, Lynch MA (2013) The neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide, FGL, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in glia in a CD200-dependent manner. [7] Cambon K, Venero C, Berezin V, Bock E, Sandi C (2003) Post-training administration of a synthetic peptide ligand of the neural cell adhesion molecule, C3d, attenuates long-term expression of contextual fear conditioning. [7] Kohler LB, Soroka V, Korshunova I, Berezin V, Bock E (2010) A peptide derived from a trans-homophilic binding site in neural cell adhesion molecule induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival. [7] Klementiev B, Novikova T, Novitskaya V, Walmod PS, Dmytriyeva O, Pakkenberg B, Berezin V, Bock E (2007) A neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide reduces neuropathological signs and cognitive impairment induced by Abeta25-35. [7] Skibo GG, Lushnikova IV, Voronin KY, Dmitrieva O, Novikova T, Klementiev B, Vaudano E, Berezin VA, Bock E (2005) A synthetic NCAM-derived peptide, FGL, protects hippocampal neurons from ischemic insult both in vitro and in vivo. [7] Pedersen MV, Helweg-Larsen RB, Nielsen FC, Berezin V, Bock E, Penkowa M (2008) The synthetic NCAM-derived peptide, FGL, modulates the transcriptional response to traumatic brain injury. [7] Popov VI, Medvedev NI, Kraev IV, Gabbott PL, Davies HA, Lynch M, Cowley TR, Berezin V, Bock E, Stewart MG (2008) A cell adhesion molecule mimetic, FGL peptide, induces alterations in synapse and dendritic spine structure in the dentate gyrus of aged rats: a three-dimensional ultrastructural study. [7] Jacobsen J, Kiselyov V, Bock E, Berezin V (2008) A peptide Motif from the second fibronectin module of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, NLIKQDDGGSPIRHY, is a binding site for the FGF receptor. [7] Kraev I, Henneberger C, Rossetti C, Conboy L, Kohler LB, Fantin M, Jennings A, Venero C, Popov V, Rusakov D, Stewart MG, Bock E, Berezin V, Sandi C (2011) A peptide mimetic targeting trans-homophilic NCAM binding sites promotes spatial learning and neural plasticity in the hippocampus. [7] Kiselyov VV, Li S, Berezin V, Bock E (2009) Insight into the structural mechanism of the bi-modal action of an NCAM mimetic, the C3 peptide. [7] Ronn LCB, Olsen M, Soroka V, Ostergaard S, Dissing S, Poulsen FM, Holm A, Berezin V, Bock E (2002) Characterization of a novel NCAM ligand with a stimulatory effect on neurite outgrowth identified by screening a combinatorial peptide library. [7] Hartz BP, Soel A, Berezin V, Bock E, Scheel-Krer J (2003) A synthetic peptide ligand of NCAM affects exploratory behavior and memory in rodents. [7]

Hansen SMM, Kler LB, Li S, Kiselyov V, Christensen C, Owczarek S, Bock E, Berezin V (2008) NCAM-derived peptides function as agonists for the fibroblast growth factor receptor. [7] Li S, Bock E, Berezin V (2010) Neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties of peptide agonists of the fibroblast growth factor receptor. [7]

Anand R, Seiberling M, Kamtchoua T, Pokorny R (2007) Tolerability, safety and pharmacokinetics of the FGLL peptide, a novel mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule, following intranasal administration in healthy volunteers. [7] Ojo B, Rezaie P, Gabbott PL, Cowely TR, Medvedev NI, Lynch MA, Stewart MG (2011) A neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide, FGL, attenuates glial cell activation in the aged hippocampus. [7]

For the first time, we show that plant peptides from lupine protein hydrolysates have anti-osteoclastogenic activity. [8] The effect of GPETAFLR, a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH), on osteoclastogenesis was investigated. [8] Anderson AA, Kendal CE, Garcia-Maya M, Kenny AV, Morris-Triggs SA, Wu T, Reynolds R, Hohenester E, Saffell JL (2005) A peptide from the first fibronectin domain of NCAM acts as an inverse agonist and stimulates FGF receptor activation, neurite outgrowth and survival. [7] Uhlig T, Kyprianou T, Martinelli FG, Oppici CA, Heiligers D, Hills D, Calvo XR, Verhaert P (2014) The emergence of peptides in the pharmaceutical business: from exploration to exploitation. [7]

