Spindle Biology Definition

C O N T E N T S:


  • Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 20 : 759-79. doi : 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.20.012103.094623.(More…)
  • There is considerable value to systems and synthetic biology in creating reproducible models.(More…)
  • These marker proteins were visualized by immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy, allowing definition of the S. cerevisiae ER structure, both in intact cells and at the ultrastructural level.(More…)
  • How are the taste organs, specialized cell types, and cell turnover regulated in unique tissue contexts, so that sensory function and homeostasis are sustained?(More…)


  • Astral microtubules are located near the poles, aid in spindle orientation, and are required for the regulation of mitosis.(More…)


Spindle Biology Definition
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link: http://www.nature.com/articles/ncb2834
author: nature.com
description: XMAP215 activity sets spindle length by controlling the total mass …


Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 20 : 759-79. doi : 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.20.012103.094623. [1] Molecular Biology of the Cell. 25 (14): 2171-80. doi : 10.1091/mbc.E14-03-0842. [1] Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 22 (4): 345-7. doi : 10.1038/nsmb.2996. [1] Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 37 : 62-70. doi : 10.1016/j.sbi.2015.12.003. [1] Biology A cytoplasmic network composed of microtubules along which the chromosomes are distributed during mitosis and meiosis. [2]

Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 11 (1): 45-53. doi : 10.1016/S0955-0674(99)80006-4. [1]

There is considerable value to systems and synthetic biology in creating reproducible models. [3] Waltemath D, Adams R, Bergmann FT, Hucka M, Kolpakov F, Miller AK, et al. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML-the simulation experiment description markup language. [3] Gilbert S. Developmental Biology. 6th ed. Sinauer Associates; 2000. [3] Citation: Medley JK, Choi K, Kig M, Smith L, Gu S, Hellerstein J, et al. (2018) Tellurium notebooks–An environment for reproducible dynamical modeling in systems biology. [3] Medley JK, Goldberg AP, Karr JR. Guidelines for reproducibly building and simulating systems biology models. [3] Models can be described using the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) or CellML standards. [3] Hucka M, Finney A, Sauro HM, Bolouri H, Doyle JC, Kitano H, et al. The systems biology markup language (SBML): a medium for representation and exchange of biochemical network models. [3]

Computational tools in systems biology typically focus on one of three major areas: authoring models, simulating models, or visualizing network-based depictions of models. [3] One method of constructing dynamical models in systems biology is to survey the literature for known interactions, rate constants, and parameters (the so-called “bottom-up” approach ). [3] This can be remedied by encoding semantic content in models using the Systems Biology Ontology (SBO). [3]

Tellurium brings to systems biology the strategy used by other literate notebook systems such as Mathematica. [3] Courtot M, Juty N, Knfer C, Waltemath D, Zhukova A, Drer A, et al. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology. [3] Bergmann FT, Sauro HM. SBW-a modular framework for systems biology. [3]

Molecular Biology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Springer. 2004:311-27. [4]

Smith LP, Bergmann FT, Chandran D, Sauro HM. Antimony: a modular model definition language. [3] In order to create a SED-ML specification for this model, we need to define four steps in the workflow, which correspond to distinct elements in SED-ML: (1) model definition, (2) simulation, (3) task specification, and (4) output generation. [3]

Woods A, Sherwin T, Sasse R, MacRae TH, Baines AJ, Gull K. Definition of individual components within the cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma brucei by a library of monoclonal antibodies. [4]

These marker proteins were visualized by immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy, allowing definition of the S. cerevisiae ER structure, both in intact cells and at the ultrastructural level. [5] These cells and cell clusters do not meet the definition of complete taste buds and are not innervated, which is essential for taste sensation. [6] Taken at its simplest definition, the term “necrosis” simply refers to a mass of dead cells, and is independent of the cell death pathway followed to reach that point. [7] Although the narrower definition of cell may be useful in broadly comparative biological discussion, the ubiquity of the wall surrounding plant cells cannot be ignored, and also the fact that it is synthesised at the plasma membrane, and that vacuoles are also surrounded by a plasma membrane (and are therefore extracellular?!). [8] The cell is surrounded by a wall which, it can be argued, is not part of the cell proper, although some botanical definitions in particular suggest that it is, the “cell” then including the extracellular matrix of the wall and bounded by the middle lamella. [8]