The trend of commercial developments likely continues alongside with growing knowledge about the functions of peptides. [2] Many synthetic peptides have been engineered to mimic these interactions and induce NCAM-downstream signaling pathways. [7] Cambon K, Hansen SM, Venero C, Herrero AI, Skibo G, Berezin V, Bock E, Sandi C (2004) A synthetic neural cell adhesion molecule mimetic peptide promotes synaptogenesis, enhances presynaptic function, and facilitates memory consolidation. [7] Downer EJ, Cowley TR, Cox F, Maher FO, Berezin V, Bock E, Lynch MA (2009) A synthetic NCAM-derived mimetic peptide, FGL, exerts anti-inflammatory properties via IGF-1 and interferon-gamma modulation. [7] Secher T, Berezin V, Bock E, Glenthoj B (2009) Effect of an NCAM mimetic peptide FGL on impairment in spatial learning and memory after neonatal phencyclidine treatment in rats. [7] Klein R, Blaschke S, Neumaier B, Endepols H, Graf R, Keuters M, Hucklenbroich J, Albrechtsen M, Rees S, Fink GR, Schroeter M, Rueger MA (2014) The synthetic NCAM mimetic peptide FGL mobilizes neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo. [7] Corbett NJ, Gabbott PL, Klementiev B, Davies HA, Colyer FM, Novikova T, Stewart MG (2013) Amyloid-beta induced CA1 pyramidal cell loss in young adult rats is alleviated by systemic treatment with FGL, a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived mimetic peptide. [7]

This review focuses on recent progress in the development of NCAM mimetic peptides, in particular, on establishing C3, plannexin, and FGL as therapeutic candidates for neurological disorders. [7] Zellinger C, Hadamitzky M, Bock E, Berezin V, Potschka H (2011) Impact of the NCAM derived mimetic peptide plannexin on the acute cellular consequences of a status epilepticus. [7] Berezin V, Bock E (2004) NCAM mimetic peptides: pharmacological and therapeutic potential. [7]

Dallac G, Rampon C, Doye V (2013) NCAM function in the adult brain: lessons from mimetic peptides and therapeutic potential. [7]

Xu R, Feyeux M, Julien S, Nemes C, Albrechtsen M, Dinny A, Krause K-H (2014) Screening of bioactive peptides using an embryonic stem cell-based neurodifferentiation assay. [7] Bioactive Peptides Market: Segmentation Segmentation based on Therapeutic Area Anti-Hypertensives Cardiovascular System Nervous System Gastrointestinal System Immune System Segmentation based on Distribution Channels Hospital Pharmacy Retail Pharmacy Online Pharmacy Drug Store Mail-Order Pharmacy Bioactive Peptides Market: Market Overview Global bioactive peptides market witnessed burgeoning growth due to rising demand for potential health benefits. [2] North America dominates the global Bioactive Peptides Market due to the presence of dominant players in this region, and in North America, USA is a major stakeholder due to the high acceptance of bioactive peptides. [2]

Lack of novel technologies, lack of documented evidence of safety and lack of complete knowledge regarding mechanism and functions of bioactive peptides are limiting the growth of the bioactive peptides market. [2] Bioactive peptides ca ben incorporate in dietary supplements, pharmaceutical, and novel food supplements with the purpose of specific health benefit. [2] Because of the wide range of application, manufacturers started incorporating bioactive peptide as ingredients in the food and health supplements. [2] Bioactive peptides possess a scientific challenge due to optimal exploitation for health benefits, while at the same time they offer commercial benefits. [2] The companies are mainly focusing on intense marketing to convey health benefits of bioactive peptides. [2] The future of Bioactive Peptides Market anticipated with double CAGR during the forecasted period. [2] The economic conditions in Asia-pacific region rise the bioactive peptides market to new heights. [2]

Currently marketed bioactive peptides products contain peptides with satiety inducing and stress relieving properties. [2] Bioactive Peptides act as signaling molecules in pathogenesis and physiological functions. [2]

Our yolk protein peptides exert amazing antioxidant properties which will help reduce the appearance of ageing and restore youthful complexions while also helping the skin heal itself. [9] Peptides are fragments of proteins and are made up of essential amino acids, which cells need to function. [9] While peptides restructure and revitalize the cellular activity, Amino Acids provide building block of new collagen and elastin. [10] These bioactive compounds and peptides possess different medicinal properties like anti-hypertensive, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-microbial activity and antinociceptive. [11] Available in a convenient, on-the-go packet, the Collagen Peptide Drink Mix makes it easy to get your daily dose of collagen. But the collagen in this drink is a little different – it’s bioactive. [12] Unlike other collagen supplements, Glotrition’s drink mix contains Verisol, a patented collagen peptide that has been clinically shown to reduce wrinkle depth and improve skin firmness in 30 days. [12] Beyond their anti-wrinkle activity, peptides help to guard the skin against environmental factors that hasten aging. [10] With its broad spectrum of anti-aging activity, peptides and amino-acids offer a gentle, natural alternative to invasive cosmetic dermato- logical measures. [10] EcovaPure? YPP is a proprietary formulation of egg yolk protein peptides, including at least 25% phosvitin phosphopeptides (PPP) and some phospholipids. [9] Residues Trp, Tyr, and Phe are known as aromatic amino acids that can potentially increase the antioxidant properties of the peptides. [13] This one of a kind product is formulated with bio-active peptides and Amino Acids. [10] Certain peptides, such as ours, have a composition of amino acids that make them both available for the body to use and able to exert beneficial effects on the body. [9] The presence of aromatic amino acid phenylalanine in the peptide chain was found to increase the antioxidant activity of analogue PAFY compared to PAGY, PAIY and PFFY. The presence of two phenylalanines in PFFY did not offer a significant increase in the antioxidant activity. [13] The antioxidant activity of PFFY is still slightly higher than PAGY. The replacement of glycine residue with isoleucine, which is more hydrophobic in PAIY, was found to slightly increase the antioxidant activity compound to PAGY. The result of the biological assay showed that compositions of the amino acids in the peptides play a crucial role in the antioxidant activity. [13]