Other terms have definitions that can be distinguished only with difficulty, or there are alternative sets of terms that can be used when looking at the same structures, but from different points of view (e.g. c.f. a superior ovary and a hypogynous flower), or simply just alternative sets of terms that can be used. [8] After the definition of abaxial, we find ” c.f. adaxial, lateral, median “, so linking to the other terms used to describe the positions of parts of, for example, position in a flower with repect to the axis. [8] Although in many definitions reference to a smooth surface is also made, this produces a complex term of uncertain application. [8]

Definition of the working parameter window for dCas13a-mediated RNA editing using a fluorescent reporter. ( A ) Constructs of crRNA-pRNA fusion molecules, as described in Figure 2B. [9]

How are the taste organs, specialized cell types, and cell turnover regulated in unique tissue contexts, so that sensory function and homeostasis are sustained? Continuing the long-standing attention to the taste papilla as an entire organ ( 10 ), we emphasize that an appreciation of complete taste organ biology is necessary to understand the regulation of homeostasis and sensory function. [6] Understanding Hh regulation of taste organ homeostasis contributes knowledge about the basic biology underlying taste disruptions in patients treated with Hh pathway inhibitors. [6]

Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. [6] One of the fundamental challenges of cell biology is to define principles of spatial organization of the cell, and, in particular, to unravel the mechanisms that control the position, size, and shape of organelles. [10] NKT cell-TCR expression activates conventional T cells in vivo, but is largely dispensable for mature NKT cell biology. [7]


Astral microtubules are located near the poles, aid in spindle orientation, and are required for the regulation of mitosis. [11] “Molecular characterization of the 50-kD subunit of dynactin reveals function for the complex in chromosome alignment and spindle organization during mitosis”. [1] Dynactin p25/ DCTN5 and p27/ DCTN6 are not essential for dynactin complex integrity, but are required for early and recycling endosome transport during the interphase and regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint in mitosis. [1] During prometaphase, dynactin also helps target polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) to kinetochores through cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)-phosphorylated DCTN6/p27, which is involved in proper microtubule-kinetochore attachment and recruitment of spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad1. [1] Dynactin is involved in various processes like chromosome alignment and spindle organization in cell division. [1] Spindle microtubules that do not engage the chromosomes are called polar microtubules. [11] As the spindle microtubules extend from the centrosomes, some of these microtubules come into contact with and firmly bind to the kinetochores. [11] The proteins of the kinetochore attract and bind mitotic spindle microtubules. [11] “Cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin drives kinetochore protein transport to the spindle poles and has a role in mitotic spindle checkpoint inactivation”. [1] Dynactin contributes to mitotic spindle pole focusing through its binding to nuclear mitotic apparatus protein ( NuMA ). [1] Microtubules are polymers of the protein tubulin; therefore, it is the mitotic spindle that is disrupted by these drugs. [11] Microtubules have roles in transporting organelles within the cell, forming the mitotic spindle during cell division, and forming structures like cilia and flagella that help certain cells move. [12] The mitotic spindle continues to develop as more microtubules assemble and stretch across the length of the former nuclear area. [11] The mitotic spindles are depolymerized into tubulin monomers that will be used to assemble cytoskeletal components for each daughter cell. [11] A worldwide tree of the genus Euonymus, originally used for making the spindles used for spinning wool. [2]

“Formation of spindle poles by dynein/dynactin-dependent transport of NuMA”. [1] What does SPINDLE mean? This page is about the various possible meanings of the acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term: SPINDLE. [13] Cognate with Scots spindil, spinnell (“spindle”), Dutch spil (“spindle”; < Middle Dutch spille, spinle ), German Spindel (“spindle”), Danish spindel (“spindle”), Swedish spindel (“spindle”). [2]

“Opposing motor activities are required for the organization of the mammalian mitotic spindle pole”. [1] Dynactin also targets to the kinetochore through binding between DCTN2/dynamitin and zw10 and has a role in mitotic spindle checkpoint inactivation. [1] D. The kinetochore becomes attached to the mitotic spindle. [11] The two centrosomes will give rise to the mitotic spindle, the apparatus that orchestrates the movement of chromosomes during mitosis. [11] Without a functional mitotic spindle, the chromosomes will not be sorted or separated during mitosis. [11]

Microtubules that will form the mitotic spindle extend between the centrosomes, pushing them farther apart as the microtubule fibers lengthen. [11]

As the cell enters M phase, the nuclear envelope becomes fenestrated and the SPBs separate and enter the nucleus, forming the spindle microtubule. [4] These dots were detected at both ends of the spindle microtubules at meiosis II ( Fig 2B ), indicating that Dms1 localizes to the SPB. In addition, a weak signal surrounding the nucleus was also observed in vegetative cells. [4] In wild-type cells at metaphase II, the GFP-Psy1 signal was observed as two cup-like structures at each end of the spindle microtubules, which were visualized by an mCherry-labeled ?-tubulin, Atb2 ( Fig 1B ). [4] No GFP-Psy1 signal was observed at the spindle poles in about 90% of dms1? cells at the same stage ( Fig 1B ), a result that was confirmed by live-cell imaging ( Fig 1C ; S1 and S2 Movies). [4] We did not observe a defect of the meiotic nuclear division in dms1? cells ( Fig 1D ); however, because both spindle formation and FSM formation initiate at the SPB, it is possible that Dms1 coordinates the progression of meiotic nuclear division and FSM formation. [4] The structure and behavior of SPBs and spindles appeared normal in dms1? cells, consistent with the fact that dms1 mutants exhibited no apparent defects in either mitosis or meiotic nuclear division. [4] FSM formation takes place at the spindle pole body (SPB), a proteinaceous structure composed of multiple layers that is equivalent to the centrosome in animal cells. [4] West RR, Vaisberg EV, Ding R, Nurse P, McIntosh JR. cut11 (+): A gene required for cell cycle-dependent spindle pole body anchoring in the nuclear envelope and bipolar spindle formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. [4] Ding R, West RR, Morphew DM, Oakley BR, McIntosh JR. The spindle pole body of Schizosaccharomyces pombe enters and leaves the nuclear envelope as the cell cycle proceeds. Mol Biol Cell. 1997;8(8):1461-79. pmid:9285819. [4]

Itadani A, Nakamura T, Hirata A, Shimoda C. Schizosaccharomyces pombe calmodulin, Cam1, plays a crucial role in sporulation by recruiting and stabilizing the spindle pole body components responsible for assembly of the forespore membrane. [4] Yang HJ, Neiman AM. A guaninine nucleotide exchange factor is a component of the meiotic spindle pole body in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. [4]

The spindle pole body (SPB) plays a central role in spore plasma membrane formation in addition to its recognized role in microtubule organization. [4] Blyth et al, also reported that dms1? cells show abnormal behavior of spindle microtubules in meiosis II and suggested that Dms1 regulates the spacing of nuclei produced by meiosis. [4] Anaphase I begins when the two chromosomes of each bivalent (tetrad) separate and start moving toward opposite poles of the cell as a result of the action of the spindle. [14] The chromosomes are pulled away by the spindle fibers to the opposite poles of the cell – however, they stay as chromosomes and don?t become chromatins. [14]

Nakase Y, Nakamura-Kubo M, Ye Y, Hirata A, Shimoda C, Nakamura T. Meiotic spindle pole bodies acquire the ability to assemble the spore plasma membrane by sequential recruitment of sporulation-specific components in fission yeast. [4] Nakase Y, Nakamura T, Okazaki K, Hirata A, Shimoda C. The Sec14 family glycerophospholipid-transfer protein is required for structural integrity of the spindle pole body during meiosis in fission yeast. [4] Ikemoto S, Nakamura T, Kubo M, Shimoda C. S. pombe sporulation-specific coiled-coil protein Spo15p is localized to the spindle pole body and essential for its modification. [4]

Uzawa S, Li F, Jin Y, McDonald KL, Braunfeld MB, Agard DA, et al. Spindle pole body duplication in fission yeast occurs at the G1/S boundary but maturation is blocked until exit from S by an event downstream of cdc10 +. [4] Hagan I, Yanagida M. The product of the spindle formation gene sad1 + associates with the fission yeast spindle pole body and is essential for viability. [4] Sato M, Toda T. Alp7/TACC is a crucial target in Ran-GTPase-dependent spindle formation in fission yeast. [4]