The resin was also shown to be able to avoid extensive racemization during the attachment of the first amino acid, particularly in Fmoc-based peptide synthesis. [13] The product contains exclusive Bio-Pro Bio-Active Peptides. [3] This product is applied after mixing with Oxygen Biologicals AminoAcid Peptide Blend Carrier. [10] A total of 29 peptide sequences were identified from the peptide fraction. [11] The key important thing to understand here is that Verisol is a type of collagen peptide. [12] Because of their small size, collagen peptides are more easily absorbed and used by the body than native collagen. [12] All peptides were characterised by HR-TOF-MS showing correct molecular mass ions of m/z 405.2047, 421.1324, 495.3156, 461.3090, and 571.4377, representing the – of PAGY, PSGY, PAFY, PAIY, and PFFY, respectively. [13] Collagen peptides are tiny, bioactive peptides that are formed after breaking down the molecular bonds between individual strands of collagen. [12] In recent years, bioactive peptides created from breaking down food proteins gained attention for reducing bitterness and inflammation. [14] Parkia speciosa, as an important source of antioxidant and anti-hypertensive bioactive peptides, could be considered essential in development of natural functional food ingredients. [11] Bioactive peptides are considered beneficial in the food industries. [11] Food-derived bioactive peptides are distinct protein fragments having beneficial pharmacological properties to human body. [11]

Among the antioxidant peptides from marine products is tetrapeptide, NH-L-Pro-L-Ala-Gly-L-Tyr-OH (PAGY), which is obtained from gelatin hydrolysate of amur sturgeon skin (Acipenser schrenckii). [13] There are Tyr, Phe, Pro, His and Leu that often appear in the sequence of the antioxidant peptides. [13] Antioxidant peptides are a class of peptides that contribute to improving human health by the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. [13]

This revolution leads to a rapid and constant growing requirement of raw materials and new ingredients from natural sources in the food industry due to their biologically active nutritional value and health benefits. [11] Lupeol is a pharmacologically active triterpenoid, present in the concentration of 0.71% of the total fatty acid content (Fig. 1 c). [11]

In one particular Bio Gro review, the user expressed great joy, upon choosing this product and witnessing results; first hands from using it from two weeks onward. [3]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(14 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (39) OA-GL21, a novel bioactive peptide from Odorrana andersonii, accelerated the healing of skin wounds

2. (39) NCAM Mimetic Peptides: Potential Therapeutic Target for Neurological Disorders | SpringerLink

3. (16) Bio Active Protein and Peptides Market Revenues to Rake in at a CAGR of 8.2% by 2026 – Press Release – Digital Journal

4. (15) Bioactive Peptide Applications

5. (14) Bioactive Peptides Market Industry Outlook, Growth Prospects and Key Opportunities 2025 – openPR

6. (8) Synthesis of tetrapeptides and screening of their antioxidant properties | EurekAlert! Science News

7. (7) Bioactive compounds, food applications and health benefits of Parkia speciosa (stinky beans): a review | Agriculture & Food Security | Full Text

8. (5) REVOLUTIONARY PRODUCTS! Amino Acid-Peptide Blend | Euro Essentials | Ultimate Source of Spa Supplies in Toronto

9. (5) Glotrition Collagen System Review – Best Collagen Supplements

10. (4) Bio Gro Honest Review Of 2018 – Take Your Muscles To Next Level

11. (4) Egg Yolk Protein Peptides | Ecovatec

12. (2) GPETAFLR, a novel bioactive peptide from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate, reduces osteoclastogenesis – ScienceDirect

13. (1) Beef protein can block bitter tastes

14. (1) Healthy Aging with Bioactive Collagen Peptides | Natural Products INSIDER