Recent work includes investigating the mechano-biochemistry of branched actin network assembly with force microscopy, studying membrane deformation by protein crowding and oligomerization with model membranes, and reconstituting spindle scaling in encapsulated cytoplasmic extracts. [15] To account for this hypothetical local degradation of CycB, the model artificially separates the cytoplasm into two “compartments,” with a cytoplasmic compartment representing the cell and a nuclear compartment representing the volume in the vicinity of the mitotic spindle. [3] Plots C and E show the nuclear compartment (defined as the spatial region around the mitotic spindle). [3]

During anaphase 1 of meiosis, the kinetochore fibres contract and the spindle fibre elongate, which pull the individual chromosomes(each having two chtomatids) toward their respective poles. [14] This observation can be reconciled with known mechanisms by assuming that CycB degradation only occurs in the vicinity of the mitotic spindle, despite the absence of a nuclear envelope during the mitotic divisions. [3]

The spindle pole bodies in tub4 mutant cells duplicate but do not separate, resulting in a monopolar spindle. [5] TUB4 is essential for cell viability, and epitope-tagged Tub4 protein (Tub4p) is localized to the spindle pole body (Sobel, S.G., and M. Snyder. 1995.J. Cell Biol. 131:1775-1788). [5] Perturbation of Tub4p function, either by conditional mutation or by depletion of the protein, results in spindle as well as spindle pole body defects, but does not eliminate the ability of microtubules to regrow from, or remain attached to, the spindle pole body. [5] We have characterized the expression of TUB4, the association of Tub4p with the spindle pole body, and its role in microtubule organization. [5] EM revealed that one spindle pole body of the duplicated pair appears to be defective for the nucleation of microtubules. [5] Wild-type Tub4p is localized to the spindle pole body, and a Tub4p-green fluorescent protein fusion is able to associate with a preexisting spindle pole body, suggesting that there is dynamic exchange between cytoplasmic and spindle pole body forms of Tub4p. [5] Homer H, Gui L, Carroll J. A spindle assembly checkpoint protein functions in prophase I arrest and prometaphase progression. [7]

This approach was successfully applied to cell signaling dynamics, metabolic networks, cell cycle, and spindle geometry. [10] Loughlin R, Heald R, Nec F. A computational model predicts Xenopus meiotic spindle organization. [10] With genetic models, however, regulation of CVP number by the fibroblast growth factor pathway was shown ( 64 ), and roles for LGN, an adaptor protein in mitotic spindle orientation, in FILIFP morphogenesis were recently reported ( 65 ). [6] Modeling has proven to be very useful in complementing cell biological methods in problems of positioning with, for example, the mitotic spindle. [10] A mitotic spindle involved in mitosis is present during cell division. e. [16] Cyclins B1 and B2 are expressed during M phase where they interact with Cdk1 to form part of the MPF (M phase/maturation promoting factor), an assembly that regulates a cascade of processes leading to mitotic spindle assembly and ultimately cell division. [7]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(16 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (21) The fission yeast SPB component Dms1 is required to initiate forespore membrane formation and maintain meiotic SPB components

2. (18) Tellurium notebooks–An environment for reproducible dynamical modeling in systems biology

3. (14) Dynactin – Wikipedia

4. (11) 10.2: The Cell Cycle – Biology LibreTexts

5. (7) Jonathan Mulholland’s Profile | Stanford Profiles

6. (5) Tongue and Taste Organ Biology and Function: Homeostasis Maintained by Hedgehog Signaling

7. (5) Glossary A-H

8. (4) Mechanical positioning of multiple nuclei in muscle cells

9. (4) Cell Based Assays: the Cell Cycle, Cell Proliferation and Cell Death

10. (3) What happens during anaphase 1 of meiosis? – Quora

11. (3) Spindle dictionary definition | spindle defined

12. (1) Microfilament – Definition, Structure, Functions & Quiz | Biology Dictionary

13. (1) What does SPINDLE stand for?

14. (1) Cell Tissue Engineering

15. (1) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

16. (1) Implementation of the CRISPR-Cas13a system in fission yeast and its repurposing for precise RNA editing | Nucleic Acids Research | Oxford Academic